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1. A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent n number, person and gender.
He should do his duty. C: They should do their duty.
She should do her duty. C: Boys should do their duty.
One should do one’s duty. C: I should do my duty.
Everyone should do his duty.
(The use of one and one’s should be avoided. The adequate alternatives are ‘we’ and
We should do our duty. People should do their duty.
2. Two pronouns joined by ‘and’ should e in the same case.
Inc: He and me were present. C: He and I were present.
Inc. I gave a pen to you and he. C: I gave a pen to you and him.
3. Linking verbs i.e. is, am, are, was, were, etc., take subjective case (nominative case) after
Inc: It is him who deceived me. C: It is he who deceived me.
It is they who came. It was I (not me). That was he (not him).
4. A pronoun preceded by ‘than’ or ‘as’ usually takes the nominative case. It may,
however, take objective case according to the context.
Inc: I am taller than him. C: I am taller than he is.
Inc: We are cleverer than them. C: We are cleverer than they are.
Inc: I have more pens than him. C: I have more pens than he has.
Inc: She was as happy as me C: She was as happy as I was.
Inc: We are as brave as tem. C: We re as brave as they aer.
Inc: I love you more than he. C: I love you more than he does.
OR I love you more than (I love) him.
5. A collective noun used as an antecedent may take a singular or a plural pronoun
depending upon the sense in which it is used. (already explained in the use of noun).
Inc: The jury gave its verdict. C: They jury took their seats.
Inc: The team was doing its best. C: The team have had their lunch.
6. Relative pronouns referring to plural antecedents take plural verbs.
Inc: He is one f those boys who has always worked hard.
C: He is one of those boys who have always worked hard.
7. The verb following who, which, and that agrees to the word modified.
Inc: I like the man who is honest. C: I like the men who are honest.
8. Relative pronoun ‘who’ refers to persons, ‘which’ refers to things, and ‘that’ may refer
to both.
Inc: He who seeks finds. C: The man who came here.
Inc: I he book which I bought. C: They boy that came here.
9. The pronoun which acts as the object to a verb or a preposition must be in the objective
Inc: She wrote a letter to we. C: She wrote a letter to us.
Inc: Between you and I. C: Between you and me.
Inc: Let they go out. C: Let them go out.
10. The interrogative pronoun ‘who’ is nominative, ‘whom’ is accusative. They must be
used accordingly.
I know the person who came here.
I know the person whom you met.
Inc: I have met they boy whom people say have stood first.
C: I gave met the boy who people say has stood first.
11. Personal pronouns in their genitive case don’t take apostrophe.
Yours sincerely, their, its, ours, hers
12. The arrangement of more than one pronouns of different persons used in a sentence is
as follows:
 Second and first. You and I went to college.
 Second and third. You and he are friends.
 Third and first. He and I are friends.
 Second, third and first. (2, 3, 1). You he and I are friends.
Note: This order is reversed for some unpleasant action.
I, he, and you stole their books, I, he, and you abused him.
13. The pronoun used as the supposed subject of the complement of an infinitive is always
in objective case.
They thought us to be them. We want them to come here.
I advised him to be present. I believed her to be honest.
14. Use either or neither to refer to one or the other of two; ay or none to refer to one of
more than two. Each other refers to two, one another refers to more then two.
I met either of the two boys.
Anyone of these five boys can do it.
Zia and Zaka love each other.
We should love one another.
15. The following indefinite pronouns are always singular:
any body, anyone, each, nobody, everyone, anything, some body, either, neither, one, other.
Neither of them did his homework. Any thing is possible.
Each girl wanted to take her chance.
Everybody must take his seat.
16. The following indefinite pronouns are always plural:
Both, few, many, others, several.
Both brought their books. Only a few do their duty.
Many lost their pens. Others found their books.
17. All, any, some, and none may be singular or plural.
All were waiting for their turn. All of it has been eaten.
Some of the food is tasty. Did any of them do their duty?
18. A pronoun preceding a gerund, or showing possession is in its possessive case.
Inc: I like him reading poems. C: I like his reading poems.
Inc: Fancy them deceiving us! C: Fancy t heir deceiving us.
He objected t my going, my pen, her books, your chair.
19. After let the pronoun is in its objective case.
Let us play. Let you and me sta. Let you and her do it.
20. Inanimate objects and abstract ideas, when personified, are used in masculine gender if
they symbolize strength, cruelty, or abhorrence, feminine if they symbolize beauty,
delicacy, elegance, and charm.
The sum was shedding his rays. Death ruins his victims.
The storm destroys his victims. The moon sheds her rays.
Beauty has her own appeal. Spring has her charm.
21. Following verbs take reflexive pronouns after them.
Avail, acquit, apply, absent, avenge, enjoy, betake, exert, overreach, resign
You should avail yourself of the chance. He applied himself to work. They absented
themselves from college. We enjoyed over selves. It never pays to overreach yourself.
22. Don’t use reflexive pronouns after these verbs:
Bathe, burst, draw, enlist, feed, form, hide, keep, make, move, open, qualify, rest, roll, set,
We bathe ourselves every morning.
C: We bathe every morning.
Let them make themselves merry. C: Let them make merry.