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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 1 / 68

Outline

1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory Democritus Dalton Thomson Rutherford Chadwick Beryllium

2 A few interesting notes on the elements

3 Summary of atomic structure and symbolism

4 Periodic Table

5 Ionic compounds

6 Nomenclature

Early Ideas in Atomic Theory

History of the Atom

From Atomism to the Nuclear Model

History of the Atom From Atomism to the Nuclear Model Adapted from the work of Jack
History of the Atom From Atomism to the Nuclear Model Adapted from the work of Jack

Adapted from the work of Jack F. Eichler

History of the Atom

1 Where did the idea of atoms originate?

2 What is the evidence that allows us to conclude that atoms exist?

3 How have our models of the atom evolved over time?

3 How have our models of the atom evolved over time? Let’s take a tour through

Let’s take a tour through a history of scientific discovery and find answers to these questions

Democritus – Atomism (5 th Century BCE)

Democritus – Atomism (5 t h Century BCE) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 6 /
Democritus – Atomism (5 t h Century BCE) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 6 /

What “evidence” did Democritus use to conclude that atoms exist?

(A)

Since matter is not empty space, it must be made of uncuttable particles (atoms).

(B)

The Greeks observed that chemical reactions could take place; reactions cannot take place unless matter is made up of uncuttable particles (atoms).

(C)

If you divide up matter into smaller pieces for infinity, you end up with essentially nothing; since matter cannot be made up of nothing, it must have a small fundamental unit of matter that is uncuttable (atoms).

(D)

A and B are both correct.

(E)

A and C are both correct.

Democritus – Atomism

Democritus – Atomism Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 8 / 68

Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1805)

1 Matter is composed of indivisible particles called atoms.

2 Atoms of the same element have the same chemical properties.

3 Compounds are made of combinations of atoms of different elements, and are formed in reactions where rearrangements or separations of atoms occur (atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions).

(atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions). Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 9

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory – Mass of Oxygen and Chromium in Two Samples of Chromium Oxide

Sample #

Appearance

Mass of Cr (g)

Mass of O(g)

1

orange crystals

1.3509

0.9319

2

red powder

0.6441

0.1481

2

red powder

1.3509

?

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory – Mass of Oxygen and Chromium in Two Samples of Chromium Oxide

Sample #

Appearance

Mass of Cr (g)

Mass of O(g)

1

orange crystals

1.3509

0.9319

2

red powder

0.6441

0.1481

2

red powder

1.3509

Sample #2: If we have 1.3509 g of Cr, how many grams of O?

1.3509 gCr

x gO

= 0.6441 gCr 0.1481 gO

x = 0.3106 gO

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory – Mass of Oxygen and Chromium in Two Samples of Chromium Oxide

Sample #

Appearance

Mass of Cr (g)

Mass of O(g)

1

orange crystals

1.3509

0.9319

2

red powder

0.6441

0.1481

2

red powder

1.3509

Sample #2: If we have 1.3509 g of Cr, how many grams of O?

1.3509 gCr

x gO

= 0.6441 gCr 0.1481 gO

x = 0.3106 gO

Sample #1: If sample #2 is CrO, what is the formula of sample #1?

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory – Mass of Oxygen and Chromium in Two Samples of Chromium Oxide

Sample #

Appearance

Mass of Cr (g)

Mass of O(g)

1

orange crystals

1.3509

0.9319

2

red powder

0.6441

0.1481

2

red powder

1.3509

Sample #2: If we have 1.3509 g of Cr, how many grams of O?

1.3509 gCr

x gO

= 0.6441 gCr 0.1481 gO

x = 0.3106 gO

Sample #1: If sample #2 is CrO, what is the formula of sample #1?

What evidence did Dalton use to conclude that atoms exist?

(A)

Since chromium oxide had two different types of compounds, it must be made up of chromium and oxygen atoms.

(B)

Since the mass of chromium was the same in each sample, that indicates chromium must be made up of identical atoms.

(C)

Since the two chromium oxide samples had different masses of oxygen, and oxygen masses differed in whole number ratios, that suggests the compounds had different numbers of oxygen “units” (atoms); if the atoms could be “cut” up into different sizes, these whole number ratios would not exist.

(D)

A and B are both correct.

(E)

A, B and C are all correct.

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory – Mass of Oxygen and Chromium in Two Samples of Chromium Oxide

Sample #

Appearance

Mass of Cr (g)

Mass of O(g)

1

orange crystals

1.3509

0.9319

2

red powder

0.6441

0.1481

2

red powder

1.3509

0.3106

Sample #1: CrO 3

Sample #2: CrO

Whole number ratio of oxygen mass between the two compounds suggests there must be units (atoms) of oxygen that combine.

Thomson Cathode Ray Tube (1897)

Thomson Cathode Ray Tube (1897) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 13 / 68

Thomson Cathode Ray Tube (1897)

Thomson Cathode Ray Tube (1897) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 14 / 68

Which model of the atom is confirmed by the data/observations from the cathode ray tube experiment?

(A)

(C)

from the cathode ray tube experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>
from the cathode ray tube experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

(B)

(D)

from the cathode ray tube experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>
from the cathode ray tube experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment (1911)

Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment (1911) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 16 / 68

Which model of the atom is confirmed by the data/observations from the gold foil experiment?

(A)

(C)

the data/observations from the gold foil experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and
the data/observations from the gold foil experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and

(B)

(D)

from the gold foil experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 17
from the gold foil experiment? (A) (C) (B) (D) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 17

α-particle Trajectory in Gold Foil Experiment

α -particle Trajectory in Gold Foil Experiment Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 18 / 68

Chadwick Beryllium Experiment (1932)

Chadwick Beryllium Experiment (1932) Nuclear Model of the Atom: nucleus possesses positively charged particles (protons)

Nuclear Model of the Atom: nucleus possesses positively charged particles (protons) and neutral particles (neutrons), an “electron cloud” surrounds the nucleus.

Nuclear Model of the Atom

Nuclear Model of the Atom Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 20 / 68

We know about the basic structure of atoms

but

how are atoms of different elements differ from one another? How were they organized?

Relative Atomic Mass

Example: H 2 O

In the late 1700’s and 1800’s, scientists such as Dalton were able to determine experimentally that when water formed, it took two “parts” of hydrogen by volume and one “part” of oxygen by volume. This suggested water was made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. How does this relate to relative atomic mass?

Which of the following best explains how relative atomic mass could be determined from the type of data available to Dalton?

(A)

By determining the mass of oxygen contained in a sample of water, its exact atomic mass could be determined.

(B)

By comparing the masses of hydrogen and oxygen contained in a sample of water, the exact atomic masses could be determined.

(C)

By comparing the mass of hydrogen in the two “parts” of hydrogen and the mass of oxygen in the one “part” of oxygen in water, the relative atomic masses could then be determined.

(D)

A and B are correct.

(E)

A,B and C are all correct.

Relative Atomic Mass

Example: H 2 O

Relative Atomic Mass Example: H 2 O If one part of oxygen weighs 8 times are

If one part of oxygen weighs 8 times are much as two parts of hydrogen in a sample of water, then one oxygen atom weights 8

times as much as 2 hydrogen atoms mass.

this is relative atomic

Mendeleev and the Periodic Table (1869)

Mendeleev used relative atomic mass and periodic trends to order the elements; his table predicted the existence of elements

not yet discovered at the time (Ga, Sc, Ge

).

Periodic trends trumped relative atomic mass in some cases.

). Periodic trends trumped relative atomic mass in some cases. Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

Mass Spectrometry

Identifying Masses of Atoms (J. J. Thompson – 1910)

Identifying Masses of Atoms (J. J. Thompson – 1910) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 26

Moseley’s Determination of Atomic Number (1913)

Number of protons in nucleus corresponded to shift in energy of spectral lines (shift in wavelength)

to shift in energy of spectral lines (shift in wavelength) Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

How is it possible that the atomic number increases in order, yet the atomic masses do not?

(A)

There is no relationship between the atomic number and mass of the atom.

(B)

The masses of the protons for Te, I, and Xe have slightly different masses.

(C)

Since the numbers of neutrons do not necessarily increase from one atom to the next, it is possible for the atomic number to increase while the total mass does not increase.

(D)

A and B are both correct.

(E)

B and C are both correct.

A and B are both correct. (E) B and C are both correct. Chapter 2 <Atoms,

Atomic Mass vs. Mass Number

Atomic Mass vs. Mass Number Mass number is the total number of protons AND neutrons Chapter

Mass number is the total number of protons AND neutrons

Neutrons, Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Average Atomic Mass

Neutrons, Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Average Atomic Mass Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 30

The average mass (amu) of hydrogen is listed as 1.001 amu on the periodic table. If the three isotopes of hydrogen have a a mass of 1 amu, 2 amu, and 3 amu, respectively, how is this average atomic mass possible?

(A)

Hydrogen-1, hydrogen-2 (deuterium), and hydrogen-3 (tritium) must have different numbers of neutrons, which then shifts the mass closer to 1.001 amu.

(B)

The natural abundance of hydrogen-1 must be higher than the natural abundance of the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

(C)

The average atomic mass is a weighted average of the three isotopes, and since there is more hydrogen-1 in nature than either of the other two isotopes, the average is thus less than the simple average of the three isotope masses.

(D)

A and B are both correct.

(E)

B and C are both correct.

The Nuclear Model of the Atom:

Atomic Mass and Atomic Number

The Nuclear Model of the Atom: Atomic Mass and Atomic Number Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and

Use the mass symbol to determine the number of neutrons and protons in the following atom:

Carbon-12:

12 C

6

(A)

12 protons; 6 neutrons

(B)

12 neutrons; 6 protons

(C)

6 neutrons; 6 protons

(D)

12 neutrons; 12 protons

The next step

how do we get from the nuclear

model of the atom to the current model of the atom?

The next step

how do we get from the nuclear

model of the atom to the current model of the atom?

Quantum Theory! (Chapter 6)

A few interesting notes on the elements

Where did these elements come from anyway!?

Where did these elements come from anyway!? Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 36 / 68

The Elements of Life

The Elements of Life Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 37 / 68

Summary of atomic structure and symbolism

Definitions

Chemical symbol: a one- or two-letter abbreviation unique to each element

Atomic number: is the number of protons in a given element. There is one-to-one correspondence between atomic number and chemical symbol, i.e. the number of protons defines the element.

Mass number: is the number of neutrons and protons

element. Mass number: is the number of neutrons and protons Isotope: each of two (or more)

Isotope: each of two (or more) forms of an element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Working with atomic number, mass number and chemical symbol

Determine the atomic number and mass number for the chlorine isotope with 18 neutrons.

The atomic number of chlorine is 17, so chlorine has 17 protons, i.e. atomic number = 17

mass number = number of proton + number of neutrons = 17 + 18 = 35:

35

17

Cl

How many protons, electrons, and

neutrons are present in an atom of

24 52 Cr ?

The atomic number is located on the lower left: 24

Since the atom is neutral, # proton = # electrons = 24

Number of neutrons = mass # -

atomic # = 52 - 24 = 28

Atomic Mass

Dalton concluded that all atoms of a given element have the same mass.

The atomic mass represents the average mass of the isotopes the compose the element weighted according to the natural abundance of each isotope.

weighted according to the natural abundance of each isotope. Naturally occurring chlorine consists of 75.77% chlorine-35

Naturally occurring chlorine consists of 75.77% chlorine-35 (mass 34.97) and 24.23% chlorine-37 atoms (mass 36.97).

Atomic mass = 0.7577(34.97 amu) + 0.2423 (36.97 amu) = 35.45 amu

General formula for calculating atomic mass:

Atomic mass

=

(fraction of isotope n) × (mass of isotope n)

 

n

 

=

(fraction of isotope 1 × mass of isotope 1)

+

(fraction of isotope 2 × mass of isotope 2)

+

(fraction of isotope 3 × mass of isotope 3) +

Sample atomic mass calculation

Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes: Cu-63 with a mass of 62.9291 amu and a natural abundance of 69.17%, and Cu-65 with a mass of 64.9278 amu and a natural abundance of 30.83%. Calculate the atomic mass of copper.

Step 1: Convert percent natural abundance to decimal form

Fraction Cu-63 = 69.17 = 0.6917

100

Fraction Cu-65 = 30.83 = 0.3083

100

Step 2: Use the formula on the previous slide to calculate the atomic mass:

Atomic mass

=

0.6917(62.9296 amu) + 0.3083(64.9278 amu)

=

43.5284 amu + 20.0172 amu

=

63.5456 amu

=

63.55 amu

Representing Molecules Using Chemical Formulas

(a)

A molecular formula uses chemical symbols to indicate the types of atoms followed by subscripts to show the number of atoms of each type in the molecule.

(b)

A structural formula for a compound gives the same information as its molecular formula but also shows how the atoms are connected in the molecule.

but also shows how the atoms are connected in the molecule. Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and

Representing Molecules Using Chemical Formulas

An empirical formula provides the types of atoms present and the simplest whole-number ratio of the number of atoms (or ions) in the compound.

Example: benzene Benzene contains two elements, carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

For every carbon atom in benzene, there is one hydrogen atom. Therefore, the empirical formula for benzene is CH.

Experimental analysis of the molecular mass reveals that a molecule of benzene contains six hydrogen atoms and six carbon atoms, molecular formula for benzene is C 6 H 6

Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>
Chapter 2
<Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

44 / 68

Determining empirical formulas

Given that molecules of glucose contain 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms. What are the molecular and empirical formulas of glucose?

From the given information, the molecular formula is:

C 6 H 12 O 6

The simplest whole-number ratio of C to H to O is: 1:2:1, so the empirical formula is:

C 1 H 2 O 1

Can you see why glucose is called a carbohydrate?

Periodic Table

Sorting the elements

We can sort the elements into classes with common properties:

Metals: shiny, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals: dull, poor conductors of heat and electricity Metalloids: conduct heat and electricity moderately well, possess some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals

Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 48 / 68

Trends among the elements

Periodic law: the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

periodic table arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic numbers and groups atoms with similar properties in the same vertical column.

Periods: seven horizontal rows Groups: 18 vertical columns

MEMORIZE The elements can be further classified into:

Main-group elements (columns 1,2,13-18):

Group 1: Alkali metals Group 2: Alkali earth metals Group 17: Halogens Group 18: Nobel gases

Transition metals (columns 13-12), inner transition metals (bottom of table).

Further classification of the elements

Further classification of the elements Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 50 / 68

Ionic compounds

Ions

In a neutral atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons.

During chemical reactions, atoms can gain or loose electrons and become charged particles called ions.

Examples:

Neutral Li contains three protons and three electrons. However, Li often losses one electron to form Li + ions.

Li Li + + 1e

NOTE: The charge of an ion is indicated in the upper right corner of the chemical symbol.

Ions can also be negatively charged. Fluorine often forms a negatively charge ion during the course of chemical reactions:

F + 1e F

Predicting Ion Stability

Predicting Ion Stability Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 53 / 68

Monoatomic and polyatomic ions

Monoatomic ions are ions form from only one atom.

F , Cl , Na +

Polyatomic ions

are electrically

charged

molecules

, Na + Polyatomic ions are electrically charged molecules Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 54

Predicting the Formula of an Ionic Compound

The gemstone sapphire is a compound of aluminum cations (Al 3+ ) and oxygen anions (O 2 ). What is the formula of this compound?

( O 2 − ). What is the formula of this compound? The ionic compound must

The ionic compound must be electrically neutral.

Two Al 3+ would give us +6 charge, and three O 2 would give us six negative charges.

Predict the formula of the ionic compound formed between the sodium cation, Na + and the sulfide anion S 2 .

cation, Na + and the sulfide anion S 2 − . Two Na + cations give

Two Na + cations give a 2+ charge which will balance the 2charge from the sulfide.

Na 2 S

Nomenclature

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms Only One Type of Cation

Binary compounds contain only two different elements.

Binary compounds contain only two different elements. Examples: KCl Potassium Chloride CaO Calcium Oxide Table 3.2

Examples:

KCl

Potassium Chloride

CaO

Calcium Oxide

elements. Examples: KCl Potassium Chloride CaO Calcium Oxide Table 3.2 Nivaldo, 4 t h Edition Chapter

Table 3.2 Nivaldo, 4 th Edition

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Forms More Than One Kind of Cation

The name of the cation is followed by a Roman numeral in parentheses that indicates the charge of the metal.

Fe 2+ iron(II) Fe 3+ iron(III)

Fe 2 + → iron ( II ) Fe 3 + → iron ( III )

Examples:

CrBr 3 chromium(III)bromide

CuO copper(II)oxide

Examples: CrBr 3 chromium(III)bromide CuO copper(II)oxide Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 58 / 68

Some Common Polyatomic Ions (Memorize)

Some Common Polyatomic Ions (Memorize) Nivaldo 4 t h ed. Table 3.4 Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules,

Nivaldo 4 th ed. Table 3.4 Chapter 2

<Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

59 / 68

Some Common Polyatomic Ions

Many polyatomic ions are oxyanions.

Oxyanions are anions containing oxygen and another element.

When a series of oxyanons contains different numbers of oxygen atoms they are named systematically according to the number of oxygen atoms.

Two Ions in Series

NO

2

3

NO

nitrite

nitrate

If there are only two ions in the series, the one with more oxygen atoms as the ending ate and the one with fewer has the ending ite.

More than Two Ions in Series

ClO

ClO

2

3

4

ClO

ClO

hypochlorite

chlorite

chloate

perchlorate

If there are more than two ions in the series then the prefixes hypomeaning less than and per meaning more than.

Naming Molecular Compounds

Naming Molecular Compounds First list the more metal-like element (toward the bottom left of the periodic

First list the more metal-like element (toward the bottom left of the periodic table). Generally, write the name of the element with the smallest group number first. If the two elements lie in the same group, write the element with the greatest row number first. Use prefixes on each element to indicate the number of atoms present.

tri = 3 octa = 8

If there is only one atom of the first element the prefix monois normally not used.

mono = 1 hexa = 6

di = 2 hepta = 7

tetra = 4 nona = 9

penta = 5 deca = 10

Naming Molecular Compounds

Name each of the following compounds.

(a)

NI 3

(b)

PCl 5

(c)

P 4 S 10

(d)

NO 2

Naming Acids

We will have a lot more to say about acids next semester, for now we define an acid as a molecular compound that releases hydrogen ions (H + ).

Acids

have a sour taste

have the ability to dissolve many metals

are present in foods such as lemons and limes

are present in household cleaners

are generally categorized into two type, binary acids and oxyacids.

categorized into two type, binary acids and oxyacids . Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 63

Naming Acids

Naming Oxyacids

Naming Binary Acids

Oxyacids contain hydrogen and an oxyanion (an anion containing a nonmetal and oxygen).

If the oxyanion ends with ate:

Binary acids are composed of hydrogen and a non-metal.

: Binary acids are composed of hydrogen and a non-metal. HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid
: Binary acids are composed of hydrogen and a non-metal. HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid

HCl hydrochloric acid

HBr hydrobromic acid

Chapter 2

If the oxyanion ends with ite:

acid HBr hydrobromic acid Chapter 2 If the oxyanion ends with − ite : <Atoms, Molecules,

<Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

64 / 68

Naming Acids

We will have a lot more to say about acids next semester, for now we define an acid as a molecular compound that releases hydrogen ions (H + ).

Acids

have a sour taste

have the ability to dissolve many metals

are present in foods such as lemons and limes

are present in household cleaners

are generally categorized into two type, binary acids and oxyacids.

categorized into two type, binary acids and oxyacids . Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions> 65

Naming Oxyacids

Oxyacids contain hydrogen and an oxyanion (an anion containing a nonmetal and oxygen).

If the oxyanion ends with ate:

a nonmetal and oxygen). If the oxyanion ends with − ate : HNO 3 ( aq

HNO 3 (aq) nitric acid

If the oxyanion ends with ite:

( aq ) nitric acid If the oxyanion ends with − ite : H 2 SO

H 2 SO 3 (aq) sulfurous

acid

Summary: Naming Flowchart

Summary: Naming Flowchart Figure 3.11 Nivaldo 4 t h ed. Chapter 2 <Atoms, Molecules, and Ions>

Figure 3.11 Nivaldo 4 th ed.

Naming Acids Example Problems

Name the following compounds.

(a)

SO 2

(b)

HClO 4 (aq)

(c)

CoF 2