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LEARNING 1.

Sensory: lasts for seconds Charles Spearman two factor


- associated with change in behavior 2. Short term/working: couple of G-factor - general intelligence
from experience minutes. Sensitive to interference. S-factor - specific intelligence
3. Long term: limitless, lifetime
Classical conditioning ⁃Explicit - declarative Robert Sternberg
- ivan pavlov dog experiment ----episodic Triarchic Theory
Learning through association ⁃ ----semantic 1. Analytic Intelligence
Dog: bell + meat powder = salivate ⁃Implicit - Procedural 2. Practical Intelligence
Extinction: 3. Creative Intelligence
removal of learned response Why we forget
Spontaneous recovery: RELAPSE. - retrieval failure, law of disuse Emotional Quotient
learning again the learned response - Memory decay, aging Baron
Systematic Desensitization: subtle - Interference : retro/proactive 1. Interpersonal Skills
removal of fear/gradual exposure to - Motivated forgetting : 2. Intrapersonal Skills
feared object repression/suppression 3. Adaptability
Implosive therapy: - Cue dependent forgetting: 4. Stress Management
sudden exposure memory appear to be available nut 5. General Mood
not accessible
Practical examples
- Fears Ways to measure memory Self Efficacy
- Phobia (irrational fears) 1. Recall - verbatim - belief in one’s self given
2. Recognition realistic expectations
Operant Conditioning 3. Relearning How to build self efficacy
- BF Skinner, rats experiment 1. Verbal persuasion
- learning thru reinforcement INTELLIGENCE 2. Improving physical/emotional
- Strengthen the occurrence of - state
desired behavior 3. Social modelling
- Rewards: material things, IQ Changes
recognition Mentally Challenged
- Disuse
individuals
Instrumental Conditioning - Aging
- scores less than 70/80
- Learning thru rewards and - Change of interest
punishment
- Drug use 1. Moron - 50-70, regular class
- Extincts when rewards are not
satisfying anymore - Lack of sleep 2. Imbecile- 20-50, trainable
3. Idiot - 0-20, dependent
Reinforcements Deep vs Shallow Learning
- positive: giving a rewaard Etiology
- Negative: taking away bad How to deep learn? 1. Prenatal - xray, illness,
1. Write to memorize infection
Punishment 2. Ask questions 2. Natal - lack of O2 in brain
- positive: add bad stimuli 3. Make cognitive maps 3. Post natal - deprived
- Negative: remove pleasant 4. Collaborative learning environment, childhood
5. Go beyond academic diseases and poisoning
Law of Effect requirements
- Edward Thorn, experiment on cat MOTIVATION
- When experience is Louis Thurnstones - intervening variable, that
rewarding/satisfying, we repeat 7 primary abilities arouses, directs and sustains
- When not rewarding, we avoid it behavior
1. word fluency
2. verbal comprehension 1. Hypothetical construct - can
3. spatial visualization change
4. number facility 2. Not the only factor
MEMORY 5. associative memory determining behavior - bc
- record, store, retrieve 6. reasoning behavior is complex
- like a computer 7. perceptual speed 3. Selective and Directional
4. Leads to persistent behavior
3 stages
- Productive
Activation Arousal Theory
- we must maintain a level of Karen Horney
arousal from various activities - Compliant - towards people
(work)
- Aggressive - against people
Psychoanalytic Theory - Detached - away from people
- we are driven by unconscious - Welladjusted - uses all three
forces like sex and aggression
Approaches
1. Traits approach
Humanistic Theory 2. Psychoanalytic
- we are motivated by the - Shaped by unconscious
ultimate need: self (sex/aggression) and past
actualization accd to Maslow experiences
- Physiological - Id, ego, superego
- Safety - Defense mechanisms are
- Love and belonging because of conflict of id vs
- ego
Esteem
3. Behavioristic
- Self Actualization - Behavior is conditioned by
the environment
Social Learning Theory 4. Humanistic
- we are driven by lessons from
our and other’s past experiences
- Man is good, but shaped by
the environment
Motivation Concepts 5. Asian
1. Interest - Collectivist vs independent
2. Values - things important - Based on religion
3. Attitudes - opinions

2 types of Motivation
1. Intrinsic - self motivated
2. Extrinsic - rewards motivated

Locus of Control
1. Internal - attribute to self
2. External - attribute to fate

PERSONALITY
- totality of individual
- enduring/long-lasting
- Determined by nature/nurture

Carl Jung
Introvertion
Extraversion

Erich Fromm
- Receptive
- Exploitative
- Hoarding
- Marketing