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Naeem series By Naeem Akhtar (M.Phill,M.A. English, M.Com.

) 03214346076

Notes for BA
(4 year)

Modern Essays
(20 marks)

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1.Pakistan and the Modern World

Q. 1 Describe the circumstances which led to the creation of Pakistan? Or Why did the Muslims of
India demand a separate homeland? Or Explain the two nation theory in the light of Liaquat Ali
Khan. Or On what basis the demand of Muslims for a separate homeland was reasonable and
justified? 2006 Or How the creation of Pakistan had dissolved the threat that Asia could be
permanent danger zone. Or What is the rationale of Pakistan? 1995, 1996
Liaquat Ali Khan in his address at the University of Kansas in 1950 told that the demand of Muslim for
separate homeland was totally justified not only on human grounds but also on political grounds. He gave so
many reasons in this regard.
First of all, in British India, there lived one hundred million Muslims along with three hundred million
others, mostly Hindus. The Muslim feared if they got freedom from British they would be under permanent
domination of Hindus.
Secondly the Muslims differed from the Hindus in every sphere of life, whatever it was religious, social,
cultural or economic. They neither inter-dined nor inter married. The Muslims believed in one God and the
prophets of Testament where the Hindus did not. Thirdly the Hindus believed in caste system whereas the
Muslim believed in equality of human beings.
Fourthly the Muslims believed in the right of private ownership of every one whereas the Hindus did not.
Fifthly, according to the teaching of Islam, it is unlawful to accumulate wealth rather Islam wants its
distribution among the poor. Sixthly the Muslims also feared that under Hindu domination they would not
be able to promote their own culture and to practise the golden principles of Islam. Seventhly the sub
continent was vast enough that it could easily be divided into two independent countries, so these were some
reasons and differences due to which the Muslims demanded their separate homeland. 236
Liaquat Ali Khan also expressed the fear if Pakistan had not been separated from the rest of British India
there would have been serious dangers. The creation of Pakistan had removed the danger that Asia could be
a permanent danger zone.308
Q.2 What difficulties Pakistan had to face immediately after its establishment?
Immediately after its establishment, Pakistan had to face numerous difficulties. Setting up the administration
of a new state is never easy, but in the case of Pakistan the difficulties were extraordinary. We had no flag
and no capital. There was practically no administrative machinery. We had no engineers and traders. There
was no industry in the new state. Pakistan was allotted an army but its men and officers were scattered in
distant parts, of India. Only a very small number could reach Pakistan in 1947. The major portion of its
share of military equipment was never handed over to Pakistan. Millions of Muslims were forced to flee
from Bharat and come to Pakistan. They were m a miserable condition. They needed food, shelter and
medical aid. This alone was a huge task. The unity of the people and their firm faith, however, conquered all
Q.3 According to the Liaquat Ali Khan what are the demands that our freedom makes on us? 2006
Liaqat Ali Khan in his speech explained the real meanings of freedom. He said that freedom does not mean
freedom from foreign domination. People should be free from hunger, disease, ignorance and
backwardness. He said unless these aims are achieved, freedom does not have any importance for a
common man. He also explained the demands that our freedom makes on us. First of all we would maintain
our freedom. It does not descent upon any nations but a nation has to struggle very hard to get it. It requires
constant attention. He said that our freedom demands from us that we should stand by the present world in
order to get the rightful place. During the last two or three centuries, the Muslims of sub continent remained
backward due to the foreign domination. It was these years that the western countries used science and
technology and progressed very much. That was why that not only the Muslims of the sub continent but
most of the people of Asia remained backward because they missed this time period of history. He
explained that our resources were undeveloped and the standard of living was much low than that of the
western people. Here he pointed out a very important thing that people of Pakistan could progress in the
same way if they combined their religion with modern science. What he meant was that the Muslims should
not follow the west blindly hut they should also keep their religion in their mind. 248
Q. 4 According to Liaquat Ali Khan what is the role of western world to Asia? Or What were the
expectations of Liaquat Ali Khan from America and western world? 1998
As the Asian countries including Pakistan were facing a lot of problems at that time, Liaquat Ali Khan
emphasized much upon the role of America and the Western World. He said that the western world should
not make the democracy limited just within the advanced countries but it should also promote and
encourage democracy in backward countries of Asia. It should try to maintain the world peace. It should not
resist some particular aggressor just for its own sake but it should resist aggression everywhere along with

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that the Asian countries that have not progressed much due to the colonial rule or some other reasons. The
western countries should give their skills and knowledge to these countries so that they may also stand by
the modern world.
As Pakistan was the new democracy, Liaquat Ali Khan emphasized upon the American government to
support Pakistan as much as possible and to maintain world peace because Pakistan was situated in the area
where it faced some threats from its neighbour India. If there is peace in Pakistan, it will be promoted to
other countries of the world. There would come balance of power in the world. There will be progress in the
world in true sense. It will bring peace and prosperity in the world. He emphasized upon the western world
and America that it should support Asia in general and Pakistan in particular in almost every aspect of life
especially economy. He warned in case of not doing so, unexpected revolutions might occur. 252

(2) The Eclipse

Q: 1 Describe the scene in which the people of England were so excited to see the eclipse? Or
describe the hustle and bustle of the people pointing to observe the Eclipse. 2002(s), 2010 S
The essay is about an incident of eclipse that took place in England one night. The writer was also included
among the people who went to see the eclipse. She has narrated the whole incident vividly how the eclipse
took place and the feelings of the people at the changing of the colours. The writer says that when the
eclipse was going to take place everybody gathered at Euston railway station to travel to North. The people
were very excited and they wanted to see the scene with their eyes. There was no calm that night. Even the
people started their journey before the eclipse.
The people who were going to see the eclipse had no individuality of their own and they had cut off their
relations with the world only for some hours to see the eclipse. Even the people living in the countryside
were very excited. The farmers with their families in their Sunday clothes came out to join the procession.
The whole episode looked as if the people were going to meet some famous actor.
It was chill in the air but they were ignoring it. Some people spread their rain coats on the ground and sat on
them. The writer says that they were looking like the people of ancient world who worshipped the sun in
this way. 222
Q: 2 What does the writer mean that the whole fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded?
1997 Or What is the significance of the conclusion that the whole fabric of civilization was modeled
and moulded? Or What is the importance of the Sun in our life? Or What is the theme of the essay?
In the essay "The Eclipse" the writer points out the significance of the sun in our lives with the help of the
phenomenon of the solar eclipse. The sun is the main source of energy and the centre of all the heavenly
bodies. Our earth depends upon the sun for heat, light and energy. If the sun disappears, all the activities on
the earth come to an end.
In the essay, the sun disappeared for 24 seconds due to solar eclipse. All the colours underwent a strange
change. The blue turned into purple the white into livid and the pink into green. All the activities of the
people came to a standstill. The villages, the valleys and the farmhouses seemed without any light. It
seemed the earth would never regain its brightness.
But soon the eclipse ended and the sun rose on the other side of the earth. The writer says that the whole
fabric of civilization was modeled and moulded. It means that the grandeur of the earth came back and the
world looked the same as it was before the eclipse. The flesh and blood of the world came back.
The people felt really thrilled at the return of the original colours. Even the confidence of the people was
also recovered when the sun washed away all the darkness prevailed upon the villages, valleys and
farmhouses. Everything looked very pleasant in its original form.
So we can say that the sun plays a role of vital importance in our life and all the colours, hustle and bustle
in life are due to the sun. It is great blessing of Allah. 280
Q: 3 What were the changes took place during the eclipse? Or Describe the graphic picture of the
solar eclipse.
Before the eclipse took place, everything looked paled. The rivers and the fields had no colour of them. The
sun was rising at the time. The sky was clear and clouds were floating it. The sun started to reach its
destination passing through the clouds. Sometimes the sun was hidden behind the clouds and sometimes it
came out of the clouds and shone with full brightness. In its last effort, it tried to free itself from the grip of
the clouds but could not. At last it was completely out of sight.
All the colours began to go from the moor. The blue turned to purple, the white became livid. Pink faces
became green and it was colder than before. The shadows became darker and darker and the moorland just
looked like a boat which was trying to get right in violent storm. All the light was coming and going again

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and again. When the sun eclipsed, it seemed to the people that everything was dead. The earth looked like a
skeleton. All its colours and splendour was gone. All the people present there were too much surprised what
would be the case if the sun eclipsed. They thought that the flesh and blood of the world is just because of
the warmth and shining of the sun. 218
(3) Whistling of Birds

Q:1 Describe the destruction that the winter caused in the essay whistling of birds? Or Description
of winter season
Whistling of Birds is a description by D.H. Lawrence’s keen observation of winter season. The writer gives
us terrible details of destruction caused by winter. We are just stunned to read these details. The writer has
pointed out how winter proves like death not only for human beings but also for the birds. Winter is the
name of death and destruction. It seems to be a very long and troublesome period. This season affects every
creature. The heavy and terrible cold destroys and freezes everything. Everything is colourless. Water in
lakes, ponds, pools and streams gets freezed. The trees shed their leaves.
They are deprived of their all colours and charms. When cold becomes unbearable, small birds start dying.
There bloody and torn bodies lie everywhere. Those who survive are frozen and dumb. The birds, animals
and beasts suspend their activities. A dull and sad silence prevails. The whole world seems to be dead. A
whistling of birds comes to an end. But the writer says that this cruel winter season with its forces of death
and destruction is to be beaten by the spring season which is the season of life.
The detail of death and destruction of winter and afterwards the sudden arrival of the spring season that he
gives in the essay are real like and much appealing to us. 224
Q:2 How did the sudden change take place when the winter was gone and spring arrived? Or
Describe the spring season.
Whistling of Birds is a description by D.H. Lawrence’s keen observation of winter and spring season. The
writer says after terrible destructions caused by winter, suddenly the weather is changed and spring the
season of life comes with its all blessings.
Warm wind starts blowing. Long and black winters come to an end. The hard snow melts and lakes, ponds,
pools and streams get filled with water. Birds begin to whistle in their silvery voices as if they were
welcoming the approaching season of life. The wood pigeons begin to sing with happiness and in
excitement. There is life happiness, activity and gladness everywhere. The black bird is forced to sing. The
dove begins to coo. The voice of turtle is heard. Their songs are broken and uncertain. They are still in the
cruel grip of fatal cold.
Everything welcomes the new season which is full of joy, hope and life. Nature turns over new leaf of life.
There is freshness and greenery everywhere. New shoots appear upon the trees. Flowers give off sweet
smell. The lambs begin to dance. The time of pain and misery is over now. It seems to have gone far away.
It seems to be only an illusion now there is no need to remember the suffering of the past. The new reality
of spring is here. 225
Q:3 Describe the writer’s love for nature? 1996(s) Or There is a depiction of nature in whistling of
birds. 2001, 02, 03
No doubt, when we go through the lesson, "Whistling of Birds", we come to know that the writer is much
close to the nature and has great love for it. He explains two aspects of nature. To him one (winter) is ugly
and destructive and the other (spring) is beautiful and revival.
The writer's keen observation of winter and spring season shows his love for nature. He says, in winter
season, the heavy and terrible cold destroys and freezes everything. The trees and their leaves are deprived
of their all colours and charms. When cold becomes unbearable, small birds start dying and their bloody
and torn bodies lie everywhere. Those who survive are frozen and dumb. A dull and sad silence prevails.
The whole world seems to be dead. A whistling of birds comes to an end.
His description about spring also shows his love for nature. He says, in spring, the hard snow melts and
lakes, ponds, pools and streams get filled with water. Birds begin to whistle in their silvery voices to
welcome the season of life. The wood pigeons, the black bird, the dove and other birds begin to sing with
happiness and in excitement. The voice of turtle is heard. Being an ardent lover of nature he also recognizes
that their songs are broken and uncertain. They are still in the cruel grip of fatal cold.
The writer's description about the sudden change from winter to spring, destruction of winter, the voices of
birds with their names and movements show his love for nature. 258

(4) Take the Plunge

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Q:1 Why and how did the writer jump from the plane? Or What was the purpose of the writer in
jumping from the plane? Or What Details Does Gloria Emerson Provide Of A Plunge From The
Airplane Into The Space?
Gloria Emerson worked in newspaper office. She wrote about woman but her stories were free from any
thrill or adventure. They did not make much impact on the readers. Though she also got some awards of
her reporting of New York Times yet she wanted to do something unusual, brave and courageous. She was
fed up with common stories of social and romantic contents.
She wanted to show men that women are not inferior to them in any matter. That’s why she had written this
essay, no doubt to encourage the women of the world. The purpose was to surprise and impress others. So,
she chose to jump from an aeroplane with a parachute. It seemed to her a perfect adventure as it did not
require any talent. It is something that women do not usually do. She was anxious to feel the rising of a
small plane, taking the plunge in the open atmosphere and then descending slowly under the huge canopy
of parachute. She was assured that parachuting was as safe as swimming. She liked it because she had little
imagination to think of the dangers involved in it. The writer enjoyed her parachute drop. All her friends
were surprised at her success. Moreover, she gave a thrilling story to her newspaper readers. Her purpose of
making this jump and writing a good story was fulfilled. 229
Q:2 Describe the operation of parachute
The writer tells us in detail how her parachute worked. Her parachute was 32 feet. It had a large cut out hole
to let the air escape. It was like a heavy bundle strapped to her back. It could be operated to the right or left
with two wooden knobs. It was specially designed to increase lateral speed, slow down the rate of descent
and reduce swinging movement. She was wearing jumping suit gloves, helmet and boots which made her
thick, heavy and slow. In her suit she looked very awkward. She was instructed how to open the parachute
and how to maintain a position in the air.
After completing her training, she wore her jump suit, boats and parachute. Then she boarded “Cessna
180″ along with a companion. Reaching an altitude of twenty three hundred feet, her companion made a
smooth jump. Then it was her turn. She became nervous. However, on being harshly ordered by her
instructor, she dived in the air. The air knocked her about. Then the parachute opened with plop and her
downward plunge slowed. Her eyes and nose were running. Spit came out of her mouth. Her chin was wet.
She wiped everything with her white gloves which looked old and dirty. In this how she managed the
working of parachute 208
Q:3 What were the feelings of the writer when she jumped from the plane? Or Why did she not
want to land after she had jumped? 2010(S)
The act of exiting an aircraft and returning to earth with the aid of a parachute is called parachute jumping.
Gloria Emerson has beautifully described her personal experience of parachute jumping. She has given a
candid detail of all the major stages of parachute jumping; diving, descending and landing. After
completing her training, she wore her jump suit, boats and parachute. Then she boarded “Cessna
180″ along with a companion. Reaching an altitude of twenty three hundred feet, her companion made a
smooth jump. Then it was her turn. She became nervous. However, on being harshly ordered by her
instructor, she dived in the air.
The parachute was deployed immediately. In a moment, her fear was gone. She saw the endless sky and the
beautiful earth in wonderful colours and textures. Even the wind felt kind, and the trees looked soft. The
parachute became the most lovable and docile toy. There was no noise in the air and it was calm. She
enjoyed her dive much because now she could handle the knobs of her parachute. She says that it was very
exciting to go to the left and right as she wished. She was viewing her target from the space where she had
to land, but she didn’t want to land then and wanted to stay in the air forever.
However, the landing was inevitable. She safely landed on her feet in a sandpit with a bump. At last, the
most beautiful and thrilling experience of her life came to an end. She was praised by many people for her
courage and determination. Definitely it was her motive to show her capabilities. Everyone was surprised at
her success. 236

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(5) Nagasaki August 9 1945

Q:1 Describe the destruction that the atom bomb caused in August 9, 1945? Or Describe the pains
and suffering of the people.
The writer gives a detail of destruction, pains, anxiety and suffering of the people caused by the bomb
dropped by B-29 fighter on Nahasaki on August 9, 1945. It caused violent storm. There was a huge blast of
wind of yellow colour. There were fires everywhere. The people were in a very miserable condition. Their
shreds were hanging from their bodies and they were bloody and dirty. They were seeing the surrounding
with vacant eyes as if they were ghosts. Their clothes were tattered, and their limbs were missing. There
were dead bodies lying around with white edges of bones. Almost all living or dead were badly charred.
The effect on the people was so tremendous that all the victims died in the coming few weeks. The
humanity was helpless before the immense power of weapons. The war was won but the humanity lost.
Many students, doctors and patients were crying there for help and water. There were deaths, groans,
shrieks and a terrible stench everywhere. Everyone was severely wounded. The buildings had reduced to
ashes, only their skeletons remained standing.
His schoolmates who were attending their lectures were either killed or injured. All of them died within few
weeks. A large number of People died. It was difficult to dispose of their dead bodies so they burnt these
bodies in piles of wood. It was very terrible for the writer to burn his dear ones. To sum up, it was an awful,
horrible and terrible tragedy which befell the people of Nagasaki on that day.
Q:2 Never again should these terrible nuclear weapons be used no matter what happens what kind
of message does the writer give us?
After describing the terrible detail of destruction, pains, anxiety and suffering of the people, the writer
advises, at the end of the essay, that these weapons should never be used by any country because they will
produce the same terrible results that the writer has seen with his own eyes. Our generation will never
forget us if such brutal happens again.
It is however worth mentioning here that unfortunately some countries including the super powers are
running a race to get the most fatal weapons. They do not know that they are just preparing to make this
earth a hell. They should concentrate their energies to use the atomic energy for constructive purposes so
that the suffering humanity may get advantages out of it and this earth may become a peaceful place.
At the end of the essay he says that the souls of his friends will never rest in peace if mankind does not
renounce the nuclear weapons and their use for the destruction of innocent people.

(6) Walking On The Moon

Q.1 How long did the astronauts remain in the orbit of the moon and what did they see there? Or
Give an account of being on the moon, when Scott was really there? (P.U.96)
These American astronauts including Jim Irwin and Scott (the writer) undertook an expedition to the moon
in Appolo-15 spaceship Endeavour, in 1971. Their spaceship remained in the lunar for twenty four hours,
during which they made twelve revolutions each lasting two hours. During each round they remained for
one hour in the darkness of the night and for one hour in daylight. Their trip was purely meant for scientific
From the orbit they saw lovely and charming scenes. During night the moon looked bright in the light
reflected by the earth. Stars looked like icy fires. Distant part of the moon appeared like a black arc. The
scene of the rising sun was very appealing. The rays of the sun were falling on the horizon of the moon. The
sun steadily rose up. Its light entered their spaceship. Mountains, craters, ditches and plains on the surface
of the moon looked very bright in the sunlight. The moonscape presented a beautiful view in the early
morning. Everything there was of milk-chocolate colour. The hills and craters had long shadows.
Q. 2. Describe the astronauts' landing on the surface of the moon and their different observations.
Or What sights not previously experienced by human beings does he describe, and how does he?
Dr. Scott and his companions when entered the lunar orbit, they saw a very beautiful sight never
experienced by any human being before.
They saw our earth shining over the moon. The mountains and the creator rims were clearly seen in that
light. Before them and above them, the stars were shining and below them lay the moon. Then the moment
of sunrise approached. The sunlight flooded into the space-shop and dazzled their eyes. At last, they came
down on the surface of the moon and experienced more sights.
Each day on the moon was equal to 355 hours on earth, the sky looked black. The moon looked bright in
the sunlight. They had landed on its bright side. There were mountains, plains canyons. The moonscape
stretched to long distances. There were different landforms. There were ridges, high summits winding

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gorges. There was a strange blend of colours which changed every moment. Within moments the grey
surface below their feet turned golden. The rocks had grey, black, white and green colours. Complete
silence prevailed over there. They could hear only the slight sound of their footsteps. The temperature was
about 150 degrees. There, the distances were not measured by trees or telephone poles, but by craters. The
movement on the moon was quite difficult. They had to start and stop with exertion. 22
Q. 3. Describe the astronauts walk on the moon and their feelings. Or To what does Scott implicitly
compare the weightlessness experienced on the lunar surface? Or What other such experience does
he describe through comparisons?
Their walk on the moon was very slow and bumpy. They could not walk fast. But a lot of exertion was
required to walk and step on the moon. When they had to step ahead, they had to thrust their body forward.
If they wanted to stop, they had to sink their heels and lean backward. They were not hurt if they fell
because their weight was very less. As the moon's gravity is one-sixth of that of the earth, their weight had
decreased to one-sixth of their weight on the earth. During walk they had to keep oxygen with them.
On the moon they felt a strange sense of freedom as they were the only living beings there. They could
move freely wherever they wished as there were no obstacles on their way and nobody to block their way.
But there were certain other problems. Walking on the moon was not as easy as that on the earth. Anyhow
they felt a strange pleasure in their slow motion on the moon. 172

7. My Grandfather

Q.1 Why didn't the writer and his uncle think it wrong to outwit the grandfather's violence and
"My Grandfather", is a touching piece of prose by W.B. Yeats. It contains delicate memories of his
childhood. The writer’s grandfather was a disciplined man. Yeats narrates that, despite all his admirations
and alarms neither he nor his uncle thought it wrong to outwit (deceive) the violence or rigidity of his
grandfather. He added that his grandfather's innocence and lack of suspicion made it easy for them to outwit
his violence and rigor.
He points out that one night his uncle asked him to ride to Rosses Point to borrow a railway pass from a
cousin. His grandfather also had a railway Pass, but to him, it was unlawful to use someone else's pass. His
cousin was, however not so particular in this regard. Yeats rode and took the railway pass from his cousin.
He returned home by two or three in the morning.
To Yeats, his grandfather would never think of such an adventure. He believed that every night at eight, the
stable-yard was locked and he was brought the key. He locked the doors of the home but writer's uncles and
servants knew how to go out at the nights. We may say that the writer and his uncles did not think it wrong
to outwit the violence and vigour of his grandfather due to his strict discipline and principles. His
grandfather's innocence and lack of suspicion also made it easy for them to outwit his violence and rigor.
Q.2 What is the "something in myself" which Yeats felt that he gradually conquered during his life
Or "Indeed I remember little of childhood but its pains" and “my miseries were not made by others
but were a part of my own mind.”Or Describe the strict atmosphere of the Grandfather house.

The writer in the beginning of the essay points out that he had "Something in himself" which he gradually
conquered during his life. This something was the unknown fear of his grandfather who was stout, energetic
and strict disciplinarian.
The grandfather was a disciplined man. He also maintained it in his house. For example none was allowed
to eat between meals. Breakfast was served at 9 am and dinner at 4 p.m. the stable door was locked at 8
p.m. No body could go out after that. Children had to be in formal dress. Such things caused uneasiness
among the children that.
His uncles sometimes broke the discipline but Yeats never did so for the fear of being punished. He
remained under constant fear and nervousness besides this fact he was never treated harshly or punished.
Yeats did not like that the rules should be applied equally to the elders and the younger. The Grandfather
must have realized that the children needed a little freedom every now and then.
This is why Yeats says, "Indeed I remember little of childhood but its pains" and “my miseries were not
made by others but were a part of my own mind.” He felt very lonely and had unknown fears. However, his
fears of childhood vanished as he grew up. He was growing happier with every year of life as though
gradually conquering something in himself. So he had developed a psychological fear. 240

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Q.3 Justify the space and detail devoted to yeast grandparents. Or Why does Yeats include a
comparison of his grandmother with his grandfather?
“My Grandfather" by Yeas is based on his recollection of his maternal relations. His grandfather and
grandmother stand out of all these relations. Yeats grandmother was a sharp contrast to his grandfather. She
was a woman of very gentle polite and charitable nature. She feared his husband temperament. She did very
noble deeds at home. At night she would go round the house if there were not any thief. She was true lover
of flowers. She was also a lover of Chinese paintings. She also could paint beautifully on rice paper. Her
handwork was wonderful and delicate. The grandfather was also a lover of Chinese painting. His favorite
books were "The Bible" and "Falconer's Shipwreck". He was proud and did not like his neighbor.
But grandmother was very kind and helped the needy. The grandmother was opposite to grandfather in
temperament. He was harsh and strict while she was benevolent. She, however, cared that grandfather was
satisfied about his principle. She was not very strict about looking after the stable as the grandfather
demanded. She did only the convenience of the stable man. It shows her benign attitude towards the
servants. It also indicates that she was a good house manager and could solve the problems at her
discretion. Grandmother was kind and affectionate lady. The writer remembers that she punished him only
once on some childish indecency. He was not allowed to come to the dining table and had to take his meal
all by himself. 248

(8) My Tailor

Q: 1 Bring Out The Element Of Humor In Leacock's Essay "My Tailor"

It is true that "My Tailor" is a humorous essay. Stephen Leacock is a great comic writer. He has written
many humorous essays and stories. His humor is light, harmless and free from bitterness. In this essay his
humor is based on characterization. He describes the behavior of his tailor in an amusing way. He mixes
humor in the professional manners of his tailor and makes the essay very delightful.
First, we see that the tailor shows the suit material to his customer on his bended knee with one leg in the
air. He thinks that when he is in this condition; it is difficult for a customer to resist him. The writer is fully
aware that he is doing it only to flatter him. The writer also tells us that his tailor always talks about weather
while his tailor ends with it. Further, the writer always found his tailor standing in the back part of his shop
with his tape around his neck. Here, the joy of humor is mixed with pain and pathos.175
Q: 2 What is the moral of the essay? Or There is I am certain, a deep moral in this. But I will not
try to draw it.
The essay "My Tailor" has a deep moral for the readers. In the last lines of the essay, the writer says, "There
is I am certain, a deep moral in this. But I will not try to draw it. It might appear too obvious." Through this
essay we come to know that all the glittering things may not bound to be glittering.
During the long association of thirty years with the tailor, the writer always found him calm, composed and
happy. He never looked worried or disturbed. He seemed as if he had no passions, no attachments, no
worries and no problems in life. To the writer he seemed to be an immortal and he would stay there forever
dealing with his customers in the same delightful manner.
But the writer was shocked on his tailor's sudden death. Then he knew all what he did not know about his
tailor. His business was not going well and his health was also failing. He further discovered that he had an
ailing wife and a daughter who were left in a bad situation. He was fond of music. He was a sideman of the
church. He was a staunch Christian. He felt sorry for the poor tailor. He had never suspected him of being
worried or under financial pressure.
The writer felt sorry and for being ignorant of his domestic liabilities and his personal interests in religion
and music. In a way he considered himself partly responsible for his untimely death. Hence all the glittering
things are not bound to be glittering. 261
Q: 3 What has the tailor in “My tailor to hide?
There were certain things which the tailor hid from the writer. The writer came to know all these things
after his death. The writer had been dealing with his tailor for thirty long years. He always found him a very
happy, calm and satisfied man. He always welcomed the writer with a smiling face. He never looked
worried or disturbed. He seemed as if he had no passions, no attachments, no worries and no problems in
life. The writer knew him as a tailor not as a man. He had never tried to know his personal life. He did not
even know his name. The tailor seemed to be a statue not a man. His inner life remained hidden from him.
But the writer was shocked on his tailor's sudden death. Then he knew that his business was not going well
and his health was also failing. He further discovered that he had an ailing wife and a daughter who were
left in a bad situation. He was fond of music. He was a sideman of the church. He was a staunch Christian.

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But in spite of thirty year association, the writer remained unaware of these facts. Their conversation was
confined only to the business matters. The writer remained ignorant of his domestic liabilities and his
personal interests in religion and music. All these things were hidden from the writer.
He felt sorry that he had never bought anything other than suits from him. He felt sorry for the poor tailor.
He had never suspected him of being worried or under financial pressure. His inner life remained hidden
from the writer. 249
Q: 4 Why Does Leacock Regard The Tailor As "Immortal"?
When the writer came to know of his tailor's sudden death he was shocked. He thought that he should have
lived for ever. He was like something fixed and permanent in the tailoring shop. The writer believed that he
was an immortal figure. His belief was based on his past experience. He had been dealing with him for the
last thirty years. He had always found him at the same place and in the same posture. He always stood in
the back part of his shop with a measuring tape around his neck.
He always welcomed the writer with a smiling face. He spread the suit material on his lifted knee to show it
to the writer. He measured only his chest and flattered him saying that it was a little fuller than before. Then
he would ask the writer if he needed anything in shirtings and hosiery. In the end he talked about weather.
The date of delivery was always a weak from Tuesday. The billing and the payment was always done by
The writer had never seen any change in the behavior of his tailor. His posture, his speech and his
movements remained unchanged for such a long time. So, the writer expected that his tailor would always
be there standing and greeting his customers. In fact, the writer saw only the business side of his
personality. His inner life remained hidden from him. 237

(7) Beauty Industry

Q: 1 Beauty industry calls annual expenses of one hundred and fifty six million pounds on make up
‘A Tidy Sum’ why? Or What is beauty industry? What are the views of Huxley about the beauty
In this essay, Huxley describes in an amusing manner that the women of America spend a huge amount of
money to decorate their faces. According to an estimate, this expenditure is more than three million pounds
a week and one hundred and fifty six million pounds on makeup. It is ‘A Tidy Sum’. The author says that
American women spend more money on their beautification than twice the revenue of India. The wrier
says, “Even the great depression could not beat down American Women’s habit of make up.” The general
economic depression had not affected the beauty industry. The production and sale of cosmetics continued
as usual because American women spent as much as they used to do before depression. The magazines were
full of advertisements of cosmetics.
As compared to the American woman, a European woman can do with a piece of soap. The craze to look
beautiful on the part of an American woman has given birth to beauty industry.
Now the face creams, the exercises and the health motors and the skin foods are used to add to the physical
charms. Then there are massage machines and belly-reducing belts to make them physically smart. Some
ladies undergo surgical operations to get rid of wrinkles of old age. All such attempts have given rise to a
vast beauty industry in America. 224
Q: 2 What are causes of development of beauty industry? Or How does Beauty Industry come into
being? Or Why are women so fond of beautification? Or Why do women spend so much money on
According to Huxley there are three factors responsible for the development of beauty industry. First there
is a general increase in prosperity. The rich have always paid more attention to their personal appearance.
They are richer than they used to be in past. They have sufficient money to spend on cosmetics for the
decoration of their faces. The beautification of bodies has become a popular practice.
Second there is a change in the status of women. The women are freer than in the past. They are freer to
attend social functions. At the same time, they have the privilege to look more attractive. In the past, the
decoration of face was considered a wicked thing. The spread of education has changed this trend. It is no
longer considered a sign or moral corruption. Now beauty is considered a sign of good health. Ugliness is
associated with some ailment.
Thirdly there is change in outlook and attitude. Now there is a general awareness among common people
that body has also its rights. They believe that body is as important as soul for a balanced personality. They
think that it is their duty to look after their face and body well so that they look healthy, strong and
attractive. Religious restrictions no longer trouble them. 213

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Q:3 How is the campaign for physical beauty a success and a failure at the same time? Or The
campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a lamentable failure.
Huxley says that the campaign for more physical beauty seems to be both a tremendous success and a
lamentable failure. He seems right in this contention. The campaign to look more beautiful on the part of
women seems to be success to some an extent due to following grounds. Now more women retain their
youthful appearance to a greater age than in the past. No old women are seen anywhere. Everywhere is
youth and beauty. White hair, wrinkled faces, bent back, and hollow cheeks have become old fashioned.
Skin-foods injections of paraffin-wax, facial surgery, mud-baths, and paint keep the women attractive and
young. Mother and daughter cannot be distinguished today. In this way, the campaign seems to be a
tremendous success.
However, this campaign, at the same time, seems to be a lamentable failure. Women use cosmetics to retain
their youthful appearance till later age. But in this cult of outer beautification they forget the beautification
of inner self. It is a lamentable loss and failure. Real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outer
self. If the spirit is pious they will be pious. Otherwise spiritual emptiness or ugliness shows through their
bodies. The writer says in a few years elderly people will become extinct and the values like regard, piety
and goodness will also not be found in society. All the forms of ugliness and sins will be prevailing in
society. Hence we may say that the campaign for physical beauty is a success and a failure at the same time.
Q:4 Why and how does Huxley compare human body with a porcelain jar?
The writer gives a clear outlook about the real beauty. He says that real beauty is not what it appears
outwardly. He deems it a folly on the part of women who paint their faces with beautiful creams and give
no importance to inner beauty.
Huxley says that real beauty has nothing to do with make up or cosmetics. He compares the beauty of a
woman with the beauty of a porcelain jar. A flower pot is beautiful outwardly but it may be empty from
inside or it may contain spiders. Its inner side has no importance but its outward side matters. The beauty of
a porcelain jar depends on its shape, colour and its texture. But a woman is not a decoration piece; a woman
is a living being. A beautiful woman must be beautiful from inside as well. The writer remarks that real
beauty involves the beauty of mind and soul. A woman cannot become beautiful and impressive unless she
is attractive inwardly. A woman can be beautiful only when her body as well as soul is beautiful. We also
agree with the writer real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outer self. The matter of woman
beauty is entirely different from the beauty of a porcelain jar. 248
Q: 5 What are the various forms of ugliness?
Huxley refers to make-up as 'Repellant'. The writer being a social reformer tries to bring out the ugly
aspects of human nature with a view to reforming them. The writer says that ugliness is the psyological or
spiritual ugliness. The real beauty is the beauty of soul. It is a satire on the extravagant habit of fashionable
women who disfigure themselves by over painting their faces.
The writer says sullenness and hardness spoil so many pretty faces. This hardness is due to the
contemporary habit of over painting. It ruins the natural beauty and grace of the faces. The writer gives
many forms of ugliness and sins. The ugliness may be of stupidity, greed, malice and avarice. He says that
these all forms of ugliness and sins are the negation of beauty. Huxley concludes with his remark: "All men
and women will be beautiful only when the arrangements give to everyone of them, an opportunity
completely and harmoniously.
The essay gives us a moral lesson. The writer tries to preach that in our efforts to look beautiful, we must
not ignore the spiritual beauty of our souls. We should get rid of our inner ugliness if we really want to
become beautiful and charming. 204
Q.6 Point out the examples of irony and humour in Huxley's essay "The Beauty industry." 2010(S)
The essay "The Beauty Industry" is written in an ironic and humorous style. Irony is a mode of
expression in which the meanings are opposite to the words spoken. The essay is replete with ironic
remarks .some of them are as under
a) The writer's words "The Most that the majority of European women can do is just to wash and
hope for the best." are ironic.
b) At another place he says ironically, "White-washed and ruddled they seem to be wearing mask."
c) The word "Cult" which means extreme devotion to the religious system has been used ironically
to convey the extreme devotion to beautification.
d) He ironically says, “We demand justice for the body as well as soul.” The American women do not
want to look virtuous by remaining simple.
The essay also contains humorous remarks. Humour is the quality to make others laugh by pointing out the

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follies in society. Some of the humorous remarks are as under;

a) He humorously says, this expenditure is more than three million pounds a week. One hundred and
fifty six million pounds on makeup is ‘A Tidy Sum’.
b) His saying that American women spend more money on their beautification than twice the revenue
of India is also humorous.
c) He further says, “Even the great depression could not beat down American Women’s habit of make
d) The general economic depression had not affected the beauty industry.
e) He says Europe is poor and face can cost as much in upkeep as a Rolls–Royce.
f) He humorously says that old women are becoming rare and in a few years they will become extinct.
So we can say that he has criticized and satirized the cult of being beautiful in a mild ironic and humorous
style with a moral purpose. 291

(10) Are Doctors men of Science?

Q:1 "Doctoring is not even the art of keeping people in health". How far you agree with Shaw? Or
The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors. Elaborate. Or Doctoring is an
art not a science. Discuss. Or It is a popular delusion that every doctor is a man of science.
Shaw condemns the misconception that doctors are men of science. He says that science does not merely
mean conjuring with retorts, spirits lamps, magnets or microscopes. It is a system and a method of research.
He says that doctors are not better than their tailors. A man who reads scientific journals can develop
scientific taste. He can tell what to eat and what not to eat. Even an elderly lady at home can tell what to eat
and what not to eat. Shaw says that science is another name of research. The doctors do not make any
research in their field. They prescribe medicines as directed by medical representatives.
Shaw says that doctoring is an art not science. He remarks doctoring is not even the art of keeping people in
good health. This remark is quite justified and I too agree with him. Through this remark he is trying to tell
us that the duty of a doctor is only to cure illness and not to keep people healthy. A doctor is always
consulted when a person is only suffering from some kind of ailment. In that case the doctor only diagnoses
the ailment and prescribes the suitable medicine for its remedy. This means he is not trying to keep his
patient healthy but only curing the particular disease. To keep oneself healthy demands more than just
medicine i.e., proper diet, proper exercise and proper fitness. If a person has all these things, then he remains
To keep oneself healthy demands more than just medicine i.e., proper diet, proper exercise and proper
fitness. If a person has all these things, then he remains healthy. Hence, keeping oneself healthy and curing a
disease, are poles apart. These are two different fields. Doctors only deal with one field and ignore the other.
Hence, Shaw’s remark “Doctoring is not even the art of keeping people in health” is quite right and
Q:2 Is there any difference between Doctors and Quacks? Give illustrations to prove your point.
Or Discuss the difference between quacks and doctors. Relate the story Bernard Shaw tells at the end
of his essay. (P.U. 95-S)
Bernard Shaw does not find any difference between a quack and a doctor because both diagnose the
diseases and then treat their patients in the same way. A quack is an unqualified doctor. Herbalists, bone-
setters and hygienists all are quacks. In Shaw’s view, the only difference between a quack and a doctor is
that a doctor is authorized to sign a death certificate; whereas a quack is not.
Shaw elaborates his point of view by relating the story of an old lady, one of his relatives. She consulted a
doctor about the symptoms of the need for a holiday or change. After diagnosing her depression the doctor
prescribed a strong dose of digitalis a drug for heart patients. After using the drug she did not die because
she was quite strong. Instead of medicine she needed change and rest. A herbalist would have treated a heart
patient and a farm labourer in the same way. Even heretical methods are used by some doctors. Quacks treat
their patients with the help of herbs, plants, poisons, charms and spells; while the doctors prescribe patent
medicines. Hence, there is no difference between the two. 193
Q:3 Write a note on quacks in Pakistan. Or Do quacks earn more than qualified doctors?
A quack is an unqualified doctor. Bernard Shaw says that quacks, all over Europe are earning more than
qualified doctors. Pakistan is no exception. A large number of quacks in Pakistan are earning, rather earning
more than qualified doctors. Majority of the population in Pakistan is middle or poor class. These classes of
people can't afford the high fees demanded by qualified doctors. Moreover the prices of the allopathic
medicines are rising day by day. The people, therefore, consult homeopathic doctors or quacks who treat the
people cheaply. Besides this, the quacks exploit the ignorance, illiteracy and superstition of the masses.
In this the quacks attract more patients than the qualified doctors do. Hence, they earn more. Another factor
is that there is no law in the country prohibiting the quacks from practice. Sometimes deaths are caused by

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the treatment of quacks; but these are in rare cases. Unless a law against quacks is passed, their thriving
practice will continue. 160
(11) Hosts and Guests

Q: 1 How has the author categorized mankind in hosts and guests?

In this essay, the writer has classified mankind into host or guest on the basis of circumstances and
temperaments. When a person invites another person to dine with him and pays himself for the food, he is
called Host and the person who just enjoys it, is called guest. This is called circumstantial difference. The
writer says that it is our instinct to invite our near and dear ones to dinner and serve them with delicious
dishes. At it, we feel happy and elated. To invite some friend is positive instinct whereas to accept the
hospitality is negative instinct. The positive instinct of hospitality is commonly found in rich whereas the
negative instinct is found in poor. But it does not mean that all the needy are not guests and all the rich are
not hosts. It depends on their disposition and temperament. This is called temperamental difference.
The writer says that some people are born hosts and some are born guests. He claims to be a born guest. He
says that boys are guests by nature till they grow up. At school once he got a box of twelve sausage rolls, but
he did not invite his friends to share the sausage rolls with them. Guests are also of two kinds. One is
parasite and the other is churl. Parasite is found in every ceremony even uninvited. He always likes to be a
guest of others. Churl is in habit of finding fault with food. 247
Q:2 Write down why the hospitality is only a human virtue and is missing among Animals.
Max Beerbohm wrote his essay "Host and guests" with a purpose. He wanted to analyze the behavior of
man as a social and hospitable being. He has exposed the so-called human virtue of hospitality in a comic
and satirical style. First he differentiates man from animals saying that hospitality is exclusively a human
quality. Animals do not invite other animals to share their food. A dog does not offer his bone to another
dog. A cat never allows another cat to share her milk. Lions do not invite other lion to their den. Birds also
do not keep their nests open. By nature, man too, does not like to offer anything to others. He has a strong
desire for personal ownership.
However, man has acquired this virtue during the long course of human development. As he became social
and civilized, he learnt to be hospitable. In olden days it was not easy to offer or accept the invitation of a
meal. An atmosphere of doubt, fear and uncertainty prevailed. The writer points out that the virtue of
hospitality does not depend on financial position of a man. Being rich or poor does not persuade him to be a
host or guest. It is entirely a temperamental quality. The history of hospitality is full of sad and shameful
incidents. Many hosts killed or poisoned their honorable guests. 226
Q. 3. Describe the history of man's hospitality. Or How did man learn to be hospitable? Or write
down the development of instinct of hospitality.
The history of man's hospitality is very long. It can be traced back to the time when man lived in caves.
People of the caves were not hospitable at all. They never invited other cavemen to their caves. They
suspected and feared one another. They feared that their guest might kill them. Similarly the guest feared
that he might be killed by his host. They, therefore, avoided to act as hosts or guests. Red-haired men of
ancient times never accepted anybody's invitation to dine.
According to Max Beerbohm hospitality is not a natural instinct of man. Man learnt hospitality at a very
later stage "with the growth of civilization when he began to live in groups, families and tribes. After Stone
Age he became civilized, hence hospitable. Life in society gave him some sense of security. He no more
feared, like cavemen, that he would be killed by his host. From that time onward he began to extend
invitation to his neighbours, friends and relatives, etc. who accepted his hospitality without any fear; and
then returned the same as a good gesture. Since then people came to be known as hosts and guests. 193
Q.4 "In the annals of hospitality there are many pages that make painful reading." Discuss. Or
Narrate some tragic incidents of hospitality from history.
Having a look at history, we come to know that there were many selfish guests and selfish hosts. The history
of hospitality has never been free from doubts and fears. The early caveman was afraid of going to other
caves or inviting others to his own. He had a sense of insecurity. Still there are many sad incidents in which
the hosts killed their guests mercilessly to take revenge. Many hosts of high positions killed or poisoned
their honorable guests. Israelites, for example, were once the most civilized people of the world, but Jael
brutally murdered her guests.
Similarly the Greeks were a civilized nation, but the Greek hero Odysseus killed his guests in his house".
The Romans were a highly cultured nation in the fifteenth century, but Borgias, the Roman kings invited
their guests, actually their enemies, to their cellars where they had concealed poisons, with which they were
killed. The Roman people hesitated to dine with the Borgias. Similarly Macbeth and Lady Macbeth killed

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their guest, Duncan, the king of Scotland, in their palace.

The behavior of hosts have been very insulting, shameful and barbaric towards there innocent guests. 191
Q.5 Discuss the qualities of a good host and a good guest.
Max Beerbohm says in his essay that people are either hosts or guests by temperament those who like to
offer meal to others are hosts and those who like to enjoy the meal without paying the bill are guests. The
writer says that the behavior of these two categories of human beings is different from each other. Here we
shall discuss the qualities of good guests separately.
A good host is generous at heart and loves human beings. He is not proud and egoist who tries to impress
others by his hospitality. A good host invites his friends and relatives to dine for his own pleasure. Dickens
character of olla Wardle is an example of good host.
A good guest shows his hearty gratitude to his host. He is often a source of beauty, truth and inspiration. A
good guest accepts hospitality and always thanks for it. Whereas a bad guest is never satisfied and has
always complains. The famous philosopher Dante Furnishes is a good example. He always finds faults with
his hosts after enjoying their hospitality. The parasite lives completely on others. He is an unwanted guest.
He is always hungry. But he thanks his host at the end of meal. The writer declares that he himself was more
a guest than a host. 216

(12) Bachelor’s Dilemma

Q.1 What are the real problems of a bachelor? Or What is the dilemma of a bachelor as depicted
in Hubert Gold’s “the Bachelor’s Dilemma.”2005 Or How does a bachelor fair in American society?
In this essay Herbert gold has analyzed the problems of a confirmed bachelor in general. A bachelor is an
unmarried man. He hangs between love and marriage as an acrobat swings in a circus. He faces many
problems in his daily life. He is not fairly treated in American society.
In a social gathering nobody understands his position or intention well. Everyone looks at him from his
personal angle of view. Every one passes different judgment about him. For example, in a party a married
woman admires him and considers him better than her husbands. He does not always snore like her
husband. A husband takes him as a fortunate person as he is still free from the traps of a woman. A young
girl finds in him a possible catch and tries to entrap him.
A sense of loneliness is another problem faced by a chronic bachelor. He is always in search of a beautiful
girl who may prove ideal wife for him. But his efforts never succeed. Although he gets tension and
entertainment from young ladies or all his would be wives yet he cannot get rid of boredom and loneliness.
He may go on a world trip but he will be still lonely. He does not know how to spend his evenings. He is
irregular in his habits. He eats unhealthy foods and often suffers from indigestion ulcer.
One of his marriage problems is to satisfy his sexual urge. He can afford to buy all luxuries of life. He
keeps himself well dressed and graceful like mail models. But in his search for true love he is permanently
disappointed and deceived. It is very rare that he succeeds in finding his dream girl. As compared to
married man he remains dissatisfied with his achievements and often dies early. 303

(13) Tolerance

Q. 1 What is required for the reconstruction of a nation? Or Give writer’s views on tolerance.
Or What is the importance of love and tolerance in the society? Or Write a note on tolerance.

In this essay "Tolerance" E.M Forster throws light on the value of tolerance in our society in general and in
the reconstruction of the world after world war second in particular. Some people say that a particular state
of mind is required for the reconstruction of nation. This state of mind is love. EM Forster does not agree to
this view. He says love is a vital force in family/ private affairs but it does not work in public affairs. It has
been tried in history but it has always been failed. He says love may be in practice with the people whom
we know. We cannot love strangers or our enemies. The English cannot love Germans after the World War
II. Love cannot be practiced universally.
According to E.M Forster two things are required for the reconstruction of civilization. One is a sound
attitude of mind and other is a right psychology. It means that unless there is awareness and desire to
change and improve the condition, nothing solid can really be done. The writer says in public affairs we
need tolerance.
It is a spiritual quality which is most needed in the after war conditions. The writer tells that tolerance does

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not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us.
It is the only virtue and force by which different races, classes and nations can succeed in the work of
reconstruction of nation. 240
Q. 2 What is the 'NAZI' solution of dealing with the people one does not like? What is fanaticism?
The writer says that every person has fanaticism which means excessive intolerance of opposing views.
Every person has racial prejudice. The writer gives the example of racial prejudice of Nazis. They claimed
that they were the best nation of the world and all the other nations were inferior and had no right to live.
They were deadly against the Jews so they not only killed them mercilessly but also banished them. They
adopt Nazi Solution to deal with the people. "Nazi" solution means if you do not like people, kill them,
banish them or segregate them. Tell them that they are not fit to live in this world. The writer maintains that
such a solution is unrealistic because it creates violence.
The other solution is less and less dramatic. But this is a practical and reasonable solution of the problems
of the world. The writer is in favour of it. It is based on tolerance. It suggests us to tolerate those whom we
do not like. On the basis of tolerance, a civilized future may be built. He points out that the disputes and
quarrels of the nations can be settled down, if they begin to live with one another on the basis of tolerance.
We must check fanaticism and spread tolerance if we want to rebuild this world as a peaceful and safe
place. 225
Q. 3 Is tolerance a weakness? Or Tolerance is not the same as weakness. Explain?
E.M. Forster says that tolerance does not mean weakness or defeat. It is only putting up with people who
have different ideas and views from us.
Tolerance and Weakness are different from each other. It is some time equated with weakness and
cowardice because many great men dislike tolerance. The writer says that St. Paul and Dante were great
men but they disliked tolerance. He also talks of those great men who were in favour of tolerance. Buddhist
Emperor Asoka, Dutch Schollaw Erasmus, Montaigno, John Lock, Sydney and Smith were in favour of
tolerance and they testified this virtue. He who tolerates other people different from him is not weak or
coward. The person who bears hostile views and ideas is brave. Tolerance is the only virtue and force by
which different races, classes and nations can succeed in the work of reconstruction of nation. Tolerance is
the spiritual quality which is most needed in the after war conditions. If we start living with other with
tolerance, love may be born later on. By this we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it
is not all possible without tolerance. 192
Q. 4 “It is to easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot it in oneself.” Is it really so?
At the end of the essay, Forster remarks that it is very easy to see fanaticism in other people but it is
difficult for us to spot it in ourselves. Fanaticism means excessive intolerance towards opposing views. It is
an unnecessary and unreasonable enthusiasm for one’s doctrine or stand-point. According to him it is a
great hindrance in the reconstruction of a great universal civilization. If we deeply look into the matter, we
find out that it is really true that people see fanaticism in others but it is always difficult to spot it in them. It
is because people lack tolerance which is almost missing in all spheres of life — in the queue, in the street,
in the railway station, in the office, at the factory, at the telephone and above all among classes, races and
nations. Absence of tolerance and compromise makes people narrow-minded and fanatic.
Moreover, people consider tolerance a weakness or defeat. They produce hatred among people and disturb
the peace of society. They do not understand that putting up with people does not mean yielding to them or
defeat. It is only putting up with people who have different ideas and views from us. It makes us broad-
minded, libral, calm and patient.
The attitude of people that their thinking, beliefs and creeds are correct, truthful and the highest of all also
leads to fanaticism. They do not respect the ideas of others. For example, the Englishmen usually accuse the
Nazis for being intolerant to the Jews. But are they not equally guilty of being prejudicial to the Black?
Thus the writer rightly says, “It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in

(14) On Saying Please

Q.1 Law does not do so much to make social interaction sweet and smooth as to do the good
manners. Or "Discourtesy is not a legal offence." Discuss. Or Why did the liftman throw the
passenger out of the lift?
In this essay, the writer tells us that there is no legal punishment against discourtesy and bad manners
because they are not legal offences. Law does not do so much to make social interaction sweet and smooth

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as to do the good manners. No law compels us to be civil or courteous to others. Law can punish one for
some physical offence only. It can punish a thief, a burglar or one who physically attacks us. We can't box
people's ears for misbehaving with us or being discourteous to us.
The writer gives the example of a liftman to clarify this point. Once a passenger who wanted to go to the
top of a building said "Top" to the liftman. The liftman threw him out of his lift because he expected of him
to say "Top please". It means that the liftman punished the passenger for being discourteous to him.
The liftman was fined for throwing the passenger out of the lift because he was not justified in doing so.
The liftman was legally at fault in throwing the passenger out of the lift. The passenger was morally at fault
on not saying "Please" to him. Therefore he was not legally punishable, but the liftman, on the other hand,
was legally punishable as he had physically attacked the passenger. Hence he was fined. 223
Q.2: "If bad manners are infectious, so also are good manners." Elaborate.
Manners are not laws but they have a hold on our lives like laws. The writer makes a comparison between
good and bad manners. He says that bad manners of one person influence others and make them also rude
and ill-tempered. Similarly, good manners of one person also affect others and make them polite and kind.
"Saying Please" is one of the good manners and show courtesy and politeness of the speaker. Good and bad
manners spread quickly from one person to the other like a contagious disease. As we live in a society the
ways and manners of people are bound to affect others.
In this connection the writer gives the example of a bus conductor. One day the writer boarded a bus
without any money in his pockets. He told the conductor that he would not pay the fare. He was afraid that
the conductor would make him get off the bus contemptuously. But he was surprised when the good-
mannered conductor gave him the ticket and told him to pay the fare next time. The writer was greatly
pleased with his attitude. On some other day the conductor trampled on the writer's foot. He immediately
said "Sorry sir". The writer excused him for being courteous. He had won the writer's sympathy. His
passengers could not help being nice and polite to him. Therefore, the writer has rightly said that good or
bad manners are like infections that travel from person to person leaving its sweet or bitter taste in the
environment 239
Q.3: How did the writer feel and behave when he discovered while in Bus that he had no money on
him? Or How did the bus conductor win the hearts of his passengers? Or Our good manners prove
that respect others regardless of the station or status. Elaborate.
The writer lays emphasis on the importance of being courteous, polite and civil to others. By saying
"Please" or "Thank you" we can win people's hearts. We can befriend others by simply uttering such words
as cost nothing. In this context he relates the story of a bus conductor who had won the hearts of his
passengers and writer's with his good manners and politeness.
In this connection the writer gives the example of a bus conductor. One day the writer boarded a bus without
any money in his pockets. He told the conductor that he would not pay the fare. He was afraid that the
conductor would make him get off the bus contemptuously. But he was surprised when the good-mannered
conductor gave him the ticket and told him to pay the fare next time. The writer was greatly pleased with his
attitude. On some other day the conductor trampled on the writer's foot. He immediately said "Sorry sir".
The writer excused him for being courteous. He had won the writer's sympathy. A blind man often travelled
by his bus. The conductor not only helped him get down easily but also conducted him across the road. He
behaved with the old as a son, with the children as father and with the young as a jolly fellow. By travelling
in his bus the passengers learnt courtesy and good manners. He taught to respect other regardless of the
station or status. 241
Q:4 Write a note on the sweetness of Lord Chesterfield . Or Why does the writer recommend the
story of Chesterfield to the liftman 'On saying please'? (P.U. 2007) or Or How can we spread
good manners ?
Manners are not laws but they have a hold on our lives like laws. The writer says that bad manners of one
person influence others and make them also rude and ill-tempered. Similarly, good manners of one person
also affect others and make them polite and kind. "Saying Please" is one of the good manners and show
courtesy and politeness of the speaker. Good and bad manners spread quickly from one person to the other
like a contagious disease. Bad manners spread by behaving badly with an ill mannered person and good
manners spread by ignoring the bad behaviour of a rude person. The writer says it is always better to
answer a frown with a smile to make an ill-mannered person feel ashamed of his conduct
When liftman throws out the discourteous person out of his lift, the writer recommends the story of
Chesterfield’s goodness and asks the liftman to be inspired by his good conduct. He says, Lord Chesterfield,
on one rainy day, was passing through a muddy street. The path near the wall was rather dry and safe. He
wanted to walk on the dry path but the man who was coming from the opposite side being very rude refused

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to leave the dry place and said "I never give the wall to a scoundrel”. Lord Chesterfield did not take it ill
and said, "I always do". This showed the good breeding of Lord Chesterfield. The liftman would agree that
Chesterfield's revenge was much sweeter than if he had flung the fellow into mud. 257

(15) To Err is Human

Q.1. To what extent do computers resemble human beings? Or How does Thomas distinguish the
reasoning of each?1999,2002, 2005 Or Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between computer
and human beings Or Do you think that computer share weaknesses of human beings?
Computer is an extension or developed form of human brain. Computers resemble human beings in the
sense that they possess the faculty of committing errors or making mistakes. Just like human brains
computers can think and act clearly. Some computers also write verses which are obscure. They can think,
add, subtract, multiply and divide. They can do everything but they lack one human faculty of
consciousness. Like human brains, computers are based on committing errors. As a matter of fact,
committing errors is the secret of the progress of human beings as well as of computers. Many choices or
options lie before us and we have to choose between the right and the wrong. Then in the course of life we
learn by "trial and error" and not by "trial and rightness." Computers function by the same principle. Some
employee of a company, who feeds the computer commits an error, but afterwards the error is rectified.
This is a constant process.
Anyhow, there is some difference between human reasoning and that of computers. Computers cannot
think, dream, decide and act freely as they are always fed by human beings. They don't have consciousness.
Hence they can't act on their own. Human beings or human brain, on the other hand, can act, dream, decide
and think freely. 215
Q. 2. Discuss the importance of making mistakes? Or We learn from errors and trials.2002 Or
What is the thesis/main idea of the essay? Or what are the advantages of being fallible? How human
progress is linked with it? Or What is gained in the exposition by the comparison with computers?
Or Do you think that progress of mankind is linked with the committing of mistakes? Or what is the
thesis of the Essay? Or What consequences of the human kind of reasoning does Thomas explore?
All the progress made by man down the ages is because of fallibility or the faculty of making mistakes.
Animals have not made any progress in the world because they have neither consciousness nor make
mistakes. Human beings progress depends on the process of "trial and error" not on "trial and Tightness".
By following this process we can distinguish the right from the wrong. Sometimes there are ten or twenty
different choices, but only one is wrong. We can call this process "exploration". It depends on fallibility.
Had there been only one centre in human brain, mankind would never have made such tremendous
Computers also commit errors like human beings rather because of human beings; because they are fed or
operated by human beings. Often wrong bills or data are issued. "Somebody makes a mistake somewhere",
then this mistake is rectified. Unlimited wrong options are must for progress both for human beings and
computers. After every mistake we try to reform ourselves. This is the secret of progress, hence success.
That is why the writer says, "What is needed, for progress to be made, is the move based on error." Hence
Fallibility is the key to progress. 210
Q.3. Does Thomas explicitly say that non-human beings or things cannot possess the human faculty
of reasoning?
The other creatures or non-human beings do not possess DNA sequences which are necessary for making
mistakes. They don't have consciousness and reasoning. They can't think, act, behave, quarrel and think like
human beings. They, therefore, don't have the freedom of choice between right and wrong. For instance,
cats and fish never make mistakes, but dogs occasionally do so by mimicking their masters. Like human
beings, animals can't make an open and free choice. Human beings had a wide choice. Most often we have
ten or even more choices out of which only one is wrong. This is the key to our progress in life.
There is a difference between mechanism of human brain and that of other creatures. Non-human creatures
have only one centre or mechanism; whereas human beings have a complex brain which has a large number
of cells. This complex mechanism and fallibility distinguish human beings from other animals or non-
human creatures. 155

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Q.1. Define gossip and trace its origin. Or How is gossip faintly immoral?
Gossip means idle talk about neighbours, friends or relatives. People gossip just to pass time. It is often
baseless. In most of the cases it is concerned with the private affairs of others. The basic purpose of gossip is
to pass or kill time or just to amuse oneself or others. But some people gossip to criticise, degrade or
scandalise others. In that sense gossip is faintly immoral. Gossip should never touch the private or moral life
of a person. It should be used to know, but not to harm others.
Gossip has always been a source of pleasure and information. In pre-historic days cavemen gossiped to
know about their neighbours. Through gossip we can know about the customs, habits, lives and cultures of
our relatives, friends and other people. We can understand others through gossip. Those, who gossip to harm
others or expose their weaknesses, misuse gossip. They don't know the real purpose of gossiping. In ancient
days there was no other means of entertainment for the people except gossip. They mainly resorted to gossip
and storytelling. Modern fiction can be traced to ancient gossip and storytelling. 191
Q 2. How is gossip different from "rumour_mongering" and "slander"? (P.U.95)
Rumour mongering means to invent rumours about others. Rumour spreads rapidly from person to person
and it is not real. During war or any other crisis people concoct rumours which spread fast and cause
harassment among people.
Slander means false statement about a person. Its only purpose is to damage the reputation of a person.
Religious, political and business rivals often resort to slander.
Gossip means idle talk about neighbours, friends or relatives. People gossip just to pass time. It is often
baseless. In most of the cases it is concerned with the private affairs of others.
Gossip is positive and constructive, whereas slander and rumour_mongering are negative.
By gossiping about others we want to develop some connection or link with them or we want to know about
their community, its customs and traditions. Our main purpose is to understand others.
By spreading rumours people want to harm a government, a country or a society. Often rumours cause
harassment among the masses. It may topple a government.
By spreading slander i.e. a false statement we want to damage the reputation of others for having some
malice. Thus slander and rumour_mongering are negative and destructive whereas gossip is positive,
constructive and harmless 201
Q. 3. "Everyone wants to gossip, hardly anyone wants to be gossiped about." Illustrate.
It is a common habit of the people that they feel pleasure in gossiping about others in knowing the secrets,
affairs and scandals of others but they don't tolerate that others should gossip about them. They don't want
that their own weaknesses should be exposed. That is why gossip about others often leads to quarrels among
friends, relatives and neighbours. People are often very curious about the secrets of their relatives, friends
and neighbours. Relatives and neighbours try to keep an eye on the happenings in the houses of their
relatives and neighbours and then gossip about them. Sometimes the gossip affects the relation between
relatives and neighbours. If gossip goes to this extent it turns to be immoral. The writer wants to point out
that people should keep in view the basic motive behind the gossip that is pleasure and enjoyment. There
should be no ill will behind it. If we feel pleasure in gossiping about others, we should not mind gossip
about ourselves. 165
Q. 4. Differentiate between "gossip" and "information". (P.U.95)
The writer makes a clear difference between gossip and information by citing an example. "John got a new
job" is an information but "Hey, did you hear John got fired" is gossip. The first sentence gives us some
information about John, but the second one is purely meant to harm or scandalise him. The second sentence,
in this sense, is negative and immoral. Information is, therefore, positive and useful; whereas gossip, though
harmless, is sometimes used for negative purposes.
Q. 5. Why does Prose make the point that gossip has the qualities of good fiction?
Gossip has the qualities of good fiction, because like that of fiction, the main purpose of gossip is to derive
pleasure. It is the oldest form of fiction. The cavemen gossiped about their neighbours and animals,
especially bisons. People generally gossip to derive pleasure or pass time. They read fiction with the same
motive. Gossip is mainly concerned with the exaggerated incidents from the lives of friends, relatives and
heroes. In fiction too we find real characters who behave and act as we do. As through fiction, we can learn
through gossip about people, their lives and their origin.
Thus fiction is the developed form of gossip. Through gossip the people learnt the art of storytelling. But
gossip must be clear and authentic like fiction. The writer says that in spite of some objections gossip has
the essential elements of good fiction. It is tool of communication and understanding. 150

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(17) Science and Values

Q. 1. "There are certain things that our age needs, and certain things that it should avoid". Discuss
in the light of Russell's essay "Science and Values." 2002,2004, 2010 Sup Or Enumerate the good
things science can increase and the bad things it can decrease. (P.U.95)
Russell explains how science can promote values, remove different social evils and bring peace and
prosperity in the world. He being a pacifist desired peace and prosperity in the world. He says, "There are
certain things that our age needs and certain things that it should avoid." Our age needs all the good things
and should avoid all the bad things.
Our age needs compassion, a wish for happiness, desire for knowledge, hope, democracy, peace, prosperity,
birth control, the equal distribution of wealth and impulse for creativeness.
Science can increase good things. It has spread education on a large scale. Increase in education has
provided opportunities for young men to rise to high positions. It has led to happiness and prosperity in the
world. The results of the use of science and spread of education are seen in Britain and America. Science has
done miracles in medicine. Death rate has been reduced with the discovery of vaccination and anesthetics.
Science has also reduced crime rate by street lighting, telephone, finger printing and the psychology of
Science has also helped us get rid of bad things. Fanatical creeds encourage hatred, tussle and impede free
inquiry. Dread of the hydrogen bomb can lead to its use. People sick of their problems, wish for death. It can
be removed by hope, love, courage and optimism. To bring peace and prosperity in the world, war,
nationalist propaganda, evil passions, lust for power, hatred, intolerance and mutual distrust between East
and West must be eliminated. 251
Q. 2. How far has science succeeded in controlling evil passions in human nature? Or what
according to Russell are things which are an enemy to human happiness and human progress? Or
The chief causes of violence are love for power, competition hate and fear. 2003 How does Russell
condemn fanatical creeds? (P.U.95) Or How does Russell prove that all the financial creeds are
harmful to mankind? 2001 Or The desire of fanatical creeds is one of the greatest evils of our time.
According to Russell there are many evil passions which are an enemy to human happiness and human
progress. Some of them are fanaticism, hatred, fear, despair, suspicion, intolerance and lust for power. The
fear of war has been looming over the world since the end of the Second World War. This fear leads to death
wish among people.
Fanatical creed is the most harmful evil of our time. A fanatical creed means a belief based on extreme
enthusiasm. The world is full of fanatical creeds and they are very harmful to mankind. They often arise
from fear and despair. In history the holders of one fanatical creed have often persecuted the holders of other
creeds for the fear of losing power.. Political parties and governments adhere to their fanatical creed and use
force against their opponents. Fanatical creeds lead to hatred among the people. People having fanatical
creeds develop some suspicions about others and can no longer rely upon others. They can't tolerate
difference of opinion in politics and religion. This intolerance leads to disputes and quarrels among people
and nations. Suspicion and intolerance is turned into hatred which results in wars. Lust for power is the
source of great trouble in the world. Hope, courage, love and optimism can rid the people of fanatical
However, science has, to some extent, controlled or suppressed these evil passions due to spread of
education and democracy. Education has helped people suppress fear, suspicion and superstitions.
Democracy has trained them to tolerate their religious and political opponents. Democracy has also taught
people to share power with others. Therefore, they don't have intense lust for power.
Q. 3. How far has science succeeded in the banishing poverty from the world?
Science has succeeded in eliminating poverty from European countries, especially America and Britain; but
the process is slow in Eastern countries. Poverty can be minimised by raising people's standard of living.
Science has raised people's standard of living by spreading general education, by increasing production
through industry, by curing dangerous diseases, by improving sanitary conditions and by quick
transportation methods. Education gives opportunities to young people to use their talent to acquire big
posts. It leads them to improve their standard of living. Education opens more chances for employment.
Different inventions and discoveries have increased agricultural and industrial production. Science has
controlled death rate. Now every family has more earning hands that can improve the lot of the family and
thus reduce poverty. Now people are more prosperous than their forefathers. They enjoy more comforts of
life than ever before. Science can eliminate poverty totally if it succeeds in ending war from the world. But

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ending the war from the world seems to be a remote possibility. 167
Q.4. Discuss Russell's views about a single world authority or government.
Bertrand Russell visualised a single world authority or government which could abolish war from the world
and solve all the disputes. He proposed that it should control all the military power of the world, maintain an
international army and regulate competition in the world. By abolishing war it can remove fear and hatred
from the world, leading to peace and prosperity.
Russell's dream of a single world could not come true during his lifetime. After the disintegration of USSR,
America has appeared to be the single superpower in the world. She dictates her policies all over the world
through UN, which has become almost a puppet in her hands. She can impose economic sanctions against
any country of the world which goes against her policies. Any country can be declared a terrorist state. She
declared Lybia and Iran terrorist states. She declared a war against Iraq and imposed economic sanctions
against her. After the disintegration of USSR and the end of cold war she has waged an undeclared war
against the Muslim states.
Russell's dream of a single world authority has come true in the form of America. She neither has
established an international army nor abolished war. Her policies, especially New World Order are
escalating war, rather than abolishing it. As long as she imposes her own policies she can't solve world
Q.5. Evolution from agriculture to industry was positive and progressive.
Pleasant illusions can do a lot of harm sometimes. Something looks good but actually it is not good. So is
the case of science. Science can diminish poverty and excessive hours of labour. Before the development of
agriculture, man needed only two or more square meals to keep alive. Then agriculture got technical
advancement along with more and better production. But it introduced slavery and serfdom, human
sacrifice, absolute monarchy and large wars. It also increased population. Man was used by landowners as
their slave for the promotion of agriculture. Then industry came. Evolution from agriculture to industry
was positive and progressive. With the growth of industry, democracy developed. It brought a revolution in
the lives of people. They got jobs and their living standard improved. Only agriculture could not change the
lives of the people. Fortunately, industry and democracy grow together. Standard of life depends mainly on
democracy, trade unionism and birth control but these things have always been exploited by the rich. If
these three things are extended to the rest of the world, poverty and extended hours of labour can be
diminished. Russell says agriculture and progress in industry have solved the problems of man but they
failed to end the human misery and unhappiness. 225
(18) Super

Q. 2. Trace the origin of the word "Super". Or Since we now live in a world of super-things we
might expect them to be made by a race of Supermen. Discuss.
The prefix "super" is used before something to signify its superior quality. It was first of all used before
the word "man" by Nietzche, a German philosopher. Then the English playwright George Bernard Shaw
used the word "Superman" as the title of his play "Man and Superman". After that this word came to be used
widely. Now it has almost become a fashion or a craze to use this word before each and every product. We
are living today in an age of super things. Now we are living today in an age of super things. We have super-
soaps, super-toothpastes, super-music, super-cloth; but we don't have supermen, super-tailors, super-
mechanics and super-poets etc. For the last some years the prefix super has been in such a wide use that it
has lost its utility. To enhance the importance of everything we want to use the word before it; even if it may
be of sub-standard. We might expect that these super products have been made by a race of supermen; but
this is not the case. No tailor wants to be called super-tailor for making super-trousers. No doctor calls
himself a super-doctor for conducting a successful operation. These things are made by ordinary men not by
supermen. They may have special skill in doing or making something but they can't be called supermen.
The word "super" is, therefore, being used just to impress upon the people the superior quality of something.
As paper-money is losing its value day by day, super things are also losing their importance. People are no
longer impressed by super-cigarettes, super-chocolates because they are not superior to ordinary ones. These
things are not, in fact, superior in quality. They are as good or as bad as common products.
The race of supermen in history was more proud of their personal qualities than their things. 202
Q. 2. Can you point out some examples to illustrate how frequently the prefix "Super" is being
used in our own country?
Publicity and advertisements are the order of the day. Our country can't lag behind in this rat race. Everyday
new techniques and new methods of ads are being invented by industrialists. Millions of rupees are being
lavishly spent on ads. There are ads on radio, TV, video cassettes, cinema screen and neon-signs.

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The prefix "Super" is being widely used nowadays to show the superior quality of some product. It is rather
used to increase its sale because it is not of that super quality as it is propagated. On our radio and TV a
number of commercials are daily broadcast and telecast. Our newspapers and magazines are full of ads of
different products. A drama of one-hour duration has almost twenty-minute-duration ad in it. We have
super-toothpastes, super-soaps, super-cigarettes, super-garments, super-tonics, super-tea and super-music,
The word "Super" is actually used to befool the customers or consumers because often a super-soap or a
super-toothpaste is of inferior quality. It is a sugar-coated pill of poison given to the consumers to entice
them to buy the latest models of certain things and to discard the old things. Its widespread use has outlived
its utility. 193
(19) From some police men and a moral

Q.1. What were the police charges against G.K. Chesterton? Why was he acquitted? Or "Policemen
in Chesterton's essay behave exactly like our own policemen." Elucidate.
The writer, in this short essay, presents a true picture of the behaviour of the policemen with the people.
Their behaviour and treatment with people is not uniform. It varies from person to person. If the detained
person is well-connected and resourceful he is immediately acquitted otherwise he is ill-treated.
The writer narrates an incident of his life when he was held by two policemen for interrogation and then
The writer says once he was on a holiday in Yorkshire (England). He was practising knife-throwing by
which the people killed each other in the past. He was throwing knife at a tree. Suddenly he was detained
by two policemen who accused him of damaging the tree. They put him very odd questions, unconnected
with the charge levelled against him. They asked his name, his address, his occupation his religion and his
views on war. The writer told them that he worked as a journalist in the "Daily News". He added that he
lived in Yorkshire and that he was acquainted with the high-ups of the area. The head constable was highly
impressed by the writer and acquitted him with respect.
The writer was convinced that the police were impressed by rich people only. Had he been a common poor
man they would have not acquitted him.
Policemen in our own country also behave like this. They often detain innocent persons and then prolong
the investigation. If the detained is a well-to-do person or has contacts with the high-ups he is readily
acquitted, otherwise he is tortured. If the accused greases their palm no harm comes to him. The high-ups
can get any criminal released from lock-up but the poor with no contacts have to suffer. Thus the police in
Yorkshire, as narrated in the essay and that in our country behave in the same way.208
Q2 What strange ideas arise in Chesterton's mind on his acquittal?
The essay is a criticism on the behaviour of the policemen and their methods of investigation. The writer
narrates an incident of his life when he was held by two policemen for interrogation. Though the writer was
acquitted, yet he was greatly disturbed. Strange questions occurred in his mind. He asked the tree why they
acquitted him if he was damaging it? He wondered if the tree was a fairy whom they wanted to protect. Why
did they disturb his freedom? Why they detained him for half an hour and put odd, irrelevant questions? He
was surprised over the fact that they had acquitted him only because he had links with the high-ups of
Yorkshire; otherwise they would have never set him free. He concluded that in that sense a journalist or a
well-connected person, like him, could commit any crime. He imagined the suffering, at the hands of police,
of a poor labourer who had committed the crime of damaging a tree. He would never have been released so
easily. 171
(20) The Vitamins

Q.1 How do various vitamins keep body fit? 2007, 2004 Write an essay on the vitamins. What is the
importance of vitamin? Or
In the essay “The Vitamins”, Dr. Kenneth Walker has beautifully described the role of various vitamins for
human body.
Vitamins are certain chemical elements necessary for health and growth of human body. They are essential
ingredients of our food. Their deficiency or absence in human body causes different diseases and affects the
growth of limbs and joints of the body. For example sailors on the ships of East India Company were
attacked by scurvy. They were asked to use lemons and oranges. Beri beri, a disease that paralyses legs
attacks those living in places with hard conditions as prisons or labour camps. During 1880 it attacked
troops of the Japanese navy. Vegetables, fish, meat and barley were prescribed to them.
Deficiency and excess of vitamins also affect human health. Each vitamin has specific jobs. Vitamins A
plays a really big part in body growth, immune system and eye-sight. Vitamin D is necessary for strong

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bones. Vitamin E is essential for reproductive system. B vitamins help human body to synthesize proteins
and energy. Vitamin C helps to heal cuts and wounds. Its deficiency causes scurvy.
In short, for the fitness of human body, an adequate quantity of vitamin is inevitable. If the vitamins are
missing from human diet, the supply of mere carbohydrates, proteins, fats and minerals fail to keep us in
proper state of health. The writer also proscribes us to take vitamins in the form of tablets. We must get
them from fresh vegetables, fruits, cereals and meat to keep our body robust.
Q.2. What are the water soluble and fat soluble vitamin? Write note on them.
Vitamins are named after alphabets on the basis of their solubility in fats or in water. Vitamins that
dissolve in fat are called fat soluble vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins are A, D and E.
Vitamins A plays a really big part in body growth, immune system and eye-sight. Vitamin A can be found
in cod liver oil, butter and green vegetables. Its deficiency affects growth of young animals and weakens
physical resistance and eye-sight. The dearth of vitamin A may lead to a curious condition of the eye called
xerophthalmia. Vitamin D can be had from cod liver oil, animal fats, sunlight and irradiated vegetable oil.
Its deficiency affects growth and formation of bones and causes rickets Food can be made more effective
with ultra-violet light of the sun. Irradiated cod liver oil is also more effective than ordinary one. Vitamin D
is necessary for strong bones. Vitamin E is an anti-sterility vitamin. It is available in leaves, seeds and
common food. Its absence affects reproductive system. This is why childless couples are given doses of
wheat-germ oil.
Vitamins that dissolve in water called water soluble vitamins. Water soluble vitamins are B and C.
B vitamins help human body to synthesize proteins and energy. Vitamin B is found in grain and yeast. Its
deficiency causes beri-beri and pellagra. Vitamin C helps to heal cuts and wounds. We can get vitamin C
from fresh vegetables, peas, beans. It is also found in fruits especially in lemons and oranges. Its deficiency
causes scurvy.
Hence we can say presence of all vitamins in suitable quantity is mandatory the growth and development of
human body.

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The Old Man

The Sea
(20 marks)

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Q1: Nothing is easy says the old man in the novel. This is what Hemingway wants us to learn that
every man has his challenges in life to meet. Discuss in terms of The Old Man and The Sea. Or
What do you know about the gallantry and heroism of Santiago? Elaborate. Or How was the biggest
fish the biggest challenge for the old man? Or The old man was deadly tired, but still he did not give
up. Explain how he had to bear pain? Or It is said that fishing is trouble creating and trouble facing
profession. Elaborate Or Nothing is Easy in Life The Biggest Fish The Biggest Challenge Or Fish I
love you and respect you very much but I will kill you dead before the day ends." 2002 Or Describe
old man’s struggle with marline. 2003-II Or Give Hemingway’s description of catching the big fish
marline. 2005-Supp-I Or The old man’s fight with the marline to the very end without being
despaired. Comment 2008-II Or How Far do skill and resolution of the old man count in his struggle
with the big fish? 2019-I Or He said Fish," I will stay with you until I am dead." 2009-II OrThe fish is
Santiago’s friend or foe at the same time. Comment. Or The old man's honor depended on the success of
fight with the fish. Discuss. 2005
Ans: The biggest fish was the biggest challenge for the old man. He prepared himself for the struggle.
The skiff moved slowly off towards the North West. Santiago being an experienced fisherman did not pull
the line. The skiff was sailing smoothly with the marlin. At sunset, he said, "I wish I could see him to know
what I have against me."
At midnight, he thought, "We are joined together and have been since noon and no one to help either of
us." Marlin rose to full length and reentered the water. Marlin was huge in size and was two feet longer than
his skiff. He was not afraid. He said Fish," I will stay with you until I am dead."
It was towing the boat continuously all the night. He addressed Marline by saying, "Fish I love you and
respect you very much but I will kill you dead before the day ends."
The sun was rising and the marlin was not tired. The marlin when gave a sudden movement forward, he
realized that he must be on the alert all the time. He was feeling a cramp on his left hand. He was badly
tired. His back was sore. He had nothing to eat except raw fish. Besides that, he was not ready to give in. He
prayed for the death of the marlin and was determined to kill it, no matter how big it was. The old man
said, "I will show him what man can do and what a man endures." On the morning of the third day, the
fish rose again and began to circle the boat. Each circle brought him closer and closer to the skiff. The old
man attempted to kill him but in vain. On the ninth circle he collected his strength and derived his harpoon
into his brain. Marlin fell dead. 309
Q:2 The encounter with the sharks shows the determination and courage of the old man. OrWrite a
note on Santiago's struggle against the sharks to save the Marlin. (G-ll, 1995) Or Describe the Old Man's fight
with the sharks. Was he successful in his mission? 2002-II Or Describe old man’s struggle against
sharks. 2004-II, 2003. Or Killing sharks ultimately would mean defeating death. Discuss 2004-II Or
Describe Santiago's victory over the sharks. (P.U.2003) Or Sharks do take away Santiago’s fish but
they cannot break his will. Elaborate. S 2006-I Or Describe Santiago's adventure with the sharks.
Was he able to save anything of the Marlin he caught? (P.U.2001 Supp) Or Which is the greater
challenge for the old man? Struggle with fish or fight with sharks. PU 2007 Or Fight against the
sharks is the real test of old man’s mettle. PU 2008 G-II Or Of all the challenges faced by the old
man, fight against sharks is the greatest. Discuss 2008-I Or Write a note on the heroic spirit of the old
man. 2009-I, the old man is a great fighter2007-II
The encounter with sharks shows the determination and courage of the old man. To kill Marline was not so
much difficult for the old man as to save it from the attacks of sharks and to kill them. Of all the challenges
faced by the old man, fight against sharks is the greatest and proves to be a real test of the old man's mettle.
Sharks do take away Santiago’s fish but they cannot break his will.
On the eighty fifth day, Santiago went into deep waters and hooked a big fish namely Marline after a great
struggle. He secured it alongside the boat and set sail for home. The blood of the big fish invited the sharks to
attack. The Old Man hit the brain of the shark with his harpoon. It took about forty pound of the meat of the
big fish, the harpoon and all the rope. The old man thought the marlin's blood would attract more sharks. He
said, but man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated.
After two hours’ sailing, two more sharks came. The old man tied his knife with the oar and drove it into the
spinal chord of one of the sharks. They sank into the sea with a quarter of the marlin's best meat. Soon after
came the fourth shark. The Old man thrust the knife in to his hide. It took one fourth of the best meat of his big
fish with knife before he died. The old man not accepting his defeat cried, "I will try it as long as I have the
oars and the short club and the tiller".
Just before sunset, the fifth and the sixth sharks came. He clubbed them into death. But he knew that a full half
of the marlin had been eaten away. He said to himself, "I will fight them until I die'. At mid-night, the sharks

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came in a pack. He clubbed them to death. One caught his club and was gone. He then took the tiller and hit
on the sharks. The tiller broke and was gone. He then attacks another shark with the broken tiller. The fight
with sharks comes to an end but nothing was left of big Marline except skeleton. 250/304
Q:3 The fish is a living character with intention and contention. Discuss 2005. Or Describe
Santiago's search for fish. P.U. 2006. Or The fish is a symbol of an ideal life for the old man. Discuss
Santiago is an old Cuban fisherman. He is a professional, seasoned and skilful fisherman. He remains
unsuccessful in catching fish for eighty-four days. Yet, he is optimist and does not lose heart. Santiago, the
old man, says to Manolin that eighty five is the lucky number. He decides to go far out in the sea to try his
luck. He is sure to catch a big fish on that day.
The boy gives him the sardines and two baits. He rows over the part of the sea that the fishermen call it the
great well. Santiago wishes luck, but he, at the same time, believes in the skill and techniques (methods) of
fishing. He is very skillful and knows many techniques. Though he is not equipped with suitable fishing
tools, yet he makes best use of the available tools.
Again he knows where to keep his lines. He says that he keeps the lines precisely and exactly where they
should be. He throws one bait at forty fathoms down, the second at seventy-five, the third at one hundred
and the last at one hundred and fifty fathoms. He watches the dip of the sticks while rowing gently. He
imagines his big fish must be somewhere. Watching his lines he sees one of the projecting sticks dip sharply.
One hundred fathoms down a marlin is eating the sardines. "Eat them fish. Please eat them," he prays to
God. After sometime, the marlin eats the bait. The old man thus finally hooks his 'big fish, namely Marline,
the hero of the sea. To catch a big fish is a great intention which definitely will bring great contention for
Santiago. It is a symbol of an ideal life for the old man. It will provide him a chance to prove his mettle in
order to remove the stigma of being unlucky and to restore his lost self-respect and assert his honor on other
fishermen. So he does not want to spare it at any cost.
Q.4. Santiago is skillful fisher man. Elucidate. Describe Santiago’s being a skillful fisher man.
The old man is a fisher man by trade. His name is Santiago. He is a professional, seasoned and skilful
fisherman, pitted against the indifferent or hostile forces of Nature, that is, the sea and the creatures of the
sea. Santiago wishes luck, but he, at the same time, believes in the skill and techniques (methods) of fishing.
He fishes alone in his small skiff in the Gulf Stream. He is very skillful and knows many techniques.
Though he is not equipped with suitable fishing tools, yet he makes use of the available tools skillfully.
Again he knows where to keep his lines. He says that he keeps the lines exactly where they should be. Other
fisher men keep their lines at certain depths, but they are not so deep as they think. Santiago says that he
keeps them precisely and where they should be. He knows different techniques of baiting for fish,
harpooning and using other necessary tools. He also knows how to make up for the shortage of fishing tools.
He uses his gaff, tiller and club properly. The most remarkable thing about him is his courage and
determination. He does not lose heart even if he is extremely tired. Santiago, an expert fisherman is proud of
his art. He knows how to row in different parts of the sea according to the weather condition. His knowledge
about fish is also very high.
Q:5 Write a character sketch of Santiago. Or What are the main qualities of Santiago's character?
Or Santiago is the central figure of the novel. Do you agree? Discuss Santiago as the hero of the novel.
Santiago is the central figure or hero of the novel. The whole story of the novel revolves around him. He is a
brave old fisherman who fishes alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream near Havana.
The old man Santiago had not attractive physical appearance. He had ordinary features of a hard working
labourer. He was quite thin and lean. He had deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. There were brown spots
on his cheeks due to exposure to the sun. His hands had the deep creased scars from handling heavy fish on
the cords for a long time. But none of these scars was fresh. They were very old. Everything about him was
old except his eyes and they were the same colour as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated. His blue
eyes showed his undefeated spirit of resolution and optimism. Every limb of the Old Man was old except his
eyes. He called himself a strange man.
The old man is weak, yet he has full confidence in his strength. He fights with the huge sharks bravely. He
loses everything. But he is not ready to accept defeat. He is a code hero in the novel because he displays the
qualities of courage, dignity, honour, dedication and endurance. He has bad luck but he still dares to fight.
Santiago is always hopeful and optimist. During his stay at the sea for three days and three nights, all alone
in his boat, he is always hopeful. When the sharks attack the marlin attached to his boat, he says, I will fight
them until I die. He himself says, Man is not made for defeat. He never loses heart. He is a staunch optimist.
His knowledge about fish is also very high. Santiago is a symbol of courage, hope and faith. He also is

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compassionate and humanistic by nature. He loves birds, fish, sea stars, every lifeless object and living
Q:6 Discuss the old man as a strange old man? 2006 Group-11 Or How is he different from other
fishermen? (2002-i, II,) Or Why does the old man not mind the derogatory remarks of the other
fishermen? Or Compare and contrast the old man with other fishermen. 2007II
Santiago is a strange old man. He is different from other fishermen. The thing which makes him strange and
different from others is his undaunting spirit of fighting against everything which comes on his way. When
he remains unable to catch a big fish the fishermen and the villagers give him derogatory remarks and make
fun of him by calling him 'Saloa'. He does not mind their remarks because he is a man of tolerance, patience,
determination, resolution and courage even in his old age.
The attitude of the other fisher men towards the old man is also very inhuman and discouraging. No one is
ready to accompany the old man except the boy. When old man reaches his shake with the skeleton of the
big fish there is none except the boy to express the feelings of encouragement and sympathy. Both Santiago
and the boy are viewed by the village men as not really men. The old man because he is too old to catch a
fish and the boy because of his young age.
To the other fisher men, success means to earn money but this is not the case with the old man. To Santiago,
fishing is not only the way of making money. He says "it is a way of life. So he is an idealist while other
fishermen believe in materialism. Other old men of the village are without zeal and zest. But this is not the
case with Santiago. He does not believe to give in even in the heavy odds of life. 279
Q. 7. Describe the old man’s poverty and lack of resources Or The old man’s life on land
The old man is a born fisherman and is as at home in the sea as any fish. He has spent all his life in
voyaging and fishing. However, this amphibian lives on land as well. Normally he comes back in the
evening, carries his gear to his shack, sometime all by himself, but mostly assisted by the boy. The old man
has not regular source of income. He is dependent on fishing but he has been without fish for the last eighty
four days. He gets satisfied over a cup of coffee. "His life is full of sorrows and sufferings yet he is
contented to his life. He lives in an ordinary cottage. He is a poor man. His life is very simple with limited
resources. His shack made of "the tough bud-shields of the royal palm" is simply furnished. Besides, a table,
and a chair, it has a spring bed covered not with a mattress or foam but with old newspapers. There are a
couple of pictures on Biblical themes as well as photograph of his wife", which remains covered in one
corner "under his clean shirt" lest he should feel lonely. He has a fire place on the dirt floor to cook with
There is nothing in his house to be cooked. He tries to put off the boy by pretending that he has "a pot of
yellow rice," for his supper, but the boy knows too well that the premised "yellow rice and fish" is a dream.
In fact they go through "this fiction everyday". Such a humble and ordinary person could not have anything
remarkable in his person. 274
Q.8. How is Santiago a Christ like figure?
Santiago is represented as a Christ like figure. Like Christ Santiago undergoes pain and suffering. For
instance, he feels as if the nails had been driven through his lacerated hands. He suffers a kind of
crucifixion. Santiago fights and kills many sharks with his harpoon, knife and club but tows only a skeleton
of the marlin. He is completely exhausted to his bones, goes to his shack, falls asleep and dreams of other
days to resume his unending fights. The action of Santiago depicts his unrivalled courage to fight till his
Like Christ, Santiago shows the qualities of humility and compassion. The writer has used Christian
symbols throughout the story. Santiago is an embodiment of Christian virtues, like piety, humility and
charity. He belongs to the category of good man. He says his prayers or thinks of prayers in his own way. He
loves and respects the marlin. His attitude towards various creatures of the sea is marked with kindness.
Santiago's hands have been wounded, and as he lies sleeping face down with his arms out-straight and the
palm of his hands up his figure is saintly and Christ-like. This pose and posture reminds us of the
crucifixion. This means that the world crucifies everybody who struggles. 209
Q. 9. How is Santiago a Tragic Hero? Or How is The Novel as a Tragedy? Or Justify the End of The
A tragedy is a tale of a great man who suffers much pain and distress. The hero, in tragic story, is defeated
by circumstances, but he does not accept his defeat and goes on struggling. In this way he wins moral
victory over physical defeat. The Old Man and the Sea is a tragic story of an old fisherman who fights
desperately against the forces of nature i.e. the sea, the marlin, the sharks etc. It ends on a note of pathos.
The old man goes far out in the sea to catch a big fish. He succeeds in hooking a huge fish named marlin.
He succeeds in killing that fish after a tiresome struggle of forty eight hours. He lashes it with his skiff and

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sets sail for home. After sometime, the dead marlin is attacked by the sharks. He fights with them hard. He
is feeling a cramp on his left hand. He is badly tired. His back is sore. He has nothing to eat except raw fish.
His fight with sharks is a tragic incident. They eat away all the meat of the marlin and he is left with nothing
but only a skeleton. The old man suffers a lot during the course of his adventure. His sorrows and sufferings
are endless, which makes him a tragic and pitiable hero and wins our sympathies at the end of the novel. We
pity his lot but admire his heroic spirit as well. Some critics and readers have objected to this tragic end of
the novel. However, to me, this novel is surely a tragedy and its end is convincing and appealing. No other
end can fulfill the purpose of the novel. 248
Q.10. How is Santiago a Code Hero?
Hemingway's code heroes face the pressure, violence and corruption with courage and endurance. They are
men of action rather than men of theory. In the novel The Old Man and The Sea, Santiago is a perfect code
hero of Hemingway because he displays the qualities of courage, dignity, honour, dedication and endurance
during struggle with fish and sharks. When he goes too far out for a really big fish, he faces possible death. He
is very old, has little food, little strength, and can no longer recognize the star patterns which once guided him.
The marlin is strong, determined and weighs over one thousand and five hundred pounds. He does not become
panic when he has no food. He renews his strength by eating the raw tuna. Nor does he is panic when his hand
cramps, he curses it and uses it as best he can. Santiago stands for the moral code of life. For him
disappointment is a great sin. He is an embodiment of endurance. He proves that a man can be destroyed but
not be defeated. He shows that what a man can do and what a man can endure. He is alone; no one is there to
help him. He has only his courage and determination for company. He fights with dignity against great odds.
Though he loses the marlin, he survives and wins a moral victory for himself by daring the sea and the great
fish. 241
Q: 11 Santiago is a skilful and humble man pitted against an indifferent universe. Discuss and explain.
(P.U.1995/A,Group-l) Or An indifferent universe is represented here by the sea/ocean and the creatures
therein. 2010 Or Santiago (the Old Man) is a professional, seasoned and skilful fisherman, pitted
against the indifferent or hostile forces of Nature, that is. the sea/ocean and the creatures of the sea.
Discuss and explain. Or The Old Man And the Sea is the story of an old fisherman (Santiago). fighting
desperately against Nature or the forces of Nature. Who does win the long run, the Old Man or the
forces of Nature? Explain. ' Or Hemingway's mysticism is that he feels one with the fish as part of
the grand scheme of nature. Discuss. 2005
The Old Man and the Sea is the story of an old fisherman who fights desperately against the forces of nature.
The novel shows that man's life is a struggle against powerful forces of nature and in this struggle man is
always defeated. In this novel nature wins physically and Santiago wins morally. He must not accept defeat.
He must be determined and confident during his fight against life. This is what Hemingway wants to teach
Hemingway feels the fish as a part of the grand scheme of nature. He seems to be pessimistic in this way that
nature does not like to bestow her gifts on man freely and generously. Man has to use his intelligence, courage
and skill to fight against the forces of nature. Santiago is a professional, seasoned and skilful fisherman, pitted
against the indifferent or hostile forces of Nature, that is, the sea and the creatures of the sea. Santiago wishes
luck, but he, at the same time, believes in the skill and techniques (methods) of fishing.
After his victory over the marlin, he fights with the more dangerous sharks, very courageously and boldly.
Being extremely exhausted owing to his prolonged struggle with the marlin, he fails to defeat the sharks. He
loses the marlin. He is beaten and destroyed in the cruel hands of nature, but he is not prepared to accept his
defeat by the sharks, who are one of the indifferent and violent forces of Nature or universe. The old man is
defeated physically by fierce natural forces but he wins morally. The old man loses the battle but with
dignity, which is also known as moral victory.
However, he laments to go out far in the sea. He says; "I am sorry that I went to far out, I ruined as both."
He believes that man is helpless before nature. He says, "Forces of nature conspire to destroy the peace and
happiness of man'. 242
Q.12.What are the various themes/lessons of the Novel?
There are various themes of the novel. Three of them have been explained here briefly. Firstly, The Old Man
and the Sea shows that man's life is a struggle against powerful forces of nature and in this struggle man is
always defeated. A man may be defeated, but he must not accept defeat. He must be determined and
confident during his fight against life. Santiago proves the theme of the novel that what a man can do and
what a man can endure. Santiago fights bravely against marlin and sharks. The old man loses the battle but
with dignity, which is also known as moral victory.
The second theme is that a lonely man surrounded by dangers and problems desires to have company and

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likes to say prayer. In old age this need is the greater. Santiago is sad in his loneliness. When Santiago feels
tired during his struggle against marlin he says, I wish the boy was here. No one should be alone in his old
age. Santiago enjoys the company of birds, fish, sea and stars. His dreams and memories also serve him as
companions in loneliness.
The third theme is that struggle and effort are more important than success or achievement. After his victory
over the marlin, he fights with the more dangerous sharks, very courageously and boldly and proves that a
man can be destroyed but not defeated. The Old man also says, I will show him what a man can do and what
a man endures. Life is a struggle against the hostile forces of nature and life. If we cannot finish or defeat
these difficulties or hostile forces, we should go fighting against them. As old man says, I will fight them
until I die. (273)
Q:13 What is the symbolic significance of Santiago Manoline relationship Or Describe Santiago
Manoline relationship as parable of youth and old age. Or I wish I had the boy. Explain or Write down the
character and role of Manoline in the old Man and the Sea. 2000 Or Give significance of Manoline?
2002 Or How would you describe Santiago's relationship with the boy? 2004-II, 2005-I Or Explain the
relationship of Santiago Manoline. 2005 Or How does Manoline express his love for the old man? 2008-II
Manolin is the boy who has been with Santiago since he was only five years old. He is very much devoted to
Santiago. He serves and respects him like a son. They are joined by friendship, love and faith. Santiago cannot
catch even a single fish for eighty four days. In the first forty days Manolin remains with him but after that he
leaves the old man at the orders of his parents. He tells the old man, it is papa made me leave. I am a boy and I
must obey him. Manolin continues to serve the old man in some other way. He helps Santiago in his fishing
preparations, brings him small fish for catching bigger fish, carries the fishing gear and other things to his skiff,
and brings him coffee and beer from the restaurant. He says, "I can learn and you can teach me
The boy also keeps him alive as he is the symbol of Santiago's youthful strength. During fight, he often
says, "I wish I had the boy". He is keenly concerned about the old man and cares for his comfort and rest.
He is Santiago's only companion and friend in the old age. He is greatly worried at his weakness and
fatigue. On seeing his wounded hands he begins to cry, brings food and coffee for him. He declares, “Now
we fish together again.” He also tells the other fishermen that he is sleeping and they should not disturb
him. So, Manolin is shown as obedient, respectful and sincerely devoted apprentice of the old man. 261
Q. 14. Describe the Loneliness or isolation of the Old Man Or describe Soliloquy/ Monologue of the
old man.
The Old Man and the Sea deals with the loneliness and soliloquy of Santiago. When the voyage begins, we
are told that the old man knew he was going far out and that he left the smell of the land behind. On the sea
there was loneliness. He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff. In order to deal with his loneliness at
the sea, he uses various strategies. One of the techniques is 'Soliloquy' which means speaking out one's
thoughts to oneself aloud when no one else is about. On the sea he talks to himself aloud on many occasions
and in various contexts. This is the only way for him to fight the complete silence around him. He wants to
get confidence that he is not alone. All his strength and determination comes from inside. The thoughts of
the boy and the dreams of American lions sustain his strength and courage. He breaks his loneliness in the
following manners.
He lives in the company of sea birds and other living and non-living creatures. He loves them and talks to
them whenever he feels lonely.
Santiago says, No man was ever alone on the sea. He talks with the baited marlin and other sorts of friends.
He kills his loneliness by remembering the boy. He also remembers his memories of the past and the
baseball game.
Through dreams about the loins on the beach of Africa, he gets energy and strength.
We may say that the old man does not allow his loneliness to hamper his path. Sea with its loneliness has
taught him to fight against adverse circumstances.
15. Santiago’s Optimism Or Pillars of Success Or Philosophy of Life
Hemingway tells his philosophy of life through Santiago. His philosophy of life is that struggle and effort
are more important than success or achievement. Santiago proves it. After his victory over the marlin, he
fights with the more dangerous sharks, very courageously and boldly and proves that a man can be
destroyed but not defeated. The Old man also says, I will show him what a man can do and what a man
endures. Life is a struggle against the hostile forces of nature and life. The old man in spite of his courage
and determination comes to nothing. The message or theme of the novel is optimistic. Hemingway stresses
upon the positive values of life. He impresses upon us the greatness of man. Santiago has firm faith in the

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dignity of man. He does not lose heart even in a difficult and odd situation of life. Santiago's victory is
moral victory. Santiago's message is the message of hope and courage. Confidence and hope are the two
pillars of his success. Santiago says that every day to him is new. The old man sustains his hope and
optimism till the end of the novel when he is ready to go on another expedition in spite of his failure. We get
the idea, from the novel, that man is an embodiment of endurance. He has the ability to ignore physical pain
when he is fighting for a great object. Man should not lose heart at any stage of life. He remains hopeful of
better future in spite of his defeat.
Q:16 Is Ocean (Sea) in the novel, The Old Man And the Sea, a living being? Justify or otherwise.
(P.U.96/SG - 1) Or Discuss the Ocean (Sea) as a living character In the novel, The Old Man And the
Sea. (P.U.2001/2008 Or Explain the role of Nature in the novel. The Old Man And the Sea P.U.1997/S.
Or Describe the symbolic significance of the Ocean in the novel, The Old Man And The Sea. Or The
sea/ocean is a living being. Elaborate. P.U.2004/A.G-l

The sea has a great symbolic importance in the novel. The whole novel revolves around the sea and the
fishermen. There is nothing other than these two things. The sea is the symbol of life. It is as vast and deep
as life. Like life, it is full of joys and sorrows. It attracts a man and offers a challenge to him.
In the novel, the ocean is indeed a very important character, a living and a real character like the human
beings. It has its own role to play in the story and has its own relations with other characters of the novel.It
has a great symbolic significance. As ocean is one of the mighty forces of Nature, its role may also be called
the role of Nature or Universe or Destiny. The old man thinks of the sea as a masculine character.
Like other living beings, the ocean has its own taste, voices, colours, atmosphere and times. Sometimes it
proves terrible when it is stormy but mostly it is gentle. At the end, it treats Santiago rather cruelly with the
provision of sharks to eat up his hunted fish, marlin, a huge fish.
It also plays a good role in giving him continuous supply of food in the form of tunas, shrimps, dolphins and
flying fish. It also plays a good role when it lets him sail back peacefully. This denotes the kind attitude of
the ocean towards the old man.
The Ocean also proves to be a good teacher for the Old Man, the sailors or fishermen. It teaches Santiago
how to resign to his fate. It teaches him to invoke God, Christ and Mary for help in his ordeal. He prays to
God first to let the fish be baited and then to release him of the cramp of his left hand. 253
Q. 17. Describe Hemingways’ Style
Hemingway's literary prose style is universally recognized. His prose style is probably the most widely
imitated in the 20th century. His prose style is greatly colloquial and simple. Typically the sentences are
short and declarative. The aim, as Hemingway often said, was to get the thing "the way it was."
Hemingway's style is characterized by crispness, freshness, straight dialogue and emotional understatement.
His writings brought a profound influence on American writers of his time. He is the genuine writer who
brings forward ideas through first hand writing expression. He does not go beyond his personal experiences.
His style is simple, straight forward and unembellished. A study of his dialogue will reveal us that this is
really the way people really speak. But there is no spontaneity in his style. His several-years in newspaper
job make him to report facts crisply.
He paragraph structure is, characteristically, based on a simple sequence. There is an obvious relation
between his style and the characters and situations with which the author is concerned. He is also a poet. His
sensation to the light, colour, and atmosphere of particular places is lyrical. His ability to suggest an
emotional atmosphere is remarkable. He is unquestionably a master in literary craftsman. It is different style
that won him the Noble Prize for Literature. 216
Q:18 Write a note on Santiago's faith in religion. Or The old man as a religious person. Or Is
Santiago a superstitious man? Or Is the old man a true charistian? Or Is the old man believer of
Christianity? 1995-I,1996-I, 2001-S
Ernest Hemingway in The Old Man and The Sea, has stressed upon moral values in particular. Santiago is
an embodiment of moral values which make him a true Christian and a morally sound person. He has the
Christian virtues of compassion, humility and piety.
Santiago is a brave old fisherman man who leads a life of contentment, piety, patience, sacrifice, simplicity
and resolution. He is a complete and devoted Christian. Among other moral values, one more prominent
value is his love for religion. His faith in God and his love for Christ and Mary are his strongest weapons in
his battle against the marlin and sharks in the sea. His faith in religion inspires him to fight with courage
whenever he loses courage. Like a true religious man he declares that he does not consider himself a
religious man in a true sense. Santiago is a humble man and is always aware of his limitations as an old and
poor man. He promises to offer prayers for ten times that if he succeeds in catching the fish. He also

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promises to perform pilgrimage to the shrine of Virgin of Cobre after he has caught the fish. He says, “Holy
Mother! Pray for the death of this fish, though wonderful he is”. There was a tinted picture of the sacred
heart of Jesus in his hut. He had another of the Virgin of Cobre. These things speak of his being religious,
we come across such things whenever he is in trouble. So, this attitude of Santiago shows his faith and love
for religion. 208
Q:19 Write a note on the old man's dreams. Or What the importance is of dreamt in the novel? P.U
1996, 2001. Or What do the dreams of lions indicate? Explain the following extract. Or He no longer
dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests
of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed of places and of the lions on the beach. Or What does
Santiago dream about? What does that dream signify? PU-Q6G-I
Dreams have played a vital and symbolic role in the novel. Santiago had spent an energetic life as a
fisherman. He had faced great storms, fought many contests of hand-game and caught big fish. He dreamed
of all these things in his old age. These dreams helped him to forget his loneliness and helplessness.
Hemingway tells us during the adventure with the giant fish and then fight with sharks, he no more wanted
to dream of storms, of women, of great fish, of his beloved wife or competitions of strength. He wanted to
dream of only lions on the beach of Africa.
These lions would give him strength and courage. He gets courage, hope, inspiration, will power and
strength from them in the hour of trouble. In his childhood, he had seen lion playing on the African seacoast.
The image of playful beasts he kept alive in his mind ever afterwards. Santiago was especially in a happy
mood whenever he talked of lions and their movements. The novel, in a way presents the wisdom and
experience of old age joined with the youthful energy of Manoline and naked power of the lions. We see
that these dreams come to him when he is in trouble 192
Q. 20 Describe The old man and the sea as a symbolic novel Or Allegorical Novel
Symbol is a literary term used to show something else mentioned in the lines. Each of the characters and
incidents of the novel represents human life and its values in broader sense. The novel is full of symbolic
meanings. Some of them are given as under;
1. The old man stands for the courageous men who fight fearlessly for their rights.
2. His going into deep sea represents commission of mistakes and man's suffering because of them. It
also shows human being in conflicts with the forces of nature.
3. His dreams of lions show his daring psychology.
4. The sharks symbolise the cruel and greedy forces which are bent upon snatching the fruits of the hard
labour of a man.
5. Marline represents high aims and ambitions of human being.
6. The continuous resistance of the marlin shows that the way to success is full of hardships. In human
experience, there are many forms of both marlin and sharks.
7. The sea represents life in general. It is full of happiness and unknown dangers. Same is human life
which is always unpredictable.
8. Manolin the young boy is the youth of the man.
9. The old man' wish to have boy with him represents that wish and remembrance of youth and good
times are always tied with human life.
10. Hand game with negro represents the physical strength of Santiago.
11. Thinking of Di Maggio shows the source of inspiration.
12. The old man's attachment with Manolin indicates man's need for other human beings.
We may conclude that The Old Man and the Sea is a great allegorical novel.270
Q:21 The old man's arrival to the cottage (2003,2008) Manolin and other people were affected by the
sight of the skeleton of the Marlin.07 Or Write a note on the arrival of the Old Man to his cottage
after he fights against the sharks. Or Describe the last scene of the novel. (2003- Supp) Or At the end
of the novel only a skeleton of the gold fish is left. Elaborate. 2004
The old man’s prolonged struggle with the marlin and fight with the more dangerous sharks to save his
marlin made him completely exhausted. He lay down in the rear of the boat and spread an empty sack on his
back and shoulders to protect himself from cold. A few more sharks came to the skeleton of the marlin but
he did not bother about them much. At last Santiago saw the lights of the coastal colony. There was deep
silence. All the lights of the Terrace had been put out and there was no one to be seen outside. He took his
boat to the foot of a rock and tied it there. He folded the sails and carried the mast on his shoulder. He
looked at the great marlin lashed to the skiff. It was reduced to a mere skeleton. He sat down five times for
rest before reaching his shack.
After entering his cottage, the Old Man put the mast against the wall, took a glass of water and sprawled

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himself on the bed. He pulled the blanket up to his shoulders and fell asleep with his peculiar style and
started dreaming of lions.
In the morning many fishermen gathered round the boat of the Old Man. All of them were wonder struck to
see the huge skeleton and head of the marlin. They admired him for his bravery. They also felt sorry for his
bad luck that his bailed fish was eaten away by the sharks. One of the fishermen measured the skeleton of
the big fish. He declared that the marlin was more than eighteen feet long. They agreed that no one else had
ever caught such a huge fish. 283
Q.22 Why does he compare himself with his favorite base bailer Di-Maggio? Or What are qualities
of DiMaggio that the old man takes a lot of inspiration? 2004. Or Write a brief character sketch
of DiMaggio, a baseball player. Or Why was Santiago so fond of DiMaggio? Discuss.
DiMaggio is the hero of Santiago's mind. He remains present throughout the novel but does not appear
physically before the reader. He is a favorite player of baseball. He is Yankee. Santiago remembers and
mentions him whenever he is under pressure and is alone at the sea. He longs for a radio to know about
DiMaggio. The memory of baseball and great DiMaggio encourages Santiago in his struggle to catch Marlin
and to defend it against sharks. Santiago mentions DiMaggio while having conversation with Manolin.
Santiago has faith in the team of Yankees. He says, "The Yankees cannot lose." When, Manolin informs
Santiago that the Yankees had lost the match, his faith in DiMaggio's abilities is not shaken.
Santiago tells Manolin that DiMaggio's father was also a fisherman. He wishes that DiMaggio should have
been a fisherman, too. The thought of DiMaggio gives him courage. The old man says, "DiMaggio does all
things perfectly even in the pain of the bone spur in his heel." The old man wants himself to be perfect and
exact. So DiMaggio is a source of endurance, courage and strength for the old man. 189
Q. 23. Describe the Hand Game Competition
The old man, in order to boost up his morale recalled to his mind the historic hand-game competition he had
with Negro. He was known as the strongest man at the docks. Santiago challenged him to a trial of physical
strength and the hand-game. The competition was held at an inn, of Casablanca. Both the men seated
themselves round a table, facing each other. A line was drawn at the centre of the table. The two contestants
rested their elbows on the line, holding up their forearms and gripping each other's hand tightly. Each one of
them applied his whole strength to bring down the opponent's arm down to the surface of the table. A large
crowd of spectators kept sitting around them, watching them with great curiosity in the light of oil lamp.
Due to constant straining, blood starting oozing from the finger tips of both the contender. The odds
continued changing from time to time. But the contest seemed to end in a draw. The supporters of the Negro
went on offering him drink and cigarettes. He once succeeded in upsetting the balance and bringing
Santiago's hand three inches lower to the surface of the table. But the Old Man soon succeeded in regaining
the balancing position. The spectators who had to go to their duties demanded that competition should be
ended in draw but the referee did not agree. When the day was going to dawn, Santiago strained his full
might on the hand of Negro and succeeded in making his hand touch to the surface of the table. In this way
he won the competition and became the new champion. 274

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1. Information Technology/Computer

This is the age of modern scientific inventions and discoveries. _____________is the most revolutionary
invention of this age. Internet and E-mail are the most revolutionary products of _________. These things
have changed the world into a global village.
Technology is just like a river in flood, now-a-days. Modern inventions in the field of technology have
revolutionized our lives. Now, there is a flood of technological advancement. We can see the usage of it in
all fields of life like agriculture, trade, industry, healthy aviation, defence and research. This is an
acknowledged fact that no society or nation can compete on international front without sound base in it. In
this age of modem thinking, we can see a very important role of _________. It has become the part and
parcel of. our lives. If we understand the significance of ___________, we can get as many advantages out
of it as we want. As a progressive and liberal minded nation, we should totally be acquainted with the
importance of__________. We know that everything has two aspects, positive and negative. So,
________has also some abuses along with its uses. Technology can be disastrous for common people and
the whole society if we do not use it in a reasonable way. Cyber criminal activities are among its prominent
abuses. This is a new kind of' crimes. Some vicious people try to use__________for their personal benefits
and interests. They try to get undue advantages by using it. In this way, such people harm others.
At the end, we can conclude that things are not good or bad in their existence. We cannot save ourselves
from negative effects of technology by putting barriers in the way of it. Those individuals who use it for
negative purposive must be punished. For this purpose a mechanism can be drawn. Legislation should also
be done against cyber crimes. If we use _________ positively we can serve humanity. But on the contrary, if
we use it in negative ways, the results will be the opposite. Therefore, all sections of society should join
hands in a positive way. But one thing should be kept in mind that the technology is just like a river in flood.
So we cannot ignore bright aspects of the picture due to a few drawbacks.
Information technology is the study or use of computers, the radio, telephone, TV and telegraph for
storing, analyzing and sending information.
Computer is the most revolutionary invention of this age. Computer is derived from the word "compute"
which means "to calculate". So we can define computer as an electronic device which takes input and
converts it into output. In olden times a device named "Abacus" was used to solve mathematical
calculations. In the beginning computers were large in size. They were also slow and their price was very
2. Mobile Phone/Internet

_________is a just like a magic tool which connects us with the whole world. We are living in a world that
is called a global village. Modem communication media and inventions have shortened the distances. But
__________is the most revolutionary invention. Like all the other things, it has abuses along with its uses.
Let us compare its uses with its abuses. After discussing them, we shall be able to decide whether it is a
bane/curse or a boom or blessing.
In the first place, __________ is becoming the cause of weakening our values system. Firstly,
__________addict shuns social life. He avoids attending to a social gathering. This thing harms his family
life too. Especially youth is getting badly affected. Immoral and vulgar activities are spreading like wild-
fire. Young people pay less attention on their studies. They spend most of their time in using _.___________
Secondly, some vulgar elements are using it as a dating club. They provide a platform to unknown young
boys and girls to chat with one another. So in this way, it promotes immoral relations. Thirdly, on special
occasions, people greet their relatives and friends through __________ instead of meeting them personally.
In this way, ________________ has weakened our social life too. Besides its' drawbacks, there is a long list
of benefits of________. The whole world is on our finger tips. Now, we have entire world in a tiny magic
box which seems to be a miracle. Global ties and cultural relations are getting stronger. It has made business
and commercial activities very convenient. We can have access to any country within a few seconds. The
world seems to be compressed into a magic box.
Keeping in view, its benefits and disadvantages, we can give our opinion about it. We can say that has
shortened the distances. It has also facilitated us in so many fields like trade and business. In that sense, it is
a boom. But on the other hand, owing to, immorality and vulgarity_________is a curse. Youth is also
getting involved in different useless activities. People do not bother meeting their friends even on special
occasions. In this sense, it is a social bane. But we cannot stop the revolution of technology by putting or
restrictions. (360words)

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Mobile phone was first introduced in early 1980. They were expensive and hence beyond the reach of
masses. In the beginning, the short range mobile phones were used but later on they were developed into
large range mobile phones. Now-a-days, the communication through mobile phone is done by satellite.
The internet is a wonderful invention of the modern era. It is the biggest global network of computers. It
consists of millions or inter connected network. It was designed in U.S.A. in early 1970. In the beginning, it
was only used at the university level for exchange of research data. Actually internet is a data
communication system.

3. Poverty and its Eradication/Unemployment/Inflation/Corruption

Our country is in the evil grips of economic problems. But__ _____has become the most critical economic
issue for Pakistan. This problem is a major hurdle in the way of advancement. It is not only affecting us in
terms of economy but also creating many social problems.
Let us briefly discuss a few causes of __________with their remedies. First of all, the poor governance
system and the lack of will are two main causes of __________. The people at the helm of affairs are not
willing to address the problem of ________. Therefore, they do not provide any solution. Rather, they are
part of the problem. They are not serious at all in uprooting this problem. Instead they are promoting it
through their poor governance. Secondly, wrong policies of the successive governments are also a big cause
of __________ . The policies of the government should be formed for the welfare and well-being of the
general public. But here rulers pursue their personal interests and motives. They do not have any interest in
making the country stable in economic sense. Thirdly, the role of international monetary agencies like IMF
and the World Bank in running our economy is also a major cause of it. Because of corruption and poor
governance system major part of our resource is going into drain. To meet the budgetary deficit, our
governments go to IMF and international monetary agencies for lending. So, they impose their own
conditions. These conditions serve the interests of capitalist countries. These conditions are regarding
devaluation of local currency, down-sizing, more taxes on local industry and abolition of subsidies on
different articles of daily usage. Interestingly, they impose these conditions in the name of abolition of
poverty and economic reforms programmes. But these steps promote inflation, poverty, corruption, tax
evasion, smuggling, unemployment and dearness; If we take remedial measures,after knowing its root
causes, we will be able to abolish this dire problem. Then we will be able to win all kind of laurel. In this
way, we can achieve the goal of economic prosperity.
To address the problem of __________, we will have to take multi-dimensional steps, on different levels.
First of all, we must improve our governance system. But before doing this, we need will, because
determination is the basic thing before doing anything. Secondly, we must give right direction to our
direction and misdirected policies. Personal agenda and motives must be kept aside. Policies must be
formed for the well-being of the people. The people in power should also rectify themselves Lastly we must
get rid of the evil grips of IMF and other lending agencies we will have to formulate independent economic
policies. These policies must serve our national interests.
1.Corruption is the use of unfair means. Corrupt the cause of rising prices. These factors are
people accept bribery, take away government government, the IMF and the World Bank,
property and give unfair advantages to other corrupt shopkeepers and the people themselves.
people. Corruption makes its way into a society for 3. The state of being poor for want of means of
a number of reasons. Firstly, a person who does not subsistence is called poverty. It is widely found in
work hard finds it very easy and quick to earn by the third world countries like Pakistan. Low
using unfair means. The second reason is that standard of living, poor level of education, low
people want big houses, expensive cars and lavish production, lack of job opportunities, poor
life styles. They cannot get all this within their technology in industries and agriculture,
salaries, so they use unfair means. Corrupt people unemployment, wars etc are the major causes of
think that their salaries are low and have no choice poverty. However science has succeeded in
but to use unfair means. They blame government eliminating poverty from European countries,
for that. Owing to such kind of thinking, corruption especially America and Britain; but the process is
spreads very fast. slow in Eastern countries. Poverty can be
2. General rise in prices is called inflation. minimised by raising people's standard of living. by
Circulation of too much money in economy is also spreading general education, by increasing
called inflation. Rise of oil prices, low production, production through industry, by curing dangerous
flood, poor technology etc are the causes of rising diseases, by improving sanitary conditions and by
of prices. There are four basic factors that become quick transportation methods.

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4. The state of having no job is called Let us briefly discuss a few causes of
unemployment. __________with their remedies.

4. Extremism/Religious Extremism/ Terrorism and the Image of Pakistan/ Sectarianism

(BA/A-1998-)(B.A7A-2002-II) (B.A/A-2002-II) (B.Sc/A-2008,2007,2010) (B.A/A-2006-I, S/2007-II)
(B.A/A-1998-1) (B.Sc/A-2004) (B.A/A-1997-1) (B.A/A-2009-II,

Excessive intolerance towards opposing ideas and views is called extremism. In extremism, a person likes
his own ideas and tries to impose them on others by hook or by crook. It leads to sectarianism. Religious
extremism is very dangerous as it leads to terrorism in which a person or group of persons uses violent
action or the threat of violent action to obtain desired goals. The terrorist may go to extreme extent or
__________ has become a cancer for our society. Our image as a nation has badly been affected. Bomb
blasts and blood shed have portrayed us as an extremist society. It has also affected our social lives. Public,
religious and picnic places remain always under the threat of terrorism. So these places demand protection.
Extremist and terrorist activities are not only inhuman but are also purely un Islamic. So, our religion
strongly condemns such acts. Poverty, illiteracy and wrong interpretation of religion by so called religious
scholars are the major causes of _____________.
Poverty is also one of the major causes of __________.The things like __________always grow in the lap
of poverty. It is very easy for anti-state elements to use the poor and the frustrated. Because of illiteracy,
ignorance occupies the minds of the people. Such people can very easily be used for destructive purposes.
Mass illiteracy is also a big cause of spreading ___________. We should also take some security measures
against it. Firstly, we should increase the security of religious places. Moderate religious scholars should
also be provided security. Secondly, in suspected areas, we must spread a net of spying so that we may take
security measures at public places. We should protect picnic places, schools, hospitals and religious places
by increasing security personnel there. Especially, we should guard the entry and exit points of these places.
The security personnel must also be equipped with modern weapons. During processions and festivals there
should be security high alerts. But all these are temporary arrangements. For permanent solution, we must
take following steps. Firstly, religious educational institutions should also be brought in the main
stream.Their syllabus should be designed in such a way that the true teachings of Islam may be revealed.
Secondly, poverty should also be addressed. Thirdly, mass scale illiteracy must be abolished because
enlightened thinking can be the powerful tool against ____________. If we take those measures, we can
present the soft image of our country. Resultantly, economic prosperity and peace will prevail every where.

5. Energy Crisis/Load Shedding

(B.A/A-2010-II) (B.Sc/S-2011, A-2013) (B.Sc/A-2002, 2008, 2007)

Energy crisis has become the most critical issue all over the world. But in Pakistan, it has affected our lives
very badly. In cities, we have 12 to 18 hours' load shedding, while in villages the situation is even the worst.
Furthermore, in winter, we have shortage of 'sui' gas too. Energy is just like a blood in the body of modern
economy. Let us discuss the causes, effects and the possible solution of this situation.
During the last three decades, we had not built new dams and water reservoirs. We did rely on thermal
units. These units are run by oil and gas. The oil prices are soaring higher and higher and no stability is
seen in near future. On the other hand, gas reserves are getting short in supply. So, supply is decreasing
whereas the demand is increasing, because of growing population. All these things have worsened the
Shortages of energy and load shedding have cast negative effects on our lives. Especially, our economy has
been hit hard. Our export orders are not fulfilled in time. Many of the factories and industrial units have
been 'closed. Thus millions of workers have been unemployed. People in homes have become the victims of
many psychological diseases. During demonstrations on roads against the government and power
companies, some of them damage public property.
To come out of this horrible situation, we will have to take steps on two levels — short term and long
term. In short term, we should adopt such policies as could run our economy on priority basis. We should
also try to save energy. The governrnent should make new agreements with Iran and Central Asian Republics
for cheap energy. In the long run, we must shift our reliance on hydro projects from thermal projects. The
coal reserves of 'Tharr' can also be used for cheap electricity. New dams and water reservoirs should be
built for the cheap electricity. If we do not realize the seriousness of this crisis, it can further worsen the

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situation. So, remedial measures on war-footings must be taken to cope with this giant problem. 352

6. Pollution OR Causes of Pollution

The act of polluting the environment by harmful substances is called pollution. There are a number of
causes of this alarming situation of pollution. The ever-increasing magnitude of traffic is the first cause of
pollution. Villages have healthful environment because there is no traffic. The heavy traffic causes not only
environmental pollution but also noise pollution. Everyday numberless cars, buses, motorbikes, rickshaws
and taxies are coming on roads. Everywhere in the world governments allow a certain number of vehicles
according to the capacity of the roads. But in Pakistan there is no check and balance.
Factories and big industries are also causing pollution. They do not take precautionary measures. They are
polluting air and water without any fear. Pesticides and sprays on crops are the third cause of pollution.
Farmers spray different poisons on crops. They also use pesticides. These sprays and pesticides make air
Increase in population is the fourth cause of pollution. For more people more things are needed. There are
more factories, more cars and buses and so more pollution. To meet the needs of people jungle are being
wiped out. It is a fact that without jungles or trees the condition of pollution becomes worse. A good and
healthful environment requires a lot of oxygen. Trees are called factories of oxygen because they produce
oxygen for us.
Pollution has very negative effects. Firstly, it is making people ill. Because of noise pollution we have
hearing problems. People are becoming restless. They lose control over minor things. Pollution has changed
our climate. We are facing very dangerous problem of global warming. Seasons are changing fast. We have
long summers and short winters. Because of water pollution hepatitis is spreading fast. It is feared that every
tenth person is suffering from this disease.
We can overcome this problem only when each and every person plays his part. Similarly, government can
pass laws to control pollution. It can be very strict in this respect. Secondly, media can play its role by
creating awareness. 335

7. Drug Addiction

Drugs are the substances which change the attitudes and the working of human body. The persons who use
such substances are called addicts. Different types of drugs like heroine, cocaine, hashish and opium are
being used by the addicts. They paralyse the thinking ability and the mind. Drugs make people forget
everything else. After sometime every drug addict becomes irresponsible and shameless. They lose the
sense of honour and respect. They do not care for their parents, children and wives. They stop working. As
they have no money, they start stealing and robbing others. They steal even from their own homes. Some
drug addicts attack members of their family. They are burden to every society. Their families also suffer in a
number of ways.
There are at least three reasons that are making people drug addicts.
The first reason is the ever increasing rate of unemployment. An unemployed person has nothing to do and
spend. He is desperate and frustrated. He faces disappointment, insult and bad behaviour. This is too much
for people of weak personalities. They cannot bear all this and hide behind drugs.
Secondly, idle people become drug addicts. They just do not want to work hard or face the problems of real
life. They have a lot to say but nothing to do. They want to live in the world of imagination. As there is no
world of imagination they create one by using drugs.
Thirdly, people become drug addicts as a fashion. They think that they can easily give up using drugs later.
But drugs are very powerful in their effects. They change the chemistry of their bodies. If they continue
using drugs for a little longer, they become addicts. Then they can never give them up.
Drug addiction can be overcome by working on four levels. Firstly, the people who are already drug addicts
should be given proper treatment. Secondly, the Government should create awareness about drug addiction.
For this purpose, it can take the help of the media. It can make a rule that the media will work to create
awareness about drug addiction. Thirdly, the government can employ drug addicts. Fourthly, it should solve
the problems of social injustice and human rights abuse.
It is hoped that by working on these four levels we can get rid of drug addiction. 390

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8.Population Explosion
There are two views about increase in population. Some people say that the population is increasing at an
alarming rate and it should be checked forthwith. Others say that we should consider the Islamic point of
view before deciding what to do in this respect.
The people who are worried about population explosion say that Pakistan is the ninth most populous
country in the world. It population is growing at a rate of 3.0% which is among the highest in the world.
Due to this population explosion, Pakistan is not able to provide people with food, clothing, education, jobs
and housing.
The people who disagree with these people say that figures like these terrify people so much that in
the West we see that people have almost stopped marrying. They do not want to have children. But Islam
suggests a practical solution to the problem. Firstly, it does not make us hate the institution of marriage and
children. Allah says, “There is no creature on earth for whom Allah does not create the means of
livelihood.” Allah has warned about killing one’s children out of fear of poverty. Allah says: “Kill not your
children because of poverty —------ We provide sustenance for you and for them.” (Al-Anaam 151) Hence,
Muslims should never abort or kill their children out of fear of poverty. One of the verses of Qur’an urges
people to go far and wide of the world to earn their livelihood.
It is we human beings who are creating the shortage of food supplies. Pakistan is an agricultural
country. Seventy per cent of its population is related to agriculture. Why then we import wheat? Its answer
is that it is because of our own mistaken acts.
Islam gives its own method of family planning. It asks mothers to feed their newly born babies at least
for two years. In this way a new child is added to the family at least after three years. Of course if a mother
is sick or there is a danger to her life, Islam gives her right to abort child birth. So according to these people
by working on the guidelines provided by Islam we can solve the problem of population explosion. 377

9. Social Evils in Pakistan/Problems of Pakistan/How to Make Pakistan Strong and Stable?

(B.A/A-2005-II) (B.A/A-2012-I) (B.A/A-2006-II, S/20 13-11) (B.A/A-2003-II) (B.A/A-2005-I)(B.A/A-
If we ask someone how we can make Pakistan strong, stable and a modern state, he will answer that we must
address the challenges or problems faced by Pakistan. And if you ask which is the most critical problem and
challenge, the answers you will get may start from dearness and end on terrorism. In fact, challenges,
problems and social evils are so many. They are over-lapping one another. But to make Pakistan a modern
suite we must face the challenges and abolish these evils. Let us discuss some of them with their causes and
possible solution.
Poverty is the most explosive problem in Pakistan. More than half of our population is living below poverty
line. This is not mere an economic problem, it is poverty which forces the people to commit crimes. The
poor and miserable can easily be misused by anti-state elements, In this way, this is the most problematic '
issue. It can give rise to many social evils like corruption, unemployment, and bribery etc.
Unemployment is also a big issue for Pakistan. Our educated youth is getting frustrated due to
unemployment. An unemployed person may become the victim of depression. So, he can be very harmful
for himself and the society. If he becomes drug-addict, he will be a burden for society. And if he is misused by
anti-state elements he can create law and order problems.
Corruption is also a great challenge for us. It is a curse which undermines the roots of a country. It can bring
unimaginable destruction. Resultantly, the whole fabric of the nation will be collapsed.
Bribery is another social evil. We find this social evil almost in every field of life. Even students bribe some
examiners to get through their examinations. Nepotism is another social evil. The government officers favour
their relatives and give them such favours as they do not deserve. As a result incompetent people take control
of the country.
Another social evil is smuggling. Smugglers import as well as export goods illegally without the permission
of the Government. They do not pay custom duties. Because of the smuggled goods the economy of the
country suffers. People do not buy local made things. They buy foreign made smuggled things. Lastly,
illiteracy is the mother of all evils. Illiterate and ignorant people are not aware of their rights and duties. They
cannot keep themselves abreast of the new trends in life. They cannot vote wisely. So, they cannot be very
useful for others. An illiterate nation cannot face challenges of life.
Besides, there is a long list of evils which are prevalent in our society. But all these evils are related to the above
said problems. If we want to get our rightful place in the world, we will have to address the root causes of
these evils. Only by addressing these challenging problems, we can make Pakistan strong, stable and a modern

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10. Illiteracy
(B.A/A-2003-I) , (B.A/A-2004-I) (B.A/A-2005-I, B.A/A- 2011-I, S/2008-I) (B.Sc/A-2011) (B.A/A-2003-II)

Literacy means the ability to read and write. According to this definition, more than per cent of our population
is illiterate, hi a recent report of UNICEF, it has been rev that more than; 20 million children do not have
opportunities to get admission in primary schools in Pakistan. In modern era, a nation cannot confront
challenges with an over whelming illiterate population. Elementary or basic primary education system
must be very strong to cope with the problem illiteracy. Our policy makers have always ignored the vitality
of elementary education. If a person is not able to read and write, he will not be able to get education.
Furthermore he will remain an illiterate and ignorant person. Because of deficiency on this basic level of
education, the doors of opportunities of a good high standard life will remain shut for him. An illiterate person
cannot vote wisely for being not awared of the importance of vote and electoral process. In this way, he
unconcerned with political affairs: An illiterates person is not conscious of his rights and duties in the society.
He may easily be exploited. An employer may give him unjust wages. He can be deprived many of the
rights, he deserves. There is a dire need to launch a campaign to abolish illiteracy, promote elementary and basic
schooling, so that we may achieve the target of 100 cent literacy rate. This target can be gotten by working on
multiple levels
First of all, more primary schools should be opened to achieve this target. There should be declared an
educational emergency. Adult schools must also be opened to adorn the adults with basic education.
By concluding the discussion, we can say that if a person has a strong base at primary or elementary level, he
will be able to build a skyscraper of high and higher education on this foundation. Illiteracy is a curse which
must be uprooted. By launching a massive and revolutionary literacy campaign, we can abolish illiteracy and
achieve 100% literacy rate. This is the only way to make Pakistan strong and stable. (355 words)

11. Our Educational Problems

(B.A/S-2005-I, B.A/S-2008-1, 2009-1)(B.AS/2012-I1) (B.Sc/A-2010)
We are living in an age of education and awareness. Without sound and solid education system, the building
of prosperity cannot be erected. Unfortunately, we are facing a number of problems which are responsible
for decline in this field. Let us discuss them one by one.
First of all, as a nation, we have not given any importance to education. Only two per cent of the budget is
spent on education. Secondly, our education system is not economy oriented . That means, we are not
producing professionals and skill holders. We are producing just simple graduates and masters who cannot
do any skilled job. In this way, our education system is making the problem of unemployment more
serious. Thirdly, because of cheating and sub standardness of our degrees have become mere pieces of
paper. Fourthly, our colleges and universities have become the centers of politics and violence . Fifthly, our
teachers are not trained properly. They are not aware of the modern skills arid techniques of teaching. Last
but not least, but elementary education system is the most neglected sector . If a thing has a solid
foundation, the building on it will be very strong. This is the law of nature. But, we are pouring, our
meagre funds and resources on higher education sector while elementary system is totally ignored.
Now keeping these issues in mind, we must act wisely. First of all, we must reset our priorities as a
nation. Education should be given the foremost priority in budget . Secondly, our education system
should be the guarantee of employment . More skilled, professional and vocational institutes should be
opened. Thirdly, cheating should be uprooted. Fourthly, our educational institutions should be made clear
from politics, violence and arms. Fifthly, our teachers should be trained on modern lines. They must also
be given handsome salaries. Lastly, we should strengthen our elementary education system. More and more
funds should be allocated for this purpose. Education is the back-bone of any nation. We cannot make
progress without improvement in this field. We can reform our education system by knowing the root
causes of problems and then addressing them. (Words 3 50)

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12. The Role of Newspaper/Electronic and Mass media

(B.A/A-2001-I) (B.A/A-2006-II, (S/2012-II)(B.A/A-2009-II)(B.A/A-2012-I) (B.A/A-2004-II (B.Sc/A-
2008) (B.A/A-2013-I)

The mass media include both the press and the electronic media. The electronic media are the media that
require electronics to access and convey information and news such as TV, the radio and the Internet. So, the
sources of information and news such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television and Internet may be
called mass media. They are called mass media because they reach and influence a large number of people.
The mass/electronic media or the press have great value/importance/power. They have many roles to play.
The role of print and electronic media is dominating one in the modern world. In this age of information
___________is the most powerful tool to express ideas and information. It is a part and parcel of modem
life. It is playing its vital role by providing information and creating awareness among the people. Like all
the other things___________has abuses along with its uses.
Let us have a bird's eye view of the various aspects of it. First, we should analyse the positive things. It
keeps us informed regarding world. We cannot have an idea about the current affairs of the whole world in
absence of true picture of our surroundings. It also enhances our knowledge and broadens our vision. It
makes us realize that we are living in a dynamic world of knowledge and learning. Secondly, it is also a
source of entertainment.' The people who are fond of games and showbiz feel a sense of relief through the
segments of entertainment, games and showbiz. It contains many advertisements, which promote economic
activity. In this, way, it is serving not only in terms of information and entertainment but also in creating a
pro-economic atmosphere.
It has many abuses too. By providing wrong information, it can mislead the people. It can terrify people
by spreading sensationalism. Furthermore, by immoral advertisement and vulgar pictures, it can be a severe
danger to the moral values of our society. ______ is also a source of exchanging diverse views regarding
diverse things. It can mould the opinion of the masses in positive and negative ways. If ________feeds the
people with wrong views, it can be very disastrous.
By summing up the discussion, we can say that things are not good or bad in their existence. It is the usage
of a thing, which makes it useful or abusive. Its utility cannot be denied. Rather, we need it. Of course,
________can be a weapon of propagating wrong ideas. However, at the same time, it is a tool of preaching
positive thinking too. 422
13. National Unity
Once upon a time a very strong lion lived in a jungle. He was so strong that he killed and ate whatever he
wanted. But there were two bulls he could not even touch. They always remained together. When the lion
attacked one of the bulls, the other would come and attack the lion. He could not fight the two bulls together
and had to run to save his life. He consulted a fox about the situation. The fox said, “My king, you cannot
eat them until they are united. You will have to divide them first.” On the direction of the lion the fox
created misunderstanding among the bulls and divided them. So, one day the lion attacked one of the bulls
and the other bull did not come to help and the lion killed and devoured the bull easily. After that he
attacked the other bull and killed it too.
This is not just a story of animals to entertain. It has a very obvious moral lesson: “United we stand divided
we fall”. Nobody can deny the importance of unity for a nation. We, the people of Pakistan, particularly
need national unity. We have already lost East Pakistan because of disunity. At the moment we do not find
unity among the four provinces. The people of one of the provinces are openly saying that they want to be
free. This situation is very serious. Our disunity is making our enemies strong. They succeeded once in
dividing us and they may succeed again (May Allah prevent it!).
We should consider the benefits of being united. Unity brings a lot of great things with it. Firstly, we should
be united to fight the lion. If we are united he will have to run for his life. Secondly, unity brings sincerity
and goodwill with it. People work sincerely because they think that they are working for a common cause.
They believe that they will get the fruit of their work in the end. So, every decision is made to benefit all.
Thirdly, progress of the country is possible only with the help of unity. With unity everybody puts his efforts
in the same direction. It is very unfortunate that our dear Pakistan is still a developing country despite the
lapse of more than sixty years. We have not achieved anything yet. We are divided because our enemies
have succeeded in creating misunderstandings among us.
But the people of Pakistan are the best people in the world. Inshallah they will realise the importance of
unity and make the lion run for his life. With their unity they will make Pakistan the strongest country in the
world. It will be the fort of Islam
14. My Childhood/Childhood Memories/Pleasures of Childhood

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(B.A/A-2006-H) (B.A/A-2008-II, 2011-1) (B.A/S-2006-II, 2013-II) (B.Sc/A-2007)'

Childhood is the most exciting period of life. Everyone wants to be child again. Pleasures of childhood cannot be
forgotten in the whole life. Childhood is just like an island far from the worries of adulthood.
Every child gets unconditional love from his parents and members of the family. He is apple of everyone’s
eye. His first smile, his first step and his first words are celebrated like some historical event. When he takes
his first step, many hands support him lest he should fall down. They are ready to do everything for him.
Normally he gets what he wishes for. In his later life he loses these people. Now there is no one to think
how to bring down the moon for him. No one records his achievements. No one holds his hand to keep him
from some danger.
Like everybody else I also want to re-live my childhood. Whenever I remember my childhood I feel
pleasant sadness. There are tears in my eyes but a smile on my lips. If I remember my childhood, the first
thing I remember is that I am weeping because I do not want to go to school. My father is telling me that I
will enjoy there because there are toys and slides. But I do not want to go away from my mother for
I was born in Lahore. I have always got a VIP treatment from my parents as I am their only child. My
mother taught me how to read the Holy Qur’an. When I started my school, she took care that I was never
late for school. She used to check my notebooks and sign my progress reports. I think it is because of my
mother that I am better than an average student. My father was not very strict, but he did not tolerate my
telling lies or leaving classes. He used to say that a person who tells lies soon gets into every kind of bad
habits. I remember going to the mosque to offer Juma and Eid prayers. Sometimes he used to play some
game with me. But he did not let me fly kites or play marbles.
My house was not very big not very small. My favourite place was my father’s study room. When
father was not at home I used to study at his study table. It was so calm and peaceful there. My childhood
has a lasting impression on my mind. I always try to follow what I have learnt from my parents. I will make
them proud with my achievements and good deeds. (348 words)

15. Importance of Reading/Booking Reading/Libraries/The Book Reading as a Hobby/Pleasure of

(B.A/A-2005-I,S-2010-I) (B.A/A-2009-I)
A truly scholar man will feel like a fish out of water when he is not in library. A book lover does not fall a
prey to boredom. He is not-friendless man because books are the best friends. Libraries are centres of
learning, knowledge and wisdom. The habit of reading makes people able to get pleasure. There are
different kinds of pleasures that we get by doing different things. But it is said that no pleasure is as great as
the pleasure of reading books. The important point is that we get this pleasure not by hurting any one. For
example, some people get pleasure by defeating someone at a game or by invading a country or killing
innocent people. The pleasure of reading books is also better than the pleasure of buying a new car or a new
house. On the other hand, to get pleasure of reading books we do not have to harm anyone. We do not have
to spend a lot or we do not have to do immoral things. Rather, Allah is happy when we read good books.
Look at the West, their libraries are their power centres where people are empowered with intellect
knowledge'. But, we Pakistanis are devoid of the habit of reading. Here students confine themselves only to
textual books with selective studies. Libraries present a scene of wilderness. Books in libraries seem to
be prisoners imprisoned in glass-cases. By reading or developing the habit of study, we can be benefited
in so many ways. In libraries, we can read books of our choice and taste. By book reading, we can be
entertained. We can get pleasure along with intellect and wisdom. Some people like to read stories and
fictions while some like to read poetry. There are a few people who like to do research work by visiting
libraries. Some people like to read religious stuff. In short, everyone has his own taste. Books in libraries
will quench the thirst of knowledge of the people if they are interested in them. -Some young people read
cheap kind of literature, which develops immoral and vulgar behaviour in them. Aged and old people like
to read serious kind of literature for their pleasure. All these people are equally served by libraries. Islam
also stresses upon getting knowledge by all means. Books are a major source of getting knowledge. The
teachings of the "Holy Quran" and "Hadis Sharif, make us inclined repeatedly towards getting knowledge
by all means.
By summing up, we can say that libraries, books and the habit of study are source of pleasure. If people are
attached to libraries, society will flourish in wisdom and intellect. Although, this is the age of internet yet
the books have still very much importance. Students should read books as a hobby. This hobby will give
them pleasure. (350 words)

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16. Human Rights

An ideal society is based on social justice and protection of the basic rights of every individual. It is a
famous saying of Hazart AH (R.A) that a pagan society can exist but a society with injustice cannot
survive. The safety of life and property, education, social and economic justice are the basic human rights.
Unfortunately, our society is famous for violation of human rights. Here people have to face injustice in
every field of life. Killings, rapes, street-crimes and tyrant attitude with women are very common.
Women-in tribal and feudal dominated areas are made the victim of oppression and discrimination. Child-
labour is also another severe violation of human rights. The school going children are used as
workforce in factories and homes. Honour killing and the tradition of 'ward' are practiced in these areas.
Marriage with Quoran is also a very severe kind of violation of human and women rights. It is not only the
violation but also contempt of the Holy Quoran..
Oppression arid injustice of police is also another kind of violation of human rights . Police is politicized
here. Politician and influential people use it for personal motives. Political opponents and the poor are
tortured in police stations. For remedial measures, we will have to make efforts on multi-dimensional

We need determination to uproot the curse of violation of human rights. If we follow the fundamenta
principles of Islam, we can overcome this situation. 'Hajjat-ul-wida' is the greatest charter of human rights.
Pakistan is a signatory of the charter of human rights of UNO. So, in this way, it is our international and
religious obligation to honour human rights. We will have to educate the people to aware them of human
The study of the Holy Quoran will also motivate the people to honour human rights. We will have to
reorganize police too. Committed persons should be recruited on merit in police force. Judiciary should
also do justice. All the criminals should be made accountable. Innocent and the poor should be helped. In
this way, we can present the soft image of Pakistan before the world. (352 words)

17. Life of a Village Woman/ Life of a City Woman/City Women vs Village Women
(B.A/A-2001-I, B.Sc/A-2003)
Women in cities and the villages are deprived many of the basic rights . Women in rural areas of our
country are not in good condition. But in cities they are in better condition, to an extent. Let us take a
bird's eye view of the condition -of women in villages and cities. We shall also compare their status.
Firstly, under feudal and tribal traditions, village women are trapped into the net of many old and outworn
customs. Usually, they are not allowed to get education. If some of them go to schools, they cannot go
beyond matriculation, because usually there is no college for girls in these areas. So, in rural areas, most of
the women are deprived of education . But in cities, women of upper and middle classes can get education.
But the women of lower and working classes are not different from village women. In the second place,
women cannot marry of their choice. In this matter, both village and city women are equal. Honour killing
and the tradition of 'wani' are very common in rural areas of Sindh and South Punjab. In political matters,
they have not any contribution/Even in some areas they are not allowed to vote on the day of elections.
In cities they can vote, but they are not allowed, to contest elections except a few elite classes women.
Thirdly, they are not independent in economic sense. They cannot run their own business. They work in the
farms with their men. But their contribution is not recognized. They serve their husbands and other
members of the family, after doing work in the fields. But all these are thankless and unpaid duties. But in
cities, some women do different jobs and run their own business. But most of them are not allowed to do
jobs or run business. We must consider women living beings. They should be given their due rights and
education. They should be given rights which Islam has given to them. The inhuman traditions like honour
killing and 'wani' should be abolished. The government should ensure their basic rights through
legislation. (350 words)

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18. Problems of Working Women/ The Role of Women 'in Society

(B.A/A-1995-II,2007II,B.A/A-2011-II) (B.A/S--2010-II,S/2011-I) (B.Sc/S-201 1) (B.A/A-2006-I, S/2007-
II) (B.Sc/A-2002) (B.Sc/A-2001)

Man and woman are two wheels of a cart. Woman is as important as man. Since ancient times, woman has
been the victim of oppression. "People used to consider her soulless and needless being or even an
object. It is surprising that women were given the right to Vote for the first time, in 1928, in New Zealand.
That means her opinion did not matter in politics just a century ago. However, today, we are living in an age
of, equality and women's emancipation. Now, women are working shoulder to shoulder with men, in all
Today, almost all fields are open for competent and educated women. They are playing their constructive
roles in education, medicine, agriculture, politics, social sector, culture, science and nursing. But there are
some problems which a working woman may to face. First of all, in a male dominated society, working
women have to struggle hard. They are faced with harassment at every step. Secondly, they are paid low
wages as compared with men. In this way, they are exploited. Thirdly, women in our society are not given
professional and vocational training in preference. Because of being raw-handed, they have limited
opportunities for better jobs. Fourthly, women have to face difficulties while travelling in public transport.
Lastly, village women are not paid for their working in the farms. It is considered their duty to work with
their husbands in the fields in addition with household duties.
Today, women are considered the part and parcel of civilized societies. Without their active
participation, the dream of a progressive society cannot be fulfilled. Now, they are not mere the object of
romantic poetry but' ideals for world of reality and matter. Islam as a religion does not prohibit women
from taking part in any field. Religiously, they are free in their will to marry and in choosing a profession.
They have their share in inheritance. Hazart Khadija (R.A) was a businesswoman while Hazart Ayesha
(R.A) was a teacher of many prominent Islamic figures of learning and knowledge. Women have
equal rights in Islam but Islam does not allow making them showpieces. (350words)

19. Religious festivals

Hajj and the Muslim-World (B.A/A-1996-1)
Hajj is the practical manifestation of the unity of Muslims. People gather in Makkah to bow before
ALLAH. They are in Ahram' which reminds them grave and the life after death. 'Ahram' is also a
symbol of uniformity and equality. Caste, colour and ethnicity are thrown in the back-burner . 'Sae'
between Saffa and Marwa reminds us the running of Hazart Hajira (A.S) in search of water for Hazart
Ismael (A.S). 'Ab-e-zamzam' is also a monument of that event. When we throw stones during 'rami', it
promotes a sentiment in us to fight against social evils and vices. Hajj also reminds the sermon of
'Hazart Muhammad (SW) at Hijja-ul-wida. This sermon is the first charter of human rights. (117+
Eid-ul-Ezha and the Muslim World Eid-ul-Ezha—
The festival Eid-ul-Ezha reminds us the great sacrifice of Hazart Ibrahim (A.S) and Hazart Isamael
(A.S). Hajj is celebrated on the 9th of Zilhajj. Eid-ul-Ezha is celebrated on the 10th of Zilhajj. This is
the last month, of Islamic calendar. On this day, after offering prayers, Muslims slaughter animals in the
memory of the great sacrifice of Hazart Ibrahim (A.S) and Hazart Ismael (A.S). Meat is distributed
among relatives, poor and needy people. But this is not just a day of celebration; it is a philosophy
which shows us the right path in life. (93 words)
Eid-ul-Fitre and the Muslim World
After observing fast in the sacred monlh of Ramazan, Muslims ceIebrate Eid-ul-Fitre. It is celebrated on
the first of 'Shawal. 'Shawal' is the tenth month of Islamic calendar. Imam leads the prayer and gives
"Khutba". After offering prayers, Muslim families begin the day with cooking and then eating sweet
dishes. People greet one another. Children wear new clothes. The elder give 'eidhee' to small members
of the family. But this is not just a day of celebration. T he philosophy of this shows us the right path in
Festivals, rituals and days of celebration are a major feature of a society or a nation. These events show
their individual and collective identity. These are also the reflection of their cultural, historical, social,
seasonal, national and religious activities. The purpose of _________ is to promote harmony among
Muslims. They regard themselves as a single body, not different individuals. This day also makes us feel
about the miseries of the poor and the down-trodden. People forget all kinds of differences of race,

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caste, colour and position and bow before the will of God to please HIM. This occasion________ shows
that all are equal before their Creator. No one is superior to others, in terms of wealth or worldly status.
This is also an event of gratitude for Muslims. In the leadership of an Imam, they offer prayer to God.
This event also symbolizes that Islam is a religion of peace not of terror. This event is also a sign of
discipline and mutual cooperation. People of different sections become friendly and act as a unit. By
concluding the essay, we can say that days like__________are the symbols of Islamic identity. Muslims
celebrate their days with a sense of sacrifice. The joys and pleasures are to be shared People gather in
the house of ALLAH to show unity and discipline. They show from their actions that they are just like
a single body. The poor and deprived sections of the society have equal importance like the haves. We
should never forget and ignore the miseries of the poor. (263 +words)

20. Life in a Big City/Village Uplift/Village life

(B.A/A-2009-I,B.A/A-2001-II, S/2006-I,S/2013-11) (B.A/A-2008-II,2011-II), (B.A/A-2008-I)

A village is composed of small population that is not advanced whereas a city is very advanced and has
large population. Why do people migrate from villages to cities? What are the reasons behind
urbanization? How can we stop this mass-scale urbanization? Let us get the answers to these questions
by making comparative study of village life and city life.
Village is the basic unit of human civilization. Man had laid the foundation of the village after giving up
the life of jungle. More than half of the world's population is living in villages. With the expansion of
industrialism, there is a growing trend in favour of urbanization because in cities , we have more
opportunities and facilities. So, cities are getting over-flown with migrated population. This migration is
creating so many problems . So, uplift of the village is need of the hour. In cities, we have modern
facilities of life like electricity, gas, clean water, telecommunication, transportation, education and.
health facilities. In villages, we do not have such facilities. People have to go to cities for
hospitalization, in case of severe injuries or fatal diseases. Furthermore, there are not institutions of
higher education in villages. Students have to go to cities for professional or higher education.
Especially, girls suffer a lot due to this situation. These are two major factors which contribute to
migration towards cities. So, if we provide civic facilities like, education, roads gjnd health in villages,
we dan stop this mass scale urbanization. Lastly, in cities, we have more economic and employment
opportunities . This is the biggest cause of migration towards cities. In villages, people limited economic
opportunities. So, they go to cities to find employment. After that they become used to civic facilities.
So, they decide to settle there with their families. In this way, this becomes the cause of large-scale
migration. To address this problem, the government should formulate such policies as could be helpful
to provide employment to the villages at their thresholds. This would be a major step towards the uplift
of the village. Such industrial units should also be set up in the villages as are based on agriculture. In
cities, we have facilities and opportunities. That is why; people migrate from villages to cities.
Urbanization is becoming a giant problem. So, village uplift is the only solution to the problem of
urbanization . And uplift is possible only through availability of the modern facilities at the doorsteps of
the people. (377 words)
21. Democracy/Elections/ Democracy
Modern age is the age of democratic rule . Too few countries are still adhering to monarchies or non-
electoral systems of government. Ejections are one of the basic elements of the democracy. In
dictatorship a person or a patty rules the people without their will . In this age of democracy, dictatorship
is condemned everywhere. Independence of Pakistan is also indebted to the power of vote. In a real
democracy, people are free to choose their representatives . Parties give their manifestos for the welfare
o£the people. People choose the best one by using the power of vote. If they are not satisfied with the
performance of an incompetent government, they can replace it peacefully in next elections. In
dictatorship, people have to bear the government, even if it is an inefficient one.
They have to adopt 'violent attitude to change such a kind of government. So, in democracy, elections
give a free outlet to people to express their feelings. People express their feelings of anger by using the
right to vote in elections. Out of 63 years of the history of Pakistan, 35 years were of dictators regimes.
Besides, the rest 29 years were of semi democratic rule. Illiteracy and feudal and tribal systems are
largely responsible for the malfunctioning of the democracy in the third world. An uneducated and
illiterate voter cannot exercise his right to vote wisely . Feudal, tribal and corrupt leaders take advantage
of this situation. Illiterate and ignorant voters elect them. So, such leaders become democratic dictators.
That is why; education and awareness is the first condition for the success of democracy and elections

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in the third world countries. Feudal and tribal systems should also be abolished. No one can deny the
vitality of democracy and elections for any country. No sane person can favour dictatorship. In
elections, people and rulers have a linkage. Parties try to convince all segments of societies. Their
survival is linked with democratic electoral process. By summing up the discussion, we can say that a
democratic electoral process is the best political system for any country. The power of freely-cast vote
can save us from many kinds of evils. Dictatorship is a curse for any society. Elections, are essentials of
true democracy. (371 words)
22. My Aim In Life
Aim is very important in life . It provides direction to one's energies. It strengthens and emboldens man.
Robert awning says. "The aim if reached or not makes great the life." The aim is a motivating force. It
determines the course of action one's life. It is a guiding principle. Without aim, life is like a desert
where no flower blooms. Life without a clear aim and goal is worthless and depressing. It is not worth
living at all. It is rather a guiding star that gives direction to our lives and reflects our choice.
Everybody has an aim in his life. Some want to be CSP officers and some doctors. Some want to be
engineers; still others want to become chartered accountants. But I want to be a teacher . My family
members and friends deride for my choice but I don't care. Sometimes they inquire me that it would
give me nothing in the case of monetary reward. But my response is that I don't want it either. I want to
become what my Prophet (PBUH) wanted to become. I am his true follower and I shall follow his
My argument is that when inner satisfaction is achieved there is left nothing except to satisfy hunger,
shelter and clothing. And when all these things are met easily we must do what our heart desires and is
satisfied. Hence I am doing what my heart desires.
I think it suits my nature. Teaching has become my second nature. I can't live without teaching. As
everybody is the victim of materialism and wants some job that should give pecuniary gains, there must
be some people to take care of humanity.
I want to serve and build humanity. And only a teacher does so . This is the greatest service to humanity.
Hence holy Prophet (PBUH) said "we have been sent to become teachers ". And only the communities of
teachers remain attached with the knowledge. Hence Muslims have been advised by Allah in the Holy
Quran to pray for the increase in their knowledge.
Moreover in the profession of teaching one meets hundreds of personalities and faces. Their manners
and actions give a new insight into the psychology of men. A teacher then shows his feelings. He
becomes more patient and steadfast, and ultimately more humane.
That is the reason that I think teachers are better human beings . And I want to become a better human
being disregarding all comments against my choice. 414

43 41 Durand Road, Near Queen Marry College, Lahore. Ph: 36307272/36309059
NAEEM SERIES NAEEM AKHTAR (M.A. English, M.Com (PU), MPhill (Numl)) 03214346076

Examination Hall,
City: ABC
March 20, 2008

The Director,
XYZ Company,

Subject: APPLICATION FOR THE JOB OF_____________________

Dear Sir,

Having gone through your advertisement in a newspaper" the Daily Jang" of March 16, 2008 I have
come to know that you require a thoroughly competent person for the post of ———————, lying under
your kind control. My qualification and experience urges me to offer myself as a candidate for one of the
posts of——————. I am 26 with sound health.
(i) I have passed my master in __________ from University of the Punjab with specialization
in____________. I have obtained 1st division throughout my academic career.
(ii) I have good communication as well as computer skills. I am proficient in the use of MS Office and
net services as I am diploma holder of computer. I have also learnt typing and short hand. My typing
speed ranges from 40 to 45 words per minute.
(iii) I have special aptitude for the post of ____________and my present employers are fully
satisfied with my performance. My previous experience about the job will enhance my skills and
capabilities commendably and will enable me to discharge my responsibilities in a befitting way.
Copy of my job experience certificate is also enclosed for ready reference.
(iv)Sincerity, honesty and devotion to work are the traits that you can find in me. I assure you that an
interview with me will be enough to make it clear that I am the one you are looking for the said post
(v) Brief resume showing my Bio data, qualification and experience is given below for your kind perusal
and favorable consideration. I shall be very thankful to you.

Personal Information:

Name: Naeem Akhtar

Father Name: Muhammad Rasheed
CNIC: 34501.6372843-9
Address: Flat#6, Block#,9, Walton, Lahore.
Cell No: 03214346076

Academic Information:

Name of Degree Division/Grade Institution

Master: 1st/B Punjab University
Graduation: 1St /A Punjab University
Intermediate: 1st A+ BISE Lahore
Matriculation 1st A+ BISE Lahore

Professional Information:

 Diploma in cost and Management Accountant

 Diploma in computerized Accounting
 Certificates of typing and short hand courses
 Diploma in communication Skills
 Diploma in ELT.
Worked as _______________in _________________for two years.
Worked as _______________in _________________for one year
Currently working as ____________

Yours obediently,

41-Durand Road, Near Queen Mary College, Lahore