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Lesson Plan in Science

I. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. determine what is genetic mutation
2. identify DNA and RNA using the Genetic Code Table

II. Subject Matter
A. Topic: Mutation
B. Materials: Visual aids, videos
C. References:
 Science Learner’s Material 10, pp. 280-293
 www.shmoop.com
 education-portal.com
D. Science Process: Observing, Communicating, Comparing, Classifying
E. Value Integration: To appreciate the importance of mutating genes

III. Learning Task
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Prayer
2. Checking of Attendance
3. Review
Ask the students about the previous discussion.
4. Unlocking of difficult terms
 amino acid – the building blocks of a protein molecule
 codon – sequence of 3 DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino
acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
 anticodon - a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger
RNA
 mRNA – messenger RNA; brings information from the DNA in the nucleus to the
cytoplasm
 tRNA – transfer RNA; an adaptor molecule composed of RNA that serves as the physical
link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins

B. Lesson Proper
1. Activity
Procedure:
1. Copy and fill in the table.
2. Refer to the Genetic Code Table to identify the amino acid.
Order of bases Order of bases Order of bases Amino Acid
in DNA in mRNA in tRNA Coded into
(codon) Proteins
TAG AUC
CAT
GUC
CCA
Methionine
Valine
ACU
ACA UGU
AAA
GAA CUU

Look for the first letter of the mRNA codon on the left side of the genetic code table (A). Analysis Common Mistakes in Mutation Changes in the DNA sequence may delete such protein or change its structure. may cause changes in the kind. Only mutations in sex cells pass on to offspring. Many diseases are caused by the effects of inherited genes. second column (codon). adenine pairs with uracil and guanine pairs with cytosine. sequence and number of amino acids of proteins synthesized by cells. If these cells are fertilized. and the third letter on the right side column (G). To determine the order of the bases in the first column (DNA).  Chromosomal mutation occurs at the chromosome level resulting in gene deletion. then the mutated gene becomes a part of the genetic makeup of the offspring. e.. Mutations can occur in 2 different types of cells: reproductive cells and body cells. Hemoglobin Gene Mutation . AUG using the Genetic Code Table. there is only a small difference between DNA sequences in the defective gene and a normal one. To identify the amino acid. 2. a different message may result.g. This difference is enough to cause serious and often serious and often fatal diseases. duplication or rearrangement that may occur during the cell cycle and meiosis. Mutations affect the reproductive cells of an organism by changing the sequence of nucleotides within a gene in a sperm or an egg cell. Any change in the sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA. 3. AUG cods for the amino acid – methionine. In most cases. When the code in a gene is changed. There are 2 types of mutations that can occur in gamete cells:  Gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. any mistake in the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA or pairing of the codon and anticodon. 5. consider the complementary base pairs in DNA: adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. These disease-causing genes are the result of a mutation. While in RNA. 4. and third column (anticodon). They may be passed from one generation to the next if present in gametes. It may be caused by parts of chromosomes breaking off or rejoining incorrectly. the second letter of the mRNA on the second letter column (U). look at the bases in the mRNA codon. Do the same with the other codons in the chart.

3. Aspartic acid 10. Glycine 9. Evaluation Given the list of amino acids. Glutamic acid V. Asparagine 7. Palencia Central Philippines State University . Patricia Ann F. This shows the changes in the sequences of bases in normal hemoglobin and the one affected by mutation. Abstraction What is mutation? How many amino acids are there in the Genetic Code Table? 4. Threonine 5. 1. Assignment Bring modeling clay with different colors for the next activity. These diseased cells carry less oxygen than normal cells. People affected by the disease eventually die. Arginine 4. Refer to the Genetic Code Table. what would happen? IV. Methionine 2. Leucine 3. A recessive gene causes sickle-cell anemia. Application What if there are no proteins in our body. determine the sequence of bases in the codon of the mRNA and anticodon tRNA. where most of the red blood cells stiffen and become sickle shape in affected people. Lysine 6. Valine 8.