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SOCIAL STUDIES 383

'hat, in fact, such good, and insist on orderly classroom dis- Further Reading
ppenings could ul- course. In this manner, they provide powerful
lessons on responsible scholarship and citizen- Cantu, D. A. (2002). Take five minutes: American
ship in a free society. (p. 1) history class openers: Reflective and criticllt
thinking activities. Westminster, CA: Teacher
For ideally, history instruction is critical Created Materials.
thinking, and critical thinking is history in- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New
In that embraces York: Continuum.
struction, and high-quality teaching and
lds its inclusion in Hirsch, E. D. (1987). Cultural literacy: What every
learning-as well as the success of a dem-
ntral feature of in- American needs to know. New York: Houghton
ocratically inclined society--can settle for Mifflin.
ssitates as well tak- nothing less. Kohn, A. (2000). The schools our children deserve.
as thinkers and as
New York: Mariner Books.
;vhose unique levels Levstik, L. S., & Barton, K. C. (2000). Doing his-
l devylopment, and References tory: Investigating with children in elementary
istinctive personal and middle schools. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
ortant. It compels Eggen, P. D., & Kauchak, D. P. (2001). Strategiesfor Erlbaum.
teachers: Teaching content and thinking sleills Ravitch, D., & Finn, C. (1987). What do our
lolistic approach to
(4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. seventeen-year-olds know? New York:
where children can
Patrick, 1. 1. (1986). Critical thinking in the social HarperCollins.
tween courses that studies (ERIC Digest No. 30). Retrieved in Wineburg, S. S. (2002). Historical thinkin§ and
as discrete and be- 2002 from ERIC database http://ericae.netiedo/ other unnatural acts: Charting the future of
and their own life ED272 432.htm (ERIC Document Reproduc- teaching the past. Philadelphia: Temple Uni-
lssroom organized tion Service No. ED 272 432) versity Press.
d exploration and
;e; and (4) the free-
listakes, and recon-
)lling, and/or stan-
Social Studies and Critical Thinking
nterpretations.
lking in the history E. Wayne Ross
:eachers to model
,Jarship themselves
;tandards-based en- Critical thinking has been a central focus tern of classroom social studies pedagogy
a regime of high- of social studies education since it was first is characterized by text-oriented, whole-
ized testing) and to conceived as a school subject in the early group, teacher-centered instruction, with
; in their techniques part of the twentieth century. Critical an emphasis on memorization of factual
:ment. As Patrick thinking is generally considered an essen- information. There have been widespread
tial element of "civic competence"-the criticisms of traditional patterns of social
ability of people to confront persistent and studies instruction and numerous alterna-
;hip between an open, complex social problems-which is the tives presented, yet these decidedly uncrit-
d classroom climate, goal of social studies education that distin- ical approaches to social studies teaching
may be explored and
guishes it from the disciplinary study of and learning persist (Stanley, 1991).
sciplined manner, and
history and the social sciences. The gap between the rhetoric and re-
hinking and attitudes
re teachers challenge
Despite a rhetorical emphasis on criti- ality of critical thinking in social studies
~rnative positions on cal thinking in social studies, researchers can be explained, in part, by a number of
JUblic issues, require have found very little teaching for critical factors, including the powerful influences
lbout what is true or thinking in classrooms. The dominant pat- of the organization, culture, and architec-
384 CRITICAL THINKING AND LEARNING

ture of schools; assumptions about the pur- in the sense in which reasoning is a part, not • Judging wh
poses of schools; and the increasing em- the whole, of inference); and (5) testing the line of reas(
phasis on test scores as opposed to more hypothesis by overt or imaginative action.
• Judging whe
authentic representations of student learn- (Dewey, 1933, p. 106, emphasis in original)
tradict each
ing. The most fundamental obstacle in ef- Although Dewey never suggested that • Judging whl
forts to promote critical thinking in social critical thinking occurs in mechanically necessarily.
studies, however, is the actual conception consecutive stages or is the consequence
of what critical thinking means. In what • Judging whe
applying discrete cognitive skills to solve
follows, I will briefly outline deficiencies enough.
a problem, social studies educators often
in our current thinking about critical think- interpret him in this way. Over the years • Judging whe'l
ing and offer a radical alternative. many teacher educators have encouraged the applicatic
teachers to take a skills-based approach to • Judging whe
THE PROBLEM: teaching critical thinking is social studies. ment is relial:
"NONDIALECTICAL" THINKING The basic tenet being that teachers must • Judging whel
Most social studies educators turn to use direct instruction to teach discrete SlOn IS warrar
John Dewey for their definition of what critical thinking skills, giving students
Judging wheti
constitutes critical (or what he termed "re- many opportunities to practice application
identified.
flective") thinking. In How We Think of thinking skills and assisting students in
(1933), Dewey described what has since transferring critical thinking skills from • Judging whet
become the rhetorical holy grail of social one context to another. sumption.
studies instruction: As a result, exercising critical judg- • Judging whet]
ment in social studies is often reduced to quate.
Active, persistent, and careful consideration of simplistic yardsticks for evaluating dis-
any belief or supposed form of knowledge in • Judging whethl
crete bits of information. For example, so- alleged authori
the light of the grounds that support and the
cial studies teachers often employ schemes
further conclusions to which it tends ... (p. 8).
that identify cognitive skills or aspects of
The problerr
There are two principle obstacles to critical thinking that are linked to the no-
schemes that focl
achieving this kind of thinking in social tion of logical argument:
transferable genei
studies classrooms. First, Dewey's holistic
element in the dl
conception of thinking-which does not • Grasping the meaning of a statement. critical thinking is
separate knowing from doing-tends to be
Distinguishing between verifiable facts a review of resean
treated as a series of mechanical steps for
and value statements. social studies, St:
students to follow. Dewey lays out the ele-
• Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant that "attempts to te
ments of critical thinking as follows:
observations or reasons. skills or models wi
(1) suggestions, in which the mind leaps for- to content are unlii
ward to a possible solution; (2) an intellectu- • Determining the factual accuracy of a
on student perforn
alization of the difficulty or perplexity that has statement.
(p. 255). Recent sl
been felt (directly experienced) into a problem • Determining the credibility of a source. most skilled in us
to be solved, a question for which the answer
• Identifying ambiguous statements. solve problems had
must be sought; (3) the use of one suggestion
edge of the relevar
after another as a leading idea, or hypothesis, • Identifying unstated assumptions.
to initiate and guide observation and other good understandin
• Detecting bias. strategies.
operations in collection of factual material;
(4) the mental elaboration of the idea or sup- • Recognizing logical inconsistencies in a The fundament
position as an idea or supposition (reasoning, line of reasoning. tional approaches to
SOCIAL STUDIES 385

s a part, not • Judging whether there is ambiguity in a cial studies is its "nondialectical" nature,
) testing the line of reasoning. that is, the separation of what cannot be
ltive action. separated with distortion. Students should
• Judging whether certain statements con-
1 original) be presented with opportunities to make
tradict each other.
connections between prior knowledge and
~ested that • Judging whether a conclusion follows
various elements of new knowledge, rather
echanicaliy necessarily.
than learning skills in isolation or exam-
)nsequence
• Judging whether a statement is specific ining only oddments of information. As
lis to solve
enough. Bertell Ollman has pointed out, most peo-
:ators often
• Judging whether a statement is actually ple see the parts well enough, but not the
:r the years
the application of a certain principle. connections and the overall patterns ofhu-
~ncouraged
man existence.
lpproach to • Judging whether an observation state-
;ial studies. ment is reliable.
chers must • Judging whether an inductive conclu- CRITICAL THINKING AS
:h discrete sion is warranted. DIALECTICAL THINKING
g students
• Judging whether the problem has been Inadequacy of nondialectical think-
application
identified. ing-unconnected thinking-is particu-
students in
• Judging whether something is an as- larly evident in social studies education
skills from
sumption. where students are expected to confront
persistent and complex social problems. If
itical judg- • Judging whether a definition is ade-
we define civic competence as the ability
reduced to quate.
to understand the world and act on it, then
uating dis-
• Judging whether a statement made by an it is crucial that we understand the differ-
<ample, so-
alleged authority is acceptable. 1 ences among getting the facts right, ex-
oy schemes
plaining the facts, and constructing pre-
. aspects of
The problem with critical thinking scriptive actions.
l to the no-
schemes that focus on the development of For example, many people of various-
transferable generic skills is that the key political persuasions have pointed out the
element in the development of students' paradox of the growing wealth of the few
:atement. critical thinking is left out-knowledge. In and the increasing poverty of the many, as
fiable facts a review of research on critical thinking in well as connections between the interests
social studies, Stanley (1991) concludes of corporations and the actions of govern-
l irrelevant that "attempts to teaching generic thinking ments and of being powerless and poor. As
skills or models without adequate attention Ollman (1993) points out, despite aware-
to content are unlikely to have any impact ness of these relations, most people do not
uracy of a take such observations seriously. Lacking
on student performance in subject areas"
(p. 255). Recent studies indicate students a theory to make sense of what they are
If a source. most skilled in using critical thinking to seeing, people don't know what impor-
lents. solve problems had both a detailed knowl- tance to give it; forget what they have just
edge of the relevant subject matter and a seen, or exorcise the contradictions by la-
tOns.
good understanding of problem-solving beling them a paradox. The problem is that
strategies. the socialization we undergo (in and out of
:enCles In a The fundamental problem with tradi- school) encourages us to focus on the par-
tional approaches to critical thinking in so- ticulars of our circumstances and to ignore
386 CRITICAL THINKING AND LEARNING

interconnections. Thus, we miss the pat- not enough ... After all, few would deny that Dialectic.
terns that emerge from relations. Social everything in the world is changing and inter- from whole 1
studies education plays an important role acting at some pace and in one way or another, ward) and arc
in reinforcing this tendency. The social that history and systemic connections belong
ing four kind
to the real world. The difficulty has always
sciences break up the human knowledge tion is identit
been how to think adequately about them, how
into various disciplines (history, anthro- either the san
not to distort them and how to give them the
pology, sociology, geography, etc.) each attention and weight that they deserve. (OIl- both. For exa
with its own distinctive language and ways man, 1993, p. 11) among profit,
of knowing, which encourages concentrat- dialectical am;
ing on bits and pieces of human experi- Dialectics, OHman explains, is an at-
of each as for
ence. What existed before is usually taken tempt to resolve this difficulty by expand-
wealth createc
as given and unchanging. As a result, po- ing the notion of "anything" to include (as
turned to therr.
litical and economic upheavals (such as aspects of what is) both the process by
The secon
the revolutions of 1789, 1848, 1917, and which it has become that thing and the
of opposites, ,
broader interactive context in which it is
1989) are treated as anomalous events that ognition that, t
found. Dialectics restructures thinking
need explanation. thing appears .
about reality by replacing the common-
Dialectical thinking, on the other surrounding CI
sense notion of "thing," as something that
hand, is an effort to understand the world capitalist sees,
has a history and has external connections
in terms of interconnections-the ties bought on the
to other things, with notions of "process"
among things as they are right now, their thing that will 1
(which contains its history and possible
own' preconditions, and future possibili- worker looks at
futures) and "relation" (which contains as
ties. The dialectical method takes change an instrument
part of what it is its ties with other rela-
as the given and treats apparent stability as movements in t
tions ).
that which needs to be explained (and pro- The third [I
Unlike non dialectical thinking, where
vides specialized concepts and frame- Quantity becom
one starts with some small part and
works to explain it). Dialectical thinking is come quanti tie
through establishing connections tries to
an approach to understanding the world change is the a(
reconstruct the larger whole, dialectical
that requires not only a lot of facts that are ties that cause
thinking begins with the whole (or as
usually hidden from view, but a more in- ducing the temp
much as one understands of it) and then
terconnected grasp of the facts we already new quality-ict
examines the part to see where it fits and
knOw. ates a new qual
how it functions--eventually leading to a
The problem is that reality is more nearness to frien,
fuller understanding of the whole. The
than appearances and focusing exclusively instruments to a
quintessential example of this kind of
on appearances-on the evidence that thinking is the work of Karl Marx; for new. Incrementa
strikes us immediately and directly-can Marx, capitalism was the beginning point panied by q
be misleading. Basing an understanding of for an examination of anything that takes change-an appa
ourselves and our world on what we see, place within it' (Although it should be Lastly, and 11
hear, or touch in our immediate surround- noted that most of Marx's dialectic was diction. Contradi,
ings can lead us to conclusions that are taken from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich He- development of c
distorted or false. gel, who systematized a way of thinking the same relation
Understanding anything in our everyday ex- that goes back to the ancient Greeks. Ad- of opposites). All
perience requires that we know something ditionally, non-Marxist thinkers like Al- contradictions. Si]
about how it arose and developed and how it fred North Whitehead and F. H. Bradely polarity include:
fits into the larger context or system of which developed their own versions of dialec-
it is a part. Just recognizing this, however, is tics. ) • Anatomy: the tt
SOCIAL STUDIES 387

w would deny that Dialectical investigations proceed • Mathematics: addition/subtraction; mul-


hanging and inter- from whole to part (from the system in- tiply/divide
ne way or another, ward) and are primarily aimed at examin-
)nnections belong • Education: nature and nurture
ing four kinds of relations. The first rela-
iculty has always • Music: major/minor keys; sound/silence
y about them, how
tion is identity/difference-how things are
either the same/identical or different, not • Literature: the best of times, the worst
, to give them the
both. For example, there are differences of times
ley deserve. (011-
among profit, rent, and interest; however, • Mechanics: every action has a reaction
dialectical analysis brings out the identity
:plains, is an at-
of each as forms of surplus-value, that is, OHman explains that "nondialectical
;ulty by expand-
wealth created by workers that is not re- thinkers in every sphere of scholarship
g" to include (as
turned to them in the form of wages. are involved in nonstop search for the
the process by
The second relation is interpretation 'outside-agitator,' for something or some-
t thing and the
of opposites, which is based on the rec- one that comes form outside the problem
:t in which it is
ognition that, to a large degree, how any- under examination that is the cause for
ctures thinking
f thing appears and functions is due to its whatever occurs, dialectical thinkers attri-
g the common-
surrounding conditions. For example, a

I
bute the main responsibility for all change
; something that
capitalist sees a machine as a commodity, to the inner contradictions of the system
nal connections
bought on the market and that is some- or systems in which it occurs" (1993,
Ins of "process"
thing that will bring her a profit. While, a p. 16).
ry and possible
worker looks at the same machine and sees Without a conception of things as re-
lich contains as
an instrument that will determine her lations, it is difficult to focus on the dif-
with other rela-
movements in the production process. ferent sides of a contradiction at the same
thinking, where The third relation is quantity/quality. time. As a result, even if all the sides of a
.mall part and Quantity becomes quality and qualities be- contradiction are examined, they do not re-
ections tries to come quantities. The motive force of ceive the same level of attention and their
tole, dialectical change is the addition of specific quanti- mutual interaction is often mistaken for
whole (or as ties that cause change. For example, re- causality. For nondialectical thinkers, real
ducing the temperature of water creates a contradictions-such as the fact that dur-

II
of it) and then
"here it fits and new quality-ice. Adding years to life cre- ing the "economic boom" of the 1980s and
lly leading to a ates a new quality. Adding salt to food, 1990s, when the Gross Domestic Product
he whole. The nearness to friendship, velocity to a bullet, of the United States increased 25%, the
f this kind of instruments to a band, all make something poverty rate among workers increased
new. Incremental change, then, is accom-
(arl Marx; for
)eginning point I panied by qualitative-revolutionary
7.4% or that while the rich have gotten
substantially richer, four out of five house-
~hingthat takes change-an apparently sudden leap. holds in the United States take home a
f
h. it should be Lastly, and most important, is contra- thinner slice of the economic pie since
5 dialectic was diction. Contradiction is the incompatible 1977--can only be understood as differ-
1 Friedrich He- development of different elements within ences, paradox, opposition, imbalance,
ray of thinking the same relation (the unity and struggle while the underlying forces responsible for
nt Greeks. Ad- of opposites). All things are composed of these appearances remain invisible and un-
nkers like Al- contradictions. Simple examples of unified recognized.
l F. H. Bradely polarity include: Dialectical thinking is no simple mat-
ons of dialec- ter and like nondialectical thinking there

I • Anatomy: the thumb and forefinger are distortions associated with this way of
388 CRITICAL THINKING AND LEARNING

thinking. If nondialectical thinkers miss


the forest for trees, dialectical thinkers of-
education is the work of Barry K. Beyer: see,
for example, Developing thinking skills pro-
I
ten do the opposite, de-emphasizing de- grams (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1988). See J
tails in favor of generalizations. also the work of Benjamin Bloom, Robert
Ennis, and Shirley Engle.
Dialectical thinking, however, is a way
to understand the full range of changes and
interactions that occur in the world. If we
want our students to be able to understand References
and act on the world, dialectics helps us to
pose questions that make effective action Dewey, 1. (1933). How we think. Lexington, MA:
possible: What kind of changes are already Heath.

occurring? What kinds of changes are pos-


Ollman, B. (1993). Dialectical investigations. New
York: Routledge.

sible? The only thing that cannot be cho- Oilman, B. (2001). How to take an exam and remake
sen is what we already have. Dialectics is the world. Montreal: Black Rose.
both critical and radical. It helps us to un- Stanley, W B. (1991). Teacher competence in social
derstand the present as a moment through studies. In 1. P. Shaver (Ed.), Handbook of so-
cial studies teaching and learning (pp. 249-
which we are passing. Dialectics forces us
262). New York: Macmillan.
to examine where we have come from and STANDARD
where we are heading as part of learning AND CRITI(
what our world is about. It enables us to I would like to
understand that everyone and everything Further Reading following three
are connected, and that we have the power
Hursh, D. W, & Ross, E. W. (Eds.). (2000). Demo- 1. What would
to change our world.
cratic social education: Social studies for so- look like if,
cial change. New York: Falmer Press. 2. How can we
Note Ross, E. W (Ed.). (200 I). The social studies curric- themselves u
ulum: Purposes, problems, and possibilities
I. The single best source on traditional con-
dards and pr
(Rev. ed.). Albany: State University of New
ceptions of critical thinking in social studies York Press. 3. If we don't Ci
standards, wi
Although tl
lenging, they re~
terest in educat
assessment, all(
thinking. I want
with the notion t
moment in our hi
on the importanc.
now or never. If 1

words standards
good beginning
word standards c'
rallying point or )
cal is from the Gn
judgment. One cc
kriterion or stand,
Critical Thinking
and Learning
An Encyclopedia
for Parents and Teachers

Edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Danny Weil

EEJ
Greenwood Press
Westport, Connecticut· London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data

Critical thinking and learning: an encyclopedia for parents and teachers /


edited by Joe L. Kincheloe and Danny Wei!.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-313-32389-5 Calk.paper)
Preface IX
I. Critical thinking-Study and teaching-Encyclopedias. 2. Cognitive
learning- Encyclopedias. I. Kincheloe, Joe L. II. Weil, Danny K. Into the Great V
LBI590.3.C735 2004 Joe L. Kine
370.15'2-dc21 2003052848
Art 53

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Art and Aesthet


Richard Ca
Copyright © 2004 by Joe L. Kincheloe and Danny Weil Art Education, .
Carol Korn
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
Assumptions
reproduced, by any process or technique, without the
express written consent of the publisher. Believing and 1<
Danny Wei.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2003052848 Bilingual Edue
ISBN: 0-313-32389-5
Bilingual Educ,
Paradigm 69
First published in 2004 Herman S.
Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 Critical Bilingu
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Lourdes Di
www.greenwood.com
Bloom's Taxon
Printed in the United States of America Bloom's Taxon l

Tanya Br01
S" Childhood and
The paper used in this book complies with the
Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Adolescence
Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). Kaia Skag,
Early Childhoo
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Gaile S. C
Contents

ve Preface IX

Into the Great Wide Open: Introducing Critical Thinking


Joe L. Kincheloe

Art S3
Art and Aesthetics S3
Richard Cary
Art Education, Young Children, and Critical Thinking S7
Carol Korn

Assumptions 63
Believing and Knowing 63
Danny Weil

Bilingual Education 69
Bilingual Education: Toward a Critical Comprehension of Engaging an Emancipatory
Paradigm 69
Herman S. Garcia and Teresa Valenzuela
Critical Bilingual/Bicultural Pedagogy: Relying on a Postformal Lens 72
Lourdes Diaz SolO

Bloom '5 Taxonomy 77


Bloom's Taxonomy and Critical Thinking 77
Tanya Brown

Childhood and Adolescence 83


Adolescence 83
Kaia Skaggs
Early Childhood Education 87
Gaile S. Cannella
vi Contents

Middle Schools: Curiosity and Critical Thinking 92


Rap Music: The
Pat Williams-Boyd
Priya Parm
The Nature of Childhood 96
Wayne A. Reed Educational PSJ

The New Childhood and Critical Thinking 101 Critical Conscio


Joe L. Kincheloe Stephen C.

Youth Development: Critical Perspectives 104 Educational Psy


Joe L. Kinc
Layla P Suleiman Gonzalez
Metacognition: .
Cultural Studies 109 Danny Wei!
Consumer Culture and Critical Thinking 109 Multiple Intellig
Ian Steinberg Joe L. Kinc
Cultural Studies in Education 117
Educational Re
Handel Kashope Wright
Educational Rei
Popular Culture 122
Danny Wei!
Shirley R. Steinberg
Empowerment
Curriculum 127
Empowerment:
Curriculum Theorizing 127 Pat William
Kenneth Teitelbaum
Empowerment c
Developing Curriculum and Critical Pedagogy 13I Raymond A
Leila E. Villaverde
Teachers' Work
The Hidden Curriculum: Helping Students Reflect Critically on Issues of Schools, John Smyth
Equity, and Justice 135
Bill Bigelow Epistemology
Writing Education Practices within the Reconceptualized Curriculum 144 Epistemology
Cynthia McCallister Barbara J

Democracy 149 Feminism 229

Democracy and John Dewey 149 Feminism and C


Kathy Hytten Barbara J

Diversity 155 Hermeneutics

Black Existence As Critical Thinking 155 Hermeneutics f<


Marjorie M
Michael J Dumas
Diverse Learners and Special Education: A Critical Thinking Perspective 159 Identity 239
Alberto M. Bursztyn Constructing Se
Diversity and Critical Thinking 162 Judith J Sf.
Patricia H. Hinchey
Ideology 245
Indigenous Ways of Knowing and Critical Thinking 167
Advertising and
Ladislaus M. Semali
Ian Steinbe
Multicultural Education 171 Knowledge in t!
Timothy Spraggins Zeus Leone
Contents vii

Rap Music: The Critical Pedagogy of KRS-One 175


Priya Parmar

Educational Psychology 185


Critical Consciousness through a Critical Constructivist Pedagogy 185
Stephen C. Fleury
Educational Psychology and Critical Thinking 189
Joe L. Kincheloe
Metacognition: What Is Transformative Metacognition and Why Is It Important? 193
Danny Weil
Multiple Intelligences and Critical Thinking 197
Joe L. Kincheloe

Educational Relevance 203


Educational Relevance, Personalized Education, and Critical Thinking 203
Danny Wei!

Empowerment 207
Empowerment: A Transformative Process 207
Pat Williams-Boyd
Empowerment of Teachers and Students 211
Raymond A. Horn, Jr.
Teachers' Work: What Is Happening to It? 216
Issues of Schools, John Smyth

Epistemology 223

n 144 Epistemology 223


Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon

Feminism 229
Feminism and Critical Thinking 229
Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon

Hermeneutics 235
Hermeneutics for the Classroom 235
Marjorie Mayers and James C. Field

ctive 159 Identity 239


Constructing Selfhood . 239
Judith J. Slater

Ideology 245
Advertising and Ideology 245
Ian Steinberg
Knowledge in the Interest of Power 250
Zeus Leonardo
viii Contents

Only the "Facts"? 254 Race


Jaime Grinberg

Journal Writing 259 Sch(j


Journal Writing and Critical Thinking Skills in Classroom Settings 259 Scho
Valerie J Janesick
Justice 265 Stud,
Justice and Equity 265
Charles Bingham
Sciel
Language Arts 269
Criti,
Critical Thinking, Teaching, and Language 269
John Gabriel
Scier
Literacy 273
Critical Multicultural Literacy: Problematizing a Multicultural Curriculum Based
Sexh
on Reasoning 273
Danny Weil Sexi~
Gaining Access to Critical Literacy: Rethinking the Role of Reading Programs 278
Herman S. Garcia and Teresa Valenzuela Socil
Infusing Critical Thinking into the Sociocultural View of Literacy 281 Risto
Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel
J
Media Literacy 287
Socic
William A. Kealy
1
Visual Literacy: Critical Thinking with the Visual r mage 291
Roymieco A. Carter Stam

Mass Media 297 Stanc


)
Mass Media and Communication 297
Christine M. Quail Tead
Mathematics 307 Beco
Mathematics Education 307 }

Peter Appelbaum Critic


]
Organizational Change 313
Organizational Change in Public Education: From Crucial to Critical Leadership 313 Critic
Erik Malewski . SUSP(

1
Philosophy 325
Form
Philosophical Instruction 325
7
John F Covaleskie
KnOv.
Queer Studies 329 e
Queer Studies: Banished to the Bedroom 329
Socra
Erik Malewski
L
Race and Racism 341 Teach
Institutional Racism 341 for Te
Zeus Leonardo J
Contents IX

Race 347
Zeus Leonardo

Scholar Practitioners 353


Scholar Practitioners As Classroom Teachers 353
Carol A. Mullen
Students As Scholar Practitioners 358
Nancy Kraft

Science 363
Critical Thinking and the Teaching of Science 363
Koshi Dhingra
Science Education 368
C. Sheldon Woods
Based
Sexism 373
Sexism: Is Critical Thinking Theory Sexist? 373
Barbara J Thayer-Bacon
'lms 278
Social Studies 379
History Instruction and Critical Thinking 379
Kevin D. Vinson
Social Studies and Critical Thinking 383
E. Wayne Ross

Standards 389
Standards and Critical Thinking 389
Valerie J Janesick

Teaching and Learning 395


Becoming a "Good Teacher": Thinking Critically about Teaching 395
Paul Brawdy and Juan-Miguel Fernandez-Balboa
Critical Cooperative Learning 399
Nell B. Cobb
Critical Dialogue: The Learning Conversation and Learning to
ship 313
Suspend Judgment 402
Danny Weil
Formulating Best Practices for Teaching and Learning 407
Thomas Nelson
Knowledge Acquisition 411
Charles Bingham
Socratic Questioning: Helping Students Figure Out What They Don't Know 414
Danny Weil
Teaching Current Events Using a Constructivist Critical Thinking Paradigm: A Model
for Teachers 419
Judi Hirsch
x Contents

Terrorism 427

Terrorism: Western Definitions Since 9111 427


Yuse! Progler

Textbooks 433
The Anti-Textbook Textbook: Critical Thinking and Politics in the
Apolitical Classroom 433
Marjorie Mayers and James C. Field

Theory 439
Critical Theory 439
David W Hursh

Thinking Skills 447


Dialectical Thinking 447
Danny Wei!
Emancipatory Critical Thinking 454
Juan-Miguel Fernimdez-Balboa
We
Higher Order Thinking Skills 458 edu(
Tanya Brown Crit;
Radical Critical Thinking: Part 1: Theoretical Background 463 itsel
KathLeen S. Berry com
Radical Critical Thinking: Part 2: The Practice 468 tatio
Kathleen S. Berry cont
Reasoning Readiness for Primary School Students: Critical Thinking As with
Developmentally Appropriate 474 edu(
Danny Wei! dard
whal
Reflective Practitioner 480
Brenda Edgerton ConLey
syst(
Values 485 mes~
Values and Dispositions of Critical Thinking: Developing Habits of Mind As mca]
Moral Commitments to Thought 485 opm
Danny Wei! to aE
ence
Work 491
Critical Thinking, Power, and the Workplace 491 the i
Vicki K. Carter are (
Xenophobia 497 ngOl
With
Fear and the Construction of the "Foreigner" 497
that
Stephen M. Fain and Mary Anne Ullery
peda
Bibliography 503 pom
Index 511 way~
roorr
About the Editors and Contributors 523 and]