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# σ = F = Sy

## Stretch of uniaxial member under load: δ = Lf – L0 (δ = deformation)

psi – lb/in2
ksi – 1000 psi or
Pa - (N/m2)
kip/in2
δ = (PL)/(AE) kPa – stress loads (kN/m2)
kip – 1000lb
MPa - yield stress (N/mm2)
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
GPa – stiffness (young’s modulus)
1 ksi = 6.895 MPa
(kN/mm2)
1 lb = 4.449 N

Strain in uniaxial member under load: ε = δ/L or ε = δ/L0 (ε = normal strain no units)
σ = P/A (σ = normal stress Pa or psi)
Hooke’s Law: σ = Eε ε = P/(AE)
Internal Forces and Stresses: δ = Lf – L0 = (PL0)/(AE)  Lf = L0[1+P/(AE)]
Shear Stresses:
τ = shear stress
V = shear force
F=V
τ = VA

## Poissan’s Ratio: v = -εt/εa Stresses on Oblique Planes:

εt – strain in the transverse direction Pn = Pcosθ, Vt = Psinθ n and t are
new axes
εa - strain in the axial direction σθ = (P/A)cos2θ
*Use to find change in diameter τθ = (σx/2)sin2θ σx = P/A
*εt = Δd/d0, εa = ΔL/L0 (d=diameter)
1. Draw FBD of each section
2. Use equilibrium reactions to establish
the internal axial forces acting on each
section
3. Find stress σ = P/A with A for certain
section of interest
4. Solve for deflection of each segment
and add for total deflection δ = (PL)/(AE)
Buckling:
σDesign = PDesign/A Sy = (tensile) yield strength Su = σu = Pfail/A
SFy = Sy/σDesign Ssy = yield strength in shear Sy = σy = Pyield/A
SFys = Ssy/τDesign Su = ultimate strength
SFu = Su/σDesign PDesign = design load
Ssy = .5774Sy PYield = load that will cause it to yield
σDesign = design strength
1. Check crushing
Euler’s Buckling formula: Pcrit = π2EI / (kL)2  Find area of cross section
Pin-pin: k=1  Check moment of inertia for axes
Fixed-free: k=2  P = σA
Fixed-fixed: k=.5 2. Check diff conditions (pin-pin, fixed-free, etc)
Pin-fixed: k=.7  Pcrit = π2EI / (kL)2
 Use correct I for each condition about
certain axis

## Method of joints: Method of sections:

Trusses:
1. FBD on truss 1. FBD
n=2k-3
2. Reactions 2. Reactions
n: # of members
3. Section cut where are 3. Section cut through members
k: # of joints
external/internal forces (no of interest (no more than 3
more than 2 unknowns) unknowns)
4. Equal equations 4. Partial FBD
5. Determine stresses 5. Equal equations
Ex) Joints Ex) Sections

## 1. Take moment about A to find RIY

2. ΣFy = 0 to find RAY, ΣFx = 0 = RAX
1. Take moment about A to find RHY 3. Look at left FBD and can take moment about C
2. ΣFy = 0 to find RAY, ΣFx = 0 = RAX to find BD
3. Section cut 4. Then can do ΣFy = 0 to find CD and ΣFx = 0 to
 Do ΣFy, ΣFx again find CE
 Do for each joint *If given the cross sectional area, can find stress
in the members (ie. σBD = PBD/ABD, σCD = PCD/ACD)
*If given yield strength, can find factor of safety
Zero force members after finding stress (ie. SF = Sy/σBD)
Condition #1:
If only 2 members meet at
a joint, they must be ZFM’s
Condition #2:
3 truss members come
together at a joint. If 2 are
collinear, then the 3rd is a
ZFM providing there is no