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Mechanical Engineering Design

& Workshop
Course coordinator:

¾ Prof Marek Wiśniewski DSc PhD MSc Mech Eng

Institute for Vehicles, Machine Design and Operation

Room 406/A1
Phone 042 6312236
Fax 042 6312262
E-mail wisniew@p.lodz.pl
Mechanical Engineering Design
& Workshop
Study areas:

¾ Business and Technology

¾ Mechatronics

¾ Mathematics, Physics, Mechanics, Strength of
Materials, Technical Drawings, Materials Science,
Fabrication Technologies

¾ B.J. Hamrock, B.O. Jacobson, S.R. Schmid:

Fundamentals of Machine Elements. Boston:
WCB/McGraw Hill 1999.
¾ W. Beitz, K.-H. Küttner (Eds.): DUBBEL Handbook of
Mechanical Engineering. London: Springer-Verlag.
¾ Bonfiglioli Riduttori (Eds.): Gear Motor Handbook.
Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
¾ R.C. Juvinall, K.M. Marshek: Fundamentals of Machine
Component Design. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
¾ W. Horwatt, J. Bartoszewicz: Podstawy konstrukcji
maszyn dla elektryków. Warszawa: WNT 1978.






1. Gaining the terminology and key design issues

for specific machine elements including
springs, bearings, fasteners, gears, etc.
2. Applying mechanics and strength of materials
to machine element design
3. Predicting the operation life of machine
4. Learning current analytical and computational
tools in mechanical design
5. Gaining experience in formulating and solving
basic mechanical design problems

1. Ability to design machine elements for various

3. Ability to solve and optimize open ended design
4. Skills in using material/vendor data and computer
tools for mechanical design
5. Interest in learning and implementing new
machine design materials and methodologies.
6. Ability to effectively use the different analytical,
computational and graphical tools

• Introduction. Prerequisites. Literature.

Objectives. Outcomes. Contents of lecture. Role
of machine design. Calculations of machine
elements. Safety factors. Outline of designing.
Unification and standardisation.
• Threaded fasteners. Geometry and mechanics
of screw threads. Design of the power screws.
• Threaded fasteners: types, nomenclature and
strength classes of bolts and screws, types of
threads. Calculation of the threaded joints.
• Elastic machine elements: characteristics and
calculations for metallic and non-metallic
springs, spring systems and arrangements.

• Welded joints: types and methods of welding and

brazing. Calculation methods for welded joints.
• Dimension and shape tolerances. Standardised
shafts and holes tolerances. Fits of machine
elements. Interference fits: stress and deformation,
load carrying capacity.
• Design of shafts. Elements mounted on the shafts:
keys and splines; spline, involute and polygone
• Toothed gears: spur, bevel, helical, hypoid, worm
gearings. Gear systems.
• Calculations for toothed gears: geometry and load

• Couplings and brakes: types of couplings, basic

calculations, criteria of application.
• Drive systems: flat and V-belt transmissions, chain
drives. Geometry and load capacity of belt and chain
• Bearing systems: rolling element bearings, areas of
application, calculations for steady-state and
dynamic loads.
• Hydrodynamically lubricated bearings: calculations,
dimensionless characteristics for load carrying
capacity and friction losses.
• Fabrication technologies: machining, forging, casting
– machines and tools. Design and technology: single
and serial production.

A nineteen's century lathe

General definition: A machine is any device that
transmits or modifies material, energy and/or
information to perform or assist in the performance
of tasks. Examples: car, lathe, refrigerator,
computer memory (RAM, ROM, EPROM), computer
program (word processor, search engine).

Specialised definition: machine is an assembly of

linked parts or components, at least one of which
moves, with the appropriate actuators, control and
power circuits, etc., joined together for a specific
application, in particular for the processing,
treatment, moving or packaging of a material
(European Commission Directive 98/37/EC ).

Design is a mental plan, a scheme of attack, end

in view, adaptation of means to ends, preliminary
sketch for picture, invention (The Concise
Oxford Dictionary). Some physical object should
result from the design. This object is to be
communicated to others through its visualisation
(sketch, engineering drawing, computer
simulations etc.). Engineering is concerned with
the design of a solution to a practical problem.
(A scientist may ask "why?" and proceed to
research the answer to the question. By contrast,
engineers want to know how to solve a problem,
and how to implement that solution.)
Design: tools
Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is a basic
tool to create drawings and/or mathematical models
of designs. Computer models of designs can be
checked for flaws without having to make expensive
and time-consuming prototypes. The computer can
automatically translate some models to instructions
suitable for CNC (Computer Numeric Control)
machinery. The computer also allows increased
reuse of previously developed designs, by presenting
an engineer with a library of predefined parts ready to
be used in designs.
Physical models of designs (usually more expensive
than mathematical ones) include among others: scale
models, non-destructive testing, destructive tests.
Engineering calculations
Problems covered by the Strength of Materials

1. Stress and deformation analysis:

• Tension and compression
• Direct shear stress
• Torsional shear stress
• Bending stress
2. Combined stresses (analysis of the complex
loading conditions)
3. Static indeterminacy (deflections, energetic
4. Stability of structures (buckling of columns)
Engineering calculations
Problems that shall be introduced in the
Mechanical Engineering Design:

1. Applying methods of the Strength of Materials to

machine elements
2. Vibration analysis of mechanical systems
3. Tribology (friction and wear) considerations:
• Friction losses and efficiency of
• Lifetime of rubbing couples in respect
to their abrasive wear
• Lifetime of rubbing elements in respect
to their surface fatigue
• Limiting thermal operating conditions
of sliding contacts
Engineering materials
Engineering materials
Factor of safety
Safety factor X is a multiplier applied to the
calculated maximum load (force, torque, bending
moment or a combination) to which a component or
assembly will be subjected. The factor of safety of a
structure under static loads can be expressed in
terms of normal stresses as
σ ult
σ des
or for tangential stresses as
τ ult
τ des
Index ult denotes the ultimate stress and des is the
design one.
Factor of safety
Strength test: a) stress vs. deformation, b) tested specimen

a) Stress σ b)

Deformation ε

Note Polish symbols: Rm for ultimate stress σult, Re for

yield stress σy
Factor of safety
Safety criterion for fluctuating stress
Factor of safety
Fluctuating stress

Factor of safety

Factor of safety (also called design factor) is a

measure of the relative safety (or redundancy, or
„overengineering”) of the load-carrying component
or assembly. A factor of safety of 1 implies no safety
at all.

An appropriate factor of safety is chosen based on a

number of considerations:
•the accuracy of load and wear estimates
•the quality of materials chosen
•the consequences of failure
•the cost of redundancy
Factor of safety

Typical figures for factor of safety:

• Components whose failure could result in
substantial financial loss, serious injury or death:
X = 4 - 16
• Normal case for structures or machine elements:
X = 2 - 4 (lower figures for ductile materials,
higher for brittle ones; lower figures for high
confidence in the knowledge of operating
conditions; lower figures for high certainty about
material properties)
• Elements of aircrafts: X = 1.15 – 1.25
• Space exploration: X = 1.01 – 1.05
Role of machine design
Feasibility study
Conception (need) Operations research
Detail design
Reserarch and
DESIGN development (R&D)
Industrial design
Manufacturing Industrial relations

Distribution (sale)

Operation Note the feedback

from all stages of
Maintenance machine life to
Occupations of engineers

German Society of Engineers (VDI) reported

1998 the following activities:

•Design 28%
•Research and development 10%
•Fabrication and control 24%
•Sales and marketing 10%
•Maintenance and transport 16%
•Management 12%
Outline of designing

9 Problem statement: defining the machine inputs

and outputs, describing the functional and
economic (materials and fabrication) limitations
9 Identifying the state of the art: generating and
evaluating the bank of existing solutions
(inventions could be added)
9 Drafting a number of solutions, evaluating them
and choosing the (probably) best variant
according to specified criteria
Outline of designing

Flowchart of the
design process
Outline of designing
Criteria (weights) for evaluation of solutions
Outline of designing

9 all criteria uniformly applied across all

candidates when selecting the most
suitable solution
9 verification of design: practicalisation
9 remembering Murphy’s law („if anything
can go wrong, it will”)
9 the optimum (?) solution

A variety of line styles are used to graphically represent

physical objects. Types of lines include the following:
•visible - are continuous lines used to depict edges
directly visible from a particular angle
•hidden - are short-dashed lines that may be used to
represent edges that are not directly visible
•center - are alternately long- and short-dashed lines that
may be used to represent the axes of circular features
•section - are thin lines in a parallel pattern used to
indicate surfaces in section views resulting from
"cutting." Section lines are commonly referred to as

The objects can be represented with different views

(front, rear, top, bottom, left and right side). There are
two ways to place the different views on the drawing:

• the ISO standard considers a projection on the

opposite direction, like an X-ray radiography; the top
view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of
the front view... This is called First Angle Projection.

• the American standard (called Third Angle Projection)

places the left view on the left and the top view on the
The standard in use is represented by a truncated cone
that shows the projection used:

a) First angle projection

b) Third angle projection

a) b)
In most cases, a single projection is not sufficient to show all
necessary features, and several views are used. Types of
views include the following:
• orthographic projection - show the object as it looks from
the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically
positioned relative to each other according to the rules of
either first-angle or third-angle projection. Not all views are
necessarily used (orthographic comes from the Greek for
straight drawing).
• section - depict what the object would look like if it were
cut perfectly along cutting plane lines defined in a particular
view, and rotated 90° to directly view the resulting surface(s)
• detail - show portions of other views, magnified for clarity
• auxiliary projection - similar to orthographic projections,
however the directions of viewing are other than those for
orthographic projections.
The required sizes of features are conveyed through use of
dimensions. Distances may be indicated with either of two
standardized forms of dimension: linear and ordinate.
• With linear dimensions, two parallel lines, called extension lines,
spaced at the distance between two features, are shown at each of
the features. A line perpendicular to the extension lines, called a
dimension line, with arrows at its endpoints, is shown between,
and terminating at, the extension lines. The distance is indicated
numerically at the midpoint of the dimension line, either adjacent
to it, or in a gap provided for it.
• With ordinate dimensions, one horizontal and one vertical
extension line establish an origin for the entire view. The origin is
identified with zeroes placed at the ends of these extension lines.
Distances along the x- and y-axes to other features are specified
using other extension lines, with the distances indicated
numerically at their ends.
Sizes of circular features are indicated using either diametral
or radial dimensions.
Radial dimensions use an R followed by the value for the
Diametral dimensions use a Greek character Φ (circle with
forward-leaning diagonal line through it) called the diameter
symbol, followed by the value for the diameter.
A radially-aligned line with arrowhead pointing to the circular
feature, called a leader, is used in conjunction with both
diametral and radial dimensions.
All types of dimensions are typically composed of two parts:
the nominal value, which is the "ideal" size of the feature, and
the tolerance, which specifies the amount that the value may
vary above and below the nominal. Tolerancing of
dimensions and roughness requirements will be given in
following chapters.


Notes – textual information – are also typically

included in drawings, specifying details not otherwise
conveyed. Notes are almost always in completely
uppercase characters, for uniformity and maximal
legibility after duplication of the drawing, which may
involve substantial reduction in size.

Leaders may be used in conjunction with notes in

order to point to a particular feature or object that the
note concerns.
Hydraulic piston

Third-angle projection!
Industrial design rights
Industrial design rights are intellectual property rights that
protect the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian.
An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape,
configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination
of pattern and color in three dimensional form containing
aesthetic value. An industrial design can be a two- or three-
dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial
commodity or handicraft. Under the Hague Agreement
Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs,
a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
administered treaty, a procedure for an international registration
exists. An applicant can file for a single international deposit with
WIPO or with the national office in a country party to the treaty.
The design will then be protected in as many member countries
of the treaty as desired. (THEORY)
Industrial design rights