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Chapter # 1

FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. What is sentence?
Ans. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.
e.g. Ali is a student.
Q2. What is assertive sentence?
Ans. A statement about something which may be positive or negative, is called assertive sentence.
e.g. Mohsin writes a book.
Q3. What is interrogative sentence?
Ans. A sentence that is used to ask a question, is called an interrogative sentence.
Q4. What is imperative sentence?
Ans. A sentence which makes a command or requests someone to do something, is called
imperative sentence.
e.g. Please give me your pen.
Q5. What is exclamatory sentence?
Ans. A sentence which expresses strong feelings, is called exclamatory sentence.
e.g. What a pretty bird!
Q6. What is optative sentence?
Ans. An optative sentence is that which expresses some wish or desire.
e.g. May you live long.
Q7. Write the different classes of sentence according to its structure.
Ans. (i) Simple sentence
(ii) Compound sentence
(iii) Complex sentence
Q8. Define simple sentence.
Ans. A simple sentence is one which has more than one clauses of equal ranks.
e.g. The moon was bright and we cold see our way.
Q9. Define compound sentence.
Ans. A compound sentence is one which has more than one clauses of equal ranks.
e.g. The moon was bright and we could see our way.
Q10. Define complex sentence.
Ans. A complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
e.g. They rested when evening came.
Q11. What is synthesis of sentences?
Ans. Synthesis is the joining of two sentences into one.
Q12. What is a complement?
Ans. A word that completes a sentence, is called complement.
Q13. Define Clause.
Ans. A group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a predicate, is
called a clause.
e.g. We cannot start while it is raining.
Q14. Define Adjective clause.
Ans. An adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own,
and does the work of an adjective.
Q15. Define adverb clause.
Ans. An adverb clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, and
does the work of an adverb.
Q16. How man parts are there of a sentence?
Ans. There are two parts of a sentence:
(i) Subject (ii) Predicate
Q17. Define Subject.
Ans. The doer of an action is called subject.
(Some boys are throwing stones on buses)
Here ‘some boys’ is subject.
Q18. Define Predicate.
Ans. Predicate is that part of sentence, which tells something about the subject.
e.g. Salma sang a beautiful song.
Q19. How many kinds are there of subject?
Ans. There are three kinds of subject:
(i) Simple subject (ii) Complete subject (iii) Compound subject
Q20. Define Simple Subject.
Ans. Simple subject is that which consists of one word.
Q21. Define Complete subject.
Ans. Complete subject is that which consists of more than one word.
Q22. Define Compound Subject.
Ans. When subject words are joined by “Conjunction”, it is called compound subject.
Q23. How many kinds are there of predicate?
Ans. There are three kinds of predicate:
(i) Simple Predicate (ii) Complete predicate (iii) Compound predicate
Q24. Define Simple Predicate.
Ans. Predicate which has only one word, is called simple predicate.
Q25. Define Complete Predicate.
Ans. Complete predicate is that which has more than one word.
Q26. Define Compound Predicate.
Ans. When predicate are joined by conjunction.
Q27. Define syntax.
Ans. Syntax is that part of the grammar that deals with the arrangement of words into phrases and
phrases into sentences.
e.g. Subject + Verb + Object / Complement + adverb
Salma goes to college daily.
Chapter # 2

PHRASE

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define phrase.
Ans. A phrase is a group of words, which has neither subject, nor predicate.
e.g. The sun rises in the east.
Q2. Define Adjective phrase.
Ans. An adjective phrase is a group of words that does the work of an adjective.
e.g. A man in great difficulties came to me for help.
Q3. Define adverb phrase.
Ans. An adverb phrase is a group of words that does work of an adverb.
e.g. Ali ran with great speed.
Q4. Define noun phrase.
Ans. A noun phrase is a group of words that does the work of Noun.
e.g. We enjoy playing cricket.
Q5. What is meant by verbal phrase?
Ans. When the headword is verb, it is called verbal phrase.
e.g. has taken had eaten etc.
Q6. What is participle phrase?
Ans. When the phrase begins with participle form (ing form)
e.g. Standing on a chair, sitting on the floor etc.
Q7. What do you understand by the infinitive phrase?
Ans. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and complement. It has a function as an adjective,
adverb or noun.
Q8. What is a Gerund phrase?
Ans. When a present participle functions as a noun, it is called gerund phrase.
e.g. Smoking is injurious to health.
Telling a lie is not a good habit etc.
Here smoking and telling are gerund phrase.
Chapter # 3

CLAUSES

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define Clause.
Ans. The part of sentence, that has at least one subject and one predicate.
e.g. We cannot start while it is raining.
Q2. Define Adjective clause.
Ans. An adjective clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own,
and does the work of an adjective.
Q3. Define Adverb clause.
Ans. An adverb clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a predicate of its own, and
does the work of an adverb.
Q4. Wow many kinds, the clause has?
Ans. There are two kinds of clause.
(i) Independent clause
(ii) Dependent clause
Q5. What do you understand by independent clause?
Ans. An independent clause consists of a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete
thought. It can stand alone.
e.g. The girls Sing a song in the party.
Subject Predicate
Q6. What is meant by dependent clause?
Ans. A dependent clause cannot express a complete thought and does not stand alone.
e.g. (i) Who was the Professor of F.C. College.
(ii) When he goes to Karachi. etc.
Q7. How many kind a are there of dependent clause?
Ans. There are three more kinds of dependent clause.
(i) Noun clause (ii) Adjective clause
(iii) Adverb clause
Q8. What is noun clause?
Ans. A noun clause functions as a noun and begins with, what, that, whether, if etc.
e.g. That he is my neighbour.
Q9. What is an adjective clause?
Ans. The clause which performs the function of an adjective, is called an adjective clause.
e.g. Which is an excellent place?
Who is the best debater?
Q10. What do you understand by adverb clause?
Ans. The clause, performing the function of and adverb is called adverb clause.
e.g. Although Masooma worked hard yet, she failed.
Chapter # 4

NOUN

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define Noun.
Ans. Noun is the name of person, thing, place, quality or state.
There are five kinds of noun.
Examples: Ahmad, London, Sana, England, Honey etc.
Q2. Define proper noun.
Ans. Proper noun is the name of a particular person, thing or place.
Example: Salman, Lahore, Salma, France.
Q3. Define common noun.
Ans. Common noun is the name given in common to everything, place or person.
Examples: Boy, City, Girl, Country.
Q4. Define abstract noun.
Ans. It is the name of quality, state or action.
Examples: Love, Honesty, Wisdom, Beauty, Truth.
Q5. Define collective noun.
Ans. A noun which is used for the name of a group or collection of similar persons or things, is
called collective noun.
Q6. Define material noun.
Ans. The name given to materials is called material noun.
Examples: Class, Team, Club, Flock, Heard etc.
Q7. Define countable noun.
Ans. Nouns which are used for persons, things or places which are countable are called countable
nouns.
Q8. Define uncountable noun.
Ans. Nouns which are used for things which can not be counted are called uncountable nouns.
Examples: Gold, flour, honesty, advice, work, etc.
Q9. Define Gender.
Ans. That describes whether a noun is male or female.
Q10. Define Masculine.
Ans. Noun that denotes male.
Examples: Boy, Man, Lion etc.
Q11. Define Feminine.
Ans. Noun that denotes female.
Examples: Girl, Woman, Lioness etc.
Q12. Define Common Gender.
Ans. Noun that denotes either male or female.
Q13. What is meant by neuter noun?
Ans. Noun that denotes a thing neither male nor female.
Examples: Pen, Pencil etc.
Q14. What is meant by noun the number?
Ans. A noun that denotes whether a noun is singular or plural.
Example: Boy, boys, cow, cows, doll, dolls, etc.
Q15. What is meant by plural noun?
Ans. Noun, that denotes more than one person, thing or place.
Examples: Boys, Countries, Cities etc.
Q16. What is meant by noun the case?
Ans. That describes the function of noun whether it is: (i) Subject (ii) Object (iii) Genitive (iv)
Apposition.
Q17. What is nominative case of noun?
Ans. When a noun is used as a subject.
Examples: B8shra works hard.
Q18. What is Accusative case of noun?
Ans. When a noun is used as an object.
Example: Ali writes a letter.
Q19. What is Genitive case of noun?
Ans. When a noun shows possession.
Q20. What is noun in apposition?
Ans. When one noun follows to another, to describe it, the noun follows is said to be in apposition case.
Examples: “London, the capital of England” here the capital of England is in apposition
to London.
Q21. How many genders are there in England?
Ans. There are four genders in English.
Masculine, Feminine, Common gender, Neuter gender
(boy, ox) (girl, lioness) (friend, teacher) (pen, pencil chair)
Chapter # 5

PRONOUN

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define pronoun.
Ans. A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.
Examples: (He, she, it I, we, you, they)
Q2. Define personal pronoun.
Ans. Personal pronoun is a word used in place of name of a person.
Examples: (I, we, you, he ,s he, it, they)
Q3. Define demonstrative pronouns.
Ans. These pronouns are used to point out things and persons already mentioned in the sentence.
Examples: This, that, these etc.
Q4. Define indefinite pronouns.
Ans. Indefinite pronouns refer to unspecified persons or things.
Examples: Some, somebody, something etc.
Q5. Define an Antecedent.
Ans. A pronoun usually refers to a noun which is called its antecedent.
Examples: Ali writes a letter. He is competent student.
(Ali is an antecedent of He)
Q6. Define relative pronoun.
Ans. This pronoun refers to a noun or pronoun and joins two sentences.
Examples: Who, who, but etc.
Q7. Define emphatic pronoun.
Ans. Emphatic pronouns are those which end in self or selves when they are used afer nouns or
pronouns for the sake of emphasis.
Example: I myself will do it.
Q8. Define reflexive pronoun.
Ans. The pronoun which represents the action done by the subject is reflected back, is called
reflexive pronoun.
Example: I hurt myself.
Q9. Define reciprocal pronouns.
Ans. Compound pronouns like “each other” and “one another”, are called reciprocal pronouns.
Chapter # 6

VERB

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define verb?
Ans. A word that shows the activity of subject is called verb.
Q2. Define an object.
Ans. The object is the noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb.
Q3. Define direct object.
Ans. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb.
Q4. Define indirect object.
Ans. Indirect object answers the question to or for whom?
Q5. Define transitive verb?
Ans. The verb that needs object to complete the sentence is called transitive verb.
Q6. Define intransitive verb?
Ans. The verb that does not need object to complete the sentence is called intransitive verb.
Q7. Define auxiliary or helping verbs.
Ans. Sometimes the principal verb needs the help of another verb to make its meaning clear, such
verbs are called auxiliary or helping verbs.
Q8. Define regular verb.
Ans. The verb whose 2nd and 3rd form can be formed by adding “ed” in the end.
Q9. Define irregular verb.
Ans. The verb, whose 2nd and 3rd form cannot be formed by adding “ed”.
Q10. Define finite forms of verbs.
Ans. Finite forms of verbs are those forms of the verbs which can be used alone as main verbs of a
sentence.
Q11. Define non finite forms of verbs.
Ans. Non finite forms of verbs are those forms of the verbs which can only be used as a main verb
with the help of any helping verb or modal verb.
Q12. Define verbals or participles?
Ans. Verbals are forms of the verbs that are used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs in the sentence.
Q13. How many kinds are there of verbal or participle?
Ans. There are three kinds of verbal:
(i) Gerunds (ii) Infinitives (iii) Participles
Q14. Define Gerund.
Ans. Gerund is the “ing” form of a verb, used as a noun.
Q15. Define infinitive.
Ans. An infinitive is a non-finite verb form consisting of to + first form of the verb.
Q16. Define Participle.
Ans. A form of verb that can be used both as a verb and adjective.
Chapter # 7

ADVERB

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define adverb.
Ans. An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of verb, an adjective or another
adverb as:
Q2. What is an adverb of time (when)?
Ans. An adverb of time shows the time of an action.
Q3. What is an adverb of place (Where)?
Ans. An adverb of place shows the place of an action.
Q4. What is an adverb of manner (How)?
Ans. An adverb of manner shows the manner of an action.
Q5. What is an adverb of affirmation or negation?
Ans. Adverbs of affirmation and negation affirm and negate the action.
Q6. What is adverb of reason?
Ans. An adverb of reason is that which shows the reason of an action.
Q7. What is interrogative adverb?
Ans. An interrogative adverb is used a ask a question.
Q8. What are the adverbs of number of frequency?
Ans. Adverbs of frequency show how often and action occurs.
Chapter # 8

ADJECTIVE

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. Define Adjective.
Ans. An adjective is a word, which qualities a noun or pronoun.
Q2. Define proper adjective.
Ans. Adjectives formed form proper noun are sometimes called proper adjectives.
Q3. Define an adjective of quality or descriptive adjective.
Ans. An adjective which describes the quality of a noun, is called an adjective of quality.
Q4. What is numeral adjective?
Ans. An adjective which tells number of noun or pronoun.
Q5. What is definite adjective of number?
Ans. An adjective which tells the definite number of noun or pronoun, is called definite adjective
of number.
Q6. What is indefinite adjective of number?
Ans. An adjective which does not tell exact number of noun or pronoun, is called indefinite
adjective of number.
Q7. What is Demonstrative Adjective?
Ans. Demonstrative adjective is that which points out which person or thing is meant.
Q8. Define Comparative Adjective.
Ans. That shows comparison between two.
Chapter # 9

PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, INTERJECTION

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. What is Preposition?
Ans. A word that shows relation between two parts of speech, is called preposition.
Q2. How would you differentiate and adverb from a preposition?
Ans. Some words may be used as either are prepositions of adverbs.
Q3. What is Conjunction?
Ans. A word that joins more than two clauses, words and sentences into one is called conjunction.
Q4. Define Interjection.
Ans. An interjection is a word that shows sudden feelings or emotions.
Chapter # 10

ARTICLES

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. What do you understand by Articles?
Ans. Articles are the words, which modify a noun or an adjective.
Q2. What are indefinite articles?
Ans. Indefinite articles are those which generalize the noun.
Q3. What are indefinite articles?
Ans. Indefinite articles are those which generalize the noun.
Q4. Where “a” is used?
Ans. “a” is used with every singular, common noun.
Q5. What is the use of “an”?
Ans. An is used with every singular common noun, having “Vowel sound”.
Q6. Which kind of noun is not generally preceded by articles?
Ans. Proper noun, Abstract noun and Material noun are not generally preceded by article.
Q7. Can we use articles with uncountable things?
Ans. No, articles cannot be used with uncountable noun, like floor, gold, sugar etc.
Chapter # 11

MOODS

 Write the short answers of the following questions.


Q1. What is meant by Mood?
Ans. Mood is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the verb is represented.
Q2. How many moods are there in English?
Ans. There are three moods in English.
(i) Indicative Mood (ii) Imperative Mood (iii) Subjective Mood
Q3. What is the indicative Mood?
Ans.