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FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH

1. What is sentence?
A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. e.g. Ali is a student
Following are the kinds of a sentence
a. Assertive/declarative sentence
A statement about something which may be positive or negative, is called assertive
sentence. e.g. Mohsin writes a book.
b. Interrogative sentence?
A sentence that is used to ask a question is called an interrogative sentence.
e.g. What is your name?
c. Imperative sentence?
A sentence which expresses some command, request, forbiddance, advice or suggestion is
called imperative sentence. e.g. Please give me your pen.
d. Exclamatory sentence?
A sentence which expresses strong feelings of sorrow, happiness or wonder is called
exclamatory sentence. e.g. What a pretty bird!
e. Optative sentence?
A sentence which expresses some wish, pray or curse is called optative sentence. e.g. May
you live long!
2. Write the different classes of sentence according to its structure.
a. Simple sentence.
A simple sentence is one which has more than one clauses of equal ranks.
e.g. The moon was bright and we cold see our way.
b. Compound sentence.
A compound sentence is one which has more than one clauses of equal ranks.
The moon was bright and we could see our way.
c. Complex sentence.
A complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. e.g.
They rested when evening came.
3. What is synthesis of sentences?
Synthesis is the joining of two sentences into one. He worked hard. He failed.
He worked hard however he failed.
4. What is a complement?
Complement means an additional word or words, which complete the meaning (idea) of
group of words that have subject and verb. e.g. Ali seems happy.
a. Subjective complement/ predicate nominative?
A predicate nominative is a noun or a pronoun that follows a linking verb and identifies,
renames, or explains the subject. e.g. Irfan is the leader.
b. Objective complement?
A complement that tells something about object is called objective complement. e.g. He
made me happy

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5. Define object
A noun or noun equilalent that receives the action of the verb is called object.
e.g. The doctor examined the patient.
a. Direct object
The direct object tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
e.g. The doctor examined the patient.
b. Indirect object
An object which receives the action of the verb indirectly is called indirect object. e.g. The
teacher gave him the award.
6. Define Subject.
The doer of an action is called subject. (Some boys are throwing stones on buses) Here
‘some boys’ is subject.
7. Define Predicate.
Predicate is that part of sentence, which tells something about the subject.
e.g. Salma sang a beautiful song.
8. Define phrase.
A phrase is a group of words, which has neither subject, nor predicate.
e.g.The sun rises in the east. On the table, in the corner etc
9. Define a clause:
A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb, e.g. He wrote a letter. E.g. He
works in an office. .
10. What are parts of speech?
Words, divided into different classes according to the function they do, are called parts of
speech.
11. Give the number of parts of speech.
The parts of speech are eight in number.
(1) noun (2) pronoun (3) verb (4) adjective
(5) adverb (6) preposition (7) conjunction (8) interjection
a. Abstract noun.
It is the name of quality, state or action. It does not take article in normal use. E.gLove,
Honesty, Wisdom, Beauty, Truth.
b. Collective noun.
A collective noun is a singular noun that names a group of people with a common interest.
E.g class, family, office
c. Material noun.
The name given to materials is called material noun. It does not take article in normal use.
E.g Class, Team, Club, Flock, Heard etc.
d. Countable noun.
Nouns which are used for persons, things or places which are countable are called countable
nouns. E.g books, tables etc
e. Uncountable noun.
Nouns which are used for things which can not be counted are called uncountable nouns.
E.g Gold, flour, honesty, advice, work, etc.
12. What do you understand by gender of a noun?
Gender in English grammar refers to the division of nouns into a male or a female.

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13. How many kinds of genders are there in English?


There are four genders in English:
(1) Masculine Gender (2) Feminine Gender
(3) Common Gender (4) Neuter Gender
14. What do you understand by masculine gender?
A noun that denotes a male is called masculine gender. e.g. man, father, lion
15. What do you understand by feminine gender?
A noun that denotes a female is called feminine gender. e.g. woman, mother, lioness
16. Define pronoun
A word used for a noun is called pronoun. Eg. He, She, You etc following are the kinds of
pronoun
a. Relative pronoun.
This pronoun refers to a noun or pronoun and joins two sentences.
E.g. Who, where, but etc. He asked me where he was going.
b. Emphatic pronoun.
Emphatic pronouns are those which end in self or selves when they are used after nouns or
pronouns for the sake of emphasis. E.g. I myself will do it.
c. Reflexive pronoun.
A reflexive pronoun is an object pronoun that refers back to the subject. e.g. myself,,
himself, yourself Example: I hurt myself.
d. Reciprocal pronouns.
Compound pronouns like “each other” and “one another” are called reciprocal pronouns.
They are playing with one another.
e. Interrogative pronouns?
Pronouns used to ask questions are known as interrogative pronouns. e.g. who,
whose, whom, which, what etc.who are you?
f. Distributive pronoun.
Distributive pronouns refer to persons individually or one at a time. E.g. each, either,
neither, everyone etc. Everyone was playing.
17. Define an Antecedent.
The word or group of words that a pronoun replaces, or refers to, is called its antecedent. Or
a noun for which a pronoun is used is called its antecedent.
e.g. Ali writes a letter. He is competent student. (Ali is an antecedent of He)
18. Define transitive verb?
The verb that always takes an object to complete the sentence is called transitive verb. E.g.
He writes a book
19. Define intransitive verb?
A verb that does not take object to complete the sentence is called intransitive verb. E.g.
He weeps.
20. Define auxiliary or helping verbs.
Sometimes the principal verb needs the help of another verb to make its meaning clear,
such verbs are called auxiliary or helping verbs. E.g. is, are, am, was, were, will shall, has,
have, had etc.
21. Define verbals or participles?
Verbals are forms of the verbs that are used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs in the sentence.

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There are three kinds of verbal:


a. Gerund.
The “ing” form of a verb used as a noun is called gerund. E.g. Singing is my hobby.
b. infinitive.
An infinitive is a non-finite verb form consisting of to + first form of the verb. E.g. To play
games on computer is my hobby.
c. Participle.
An ing form of verb that can be used both as a verb and adjective. E.g I bought a singing
doll.
22. Define adverb.
Adverb is a word which qualify a verb or an adjective or an other adverb.
e.g. carefully, always, very, often
a. Adverbs of manners
An adverb of manner tells us how something is done. e.g. skillfully, clearly, correctly
b. Adverbs of time
An adverb of time tells us when something takes place. e.g. tomorrow, next year,
c. Adverbs of place
An adverb of place tells us where something happens. e.g. outside, here, where
d. Adverbs of frequency
An adverb of frequency tells us how often something takes place. e.g. once, twice, ever
e. Interrogative adverbs
The question words which tell where, why, when and something happens
f. Emphasizing adverbs
Some adverbs can be used before adjectives are other adverbs to emphasize them. e.g.
really, very, quite
g. Adverb of affirmation or negation?
Adverbs of affirmation and negation affirm and negate the action.
h. Adverb of reason?
An adverb of reason is that which shows the reason of an action.
23. What are qualitative/descriptive adjectives?
These adjectives show the quality positive or negative of a person or a thing. e.g.
nice, brave, intelligent, poor,
24. What are quantitative adjectives?
These adjectives show the quantity of a thing. e.g. Some, much, enough
25. What are proper adjectives?
Proper adjectives are adjectives formed from proper nouns.
e.g. Proper Noun Proper Adjective
Pakistan Pakistani
Islam Islamic calendar
26. What are demonstrative adjectives?
A demonstrative adjective is that, which points out person or thing particular.
e.g. this, that, those
27. What are interrogative adjectives?
Interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions. e.g. what, which, whose
28. What are distributive adjectives?

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Distributive adjectives show things taken out singly. e.g. each, every, either, neither.
Each boy, every girl etc
29. What are numeral adjectives?
These adjectives show how many persons or things are meant. e.g. one, two, three, all,
many
30. What are degrees of adjective?
There are three degrees of adjective:
 Positive Degree of Adjective
 Comparative Degree of Adjective
 Superlative Degree of Adjective
31. What do you understand by positive degree of adjective?
Positive degree of an adjective shows quality of a thing or a person without comparing with
other persons or things, e.g. brave, coward, wise, fool
32. What do you understand by comparative degree of adjective.
Comparative degree of an adjective shows comparision between two things or two persons,
e.g. He is taller than his friend.
33. What do you understand by superlative degree of adjective
Superlative degree of an adjective shows comparision among more than two things or
persons, e.g. He is the richest of four friends.
34. What are the basic uses of adjective?
There are two basic uses of adjective.
1. Attributive 2. Predicative
35. What is an attributive use of an adjective?
It is used with a-noun. e.g. A rich man should help the poor.
In this sentence the word 'rich' is an attributive adjective, because it is use with a noun
'man'.
36. What is a predicative use of an adjective?
It is used with a verb, e.g. You are clever.
In this sentence the word 'clever' is used with a verb, 'are'.
37. Define preposition.
A preposition is a word which relates noun or pronoun with other word or words in a
sentence. e.g. in, at, of, from . There are two kinds of preposition.
a. Simple preposition?
Preposition based on single word is called simple preposition. e.g. of, to, from
b. Compound preposition?
Preposition based on more than one word is called compound preposition.
e.g. out of, according to, in front of
38. What is Conjunction?
A word that joins more than two clauses, words and sentences into one is called
conjunction. e.g. and, but, or
39. What are the kinds of conjunction?
There are three kinds of conjunction:
a. Coordinating Conjunction: Coordinating conjunctions join words or group of
words that are of equal importance. e.g. but, and, or
b. Subordinating conjunctions?

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A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinate clause and shows its relationship with the
main clause. e.g. after, although, as
c. Correlative conjunctions?
Conjunctions which are used in pairs are called correlative conjunctions.
e.g. both and, either or, niether nor
40. What are the kinds of coordinating conjunction?
There are four kinds of coordinating conjunctions:
a. Cumulative conjunctions
Conjunctions which add one statement to another are called cumulative
conjunctions. e.g. and, as well as, also
b. Alternative conjunctions
Alternative conjunctions are used to express a choice between two
alternatives.e.g. otherwise
c. Adversative conjunctions
Conjunctions which are used to express a contrast between two statements are
called adversative conjunctions. e.g. but, yet
d. Illative conjunctions:
Conjunctions which express inference are called illative conjunctions. e.g.
therefore, hence
41. Define Interjection.
An interjection is a word that shows sudden feelings or emotions.
42. What do you understand by Articles?
Articles are the words, which modify a noun or an adjective. They are two types;
a. Definite article?
Definite article specifies a noun. The is definite article.
b. Indefinite articles?
Indefinite articles are those which generalize the noun. a and an are indefinite articles.
 “a” is indefinite article and is used with every singular, common noun of consonant
sound. E.g. A book, a table etc
 An is used with every singular common noun, having “Vowel sound”. E.g. an egg
43. Which kind of noun is not generally preceded by articles?
Proper noun, Abstract noun and Material noun are not generally preceded by article.
44. Can we use articles with uncountable noun?
No, articles cannot be used with uncountable noun, like floor, gold, sugar , advice etc
45. What is meant by Mood?
Mood is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the verb is represented.
There are three moods in English.
a. Indicative Mood?
A verb which makes a statement of fact or asks a question, or expresses a supposition which
is assumed as a fact, is in the indicative mood. e.g. Where do you live? Noman is a good
player. If I go to Karachi, I will buy a gift for you.
b. Imperative mood?
A verb which expresses a command, suggestion and a request, is in the imperative mood.
Give me a cup of tea, please. Read this book to improve your English.
c. Subjunctive mood?

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The subjunctive mood expresses conditions including wishes, indirect requests,


speculation, and recommendations, e.g If I had been you, I would have called him. She
wishes he were here.
46. What is Functional English?
Functional English means that English in which we understand the use and different
functions of the words and sentences.
47. What are letters?
Letters are the basic units of language, which make words. Every letter is symbol of a
specific sound. There are 26 letters of English language.
48. What are alphabet? .
Alphabet means the letters of language, which make words.
49. What are kinds of alphabet?
There are two kinds of alphabet,
i. Vowels ii. Consonants
50. What are vowels?
The letters a, e, i, o, u are called vowels.-
51. What are consonants?
All the letters except vowels are called consonants.
52. What is a syllable?
Syllable is a part of a word, which is uttered by one sound, e.g. basket
In the word basket there are two syllables: bas+ket. There may be more than two syllables
in a word.
53. What is a word?
A word is a group of letters, which give some meaning, e.g. book, cat, eat"
54. What do you understand by fragment?
Fragment is a group of words which does not give complete thought, e.g. came to help
In this group of words, the thought is not complete.
55. Define syntax.
Syntax is that part of the grammar that deals with the arrangement of words into phrases
and phrases into sentences. e.g. Subject + Verb + Object / Complement + adverb Salma
goes to college daily.
56. What do you understand by the analysis?
Analysis of a sentence means to break it up into different parts.
57. What do you understand by the synthesis of sentences?
Synthesis means combination of two or more simple sentences into one new sentence which
may be simple, compound or complex is called synthesis of sentences.
58. Define determiner.
A determiner is a word that comes before a noun to define noun or noun phrase, e.g. this,
enough, every
59. Define tenses.
Changes in the form of verbs to show time are called tenses.
60. What is punctuation?
Punctuation means those symbols, which separate sentences, and different parts of
sentences so that the idea may be clear and understandable.
61. Define synonym.

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A word which means the same, or nearly the same, as another word, is called synonym. e.g.
The word 'wide' is a synonym for 'broad'.
62. Define antonyms.
Words which have opposite meanings are called antonyms. e.g. The word 'fast' is a
antonym for 'slow'.
63. Define homonyms.
Words that sound alike but different meanings and spellings. e.g. 'hare' and 'hair'.
64. What is voice?
Voice is a style of verb, which shows weather the subject
65. does action direct, or the action is done indirectly.
66. What do you understand by active voice?
The active voice indicates that the subject is performing the action. e.g. The students
raised money for a trip.
67. What do you understand by passive voice?
The passive voice indicates that the action of verb is being performed on the subject, e.g.
Funds were raised by the students for welfare work.
Flowers are plucked by Rafiq.

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