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Refractory solutions to improve steel


Article in Stahl und Eisen · October 2011


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Karim Badr Marcus Kirschen

Montanuniversität Leoben RHI AG


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RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011, pp. 43–50

Karim Badr, Marcos Tomas, Marcus Kirschen and Gavin McIlveney

Refractory Solutions to Improve Steel Cleanliness

The demand for clean steel production is ever increasing, principally because steel for more
sophisticated processing routes and applications requires smaller sized oxide inclusions.
Modifying inclusion morphology, composition, and size is employed to produce lower melting
point species and harmless characteristics during rolling. This type of treatment procedure is
known as inclusion engineering. In addition, minimizing residual impurities including sulphur,
phosphorous, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon is also targeted during clean steel production.
RHI provides a range of refractory solutions to enhance steel cleanliness during the entire
steelmaking process. In addition, various modelling capabilities are available to optimize
tundish efficiency during clean steel production.

Introduction Steel product Maximum Maximum

The molten steel produced in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) impurity ­fraction inclusion size
or electric arc furnaces (EAFs) is tapped with dissolved oxy- Automotive and deep [C] <= 30 ppm, [N] <= 30 ppm 100 µm
gen into the ladle. It is then deoxidized with ferroalloys drawing sheets
including FeSi, FeSiMn, and/or metallic aluminium. The Alloy steel bars [H] <= 2 ppm, [N] <= 10–20 ppm,
resulting deoxidation products such as silica and alumina T.O <= 10 ppm
are largely removed from the melt by flotation. However, HIC resistant steel [P] <= 50 ppm, [S] <= 10 ppm
during ladle treatment, further separation of the remaining (sour gas tubes)
deoxidation products (e.g., nonmetallic inclusions), desul-
Bearings T.O <= 10 ppm 15 µm
phurization, and adjustment of the melt chemistry and tem-
perature take place. It should be emphasized that the defini- Tyre cord [H] <= 2 ppm, [N] <= 40 ppm, 10 µm
T.O <= 15 ppm
tion of clean steel varies according to the steel grade and its
end use as shown in Table I. Wire [N] <= 60 ppm, T.O <= 30 ppm 20 µm

Table I. Steel cleanliness requirements for various steel grades

Types of Inclusion [1]. Total oxygen (T.O) is the sum of the free oxygen dissolved in
the steel and the oxygen combined in nonmetallic inclusions.
Nonmetallic inclusions can be categorized according to their
size and source of formation. Regarding inclusion size,
oxide inclusions are classified as microscopic and macro- inclusions, they are classified into two types; the first are
scopic. The oxide inclusions typically form as micro parti- termed indigenous oxide inclusions that stem from deoxi-
cles during deoxidation but then grow mainly by coagula- dation products. They are usually small (i.e., microinclu-
tion and can reach sizes of approximately 1000 µm. The sions) and accordingly are less harmful provided they do
threshold value between micro and macro inclusions has not agglomerate into macroinclusions during the melt
been agreed as 50 µm [2]. With respect to the source of transfer. The second type is referred to as exogenous

Ladle slag:
MnO + FeO
Deoxidation products: e.g., Al-deoxidation
Loose ceramical material and CaSi-deoxidation.
(e.g., mortar, dirt, and
taphole f­illing mix) Cover powder, ladle slag, and tundish slag

Air aspiration at ladle

slide gate and reoxidation
of Al

Aluminium oxide, ladle

slag, tundish slag, covering
powder, oxidized surface
steel, and well filler sand

Mould powder/mould slag, tundish

slag, and aluminium oxide

Figure 1. Sources of nonmetallic inclusions.

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RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

inclusions and they are formed during the melt transfer by effective diameter increases the turbulences due to the sep-
reoxidation of the refined steel through contact with air or aration of the stream from the tap channel wall. This phe-
oxidizing slag. These exogenous inclusions can also be nomenon is avoided in the case of the conical taphole
formed as a result of the entrainment of reoxidation prod- design because the effective diameter is larger, minimizing
ucts, slag, and refractory fragments [3]. However, the harm- turbulences and erosion rates at the inlet zone.
ful macroinclusions originate mostly from exogenous inclu-
sions (Figure 1). Moreover, switching from a cylindrical to conical taphole
design provides two additional advantages: A reduction of
Controlling Steel Cleanliness slag carryover and less oxygen pick-up during tapping. The
reason for the reduced slag carryover is the conical taphole
Looking at the various stages of the steelmaking process in
inlet delays the vortex effect. Typically, with cylindrical tap-
relation to inclusion formation, it should be noted that the
holes the slag is entrained with the melt at the end of tap-
primary vessel (i.e., EAF or BOF) has a marginal influence
ping when the steel level above the taphole becomes low.
on oxide cleanness of the final product. In contrast, the slag
The slag is sucked in with the melt due to a vortex that
carried over from the BOF or EAF to the ladle has a sub-
builds up in the taphole. According to CFD simulations, the
stantial role as a reoxidation source due to the contained
vortex starts at a later stage with the conical taphole design,
FeO and MnO. During the secondary metallurgy phase, the
and therefore slag carryover is decreased.
inclusion content in the liquid steel is controlled through
proper ladle treatment, separation of particles via the vari-
A second advantage of the conical taphole is the potential
ous flow controllers, and by avoiding reoxidation from
reduction of oxygen pick-up during steel transfer to the
ambient air, slags, and refractory materials. Steelmakers are
ladle. The flow profiles of steel as it streamed from either a
continuously focused on reducing nonmetallic inclusions
cylindrical or conical taphole during one of the trials held at
using various methods. In the following sections, current
a North American steel plant are shown in Figure 4. It is
refractory solutions available to reduce the level of inclu-
clear that a higher turbulence occurs in the case of the
sions and produce cleaner steel are described.
cylindrical taphole compared to the conical design. The
lower turbulence and more uniform stream result in a
Reduced Slag Carryover reduced air-melt interface and the associated oxygen pick-
Multiple measures have been examined over the last dec- up is decreased, thereby enhancing clean steel production.
ades to control slag carryover in the steelmaking process. In
the BOF, various slag retaining systems have been devel-
oped to reduce the quantity of slag carryover, resulting in
an average specific amount of 2–6 kg of slag per tonne of
steel (Figure 2).
During the EAF tapping process, an infrared camera pro-
vides a state of the art solution to target consistent and low
slag carryover. In addition, RHI has developed and success-
fully introduced to the market computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) optimized tapholes that can be used for EAF and BOF
applications. These tapholes are characterized by both an
increased lifetime and reduced slag carryover. A basic com- Deff
parison between the CFD flow optimized conical shaped
taphole and the conventional cylindrical taphole is shown in
Figure 3. In the cylindrical taphole, there is a constriction in (b)
the steel stream at the inlet zone. The existence of a radial
flow velocity component in the cylindrical taphole contracts Figure 3. Steel flow characteristics in the (a) cylindrical and (b)
the effective diameter of the taphole. Having a reduced conical tapholes. Abbreviations include effective diameter (Deff).

Spec. amount of carryover slag [kg/mt]



0 Cylindrical Conical
Without Dart Tetra­ Ball Pneu­ Gas Taphole taphole design taphole design
cut hedron matic impinging gate
method (a) (b)

Figure 2. Comparison of various slag retaining systems used in Figure 4. Turbulences in the EAF tapping stream using (a) cylin-
BOFs [4]. drical and (b) conical tapholes.

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RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

Tundish Management but also decreases the subsequent clogging in the sub-
merged nozzles (i.e., submerged entry nozzle (SEN), sub-
An optimized tundish operation is very important during the
merged entry shroud, or exchangeable monotube), for
clean steelmaking process. Therefore, over the years RHI
example in the case of aluminium killed steels.
has developed a wide, comprehensive, and state of the art
range of products for the tundish, which are recommended
according to the customers’ requirements (Figure 5). The
Argon Shielding
main functions of the tundish are to receive the steel Nitrogen pick-up (a measure of reoxidation potential) can
poured from the ladle, distribute the steel to the different be reduced using the RHI Zero Air Aspiration Gate (ZAAG)
continuous casting machine strands, maintain an appropri-
ate steel temperature for casting, and inclusion removal.
However, there are many parameters that have to be opti-
mized during the tundish operation to achieve the best Ladle
results, including the following key points:
>> Increasing residence time.
>> Preventing short circuits. Ar gas
>> Minimizing dead volumes.
>> Optimizing flow pattern during ladle exchanges.
>> Improving temperature distribution and concentration Ladle shroud
>> Promoting inclusion removal.
>> Maximizing steel yield.
>> Reducing clogging and reoxidation.

Steel Shrouding
Ar gas
The teeming steel stream from the ladle to the tundish can
be protected from atmospheric reoxidation by enclosing it Submerged entry shroud
in a refractory tube (i.e., ladle shroud) to provide physical
shrouding (Figure 6). A good free ladle opening rate and
sufficient space for ladle shroud manipulation are also pre-
requisites for optimal operation. The reduction of inclusions Figure 6. Ladle shroud to protect the melt against reoxidation
at this stage not only results in a better overall cast quality during transfer from the ladle to the tundish.

Ladle gate

Ladle shroud Monoblock Weir Dam Tundish lining


Impact plate
Purging beam

Submerged entry Metering nozzle Tundish gate

nozzle (SEN)

Figure 5. Tundish refractory solutions for clean steel production.

> 45
RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

system (Figure 7), developed in cooperation with FC Technik is used to reduce the impact stream energy, optimize the
AG (Switzerland). The system provides reliable prevention flow characteristics, and protect against steel penetration
of air aspiration at the joint between the ladle nozzle and into the permanent lining.
ladle shroud by the controlled supply and maintenance of a
positive argon pressure over the entire nozzle/shroud seal- RHI provides customized solutions for tundish furniture
ing interface surface. A satisfactory reduction of nitrogen using specific designs developed with the know-how
pick-up levels down to < 5 ppm has been achieved with the acquired over many years of research and development.
ZAAG. The value added resulting from tundish furniture (also
known as flow modifying devices) [5], is illustrated in the
Tundish Wear Lining section describing CFD modelling.

Typical tundish wear lining is performed with MgO mixes,

and RHI has developed an approach based on its own raw
Tundish Stirring
material sources and a state of the art binding technology The cross-sectional layout of a tundish with a purging beam
for this application. Furthermore, RHI also offers an exhaus- installed on the floor is shown in Figure 8. The argon pipe is
tive study of customer operating conditions and tailor-made mounted within the refractory sidewall for protection and
solutions for the working lining based on the slag type, connected to the porous purging beam. Argon gas purging
tundish powder, steel cleanliness, and sequence length is a well-established measure to improve the floatation of
analysis in addition to other approaches to optimize lining inclusions in the ladle and now this technology is also
performance. implemented in the tundish. It is clear from the results of a
plant trial using argon rinsing in a tundish (Figure 9) that
Tundish Furniture the number of defects (measured using an inclusion detec-
tion system termed Mannesmann inclusion detection by
Conventional tundish furniture solutions to improve steel
analysing surfboards or the MIDAS method) can be signifi-
cleanliness include dams, weirs, and baffles. They are used
cantly reduced, especially at a lower casting speed [6,7].
to help direct inclusions up into the tundish slag. Dams are
barriers placed on the tundish bottom and as a result of the
steel flow being driven over these refractories, inclusions
Curtain of argon Steel pipe
are forced to float to the top. Weirs are refractory plates bubbles Ar gas
fixed across the tundish, with a gap left at the tundish bot-
tom, to prevent ladle slag carried over from reaching the
tundish nozzles. A third type of furniture is termed the baf-
fle. They can be installed all over the tundish, from top to
bottom, and contain a series of angled holes to produce
directional flow of the steel, which helps prevent slag-metal
800 mm

mixing during ladle exchanges when the tundish level

drops. An additional type of furniture is the impact pad. It is
inserted on the tundish bottom below the ladle shroud and
280 mm

Liquid steel
from ladle

Dam Purging beam

Potential air
Figure 8. Tundish with purging beam [6].

shield 160
Without argon
140 vC = 2.3 m/min
Number of defects [MIDAS]


F1 F2 F3 F4




Ladle 60 With argon

shroud vC = 2.3 m/min
Inlet 40
argon With argon
20 vC = 1.0 m/min

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Strand length [m]

Figure 7. Argon shielding ZAAG system used to reduce air Figure 9. Influence of argon rinsing in the tundish on the number of
ingress during shrouded transfer between the ladle and tundish. defects in cast steel [6]. Abbreviations include casting speed (vc).

46 <
RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

Monoblock Stopper removal of nonmetallic inclusions. Since a sufficiently long

steel melt residence time in the tundish is necessary to ena-
The monoblock stopper group of products, when used in
ble the nonmetallic particles to float to the melt covering
conjunction with a SEN or the combined tundish nozzle/
slag layer, short-cut flow patterns as shown at the bottom
submerged entry shroud arrangement, control the startup
of a 16-tonne tundish without any furniture (Figure 12)
and subsequently provide continuous regulation of the steel
should be minimized as macroinclusions can flow directly
flow between the tundish and casting mould. Through a
to the mould. Even more detrimental to steel cleanliness,
range of geometrical design and inert gas purging options
slag droplets may become entrained in the melt if vortices
(Figure 10), the achievable casting sequence may be maxi-
develop at the steel-slag interface, for example near the
mized in such applications where alumina clogging may
shroud (position 1 in Figures 12 and 13a) or where two
represent an overall limiting factor to the cast duration. It
recirculation zones impinge in the tundish (position 2 in Fig-
should also be noted that tundish nozzle or SEN clogging
ures 12 and 13a). The effect of different tundish furniture,
can be detrimental to steel cleanness as it changes the steel
such as impact pads, dams, weirs, and weirs with holes, on
flow characteristics within the submerged nozzle and dis-
the flow pattern can be visualized with CFD simulations (see
rupts the flow behaviour in the mould, leading to slag
Figure 13b) and/or measurements can be made using water
entrainment and surface defects. Figure 11 shows an exam-
ple of nonuniform inclusion distribution, where the inclu-
sion number is much higher on the left side where the flow
rate is higher.

Inclusion Reduction Using Computational Fluid

Dynamics 2
For years CFD simulations have provided a powerful tool to
investigate the melt flow in a tundish and improve the

Relative turbulence

0 1 2 3

Figure 12. Calculated relative turbulence distribution in the cen-

tre plane of a 16-tonne single strand tundish [8].

Vented design Restricted Porous plug

design design 2
Figure 10. Various monoblock stopper designs [6].

Monoblock stopper

Mould Fluid flow Mould

powder (a)
Oxide SEN
Oxide deposit

Strong Weak

Asymmetric flow pattern

Velocity [m/s]
Narrow side

Narrow side

0.0 0.1 0.2

Figure 13. Calculated flow lines in a 30-tonne single strand

tundish (a) without and (b) with furniture (i.e., TUNFLOW impact
pot, weir, and dam) that results in decreased turbulence and
Figure 11. Influence of SEN clogging on slag entrainment and directed steel flow to the upper tundish volume for increased
surface defects [6]. Abbreviations include inclusion number (N). inclusion separation.

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RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

Tundish Residence Time Distribution TUNFLOW RHI turbulence reducing and flow optimization
impact pot, and a weir-dam combination are also shown in
A widely used method to evaluate the complex steel flow
Figure 14, indicating a significantly increased θmin plug vol-
pattern in a tundish is determining the active and dead vol-
ume and a decreased dead volume for the optimized
ume fractions from the calculated residence time distribu-
design, namely a higher mix volume and a higher probabil-
tion (RTD). The RTD is a probability distribution function
ity of inclusion floatation and separation to the top cover
that describes the amount of time a fluid element is present
slag in the optimized tundish.
in the tundish. In water models and CFD simulations the
RTD can be determined by monitoring an input signal at the
ladle shroud, for example a tracer. The normalized concen-
Particle Separation
tration of the tracer at the SEN outlet is plotted versus the The relative particle concentration at the outlet, cpSEN/cpshroud,
normalized residence time, θ = t/t*, where the mean resi- calculated from the particle concentration transported in the
dence time in the tundish, t*, (equation 1) is calculated from steel flow from the shroud (cpshroud) to the SEN (cpSEN) of a
the tundish volume, Vtundish, and steel volume flow rate, Vsteel. 16-tonne 1-strand tundish (Figure 12) was calculated by
multiple simulation groups using CFD and is plotted as a
function of the particle terminal rising velocity, up, in Figure
t* = tundish
. (1) 15 [10]. The corresponding particle diameter, dp, for the five
Vsteel particle sizes examined is also indicated.

The dead volume in the tundish indicates flow regions with

very long retention times and reduced mass and heat 100
exchange with the rest of the bath, which may even lead to n

Relative particle concentration [cpSEN/cpshroud]

unwanted high thermal and chemical gradients or under- 90 n CFD simulations
cooled melt. The dead volume contains all steel volumes n performed by
n independent
that remain for longer than 2θ in the tundish [9].
70 n groups
In contrast, the active volume describes the regions with 60 n Theory (Kaufmann et al.)
direct steel flow from the tundish inlet (i.e., shroud) to the 50
outlet (i.e., SEN) (Figure 14) and is determined by the mini-
mum residence time, θmin [9], up to θ =2. To maximize parti- 40

cle floatation and separation in the tundish, a long θmin, (i.e., 30

minimum plug volume) and a minimum dead volume are
both beneficial and are the targets of sophisticated tundish
furniture design. 10

A comparison between the measured and computed RTD 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
values for a 16-tonne single strand tundish water model are Particle terminal rising velocity up [m/s]
depicted in Figure 14 [8]. The calculated RTD shows good 0 30 50 90 165
agreement with concentration measurements of the water Particle diameter dp [µm]
model and indicates a very acceptable prediction of the flow
pattern determined with CFD methods. The calculated RTD
Figure 15. Calculated relative particle concentration, cpSEN/cpshroud, at
curves of a 30-tonne 4-strand tundish for slab casting with- the outlet (i.e., SEN) of a 16-tonne tundish as a function of particle
out furniture and with an optimized design comprising a rising velocity and the corresponding particle diameter [10].

1.0 1.4
n Water model of a 1-strand tundish, measured by RWTH
n Water model of a 1-strand tundish, CFD simulation RHI
n 4-strand tundish, original design, CFD simulation RHI 1.2
Normalized concentration 4-strand tundish

Normalized water model concentration

n 4-strand tundish, optimized design, CFD simulation RHI

n Active volume
n Dead volume




0.0 0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Normalized residence time θ

Figure 14. Measured and CFD simulated RTD in a 16-tonne single strand tundish water model [8] and calculated RTD curves for a
30-tonne 4-strand tundish without furniture (original) and with a TUNFLOW and weir-dam combination (optimized).

48 <
RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

The theoretical plot describing cpSEN/cpshroud in the case of an requires specific temperature, pressure, and chemical com-
optimal particle separation according to Kaufmann et al., position conditions in the steel melt, slag, or refractory
[11] is also shown in Figure 15. Kaufmann’s findings imply material. An example of a thermochemical simulation of the
that the relative particle concentration in the SEN becomes stable phases in the tundish cover slag of a customer is
100% if the particle size approaches zero, because very shown in Figure 17. The stable phase assemblages were
small particles cannot be separated by the fluid flow since calculated using the FactSage software package [12]. As the
the rising velocity approaches zero. While experimental customer faced problems with inclusions of a chemical
results performed on tundish water models agree with this composition near MA spinel, it was suggested to modify the
theory, only certain CFD simulations demonstrate this top slag composition from 40 wt.% Al2O3 to 35 wt.% Al2O3.
effect for very small particles [10]. However, for particles This modification resulted in a decrease of the MA spinel
larger than 50 µm, the CFD predicted separation rates are stability field to temperatures below the steel solidus tem-
acceptable to estimate the floatation and separation in a perature.
tundish. In Figure 16 the calculated separation rates of
Al2O3 particles with 100 µm and 200 µm diameters are Similar and even more complex analyses can be provided
shown for the original and optimized design (i.e., TUN- by RHI with respect to inclusion sources from tundish lin-
FLOW and 2 baffles) of a 4-strand tundish for bloom cast- ings and for interactions between Si or Al killed steel melts
ing, indicating an increased steel cleanness with the opti- and top slags, refractory materials, or filling sands.
mized tundish with furniture.

As a consequence of the incomplete separation of very fine 25

n MA spinel
particles in the tundish, additional efforts must be focused
n MgO periclase
on flow control in the SEN and mould to avoid clogging and n (Ca,Mg)2SiO4
to realize a homogeneous and noncritical distribution of 20 n Oxide liquid
fine nonmetallic inclusions in the cast products. SEN design n CaMg aluminates
and the resulting flow control of the melt in the mould are
also supported by CFD simulations performed for RHI’s iso-
Solid phases [%]

statically pressed product development group.

Thermochemical Simulations of Inclusion

­Formation 10

Besides optimizing steel flow in the tundish to maximize

floatation and removal of inclusions, the formation mecha-
nisms of nonmetallic inclusions are the subject of thermo- 5
chemical investigations. In addition to Al2O3, inclusions are
formed by for example nitrides, carbides, calcium alumi-
nates, calcium sulphide (CaS), and magnesium aluminate 0
(MA) spinel, depending on the steel composition and treat-
ment. However, the formation of inclusion precursors 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
Temperature [°C]
n MA spinel
n MgO periclase
n (Ca,Mg)2SiO4
20 n Oxide liquid
n CaMg aluminates
Relative particle removal rate [%]

Solid phases [%]




Original design Optimized design 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

n 100µm n 200 µm Temperature [°C]


Figure 16. Relative particle removal rate of 2 particle classes (i.e., Figure 17. Calculated stable phase assemblage of tundish top
100 µm and 200 µm diameter) in the top slag of a 4-strand slag with (a) 40 wt.% Al2O3 and (b) 35 wt.% Al2O3, which
tundish for bloom casting with an original and optimized tundish decreased MA spinel as a possible source of MA spinel-type
furniture design (i.e., TUNFLOW and 2 baffles). inclusions.

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RHI Bulletin > 1 > 2011

Macroinclusions (greater than 50 μm and primarily respon-
sible for defects) are usually formed during melt transfer by
reoxidation of the refined steel through contact with air or
oxidizing slag. However, they can also be formed due to the
entrainment of reoxidation products, slag, and refractory
fragments. Multiple refractory solutions are provided by RHI
to assist in reducing the number of inclusions from the tap-
ping stage through to the mould. In addition, specific com-
puter modelling capabilities in the field of tundish manage-
ment provide RHI with additional optimization tools for
inclusion control.

[1] Zhang, L. and Wang, X. Evaluation and Control of Steel Cleanliness—Review. 85th Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, ISS-AIME, Warrendale,
USA, 2002; pp 431–452.
[2] Stolte, G. Secondary Metallurgy: Fundamentals, Processes, Applications; Verlag Stahleisen: Düsseldorf, 2002.
[3] Sahai, Y. and Emi, T. Tundish Technology for Clean Steel Production; World Scientific Publishing: Singapore, 2007.
[4] Badr, K., Kirschen, M., Rahm, C. and Cappel, J. Improvements in EAF by Using a Smart Refractory System; Conical Tap Holes. Presented at
­Innovation in EAF and in Steelmaking Processes, Milan, Italy, May 27–28, 2009.
[5] Cramb, A. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel (11th Edition), Casting Volume; AISE Steel Foundation: Pittsburgh, 2003.
[6] Wünnenberg, K. and Cappel, J. Measures to Improve Oxide Cleanness in Continuous Casting. Presented at AISTech 2009, St. Louis, USA, May
4–7, 2009.
[7] Wünnenberg, K. Oxide Cleanness – A Strong Challenge for High Quality Steel Products. Presented at 2008 International Symposium on Clean
Steel, Anshan, China Sept., 17–19, 2008.
[8] Odenthal, H., Javurek, M. and Kirschen, M. CFD Benchmark for a Single Strand Tundish (Part I). steel research international. 2009, 80, No. 4,
[9] Sahai, Y. and Emi, T. Criteria for Water Modeling of Melt Flow and Inclusion Removal in Continuous Casting Tundishes. ISIJ International. 1996,
36, No. 9, 1166–1173.
[10] Odenthal, H., Javurek, M., Kirschen, M. and Vogl, J. CFD Benchmark for a Single Strand Tundish (Part II). steel research international. 2010, 81,
No. 7, 529–541.
[11] Kaufmann, B., Niedermayr, A., Sattler, H. and Preuer, A. Separation of Nonmetallic Particles in Tundishes. Steel Research. 1993, 64, No. 4, 203–
[12] Bale, C., Chartrand, P., Degterov, S., Eriksson, G., Hack, K., Ben Mahfoud, R., Melançon, J., Pelton, A. and Petersen, S. FactSage Thermo­
chemical Software and Databases. Calphad. 2002, 26, No. 2, 189–228.

Karim Badr, RHI AG, Steel Division, Vienna, Austria.
Marcos Tomas, RHI AG, Steel Division, Vienna, Austria.
Marcus Kirschen, RHI AG, Steel Division, Vienna, Austria.
Gavin McIlveney, RHI AG, Steel Division, Vienna, Austria.
Corresponding author: Karim Badr, karim.badr@rhi-ag.com

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