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“The form of a verb which expresses a particular attitude of the speaker is called
Mood.” Or
“The different modes or manners in which a verb is used to express an action are
called moods.”.
Finite verbs phrases have four moods:
1- The Indicative mood.
2- The Imperative mood.
3- The Subjunctive mood.
4- The Infinitive mood
The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). “The
indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact (negative
or positive), or inquires about some fact or expresses a supposition which is
assumed as a fact”
By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true:
 I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot
and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible..
(2)To express a supposition that is assumed as a fact:
This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that,
granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely
conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,—
 If it rains, I shall stay at home. (Assuming as a fact that it will rain)
 If my friend goes there, I shall meet him. (assuming as a fact that my friend
goes there)
 If he is a ring leader, he deserves to be punished. (Assuming as a fact that he is
the ring leader)
(3)To ask a question to find out some fact:
Do they play foot ball? Do we go to school daily? Did he write a letter to his
(4) To make a positive statement:
They play foot ball.
We go to school daily.
He wrote a letter to his Cousin
(5) To make a negative statement:
They do not play foot ball.
We do not go to school daily.
He did not write a letter.
The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands, entreaties
(serious and emotional, request) or appeal), exhortation (warning), suggestion,
prayer or advice. Usually second person.
The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person, since commands
are directed to a person addressed.
(1) To express command.
In command, the Imperative mood always takes first form of the verb. e.g.
Sit down.
Open your book at page 5
Honor all men; love all men;
Fear none.
Get your homework done before you watch television tonight.
Wait here.
Get out of town!
(2) To express entreaty.
Have mercy upon us!
Please do me a favour.
Give us this day our daily bread.
Please include cash payment with your order form.
(3) To express request:
Let me play.
Let him go.
Let her write.” Hush! mother," whispered Sadia. "Come along with me.”
Tell me, how was it you thought of coming here?
(4)To express suggestion:
Sometime it is used to express suggestion with the first person in the plural.
Let + us (objective case of the first person in plural) + 1st form.
Let us go there.
Let us play hockey.
Let's (or Let us) work on these things together.
Let them study now.
(5)To express advice:
Work hard if you want to succeed.
Be steady.
Take care of your health.
Try to do better.
The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or
being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind. simply the
subjunctive mood shows :
Meaning of the word:
Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something
The subjunctive mood has two forms:
a-The present subjunctive :
b-The past subjunctive:
a-The present subjunctive:
Subjunctive in Independent Clauses:
I. Expressing a Wish or hope
The following are the certain traditional phrases expressing wish or hope.
 Heaven rest her soul!
 God bless you!
 Heaven help us!
 Long live the king!
 God save the king!
 Long die your happy days before your death.
2-In formal English, the noun clause dependent on a verb expressing desire,
intention, resolution, suggestions, recommendation, demand, requirement,
and conditions contrary to fact.

 It is suggested that a ring road be built to relieve the congestion

 People demand that the admission be open.
 We recommended that a bridge be built over the river.
 I resolute that Mr. Naeem be appointed chairman of the college.
 He demanded that his students use two-inch margins.
 She suggested that we be on time tomorrow.
 I requested that he be present at the hearing.

The past subjunctive:

It is used:
1-After the verb wish or an expression would that to indicate a situation
which is unreal or contrary to fact; as,
 I wish I knew his name.
 I wish I were a millionaire.
 Would that you were there.
 She wishes the car belonged to you.
 I wish I were an educated man.
 I wish I had been in Lahore last day.
 She wishes her boyfriend were here
 He wishes he were a better student.
After if to express uncertainty condition or supposition; as,
 If they were in the city, they would contact us.
 If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
 If he were to be appointed, I would leave.
 We would have passed if we had studied harder.
After if to express improbability or unreality in the present; as,
 If we started now we would be in time .
 If I were you I would not do that
 If I were seven feet tall, I'd be a great basketball player.
 If you were rich, we wouldn't be in this mess.
 If they were faster, we could have won that race. If Juan were more
aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
After as if /as though to indicate unreality or improbability; as,
 He walks as if he were drunk.
 He behaves as though he were a scholar. (but actually he is not)
 He orders as if were his wife.
 She talks as if she were mad.
 He acted as if he were guilty
After it is time + subject to imply that it is late; as,
 It is time we started.
 It is time we went home.
 It is time we go home.
 It is time you studied.
After would rather +subject to imply preference; as,
 I would rather you went by air. = I should prefer you to go by air.
 I would rather you take test.

"The words if, as if, or as though do not always signal the subjunctive mood. If
the information in such a clause points out a condition that is or was probable
or likely, the verb should be in the indicative mood. The indicative tells the
reader that the information in the dependent clause could possibly be true"
1. God has mercy on us
2. God have mercy on us
3. I shall have plenty of time tomorrow
4. Has it been raining all night?
5. Kindly send me your latest catalogue
6. I have been living here for months.
7. If I were you I should not that.
8. I wish I knew his name.
9. The college requires that every student take the mid term examination 2003
10. Take care of your health
11. Let me do my job
12. Allama Iqbal was our poet
13. I have finished my job
14. Kindly send me your latest broacher.
15. Write in ink please.
16. Can you solve this sum?
17. May you get better!
18. Stop writing and stand up.
19. If you speak the truth I shall forgive you.
20. He argues as if he were a lawyer.
21. Have mercy upon us.dont abuse others.