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4 UNIT TEST A

Name: _______________________________________________ Grade: _____ Date: _______

Matter in nature

1. Justify, according to the Kinetic Particle Theory the three states of matter.

2. Complete in your notebook the following sentences:


a) When a substance is at a lower temperature than its ____________ point, it is in solid state.
b) When a substance is at a higher temperature than its ____________ point, it is in gaseous
state.
c) If its temperature is between the melting temperature and the boiling temperature, substances
are in ____________ state.

3. Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous:


• fine sand with gravel
• water with honey
• chocolate with croutons
• water with ice,
• ground coffee with coffee beans
• steel
• salt water
• sterling silver
• water with petrol
• sand with iron
• water with oil
• carbonated beverages.

4. What are colloidal dispersions? How can they be distinguished from true solutions? Indicate at
least three examples of colloidal dispersions.

5. Wine is formed mainly of water and alcohol (the former in lesser proportion):
a) Identify which one is the solute and which one is the solvent.
b) Explain how you would separate these two liquids, knowing that alcohol boils at 78 ºC and
water at 100 ºC.
c) Draw a diagram of the required assembly for point b).

thermometer – distillation head– cooling water – receiving flask –water inlet – water outlet– distilled
water

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL / © Oxford University Press España, S. A. Physics and Chemistry 2 ESO
4 UNIT TEST A

Name: _______________________________________________ Grade: _____ Date: _______

Matter in nature

6. We prepare a solution dissolving 25 g of copper sulphate (II), CuSO4, in 150 g of water.


a) Justify which one is the solute and which one is the solvent.
b) Calculate the mass of the solution.
c) Calculate the percentage by mass of solute in this solution.

7. What is the mass concentration of a potassium bromide solution in water, obtained by dissolving
3,1 g of the forementioned salt in water until achieving a final volume of 250 mL solution?

8. How would you separate the components of the following mixtures?


a) Sugar and sand.
b) Aluminium shavings and iron filings.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL / © Oxford University Press España, S. A. Physics and Chemistry 2 ESO
4 UNIT TEST A. ANSWER KEY

Name: _______________________________________________ Grade: _____ Date: _______

Matter in nature
1. Justify, according to the Kinetic Particle Theory the three states of matter.

In solids, particles are very close to each other. The attraction forces between them are very
intense. Thus, they occupy fixed positions, in which they can only vibrate.

In liquids, particles are rather close to each other. The attraction forces are intense, although
less than in solids, this allows its particles to have a better mobility: apart from vibrating, they
can also move, which permits liquids to flow, to change its form and to be penetrable.

In gases, particles are separate from each other. The attraction forces between them are very
weak, which implies freedom of movement. Thus, gases flow and tend to occupy the whole
volume of the recipient that contains them and adopt its form. They are also penetrable.

2. Complete in your notebook the following sentences:


a) When a substance is at a lower temperature than its melting point, it is in solid state.
b) When a substance is at a higher temperature than its boiling point, it is in gaseous state.
c) If its temperature is between the melting temperature and the boiling temperature, substances
are in liquid state.

3. Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous:


• fine sand with gravel Heterogeneous mixture
• water with honey Homogeneous mixture
• chocolate with croutons Heterogeneous mixture
• water with ice Heterogeneous mixture
• ground coffee with coffee beans Heterogeneous mixture
• steel Homogeneous mixture
• salt water Homogeneous mixture
• sterling silver Homogeneous mixture
• water with petrol Heterogeneous mixture
• sand with iron Heterogeneous mixture
• water with oil Heterogeneous mixture
• carbonated beverages Homogeneous mixture

4. What are colloidal dispersions? How can they be distinguished from true solutions? Indicate at
least three examples of colloidal dispersions.

Dispersions or colloidal solutions are a special type of heterogeneous mixtures in which


the particles of solute (invisible at plain sight) have an intermediate size between the ones
of the solutions (or homogeneous mixtures) and the ones of heterogeneous mixtures.

To distinguish them, a laser beam has to pass through them. In the case of a “true”
solution, such as water with sugar, the beam cannot be seen. Nevertheless, the laser beam
is visible through a colloidal dispersion.

Examples: cosmetic creams, gelatine, royal jelly, soap foam, smoke, paints…

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL / © Oxford University Press España, S. A. Physics and Chemistry 2 ESO
4 UNIT TEST A. ANSWER KEY

Name: _______________________________________________ Grade: _____ Date: _______

Matter in nature
5. Wine is formed mainly of water and alcohol (the former in lesser proportion):
a) Identify which one is the solute and which one is the solvent.
Alcohol is the solute and water is the solvent.
b) Explain how you would separate these two liquids, knowing that alcohol boils at 78 ºC and
water at 100 ºC.
By distillation since both components have different boiling points.
c) Draw a diagram of the required assembly for point b).

thermometer – distillation head– cooling water – receiving flask –water inlet – water outlet–
distilled water

6. We prepare a solution dissolving 25 g of copper sulphate (II), CuSO4, in 150 g of water.


a) Justify which one is the solute and which one is the solvent.
Copper sulphate is the solute, because it is the component that appears in lesser
proportion, and water is the solvent since it is the component that appears in greater
proportion.
b) Calculate the mass of the solution.
m (solution) = m (solute) + m (solvent) = 25 g + 150 g = 175 g
c) Calculate the percentage by mass of solute in this solution.

25 g of CuSO4
% CuSO4 = ·100 = 14,3 % of CuSO4
175 g solution

7. What is the mass concentration of a potassium bromide solution in water, obtained by dissolving
3,1 g of the forementioned salt in water until achieving a final volume of 250 mL solution?

250 mL = 0,25 L

g/L = 3,1 g /0,25 L = 12,4 g/L

8. How would you separate the components of the following mixtures?


a) Sugar and sand.

By adding water to the mixture and stirring until the sugar has completely dissolved.
Then, separating the sand by filtration, which is insoluble in water, and subsequently
recollecting the sugar by evaporation-crystallisation.

b) Aluminium shavings and iron filings.

By magnetic separation, using a magnet, since they have different magnetic properties,
thus, iron remains stuck to the magnet, whereas aluminium does not.

PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL / © Oxford University Press España, S. A. Physics and Chemistry 2 ESO