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Compurer~ & Struc~uresVol60. No 6.pp 1003-1012.

CopyrIght0 1996 Elsevm Swam Ltd
Pnnted m Great Bntam Allnghts reserved
PII: so0457949(%)ooo11-9 0045-7949196$lSOO+OOO


Dj. Boussaa,f,$ K. Dang Van,? P. Labbh# and H. T. Tang7

fLaboratoire de MBcanique et d’Acoustique, CNRS, 31, chemin Joseph Aiguler, 13402 Marseille cedex 20,
@ervice etudes et Projets Thermiques et NuclBaires, Electricitt de France, Villeurbanne, France
T(Nuclear Power Division, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.A

(Received 2 March 1995)

Abstract-We present an original treatment for the finite bending of curved pipes with arbitrary cross
sections. The curved pipe is successively regarded as a three-dimensional continuum and a shell, and a
formulation is proposed for each model. We show that, from a numerical point of view, the finite bending
problem is reducible to an axisymmetric analysis augmented with 1 d.f. We also show how to take
advantage of this analogy to solve the bending problem using standard axisymmetric FE routines.
Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

1. INTRODUCTION and Reissner [2] showed that a, for a wide range of

geometries, is given by
Curved pipes are among the most vulnerable com-
ponents of piping systems. When compared to
straight pipes of the same cross section and length, (1)
real-life curved pipes prove much more flexible and
suffer much more severe stresses under the same
where W is the radius of curvature of the curved pipe,
bending moment. This contrast is due to the ovaling
b the radius of its cross section assumed to be circular,
of the curved pipe cross section during bending, a
h its thickness assumed to be constant and v its
phenomenon that thus cannot be accounted for by
Poisson’s ratio.
the usual beam theory.
In the large displacement setting, many researchers
Even though the experimental discovery of the high
have paid attention to the problem ([4-71 and refer-
flexibility of curved pipes is generally credited to
ences therein). Except for the last reference, the
Bantlin (1910), the above basic facts were actually
treatment is purely analytical, involves many assump-
known by the end of the 19th century. Piping systems
tions, and is based on Fourier series expansions
of steamers were designed using beam theory, the
which impose serious limitations (e.g. perfect ge-
extra flexibility of the curved parts being acounted for
ometries required) and suggests that more flexible
by multiplying their beam-stiffness by an empirical
solution techniques, such as the FE method, could
coefficient of 6/10, well-suited to the curved pipe
prove better suited.
geometries used at that time in naval engineering [l].
Guidelines are given in Ref. [8] to treat the curva-
As regards modeling, the earliest conclusive
contribution, in the small displacement setting, is ture controlled case using a standard axisymmetric
FE analysis. A full formulation restricted to the small
due to von KinnAn (1911). Many attempts however
preceded this work. In 1901, as is reported in its displacements case is developed in Ref. [9]. Moreover,
Comptes Rendus de I’AcadPmie des Sciences
it is shown in this reference that the FE dicretized
(pp.1057-1058), the French Academy of Sciences pure bending problem may be regarded as an axisym-
acknowledged the contribution of naval engineer metric analysis augmented with 1 d.f. In some re-
Marbec to justify the flexibility coefficient of 6/10. spects, our work may be inscribed as an extension of
Always in the small displacement setting, Clark these two references, although we followed a different
et al. [2, 31 proposed general formulae which are approach from those developed therein.
commonly used in the design of piping systems. An The paper is organized as follows. The second
illustration is provided by the rigidity factor r]. Let section is devoted to the statment of the problem in
l/EZ denote the beam flexibility of the curved pipe the full three-dimensional framework. The simi-
and l/@Z its effective flexibility, respectively. Clark larities between this problem and an axisymmetric
analysis are emphasized by a systematic decompo-
sition of the kinematics of the bending problem into
$ To whom correspondence should be addressed. an axisymmetric part and additional terms. In the

CAS @II&K 1003

1004 Dj. Boussaa et al.

third section we reduce this three-dimensional formu- of curvature defined by

lation to a shell formulation. In the fourth section, by
resorting to a FE discretization, we derive a matrix
statement of the problem. The similarities between
the present problem and an axisymmetric analysis are
accounted for and the discretized formulation is and M the position of a typical particle with cylindri-
shown to be reducible to an axisymmetric problem cal coordinates (R, 0, Z), and a normalized natural
augmented with 1 d.f. Finally, we present some basis (ER, E, , Ez):
numerical comparisons with existing results, followed
by a brief conclusion. M = 0 + RE,(O) + ZE,. (3)

Under external loads, the body deforms and a par-

2. THE CURVED PIPE AS A THREEDIMENSIONAL ticle with initial position M occupies the new position
CONTINUUM m(r, 0, z) with a normalized natural basis (e,, e,, e,):

2.1. Notations
m=O+re,(B)+ze,. (4)
Throughout the paper, the symbol @ will denote
the standard tensor product of two vectors The pure in-plane bending of the curved pipe can be
((x9 y)++x@y) or two second order tensors described conveniently with the following relations:
((X, Y)wX@Y), the dot the Euclidean inner product
of two vectors ((x, y)~x, . y) or two second order r = r(R, z, t),
tensors ((X, Y)i-+X *Y = trace(XYT)). 8 = (1 + a(t))@,
z = z(R, z, t), (5)
2.2. Kinematics 1
In its initial configuration assumed stress free, the where a(t) is a scalar function of time.
curved pipe under study, shown in Fig. 1 with the
main notations, is supposed to be a three-dimensional Remarks
body occupying a sector Q, of an axisymmetric body.
Let Co denote a typical cross section, Cr’ and Cp the (1) No assumption was made on the cross section:
parts of Z, occupied by the matter and the hole, the wall may be thin or thick, with constant or
respectively, 9’p and Y$ the inner and outer skins, varying thickness.
& the bend angle of the curved pipe, 9P0the radius (2) The kinematics, eqn (5), includes the usual
assumptions for the in-plane bending problem. As an
illustration, the assumption that cross sections
remain plane is accounted for by the dependence of
0 on 0 solely, the assumption that all the cross
sections deform likewise in their plane by the inde-
pendent of r and z of 8, the assumption of uniformity
of the stretching of the parallels by the linearity
between 0 and 0, etc.
Fi (3) Fixing a(t) to zero in eqn (5) yields an axisym-
metric evolution. Accordingly, releasing a(t) adds
only 1 d.f. to those of this companion axisymmetric
(4) In the small deformation setting, the above
assumptions will make it possible to exhibit one
solution to the problem; the existence and uniqueness
of the solution will ensure that the exhibited solution
is the solution. In the large displacement setting,
imposing eqn (5) beforehand means that only
rotationally symmetric instability modes can be
accounted for. These modes are closer to those
observed experimentally.
(5) Rigid body displacements compatibile with
eqn (5) are translations along the Z-axis. A simple
means to get rid of them is to fix the displacements
along the Z-direction of one parallel.

Fig. 1. General view and typical cross section of the curved Let V, denote the spatial derivative referred to
pipe. the initial configuration. The deformation gradient,
Finite pure bending of curved pipes 1005

denoted by F, is by definition: with Sm, the VVF associated with the axisymmetic
companion transformation.
If the initial configuration is considered as the
F = V4m = d,m@E, + f a,m reference configuration, the gradient of a WF may
be written as
0% + &m@E,. (6)
V,,Sm = 6F
Direct differentiation of eqn (4) with respect to its
arguments and insertion of the results into eqn (6)

@E,+~e,@E,+~e,BER. (7) +6O~eB@E,. (14)

The expression of F-’ can be obtained from that of If, on the contrary, it is the current configuration that
F by substituting in eqn (7) upper case letters to lower is taken as the reference configuration, eqn (14) is
case letters and vice versa. simplified to
From now on, all the kinematical quantities will be
decomposed into axisymmetric and additional terms.
Let Fz be the deformation gradient associated with
the companion axisymmetric evolution, that is
+ 68@,Qe,- e,Qed. 115)

To simplify the notations, we introduce

6L = V,,6m, and 6L, = Vn,Smz. (16)

Let 6 D and 6D, denote the symmetric part of 6 L and

The deformation gradient F may be decomposed as 6L,, respectively. Then the following relation holds:
6D = SD, + &zD,, (17)
F = (e,OE, + (1 + abe @Ee + e, @&)Fr . (9)
A similar multiplicative decomposition can also be
applied to J, the determinant of F: D,=e,@e,. (18)

J=(l +a)&, (10) By substituting the real velocity field rir for am, we
define in the same manner L, D, La and Dx.
where Jr is the determinant of Fx.
The virtual velocity fields (VVF) compatible with
the kinematics [eqn (5)] are of the form 2.3. External loading
The Cauchy, first and second Piola-Kirchhoff
6m = he, + r6Oe, + he,, (11) stress tensors will be denoted by T, S and P, respect-
ively. They are related by
with the rotational symmetry conditions:
S = JTF-lT = FP. (19)
6r = 6r(R, Z),
68 = aa@, (12) If the current configuration is considered as the
62 = 6z(R, Z), reference configuration, the relations, eqn (19),
reduce to
where 6r and 6z are arbitrary scalar functions of R
and Z, and Sa an arbitrary constant. Note that the T=S=P. (20)
right-hand side of eqn (11) can be written as
Differentiating eqn (19) with respect to time and
6m = am, + rcWe,, (13) choosing the current configuration as the reference
1006 Dj. Boussaa et al.

configuration leads to the current configuration as the reference configur-

ation [ 121:
S=P+LP. (21)
P=CD, (28)
The applied loads are of two types: those (typical
in three-dimensional continuum descriptions) given where C is the standard constant elastic modulus
pointwise, and those (less common) prescribed on tensor of the material which is assumed to be homo-
average [lo], which, under the present context, are the geneous and isotropic.
bending moment A’ and the normal force N, defined
on the current configuration by 2.5. Weak form of equilibrium
The local equilibrium equation written in the
current configuration with zero body forces reads

div,, T = 0. (29)

Multiplying this equation by an arbitrary virtual

The first type of boundary conditions in our problem velocity field and using the usual arguments leads to
is the vanishing of the stress vector on the outer and
inner skins of the curved pipe and the shear force at
- T.dLdR,+ Tn, .6m d8R = 0. (30)
the end cross sections:
s an,
Tn t = 0 on Yntt and YeXr
t > (24) Inserting the boundary conditions, eqns (24) and (25),
into eqn (30) the vanishing of the normal force and
T,, = T,, = 0 on C’“‘(II/,)and C’“‘(0). (25) the value of the moment [eqn (22)], and writing the
virtual work of the internal forces on the initial
The boundary condition given on average corre-
configuration, gives
sponding to a pure bending is the vanishing normal
force, and a prescribed moment in the case of
moment controlled loading. In the case of curvature
controlled loading, the moment is an unknown
S.6FdD+GaA$t=0. (31)

variable of the problem which needs to be calculated.

The forms of T and S are needed in the sequel. The Differentiating this equation with respect to time
rotational symmetry and the vanishing shear at both and then choosing the current configuration as the
ends of the pipe imply that at each point in the body, reference configuration yields the following rate
T = T,,e, Oe, + TooeoBe, + Tzzez - S.aLrddn,
Oe, + T,s, Oez + T,,e, Oe,. (26)

Equations (26), (19X (7) and the remark on F-’ that

follows eqn (7) yield that at each point in the body:

- 6a D, . (Do GhW, dQt

S = he, BE, + S,,e, BE, + &e,

OF, + &e,@Fz + S,,e,OJ&. (27) (32)

2.4. Constitutive equations In obtaining eqn (32) we made use of the following
The form of the constitutive equations is crucial for
the quality of the predictions of the mode1 as well as
for the numerical strategy to be implemented. We
deliberately choose a simple form which has the
KY,, + So,) dR = 0,

advantage of involving only the standard axisymmet-

which can be proved by a direct application of the
ric small displacement stiffness matrix and the initial
stress matrix, which are easily computable using principle of virtual work with the (noncompatible)
standard FE routines. Discussion of other types virtual velocity field re2e,.
of constitutive equations and the corresponding Inserting eqns (21) and (28) into eqn (32) and
implementations can be found in Ref. [l 11. We applying the decomposition, eqn (17), to D and
assumed the following constitutive equation with taking into account the equality between P and S
Finite pure bending of curved pipes 1007

int shall denote the reference surface by 9, the outward

normal to Y by n, the spatial derivative defined over
S- 9 by Vy and l as the third coordinate measured from
n 9’. Moreover, we define the tensor c as:
p=l+SV,pn. (33)
The derivation of a two-dimensional model from a
three-dimensional one is achieved by reducing the
three-dimensional fields and integrals defined over 0
Fig. 2. Portion of the cross section. Some notations. to surface fields and integrals. Kinematical fields D,,
Lx and their virtual counterparts 6D, and 6L, are
since the current configuration is chosen as a refer- treated first. In the shell framework, these fields are
ence, yields the expression of the principle of virtual usually reduced to affine functions of l,
work given in Box 1.
D=u+<x (34)
where y and x, respectively the membrane strain rate
o= and the curvature rate tensors, are fields defined over

6 D, CD, d!Z& {II
the reference surface 9. We have adopted the
Kirchhoff-Love approximation. However, the form
of eqn (34) is common to many shell models starting
from a three-dimensional description.
The integrals defined over R are reduced to surface
integrals by the following approximation on c. The
6D,.CD,dn, {3} equality

s n,
D,~(D,OWD,dQt 6,(.)dQ~=I.fh:!2
( .I Wp)

where (. ) is any suitable argument, is approximated

dt dY, (35)

-2d 6D, (D, OP)D, dQ, {4)

by j-$)dQ, =j=~~;~2()dt d9’, (36)

i.e. det(p) = 1. This approximation is compatible with

many models (Koiter, Donnel, etc.) [ 141.
A last approximation, classical in shell theory,
+6a.&bt (71 consists in approximating C by the plane-stress elastic
modulus tensor which is denoted hereafter by the
Box I. Pnnciple of wrtual work. same symbol. On the other hand, it is convenient to
C,=hC and C,=gC, (37)
3.1. Assumptions
We will now develop a shell model for our prob- the membrane and flexural stiffnesses, respectively.
lem. This can be done in several ways. One approach
consists of developing a formulation ab initio stated
in a two-dimensional framework. An alternative
approach, which we have adopted, consists in starting
from the three-dimensional formulation in Box 1 and
reducing it to a shell formulation. Note that, by doing
so, and owing to eqn (13) and its consequences, this
amounts to assuming that am, and not 6m taken as
a whole is a shell velocity field (say of Kirchhoff-Love
type.). This contrasts with the usual formulations in
which Sm is entirely taken as a shell velocity field.
This latter assumption gives rise to coupling terms
between the longitudinal and hoop directions in the
strain rate tensor which are usually neglected without ___I
justification as discussed in Ref. [13]. 0 2 4 6 0 10
The notations to be used are defined in Fig. 2. We a
Fig. 3. A* =0.2.
1008 Dj. Boussaa er al.

3.2. A shell version of the three-dimensional formu- Putting Terms {3}-{6} together yields the formu-
lation lation in Box 2.
We once again assume that we can solve the
companion axisymmetric problem and will focus our o=
attention on the additional terms 3-7 in Box 1. To
make them shell terms, one has to approximate “axisymmetrical” terms
volume integrals in Terms (3, 4 and 6} by surface
integrals. Equation (34) will make it possible to write -6a yr.C,yOdY-ci ~YX GY, dY (1
SD, and D, in terms of surface fields. f 9, I 9,
If we designate by y,, the restriction of D, to the
reference surface Y’, it is easy to prove that -26a YX. (~0 63&o dY,

D, . CD,, dR, = YZ. GYO dY,. (38)

i o1 s y,

This reduces Term (3) to

(3) = -6a ~2. GYO @t

s 9,
-6 h, . f&y, dY,. (39)

Resorting to eqn (34) once again yields

D, . (D, @P)D,, da, = YZ. (YO@N)YodY,

f4 I Yl
Box 2. Shell version of formulation m Box I.
+ xx . (YO@@Y, dY, 9 (40)
s yt
We give in the sequel the discretized version of the
11.7 h/r full three-dimensional formulation in Box 1, and
N= Pdl and R= 5Pdt;. (41) develop a numerical solution procedure based on FE
s -h/2 I -h/2 techniques for spatial discretization. A discretized
version of the shell formulation in Box 2 can be
The second term of (4) is likewise computable. So we obtained in the same manner.
4.1. Spatial discretization

(4) = -26a YZ . (~0@N)YodY,

We have mentioned that, if ri and 6a are assumed
(s 91 to be zero, the problem is reduced to an axisymetrical
analysis, and then the kinematical unknowns are the
xz. (~0 @~)Yo dYt
velocities of the particles at any cross section. If
moreover, the cross section is discretized into finite
elements, the set of unknowns reduce to the set of
- 2h mesh nodes velocities, represented as usual by a
~YZ. (YO@~)Yo dY,
(s 9, vector

+ hr . (YOB@ro dY, (42)

Vi={ . . . . i,,i ,,... }, WI
f 9, >
where ii and i, are the components of the velocity
Term {5) is to be kept in its original form in Box 1. vector of the ith node.
Replacing C by its value in the term {6} yields Releasing a adds 1 d.f. Accordingly, the set of
unknowns of the problem is V, augmented by d; that
(5) = -6ah (A ly,/’ d.44).(43) is.

VT = (Vi, b}. (45)

With the hypothesis det(p) = 1, the integral of the
right-hand side of eqn (43) is the volume Y=‘. The following notations are needed. Let 6V, be the
Finally, Term (7) is to be kept unchanged. virtual counterpart of V, and F, be the force vector
Finite pure bending of curved pipes 1009

associated with the “initial stress” CD,, in a purely Putting Terms {l}-(7) together, and taking into
axisymmetric evolution: the vector F, is such that for account the arbitrariness of 6V yields a system of the
every velocity field 6 Vx , form

The expression for F, is well known and is given by
K,=K’+K”, (58)
FO= gCD,dR, (47)
s n, X=F,+2F,, (59)

where B, is the strain-displacement matrix for a Y = (a + 2/l)Y”o1- .&. (60)

purely axisymmetric transformation Jd,.
Let U,, be a fictitious displacement associated with We consider curvature controlled loading. Solving
E,: eqn (57) in this case produces the foIlowing solution:

&=K;‘F,. (48) v,=ciu,,

These vectors will be used to restate Terms (l}-{7}

in Box 1. Term {1) now reads with

(1) = -V;K;SV,, (49) U,= -K,‘X, (62)

where I<! is the standard axisymmetric small displace- x= Y -XTK;‘X. (63)

ment stiffness matrix. By analogy with this equation,
Term (2) can be rewritten as Physically, 4 appears to be the instantaneous stiff-
ness to bending of the curved pipe.
{2} = -V$K;SV,, (50)
4.2. Time dkcretization
where Kg is the standard initial stress matrix [15, 161.
A one-iteration incremental scheme with very small
Term (3) reads
increments is implemented for time-discretization.
This scheme yields the displacement increment AU
(3) = -F;(&zV, + h6Vx). 01)
resulting from a force increment AQ, as follows [17]:

Term (4) can be evaluated in the same way as F,. step 1: R’=Q’-KU’,
Let P, be defined as follows:
step 2: AU = [Kq-‘(R’ +
P,=(P.D,)D,. (52)




(4) = -2F;f@aV, + (i6Vx). (54)

Term (5) is to be kept in its present form:

(5) = Gad”&. t55)

Term {6} reads

{lo} = -G&(1 + 2jl)“yWo’, (56)

where 1 and k are the Lame constants.

1010 Dj. Boussaa et al.

4.3. About the numerical implementation

In this section, we restrict ourselves to the discus-
sion of two points related to the grafting of the
numerical procedure described above onto standard
FE codes. The first is concerned with the “push-
forward” of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor
between two consecutive configurations. This oper-
ation is to be achieved through

T = f FPFT. (68)

0 2 4 6 6
Using eqns (9) and (IO), this relation may be rewritten
Fig. 4. I* = 0.5.
then the value of a, referred to the initial configur-
x (e,OE,+ (1 +a)e,OE, + e,OE.d ation, i.e.

IF PF; 9,
a, = - (73)
’ ( J, = > *o

x (&BE, + (1 + a)E,Oe, + E,@e,). is, after n steps of calculations, given by

a, = (1 + Aa)n$,,. (74)

The term (1/Jz Fx PF:), denoted by T, , corresponds

to the axisymmetrical push-forward, and the extra 5. NUMERICAL RESULTS

terms to opening or closing of the curved pipe. In

5.1. Existing results
terms of components, T, reads
Reissner’s formula for finite bending [6] may be
summed up as follows. Let m be a nondimensional
moment defined by

6E, + T;E,@Ez + TgE,BE,. (70)

7ch2b E ’
The tensor T, is expressed in the base generated by
the tensor product of E,, E, and E,, since these The moment-rotation curve is then, according to
vectors do not rotate in a purely axisymmetric evol- Reissner, given by
Inserting eqn (70) in eqn (69), we obtain
m=a I-k(p*+a)(p*+2a) , (76)

T= & (T;e,Oe,+ T$YeZ6e,+ T;e,@e,

+ Tge;Oe,)+(l + a)Tc@esBe,. (71)

In short, the global push-forward of the second

Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor amounts to an axisym-
metric push-forward followed by the division by
(1 + a) of all the terms, except for the component
e,@e, which is multiplied by this value (1 + a).
The second point is a comment on the time dis-
cretization of Li. If the increment Aa is chosen to be
a constant between two consecutive steps, i.e.
0.0 - ’
0 2 4 6 8
Aa = 3 = constant (72)
IL, ’ Fig. 5. A* = 1.
Finite pure bending of curved pipes 1011

0.8 1.2 I-


E 0.6

1 0.3

0 1 2 3 4
I 5
0.0 ii
0 1 2 3 4
a a

Fig. 6. A* = 2. Fig. 8. I* = 10.

where On these figures, we have also added the results

that were obtained by skipping the push-forward
(77) procedure of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress
tensor. The motivation for the introduciton of
this approximation is the way the behavior is
provided b c<W and A* = Wh/b* > d-12.
Using a thin shell theory developed by Reissner, formulated in [6]. It seems to us that in this reference,
Boyle [7] proposed a combined analytical-numerical the constitutive equation amounts to relating directly
formulation, In the latter, equilibrium was written in the Cauchy stress tensor T to the
a strong form: the system of partial differential Green-Lagrange strain tensor (E = 1/2(FTF - 1))
equations which express this equilibrium was reduced through T = CE. Accordingly, our formulation
to a system of first order nonlinear differential could be better compared to the existing ones by
equations which is solved by means of the multi-point adopting the same constitutive equations.
shooting method. When the push-forward procedure is skipped, in
In this respect, our approach is notably different. which case the second Piola-Kirchhoff and the
Among the differences, in addition to the strong Cauchy stress tensors are identical, the various
dissimilarity between the two approaches to establish approaches give very similar results. However, with
the governing equations, one can note weak formu- the complete version of our algorithm, the limit
lation against strong formulation, and FE against points tend to occur for lower values of the parameter
multi-point shooting method. a. Note that the coordinates of the calculated limit
points are outside the range of elasticity of real life
5.2. Comparison with existing results curved pipes.
Figures 3-9 show the relations between m and a we Accordingly, a more realistic modeling of the
obtained by the shell version of our formulation. In bending problem should include material nonlineari-
these figures are also reported the results obtained by ties, and, if need be, nonlinear effects due to internal
Boyle, and those corresponding to eqn (76). pressure (follower forces).




1 2 3 4 3
a a
Fig. 7. I* = 5. Fig. 9. I* = 20.
1012 Dj. Boussaa et al.

6. CONCLUSION 6. E. Reissner, On finite bending of pressurised tubes.

Trans. ASME J. Appl. Mech. gl, 386-392 (1959).
In this paper, an original formulation for the 7. J. T. Bovle. The finite bending of curved pines. Int. J.
Solirls Skct. 17, 515-529 (1981). - -
in-plane bending of curved tubes including geometri-
8. G. A. Greenbaum, L. D. Hofmeister and D. A.
cal nonlinearities has been proposed. It has been Evensen, Pure moment loading of axisymmetric finite
shown that, from a numerical point of view, the element models. ht. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 5,459-463
bending problem could be reduced to an axisym- (1973).
metric problem augmented with 1 d.f. This similarity 9. R. Cook, Axisymmetric finite element analysis for pure
moment loading of curved beams and pipe bends.
has been turned into account for the numerical Comput. Struct. 33, 483-487 (1989).
treatment of the problem of bending using standard 10. J. L. Ericksen, Special topics in elastostatics. Adv. Appl.
axisymmetric FE routines. Mech. (1977).
11. Dj. Boussaa, Flexion plane du tuyau coude et endom-
magement sous disme. PhD thesis, i%ole National des
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