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EJERCICIOS RESUELTOS DE ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES

ORDINARIAS
(VARIABLES SEPARABLES Y REDUCIBLES A ELLAS, HOMOGENEAS,
EXACTAS E INEXACTAS ) TIPO EXAMEN PARCIAL

1.(cos 2𝑦 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑥 + (𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 − 2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0

Solución
𝜕
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 6𝑥 2 𝑦
𝜕𝑦
{ 𝜕𝑁 }Son iguales, por tanto, si es exacta
(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 6𝑥 2 𝑦
𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) ⇒ cos 2𝑦 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 2 , 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 − 𝑥 3 𝑦 2 + 𝑔(𝑦), 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑦
𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
(𝑥, 𝑦) = −2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦), 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑜 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑦

𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 − 2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 𝑦 = −2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦 − 2𝑥 3 𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦)


𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑦
𝑔´(𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 ⇒ 𝑔(𝑦) = +𝑐
2
𝑠𝑒2𝑦
𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑔𝑜 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 − 𝑥 3 𝑦 2 +
2
𝑠𝑒2𝑦
∴ 𝑐 = 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑦 − 𝑥 3 𝑦 2 +
2
1 𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 1 𝑦 𝑥 𝑥 1
2.(𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 − 𝑥 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 + 1) 𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 − 𝑦2 𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 + 𝑦2 ) 𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕 1 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 1 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 − 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 3 𝑠𝑒𝑛
𝜕𝑦 𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑠𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠, 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜, 𝑠𝑖 𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎.
𝜕𝑁 1 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 1 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦
(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 − 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 3 𝑠𝑒𝑛
𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥

𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 1 𝑥 𝑦 𝑦
= ( 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 1) 𝑑𝑥, 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥 𝑥

𝑦 𝑥
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 𝑥 + 𝑔(𝑦), 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑦
𝑥 𝑦
𝑦 𝑥
𝜕𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦 𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
(𝑥, 𝑦) = − + 𝑔´(𝑦), 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑜 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝑦2 𝑑𝑦
𝑦 𝑥
1 𝑦 𝑥 𝑥 1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑦
𝑐𝑜𝑠 − 2 𝑠𝑒𝑛 + 2 = − + 𝑔´(𝑦)
𝑥 𝑥 𝑦 𝑦 𝑦 𝑥 𝑦2

𝑔´(𝑦) = 𝑦 −2 ⇒ 𝑔(𝑦) = −𝑦 −1 + 𝑐

𝑦 𝑥
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 𝑥 − 𝑦 −1
𝑥 𝑦
𝑦 𝑥
∴ 𝑐 == 𝑠𝑒𝑛 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 𝑥 − 𝑦 −1
𝑥 𝑦

𝑥⁄ 𝑥⁄ 𝑥
3.(𝑥 + 𝑒 𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑥 +𝑒 𝑦 (1 − 𝑦) 𝑑𝑦 = 0, 𝑦(0) = 2

Solución
𝜕 𝑥 𝑥
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 2 𝑒 ⁄𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝑦
𝑠𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠, 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜, 𝑠𝑖 𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎.
𝜕𝑁 𝑥 𝑥⁄𝑦
(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 2 𝑒
𝜕𝑥 𝑦

𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑥
= (𝑥 + 𝑒 ⁄𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑥, 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑥⁄
𝑥2 𝑦
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑦𝑒 + 𝑔(𝑦), 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑦
2

𝜕𝑓 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 ⁄𝑦 − 𝑒 ⁄𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦), 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑜 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 𝑦 𝑑𝑦

𝑥⁄ 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥
𝑒 𝑦 (1 − ) = 𝑒 ⁄𝑦 − 𝑒 ⁄𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦)
𝑦 𝑦

𝑔´(𝑦) = 0 ⇒ 𝑔(𝑦) = 0
𝑥⁄
𝑦
𝑥2
Luego 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑦𝑒 , 𝑦(0) = 2
2
𝑥⁄
𝑥2 𝑦
∴2= + 𝑦𝑒
2
𝑒 2𝑥
4.(𝑦𝑒 2𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑒 2𝑦 )𝑑𝑥 + ( − 3𝑥 2 𝑒 2𝑦 − 𝑒 𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑦 = 0, 𝑦(1) = 0
2

𝜕
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 2𝑥 − 6𝑥𝑒 2𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑁
𝑠𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠, 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜, 𝑠𝑖 𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎.
(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 2𝑥 − 6𝑥𝑒 2𝑦
𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= (𝑒 2𝑥 − 3𝑥𝑒 2𝑦 )𝑑𝑥, 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑦 2𝑥 3 2 2𝑦
𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 − 𝑥 𝑒 + 𝑔(𝑦), 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑦
2 2
𝜕𝑓 𝑒 2𝑥 𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 3𝑥 2 𝑒 2𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦), 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑜 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝑑𝑦

𝑒 2𝑥 𝑒 2𝑥
− 3𝑥 2 𝑒 2𝑦 − 𝑒 𝑦 = − 3𝑥 2 𝑒 2𝑦 + 𝑔´(𝑦)
2 2
𝑔´(𝑦) = −𝑒 𝑦 ⇒ 𝑔(𝑦) = −𝑒 𝑦 + 𝑐
𝑦 3 −5
Luego 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 2 𝑒 2𝑥 − 2 𝑥 2 𝑒 2𝑦 −𝑒 𝑦 , 𝑦(1) = 0 ⟹ 𝑐 = 2

𝑦 2𝑥 3 2 2𝑦
∴ −5 = 𝑒 − 𝑥 𝑒 −2𝑒 𝑦
1 1
5.(𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 cos 2𝑥 − 2 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥 + 2𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 − 3)𝑑𝑦 = 0

Solución
𝜕
𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 − 2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝑠𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑔𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠, 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜, 𝑠𝑖 𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎.
𝜕𝑁 𝑥𝑦 𝑥𝑦 𝑥𝑦
(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 + 𝑥𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 − 2𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥𝑒
𝜕𝑥

𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
= (𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 cos 2𝑥 − 2 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝑥 + 2𝑥)𝑑𝑥, 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑥
𝑑𝑥

𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 + 𝑥 2 + 𝑔(𝑦), 𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜 𝑎 𝑦


𝜕𝑓 𝑑𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 + 𝑔´(𝑦), 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑜 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑦

𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 − 3 = 𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 + 𝑔´(𝑦)

𝑔´(𝑦) = −3 ⇒ 𝑔(𝑦) = −3𝑦 + 𝑐

Luego ∴ 𝑐 = 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 + 𝑥 2 + −3𝑦


2
(𝑥 )
𝑑𝑦 2𝑥𝑦𝑒 ⁄𝑦
6.𝑑𝑥 = 2 2
(𝑥 ) (𝑥 )
2𝑒 ⁄𝑦 𝑥 2+𝑒 ⁄𝑦 𝑦2 +𝑥 2

Solución
𝑥
Sea u= ⇒ 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑢𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑢, 𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑧𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝐸. 𝐷. 𝑂
𝑦

𝑥⁄ )2 𝑥⁄ )2 2 𝑥⁄ )2 2
(2𝑥𝑦𝑒 ( 𝑦 ) 𝑑𝑥 − (2𝑒 ( 𝑦 𝑥 + 𝑒( 𝑦 𝑦 + 𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑦 = 0
2 2 2
𝑦 2 (2𝑢𝑒 𝑢 )𝑑𝑥 − 𝑦 2 (1 + 𝑒 𝑢 + 2𝑢2 𝑒 𝑢 )𝑑𝑦 = 0
2 2 2
(2𝑢𝑒 𝑢 )( 𝑢𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑢) − (1 + 𝑒 𝑢 + 2𝑢2 𝑒 𝑢 )𝑑𝑦 = 0
2
2𝑢𝑒 𝑢 𝑑𝑦
2 𝑑𝑢 − =0
1+ 𝑒𝑢 𝑦
2
ln( 1 + 𝑒 𝑢 ) − ln 𝑦 = ln 𝑐
2 𝑥⁄ )2
𝑦𝑐 = 1 + 𝑒 𝑢 ⇒ 𝑦 = 𝑘(𝑒 ( 𝑦 + 1)
𝑦 𝑦 𝜋
7. (𝑥 − 3𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 ) 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛 𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0, 𝑦(1) = 4

Solución
𝑦
Sea u=𝑥 ⇒ 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑢𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑢, 𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑧𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝐸. 𝐷. 𝑂

𝑥(1 − 3𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑢)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥3𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑑𝑦 = 0

(1 − 3𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑢)𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑢(𝑢𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑢) = 0


𝑑𝑥
+ 3𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑑𝑢 = 0
𝑥
𝜋
ln 𝑥 − 3𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑢 = 𝑐, 𝑦(1) =
4
−3√2
𝑐=
2
𝑦
∴ 2 ln 𝑥 − 6𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 3√2 = 0
𝑥
𝑑𝑦
8. = ((𝑥 + 𝑦) ln( 𝑥 + 1) − 1)
𝑑𝑥

Solución
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑦
= ((𝑥 + 𝑦) ln( 𝑥 + 1) − 1) ⇒ 𝐻𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑠 𝑢 = 𝑥 + 𝑦 ⇒ = 1+
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑢
− 1 = (𝑢 ln 𝑢 − 1) ⇒ = 𝑢 ln 𝑢
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑢
− 𝑑𝑥 = 0 ⇒ ln( 𝑢 ln 𝑢) − 𝑥 = ln 𝑐
𝑢 ln 𝑢
∴ ln(𝑥 + 𝑦) = 𝑐. 𝑒 𝑥
𝑑𝑦 1
9.𝑥 2 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 = 2 tan( 𝑥 2 𝑦 2 ) − 𝑥 2 𝑦 2

Solución
𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
Sea 𝑢 = 𝑥𝑦 2 ⇒ 𝑑𝑢 = 2𝑥𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 + 2𝑦𝑥 2 𝑑𝑦 ⇒ 𝑑𝑦 = 2𝑦𝑥 2 − 𝑦 𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
2𝑥 2 𝑦 ( 2 − 𝑦 ) = tan 𝑢 𝑑𝑥 − 2𝑥𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥
2𝑥 𝑦 𝑥

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS
1
1. (𝑥 + 𝑦 − 2 + 𝑥) 𝑑𝑥 + (2 − 𝑦 − 𝑥)𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑑𝑦
2. 𝑦 2 𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan 𝑥 + 𝑦 3 𝑎𝑟𝑐 sec √𝑥 2 + 1 + 𝑑𝑥 = 0
𝑥
3. (𝑦 5 𝑎𝑟𝑐 sin √𝑥+1 − 𝑦 4 𝑎𝑟𝑐 tan √𝑥)𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑦 = 0