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SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES

Synthesis of Sentences is the opposite of transformation of sentences and means combination of


a number of simple sentences into one new sentence. That new sentence might be either simple
sentence or a compound sentence or a complex sentence.

The following are the chief ways of combining two or more Simple Sentences into one Simple
Sentence.

1. By using a Participle:
• He saw me. He ran away.
• seeing me, he ran away.
2. By using a noun or a phrase in apposition:
• This is my friend. His name is Ali.
• This is my friend Ali.
3. By using a preposition with noun or gerund:
• He has failed many times. He still hopes to win.
• Having failed for many times, he still hopes to win.
• Her husband died. She heard the news. She fainted.
• On hearing the news of the death of her husband, she fainted.
4. By using, Nominative Absolute Construction:
• The soldiers arrived. The mob dispersed.
• The soldiers having arrived, the mob dispersed.
• The town was enclosed by strong wall. The enemy was unable to capture it.
• The town having been enclosed by strong wall, the enemy was unable to capture it.
5. By using an infinitive:
• I have some duties. I must perform them.
• I have some duties to perform.
• We must finish this exercise. There are still three sentences.
• We have still three sentences in this exercise to finish.
• He wanted to educate his son. He sent him to London.
• He sent his son to London to educate him.
• He is very fat. He can not run.
• He is very fat to run.
6. By using an adverb or an Adverbial Phrase:
• He deserved to succeed. He failed.
• He failed undeservedly.
• The sun set. The boys had not finished the game.
• The boys had not finished the game by sunset.

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SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES BY USING CONJUNCTION

Synthesis of Sentences is the process of combining simple sentences, using Coordinative


Conjunctions, to form Compound Sentences.
Example :
The wind blew. The rain fell. The lightning flashed.
There are sentences. Now, we can combine all these three sentences to form a Compound
Sentence.
The wind blew, the rain fell and the lightning flashed.
This sentence is a Compound Sentence.

CONJUNCTION

Conjunction is derived from a Latin word 'conjunctio' which means joining together.
Def: “Conjunction is a word used to join words or group of words, clauses and sentences”. Or
Examples:
1 The conjunctions in the following examples are printed in bold type.
We could go to the library, or we could go to the park.
2 He neither finished his homework nor studied for the test.
3 I went out because the sun was shining.

KIND OF CONJUNCTIONS
1 Co-ordinating
2 Sub-ordinating
A. CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS COORDINATORS:
Coordinating means “of equal ranks or equal status”
Def: “Conjunctions which join sentences of equal ranks are called Co-ordinating conjunctions”.
Coordinate conjunctions are used to join two similar grammatical constructions; for instance, two
words, two phrases or two clauses.
 My friend and I will attend the meeting.
 Kashmir is famous for its beauty and the hospitality of its people.
 The sun rose and the birds began to sing.

In the following table, each coordinate conjunction is followed by its meaning and an example of
its use. Note the use of inverted word order in the clause beginning with nor.

and: in addition She tried and succeeded.


but: however They tried but did not succeed.
or: alternatively Did you go out or stay at home?
nor: and neither I did not see it, nor did they.
yet: however The sun is warm, yet the air is cool.

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CLASSES OF CO-COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

There are four kinds of co-ordinating conjunctions:

1. Cumulative
2. Adversative
3. Alternative
4. Illative

1.Cumulative or Copulative:
Def: “Those conjunctions which only add one statement to another statement.”
 Take this and give that.
2. Adversative Conjunctions:
Def: “Those conjunctions which only express opposition or contrast between two statements”.
 He is slow but is sure.
 I was upset, still I kept silent
3. Illative Conjunctions:
Def: “Those conjunctions which only express an inference”
 I saw him for I was there.
4. Disjunctive or alternative Conjunctions:
Def: “Those conjunctions which only express a choice between two alternatives.”
 Either he or his brother is at fault.
 Naeem or his friends are going there.
The coordinators may be reinforced by correlative expressions (of mutual relationship).

These Conjunctions are widely used in the process of Synthesis of Sentences.

1. Cumulative:
The Conjunctions which add one statement to another are called Cumulative.
Examples :
1. Night came on. The room grew dark.
Night came on and the room grew dark. Or
As the night came on, the room m grew dark.

2. He is a fool. He is a knave.
He is a fool and he is a knave.
He is not only a fool but also a knave.
He is a fool as well as a knave.

2. Adversative:

The Conjunctions which express opposition or contrast between two statements are called

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Adversative. But, still, yet, nevertheless and however express a contrast between one sentence
and the other.
Examples:
1. He is slow. He is sure.
He is slow but he is sure.
2. I was annoyed. I kept quite.
I was annoyed, still I kept quite.
3. He failed. He persevered.
He failed, nevertheless he persevered.
4. He will not oppose my design. I can not approve of it.
He will not oppose my design; however, I can not approve of it.
5. He was all right. He was fatigued.
He was all right; only He was fatigued.

3. Alternative:
The Conjunctions which express a choice between two alternatives are called Alternative.
The conjunctions or, either…or and neither…nor express a choice between two alternatives.

Examples:
• Make haste. You will be late.
• Make haste or you will be late.
• Come in. Go out.
• Come in or go out.
• Either come in or go out.
• Do be a borrower. Do be a lender.
• Be neither a borrower nor a lender.

4. Illative:
The Conjunctions which express an inference are called Illative. The conjunctions therefore, for,
so, then, hence etc… join sentences in which one statement is inferred from the other.

Examples :

1. He was obstinate. He was punished.


He was obstinate; therefore he was punished.
As he was obstinate, he was punished.
2. I can not see. It is very dark outside.
It is very dark outside so I can not see.
I can not see for it is very dark outside.
3. It is raining heavily. I shall stay at home.
It is raining heavily, so I shall stay at home.

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2. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Def: “Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs, in order to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in
different parts of a sentence.”

both ... and He is both intelligent and good-natured.


either ... or I will either go for a walk or read a book.
neither ... nor He is neither rich nor famous.
hardly ... when/before He had hardly begun to work, when he was interrupted.
no sooner ... than No sooner had I reached the corner, than the bus came.
not only ... but also She is not only clever, but also hard-working.
rather ... than I would rather go swimming than go to the library.
Lest ----should Walk carefully lest you should fall.
No less----than I am no less than you are.
No other-----than He was no other than Ali.
Would rather-----than I would rather you go by train. I would rather sleep than play.
Not to speak of------even Not to speak of milk even water is not available there.
Too-----to This hospital is too big to visit in a day.
The same-----as/that He is the same boy as/that I met last day.
al/though-----yet Although our coach was not efficient yet our team played well.
Such-----as I do not like such boys as are naughty.
Such a ------that I saw such a beautiful lady that I cannot tell you.
Nothing else----but It is nothing else but a lie.
whether----or Whether you go or not, I shall go to attend the party.
so that--------may He works hard so that he may get through the examination.
So ------as(negative) He is not so happy as I am. {not so +adjective + as +Pr/N
As------as He is as happy as I am. {as +adjective +as Pr/N}
The same-----as/that He is the same boy as/that I met last day.
al/though-----yet Although our coach was not efficient yet our team played well.
Such-----as I do not like such boys as are naughty.
Such a ------that I saw such a beautiful lady that I cannot tell you.
Nothing else----but It is nothing else but a lie.
whether----or Whether you go or not, I shall go to attend the party.
so that--------may He works hard so that he may get through the examination.

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CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS OR SUBORDINATORS

Subordinating means “lower in rank or status”


Def: “Those conjunctions which join the sentences which are not equal in rank”
OR
Def: “Those conjunctions which join a dependent clause to an independent clause is called
Subordinating Conjunctions or Subordinators”

The chief subordinating conjunctions are:

After before Till until for


when unless than If because
Though that therefore since hence
As lest where as if while
Why so because though Except

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES:
Subordinate clauses may begin with relative pronouns such as that, what, whatever, which, who and
whom, as well as with words such as how, when, where, wherever and why.
In the following examples, the subordinate clauses are underlined.

 The house, which stood on a hill, could be seen for miles.

 I wonder how he did that.

In addition, subordinate clauses may also begin with words which are commonly referred to as
subordinate conjunctions. In the following examples, the subordinate conjunctions are printed in bold
type.

 Because it was cold, I wore my winter coat.

 Let us wait until the rain stops.

The subordinate conjunctions below are accompanied by their meanings and examples of use.

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

As [because] [When] As he is my friend, I will help him.


We watched as [When] the plane took off.
After [later in time] After the train left, we went home.
Although / though [in spite of the fact that] Although it was midnight, we did not feel tired.

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Before[earlier than] I arrived before the stores were open.


Because [For the reason that] We had to wait, because we arrived early.
For[for, because] He is happy, for he enjoys his work.
If[on condition that] If she is here, we will see her.
Lest [for fear that] Note the use of the I watched closely, lest he make a mistake.
Subjunctive Mood in the clause with lest.
Providing or provided[on condition that] All will be well, providing you are careful.
Since [from a past time][As, because] I have been here since the sun rose.
Since you are here, you can help me.
So [consequently] It was raining, so we did not go out.
so that [In order that] I am saving money so that I can buy a bicycle.
Note: When used with the meaning in order that,
so is usually followed by that in formal English.
Supposing[if] Supposing that happens, what will you do?
Than[used in comparisons] He is taller than you are.
Unless [except when, if not] Unless he helps us, we cannot succeed.
Until or till [up to the time when] I will wait until I hear from you.
Whereas [because][On the other hand] Whereas this is a public building, it is open to everyone
He is short, whereas you are tall.
Whether [if] I do not know whether she was invited.
While [at the time when] While it was snowing, we played cards.
[On the other hand] He is rich, while his friend is poor.
[Although] In addition, While I am not an expert, I will do my best.
As if [in a similar way] She talks as if she knows everything.
As long as. [If] [While] As long as we cooperate, we can finish the work easily.
He has lived there as long as I have known him.
As soon as [immediately when] Write to me as soon as you can.
As though[ in a similar way] It looks as though there will be a storm.
Even if [ in spite of a possibility] I am going out even if it rains.
In case[because of a possibility, if] Take a sweater in case it gets cold.
Or else[otherwise] Please be careful, or else you may have an accident.
So as to[in order to] I hurried so as to be on time.

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Synthesis of Sentences

Exercise No. 1 Exercise No. 2


I went to Lahore. I bought some books. The house was burnt down. The inmates were saved.
Turn to the right. You will find the hospital. The sun rose. The birds began to fly.
He lost his pen. He began to weep. We were defeated. We were much disappointed at this.
He sat down to take a rest. He had a long walk. He made a promise. He also kept it.
He was ill. He was unable to attend the college. We suffered much. It rained all the day.
She is sorrowful. She is still hopeful. Amjad is old. He cannot work.
You must work for three hours. After that you can play We go there on foot. There is no other way.
He was rich. He built a fine house. He must confess his fault. He will be fined.
They saw a lion. They run away. My father is very glad. He has heard of my success.
He worked hard. He felt tired. On the way, I met a man. He was walking with the help of a
stick.

Exercise No. 3 Exercise No. 4


1. He married a wife. She belonged to a poor family. 1. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. It is about thirteen
2. He is man of good character. He would not do miles from Rawalpindi. .
anything mean. 2. My son stood first in the examination He was liked by all.
3. He lost his health. This added to his difficulties. 3. The Quaid-e-Azam was born in Karachi. He was the
4. He had a large family. He must provide for them. founder of Pakistan.
5. There is only one way. By that you can succeed. 4. All of them were saved. It was fortunate
6. His house and goods were sold. His debts had to 5. She solved the sum. It took her five minutes.
be paid. 6. Beware of pickpockets. It is essential
7. He begged for pardon. His request was not granted . 7. He is a rich man. Everybody knows him.
8. He will return to us. He will not be long absent. 8. She was punished for some reason. It is unknown.
9. He is a wise man. This is well known to all. 9. He worked very hard. He wanted to win a scholarship.
10. The earth is round. Men of science have proved this. 10. Azam wanted to join a college. He told me.

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Exercise No.5
1. He is a clever boy. No other boy is so clever.
2. He passed the examination. No one expected him
to do so.
3. Shoab is a rich man. He is not proud of his
wealth.
4. Life has few enjoyments. We should
5. I am young. You are old.
6. What is your name? Tell me.
7. He is going somewhere. I do not 1
8. What do you want to eat? I shall gi1
9. All of us will leave the world. It is a fact-
10. He found a purse. It was full of gold'

Exercise No.6
1. I bought a pen. It was very costly.
2. That boy is my friend. He met me on the way to college.
3. We saw a lion. It was roaring.
4. You won scholarship. It made you very famous.
5. Our soldiers are very brave. They are not afraid of death.
6. He was very good at English. He passed the examination.
7. He was very weak. He failed.
8. She did not appear in the examination she was ill.
9. You must sign this paper. Then he will agree to your terms.
10. He ran fast. He wanted to reach in 1
Exercise No.7
1. Khalid has decided not to accept the post. He has been offered a better one elsewhere.
2. The science encyclopedia is very useful. He recommended it.
3. He boarded a bus. It was going to the air-port.
4. We love our parents. We honour our parents.
5. Do not be a lender. Do not be a borrower.
6. He went to Islamabad. He saw the Fa'sal Mosque there.
7. You helped me. I would have been drowned.
8. Life has few enjoyments. We cling to it.
9. You are strong. I am equally strong.
10. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.

Exercise No.8
1. Type the letter yourself. Get someone else to do it.
2. Mr. Ali phoned his wife from the office. He told her to meet him in the town.
3. You may use this room. The next class comes.

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4. We finally spoke to the matron. She is in charge of the children's ward


5. I sat next to a man. He had travelled wildly.
6. Take exercise daily. You will lose your health.
7. He works hard. He cannot make both ends meet.
8. Wise men love truth. Fools shun it.
9. He tried to show off. No one was impressed.
10. He has forgotten. He has changed his mind about coming.

Exercise No.9
1. Where have you put my hat? Tell me.
2. The traffic was heavy. We missed the train.
3. He is poor. He is neatly dressed.
4. She in doing something. No one knows what.
5. The man has been" caught. He stole my pen.
6. We go there on foot. There is no other way.
7. He worked hard. He failed.
8. He was displeased with his dishonest servant. He dismissed him.
9. He gave me a watch. He had exchanged a pen with me.
10. The poor woman was standing in the street. She was carrying a child.

Exercise No.10
1. He was unwilling to go farther. He returned home.
2. I received no answer. I knocked a second time.
3. His wife encouraged him. He persevered.
4.- He left this job. He was not satisfied with his salary.
5. He felt tired. He laid his work aside.
6. The stable door was open. The horse was stolen.
7. I went to Lahore last year. I wished to consult a doctor.
8. A passenger alighted from the train. He fell over a bag on the platform
9. He had resolved on a certain course. He acted with vigour.
5. A hungry fox saw some bunches of grapes. They were hanging from a vine.
Exercise No.11
1. The cow provides milk. Milk is a valuable food.
2. Coal is very important mineral. It is hard, bright, black and brittle.
3. We saw a picture. It was a very fine piece of work.
4. He attended to his duties. He earned promotion.
5. He must confess his fault. He may thus escape punishment.
6. She has a good record. It is impossible to suspect such a woman.
7. You helped me. I would have been drowned. ,
8. He took the law in his own hand. He was not justified in doing so.
9. It rained hard. The streets were flooded.
10. He amused us very much. He sang a funny song.

Exercise No.12

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1. The rain fell. The crops revived.


2. The storm abated. The sun came out.
3. It was a very hot day. I could not do my work satisfactorily.
4. I have told you all. There is nothing more to be said.
5. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. * '
6. He wants to earn his livelihood. He works hard for that reason.
7. He must apologize. He will not escape punishment.
8. I accept your statement. I do it without reserve.
9. He answered me. His answer was correct.
10. He forgot his umbrella. That was careless.

Exercise No.13
1.He admitted his error. He did hot express his regret.
2.I met him only once. It was on a railway station.
3.He is not qualified for this post. He is not qualified in any degree.
4. I did not eat the poisoned food. That was lucky.
5.You solved the problem. Its solution took you no time.
6.He does well. He is nervous at the start.
7.I will take an umbrella with me. It is raining heavily.
8.It was a stormy night. We ventured out.
9.He is foolish. He is also obstinate.
10. The paper of this book is good. The binding is very bad.

Exercise No.14
1. He may be innocent. I do not know.
2. He is short-sighted. He is not fit for the post.
3. A fox once met a lion .The fox had never seen a lion before.
4. I waited for my friend. I waited till his arrival.
5. Let men sow anything. They will reap its fruit.
6. You are strong. I am equally strong.
7. She was not there. I spoke to her brother for that reason.
8. Don't eat too much. You will be ill.
9. He began late. He finished first.
10. I must know all the facts. I cannot help you

Exercise No. 15
1. He is superstitious. He is equally wicked.
2. You deceived him. That was his complaint.
3. The train will arrive at a certain time. Do you know that time?
4. Where have you put my hat? Tell me.
5. You have made a mistake. I think so.
6. He is short-tempered. I like him all the same.
7. Is it time for the train to start? Ask the Guard.
8. Who wrote Hamlet? Can you tell me that?
9. We wished to know. We were going somewhere.
10. He is a great orator. This fact cannot be denied

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Exercise No. 16
1. A lion was proud of his strength. He hated the weak mouse.
2. You must sign the papers. Then he will agree to your terms.
3. I am very tired. I cannot go out.
4. He is honest. He will not accept the bribe.
5. He is poor but honest. I like him.
6. He loved his wife. She hated him.
7. I went to her home. She was sitting on a chair.
8. I was fed up with my servant. I dismissed him.

Exercise No. 17
1. She completed her work. She did it in a splendid way.
2. Our players work hard. They will win the match.
3. Life has few enjoyments. We cling to it.
4. She was very busy. She could not attend the party.
5. Honesty is the best policy. This is well known to all.
6. He made up his mind. He immediately set to work.
7. Night came on. Darkness spread all around.
8. My brother stood first in the test. He was liked by all.
9.
1. The mails will arrive. The ship will leave.
2. The sun had set. Hamza returned home.
3. Nasima wanted to join the college. She told us so,
He is going somewhere, I do not know.

Exercise No. 18
1. Zahid has made a mistake. I think so.
2. Imran is an able lawyer. I have full confidence in him.
3. He is short tempered. I like him all the same.
4. I intended to become a lawyer. Nothing could deter me.
5. His son died. This gave him a great shock.
6. He has injured his leg. He learned to walk on crutches.
7. He may be innocent. I do not know.
8. He took the law in his own hand. He was not justified in doing so.

Exercise No. 19
4. It rained. We would have reached in time.
5. She asked it of me. She would help me.
6. She speaks the truth. She is not afraid of it.
7. My brother is unmarried. His head is bleeding.
8. This is a safe. She keeps her ornaments in it.
9. I will live. You live.
10. They rested- The evening came.

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11. The train had arrived. We were free from anxiety.


12. I want to see him. I shall go to his home.
13. I have no money. I cannot buy this book.
14.
15. I have a horse. It runs very fast.
16. Shahid is a great singer. All the people admire him.
17. He saw a lion. He at once ran away.
18. He did not come to college. He was ill.
19. The hunter killed n rabbit. He used a gun.
20. "Hamlet" is a beautiful piny, Shakespeare wrote it.
21. Our soldiers are very brave. They are not afraid of death,
22. We went there on foot. There was no other way.
23. The man has been caught. He stole my purse.
24. We came upon a cottage. An old man was lying there.

Exercise No.22
1. Where did he go? Do you know?
2. Akram may be honest. I am not sure.
3. The train had stopped. The passengers rushed to it,
4. This teacher was efficient. He was promoted.
5. This news is very good. It cannot be true.
6. He was very diligent. He succeeded in his aim.
7. He is very sensitive. He faces this situation.
8. He boasts very much. He has wealth.
9. Run fast. You will miss the train.
10. Where did he go? Do you know?
11. They have enough practice. They can win this match.
12. The landlord has much money. He can buy a new car.
13. He saw the lion. He cried with fear.
14. He had finished his work. He went out for a walk.
15. He failed in the examination. He was unfortunate.
16. He is going somewhere. I do not know.
17.

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