1996
CopyrIght0 1996 Elsevm Swam Ltd
Pnnted m Great Bntam Allnghts reserved
PII: so0457949(%)ooo119 00457949196$lSOO+OOO
AbstractWe present an original treatment for the finite bending of curved pipes with arbitrary cross
sections. The curved pipe is successively regarded as a threedimensional continuum and a shell, and a
formulation is proposed for each model. We show that, from a numerical point of view, the finite bending
problem is reducible to an axisymmetric analysis augmented with 1 d.f. We also show how to take
advantage of this analogy to solve the bending problem using standard axisymmetric FE routines.
Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
2.1. Notations
m=O+re,(B)+ze,. (4)
Throughout the paper, the symbol @ will denote
the standard tensor product of two vectors The pure inplane bending of the curved pipe can be
((x9 y)++x@y) or two second order tensors described conveniently with the following relations:
((X, Y)wX@Y), the dot the Euclidean inner product
of two vectors ((x, y)~x, . y) or two second order r = r(R, z, t),
tensors ((X, Y)i+X *Y = trace(XYT)). 8 = (1 + a(t))@,
z = z(R, z, t), (5)
2.2. Kinematics 1
In its initial configuration assumed stress free, the where a(t) is a scalar function of time.
curved pipe under study, shown in Fig. 1 with the
main notations, is supposed to be a threedimensional Remarks
body occupying a sector Q, of an axisymmetric body.
Let Co denote a typical cross section, Cr’ and Cp the (1) No assumption was made on the cross section:
parts of Z, occupied by the matter and the hole, the wall may be thin or thick, with constant or
respectively, 9’p and Y$ the inner and outer skins, varying thickness.
& the bend angle of the curved pipe, 9P0the radius (2) The kinematics, eqn (5), includes the usual
assumptions for the inplane bending problem. As an
illustration, the assumption that cross sections
remain plane is accounted for by the dependence of
0 on 0 solely, the assumption that all the cross
sections deform likewise in their plane by the inde
pendent of r and z of 8, the assumption of uniformity
of the stretching of the parallels by the linearity
between 0 and 0, etc.
Fi (3) Fixing a(t) to zero in eqn (5) yields an axisym
metric evolution. Accordingly, releasing a(t) adds
only 1 d.f. to those of this companion axisymmetric
evolution.
(4) In the small deformation setting, the above
assumptions will make it possible to exhibit one
solution to the problem; the existence and uniqueness
of the solution will ensure that the exhibited solution
is the solution. In the large displacement setting,
imposing eqn (5) beforehand means that only
rotationally symmetric instability modes can be
accounted for. These modes are closer to those
observed experimentally.
(5) Rigid body displacements compatibile with
eqn (5) are translations along the Zaxis. A simple
means to get rid of them is to fix the displacements
along the Zdirection of one parallel.
Fig. 1. General view and typical cross section of the curved Let V, denote the spatial derivative referred to
pipe. the initial configuration. The deformation gradient,
Finite pure bending of curved pipes 1005
denoted by F, is by definition: with Sm, the VVF associated with the axisymmetic
companion transformation.
If the initial configuration is considered as the
F = V4m = d,m@E, + f a,m reference configuration, the gradient of a WF may
be written as
0% + &m@E,. (6)
V,,Sm = 6F
Direct differentiation of eqn (4) with respect to its
arguments and insertion of the results into eqn (6)
yields
The expression of F’ can be obtained from that of If, on the contrary, it is the current configuration that
F by substituting in eqn (7) upper case letters to lower is taken as the reference configuration, eqn (14) is
case letters and vice versa. simplified to
From now on, all the kinematical quantities will be
decomposed into axisymmetric and additional terms.
Let Fz be the deformation gradient associated with
the companion axisymmetric evolution, that is
+ 68@,Qe, e,Qed. 115)
QE,+&JBE,+&QE,.
(8)
6L = V,,6m, and 6L, = Vn,Smz. (16)
J=(l +a)&, (10) By substituting the real velocity field rir for am, we
define in the same manner L, D, La and Dx.
where Jr is the determinant of Fx.
The virtual velocity fields (VVF) compatible with
the kinematics [eqn (5)] are of the form 2.3. External loading
The Cauchy, first and second PiolaKirchhoff
6m = he, + r6Oe, + he,, (11) stress tensors will be denoted by T, S and P, respect
ively. They are related by
with the rotational symmetry conditions:
S = JTFlT = FP. (19)
6r = 6r(R, Z),
68 = aa@, (12) If the current configuration is considered as the
62 = 6z(R, Z), reference configuration, the relations, eqn (19),
i
reduce to
where 6r and 6z are arbitrary scalar functions of R
and Z, and Sa an arbitrary constant. Note that the T=S=P. (20)
righthand side of eqn (11) can be written as
Differentiating eqn (19) with respect to time and
6m = am, + rcWe,, (13) choosing the current configuration as the reference
1006 Dj. Boussaa et al.
div,, T = 0. (29)
2.4. Constitutive equations In obtaining eqn (32) we made use of the following
relation:
The form of the constitutive equations is crucial for
the quality of the predictions of the mode1 as well as
for the numerical strategy to be implemented. We
deliberately choose a simple form which has the
KY,, + So,) dR = 0,

s4
6 D, CD, d!Z& {II
the reference surface 9. We have adopted the
KirchhoffLove approximation. However, the form
of eqn (34) is common to many shell models starting

s4
L,P*6L,dQ,
from a threedimensional description.
The integrals defined over R are reduced to surface
integrals by the following approximation on c. The
6a
sn,
Dz.CD0dQ,8
sB
6D,.CD,dn, {3} equality
26a
s n,
D,~(D,OWD,dQt 6,(.)dQ~=I.fh:!2
( .I Wp)
3.2. A shell version of the threedimensional formu Putting Terms {3}{6} together yields the formu
lation lation in Box 2.
We once again assume that we can solve the
companion axisymmetric problem and will focus our o=
attention on the additional terms 37 in Box 1. To
make them shell terms, one has to approximate “axisymmetrical” terms
volume integrals in Terms (3, 4 and 6} by surface
integrals. Equation (34) will make it possible to write 6a yr.C,yOdYci ~YX GY, dY (1
SD, and D, in terms of surface fields. f 9, I 9,
If we designate by y,, the restriction of D, to the
reference surface Y’, it is easy to prove that 26a YX. (~0 63&o dY,
associated with the “initial stress” CD,, in a purely Putting Terms {l}(7) together, and taking into
axisymmetric evolution: the vector F, is such that for account the arbitrariness of 6V yields a system of the
every velocity field 6 Vx , form
where
The expression for F, is well known and is given by
K,=K’+K”, (58)
FO= gCD,dR, (47)
s n, X=F,+2F,, (59)
Term (4) can be evaluated in the same way as F,. step 1: R’=Q’KU’,
Let P, be defined as follows:
step 2: AU = [Kq‘(R’ +
P,=(P.D,)D,. (52)
Then
(53)
Thus
T = f FPFT. (68)
0 2 4 6 6
Using eqns (9) and (IO), this relation may be rewritten
a
as
Fig. 4. I* = 0.5.
1
T=
lfa
then the value of a, referred to the initial configur
x (e,OE,+ (1 +a)e,OE, + e,OE.d ation, i.e.
IF PF; 9,
a, =  (73)
’ ( J, = > *o
0.8 1.2 I
0.6
E 0.6
1 0.3
0.0
0 1 2 3 4
I 5
0.0 ii
0 1 2 3 4
a a
1.0
r
0.8
0.6
0.4
J J
1 2 3 4 3
a a
Fig. 7. I* = 5. Fig. 9. I* = 20.
1012 Dj. Boussaa et al.
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