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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 11 | May 2017

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Development of Relationship Between Saturation


Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban
Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
N. G. Raval Dr. P. J. Gundaliya
Ph.D. Scholar Professor
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
KSV University L. D. College of Engineering

Dr. Gargee Rajpara


Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
KSV University

Abstract
In India, Traffic consists of all type of motorized and non-motorized vehicles. All vehicles are of different static and dynamic
characteristics. Traffic flow consists of different classes of vehicles and no lane is followed. The traffic management becomes
very difficult due to higher growth rate of vehicles and non-availability of sufficient space in urban area. It leads to congestion,
excessive delay and accidents on urban roads. All types of vehicles are converted into Passenger Car Unit (PCU). Due to
fundamental differences in operating conditions on road and vehicles, the standard western relationships for predicting the
saturation flows are not appropriate for countries like India. The existing model of Saturation flow estimates lower value of
saturation flow compared to field saturation flow. Capacity is a key parameter for planning, design and operation of any type of
urban roads. In the present study, Saturation flow and Capacity of mid-block section of urban roads are studied. It is necessary to
develop the relationship between saturation flow and capacity at mid-block section of urban roads. In present study, the
saturation flow is developed considering width and composition of various type of vehicles for the selected stretches of
Ahmedabad city. The speed-flow relationship is developed for selected stretches of Ahmedabad city. The relationship is
developed between saturation flow and capacity of mid-block section of urban road. The width of road and observed capacity are
considered as variable, which are significantly affecting on saturation flow. The developed models are validated using
statistical‘t’ test.
Keywords: Capacity, Composition of vehicles, Saturation flow, Traffic Volume, Width of road
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

The urbanization is increased at rate of 35 to 40% in India. Due to rapid urbanization and increase in vehicle ownership, rate of
growth of vehicles are also increased in urban area. The observed vehicular growth is in Ahmedabad city is about 12 to 15% per
annum. The space available in the urban area is limited. It leads the problems related to control and regulate the traffic at
intersection. The models available for measuring saturation flow are for homogeneous traffic condition. It is necessary to predict
the saturation flow for designing the signalized intersection. In the present study, model is developed considering width of roads
and traffic composition. The estimation of capacity is important parameter for deciding the adequacy or deficiency of any traffic
facility in the urban area. Capacity is the maximum hourly volume (vehicles per hour) at which vehicle can reasonably be
expected to traverse a point or a uniform section of a lane or roadway during a given time period under the prevailing roadway,
traffic and control conditions. The estimation of field capacity is essential for deciding the facilities to be provided for any type
of roads. It helps the planner for fulfilling the requirement of improving traffic facilities on the road. The capacity is measured in
Passenger Car Unit (PCU) per hour. The speed-flow relationship is developed for selected stretches. The relationship is
developed between capacity of mid-block section and saturation flow.

II. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

Followings are the main objectives of present study:


1) To develop model for predicting saturation flow at selected intersection
2) To determine the capacity of mid-block section of selected stretches.
3) To develop the relationship between saturation flow and capacity of mid-block section of urban road

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Development of Relationship Between Saturation Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 11 / 058)

III. LITERATURE REVIEW

Sarna and Malhotra (1967) [1] developed the relationship between the saturation flow and the approach road width at signalized
intersection. The Effect of approach volume and increasing percentage of bicycles on the saturation flow has been studied. Highway
Capacity Manual (2000) [2] suggested the model for determining saturation flow considering base saturation flow rate, no of lanes
in a lane group, adjustment factor for lane width, heavy vehicles, approach grade, parking activity, blocking effect of buses, area
type, lane utilization, left turn, right turn, pedestrian adjustment factor etc. Webster (1958)[3] suggested the model for estimation of
saturation flow considering road width. Bhattacharya and Bhattacharya (1982) [4] modified the model for estimating saturation
flow. Chandra (1994) [5] also modified the model for estimating of saturation flow. Raval & Gundaliya (2012)[6] developed the
relationship between saturation flow and width of road, traffic composition of various categories of vehicles. The developed models are
statistically validated. Satish Chandra et al (2003)[7] studied the effect of lane width on capacity under mixed traffic conditions.
The effect of carriage way width on Passenger Car Unit (PCU) values of various categories of vehicles was analyzed. The
relationships were derived between capacity and carriage way width. The adjustment factors were determined for estimating
capacity of road. In this study, it was concluded that the capacity increases with increment of width of carriageway. Satish
Chandra (2004)[8] carried out research on effect of road roughness on capacity of two-lane roads of National Highways and State
Highways of India. The data of speed and volume were collected for free flow speed of highways. He analyzed effect of road
roughness of selected stretches. The study showed that free flow speed of a vehicle decreases with the roughness of the road
surface. S. Velmurugan et al (2010)[9] determined capacity of multilane high speed corridors for heterogeneous traffic condition
using the traditional and microscopic models. In this study, speed-flow equations and roadway capacities were critically
evaluated. Ahmed Munawar (2011)[10] conducted various experiments for determination of capacity of urban road for
Yogyakarta city. It was concluded that side friction is responsible factor for reduction of capacity. Hashim Ibrahim Hassan et al
(2012)[11] studied on capacity loss due to effect of highway geometric. It was observed that capacity is reduced at curve due to
reduction of speed and increases the spacing between the vehicles. Patel Chirag et al (2013)[12] estimated field capacity and level
of service for urban arterial road for heterogeneous traffic condition for six lane divided road. The speed – flow relationship was
developed for Surat city of Gujarat state of India. The field capacity for the six lane roads was determined and compared with
recommended values given by Indian Road Congress (IRC). Raval & Gundaliya (2017)]13] developed the models for estimating
capacity of urban arterial rods. The observed capacity and capacity suggested by IRC : 106 – 1990 are compared. The observed
capacity is 49 to 80% higher than the capacity suggested by IRC: 106-1990. All developed models for estimating capacity are
statistically validated.

IV. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Following are the intersection selected for the study:


1) Paldi Intersection
2) Nehru bridge Intersection
3) Shastrinagar Intersection
Data are collected during the period of November to April, 2017. Traffic data are collected manually on the field. All signals are
pre-timed signals. The traffic data were recorded for about 120 minutes for each approach. The widths of approach are measured.
About 780 sets of data are collected for development of model.
Table – 1
Composition of Vehicular Growth at various Intersections
Sr. No. Approach Two Wheelers Three Wheelers Car Bus LCV HCV Cycle
Nehru bridge Intersection
1 North 54% 22% 17% 3% 2% 0% 2%
2 South 57% 22% 16% 2% 2% 0% 1%
3 East 73% 15% 9% 1% 0% 0% 1%
4 West 55% 26% 13% 0% 2% 0% 5%
Paladi Intersection
1 North 49% 33% 11% 2% 3% 0% 2%
2 South 54% 31% 9% 1% 3% 0% 2%
3 East 64% 16% 12% 3% 2% 0% 3%
4 West 57% 25% 10% 3% 2% 0% 3%
Shastrinagar Intersection
1 North 72% 7% 15% 1% 1% 0% 4%
2 South 66% 11% 16% 1% 2% 0% 3%
3 East 59% 15% 16% 1% 2% 0% 6%
4 West 70% 13% 13% 1% 2% 0% 2%
The major share of traffic is of two wheelers, auto and car are in the range from 49% to 72%, 7% to 33% and 9% to 17%
respectively. The maneuverability of two wheelers is more than other category of vehicles. Following model is developed considering
road width and traffic composition in the present scenario.

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Development of Relationship Between Saturation Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 11 / 058)

Model 1:
Saturation flow = 1046W + 27TW – 38Auto – 30Car – 296Bus – 124LCV + 259HCV + 72CY (1)
Where, W = width of road in meter
TW = Share of two wheelers in % age
Auto = Share of auto in %age
Car = Share of Car in %age
Bus = Share of Bus in %age
LCV = Share of Light Carrier Vehicle in %age
HCV = Share of Heavy Carrier Vehicle in %age
Cy = Share of Cycle in %age
R square = 0.95
The developed model 1 is validated using statistical‘t’ test at significance level of 0.05 with degree of freedom of 767.
t observed
Variables
Model 1
W 21.12
TW 4.57
Auto -3.92
Car -1.70
Bus -5.70
LCV -2.09
HCV 1.63
Cy 1.77
Absolute t 1.96
In Model-1, the absolute value of‘t’ is significantly high for width of road, traffic composition of two wheelers (TW), auto,
bus and LCV than absolute ‘t’. It can be concluded that the slope coefficient is useful in estimating the saturation flow for
intersection of urban roads considering width of roads and traffic composition of two wheelers (TW), auto, bus, LCV and cycle.

V. SPEED – FLOW RELATIONSHIP

The Speed – Flow study is carried out on selected mid-block sections of Ahmedabad city. All selected approaches are sub
arterial roads of Ahmedabad city. The detail of the study area is shown in the Table 2.
Table – 2
Details of selected mid-block stretches of urban roads
Sr. Width of road in meter (one Number of lanes and width of roads (As per IRC:106-
Mid-block Stretch of the road
No. sided) 1990)
1 Manav Mandir to Gurukul 10 4 lane divided (two way)
Sattadhar cross road to Sun-n-Step
2 8.8 4 lane divided (two way)
road
3 Shastrinagae to Pragatinagar 10.7 4 lane divided (two way)
4 C. G. road 7.2 4 lane divided (two way)
5 Paldi to Elis bridge road 8.75 4 lane divided (two way)
6 Nehru bridge to Times of India road 8.85 4 lane divided (two way)
Inventory survey is carried out at the mid-block of the selected stretches of study area. Traffic data are collected on the above
selected stretches in morning and evening peak hours. The length of mid-block section of 50 meter is marked on the urban road.
The videography is carried out for measuring speed and flow during peak hours at selected stretches. The time taken by the
vehicles from passing of start point to end point is measured. The spot speed is determined considering distance travelled by
vehicles to cross the start point and end point, divided by the time taken. The space mean speed is determined from the spot
speed of each vehicles passing in the selected stretch crossing in unit interval. The traffic flow passing from start point and end
points are measured for every 5 minute interval. Speed – Flow relationship is developed for selected stretches.

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Development of Relationship Between Saturation Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 11 / 058)

Fig. 1 : Speed – Flow relationship for Manav mandir to Gurukul Fig. 2 : Speed – Flow relationship for Satadhar cross road to Sun n
road step club road

Fig. 3 : Speed – Flow relationship for Shastrinagar to Pragatinagar Fig. 4 : Speed – Flow relationship for C. G. Road
road

Fig. 5 : Speed – Flow relationship for Paldi to Elis Bridge road Fig. 6 : Speed – Flow relationship for Nehru bridge to Times of India
road

The space mean speed and traffic volume observed at every 5 minute interval is plotted in the graph. The upper zone of curve
indicates free flow zone and lower portion indicates forced flow zone. The maximum flow observed in PCU/hour is considered
as Capacity of road.

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Development of Relationship Between Saturation Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 11 / 058)

VI. RELATION BETWEEN CAPACITY OF MID-BLOCK SECTION AND SATURATION FLOW

Capacity of selected urban roads is determined from fig. Saturation flow is determined using Model 1. The width of road and
capacity of urban road is considered as a variable and regression technique is used for development of relationship between
saturation flow and capacity of urban roads.
Table – 3
Details of selected urban road sections
Sr. Width of road in Observed Capacity in Saturation flow
Name of section
No. meter PCU/hour/direction PCU/hour
1 Manav Mandir to Gurukul road 10 4400 10565
2 Satadhar to Sun n step club road 8.8 4090 9690
Shastrinagar to Pragatinagar
3 10.7 4850 11571
road
4 C. G. Road 7.2 5000 7751
5 Paldi to Elisbridge road 8.75 4700 8369
6 Nerubridge to Time of India road 8.85 4578 8967
Model – 2:
Saturation flow = 1113W – 0.12 C (2)
Where, W = Width of road in meter
C = Capacity of urban road in PCU/hour/direction
R square = 0.99
Model – 3:
Saturation flow, S = 2 C (3)
Where, C = Capacity of urban road in PCU/hour/direction
R square = 0.97
Table – 4
The developed model (2) and (3) are validated using statistical ‘t’ test at significance level of 0.05
t observed
Variables
Model 2 Model 3
W 7 --
C -0.42 13
Absolute t 2.77 2.57
In Model-2, the absolute value of ‘t’ is significantly high for width of road than absolute ‘t’. It can be concluded that the slope
coefficient is useful in estimating the saturation flow for intersection of urban roads considering width of roads and capacity of
mid block section
In Model-3, the absolute value of ‘t’ is significantly high for absolute ‘t’. It can be concluded that the slope coefficient is
useful in estimating the saturation flow for intersection of urban roads considering capacity of mid-block section

VII. CONCLUSION

 Saturation flow is an important parameter for design of signalized intersection. Accurate determination of saturation flow is
necessary to find optimum signal cycle timing.
 The model 1 is developed for predicting saturation flow at selected intersections of Ahmedabad city. The developed model
is validated statistically by using ‘t’ test.
 The speed – flow relationship is developed for selected mid-block section of urban roads. The observed capacity is used for
finding out relationship between capacity and saturation flow.
 The Model 2 estimates the saturation flow using variables like capacity and width of road. The r square value indicates good
relationship between dependent and independent variables. The developed model is validated using ‘t’ test.
 The Model 3 indicates relationship between saturation flow and capacity of urban roads. It indicates good relationship
between capacity and saturation flow. The model is validated using ‘t’ test.
 It is observed from the study that percentage share of two wheelers, auto and car affects significantly on saturation flow.

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Development of Relationship Between Saturation Flow & Capacity of Mid-Block Section of urban Road - A Case Study of Ahmedabad City
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 11 / 058)

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