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Chapter 9 Review

What is a plasmid? small, extracellular, generally circular DNA molecules, that are typically 2-
100kb in size and carry non-essential genes that may offer a select advantage to the bacteria

What is an episome? Plasmid that can replicated automostly as well as integrated inti
bacterial chromosome.

1.conjugation: Exchange of DNa By cell to cell contact

2.Transformation: Direct absorption of NAKED DNA by living bacteria.

3. transduction: Transfer of DNA is mediated by bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria)


*NO direct contact between bacteria

4. specialized transduction Phage: Transfers genes from a particular region of the bacterial
chromosome.

5.generalized transduction Phage: Transfer DNA derived from any part of the bacterial
chromosome.

6.What is a F factor: (The Fertility factor) allows genes to be transferred from one bacterium
carrying the factor to another bacterium lacking the factor by conjugation.
* The F factor is an episome: A genetic element that can insert into chromosome or replicate as
Cingular plasmid

7.Hfr strain: High frequency of recombination. F factor is integrated into the bacterial
chromosome, behave as F+ cells forming sex pili and undergoing conjugation with F- cells, only
allows recombination usually doesn't result in F+

8.F’ factor: F factor has excised from the bacterial chromosome and taken a small amount of the
bacterial chromosome with it, these bacterial chromosomal genes are carried with the F plasmid

F+ x F- = two F+ cells (F- cell becomes F+)


Hfr x F- = one Hfr cell and one F- (no change, rarely will become F+)
F' x F- = two F' cells (F- cell becomes F')

9. auxotroph: Mutant organisms requiring certain nutrients for growth. They are unable to
survive in minimal medium

10. prototroph? Naturally self-sufficient , they can exist on a subtracted of simple inorganic
salts and minimal culture medium.
11. Is an F+ cell a donor or recipient in the process of conjugation?
The donor cell is F+; carries the fertility factor. Conjugation (mating) occurs between an
F+ donor and an F- recipient

12. Can conjugation occur between two F+ cells? Can it occur between two F- cells?

13. Understand how to analyze conjugation data in conjugation mapping.

14. What is the relationship between frequency of co-transformation and the distance
(linkage) between two genes?
genes that are closely linked will have a higher chance of co-transformation; if co-transformation
for two genes is higher than the product of the two individual transformation freq. then the two
genes must be close together

15.What type of bacteriophages carry out specialized transduction?


The temperate bacteriophage Lambda

16.What is meant by virulent phage?


a bacteriophage that reproduces only through the lytic cycle and kills its host cell

17.What is meant by temperate phage?


a bacteriophage that utilizes the lysogenic cycle, in which the phage DNA integrates into the
bacterial chromosome and remains in an inactive state

Transduction: a process by which bacteriophages (bacterial viruses) transfer genes from one
bacterium to another, once the DNA has been introduces into a recipient cell it can undergo
genetic recombination with a homologous sequences in the host (recipient) chromosome
Lysogenic Cycle

Step one?
bacteriophage inserts its genome into the host bacterial chromosome. literally becomes part of
host chromosome

integrated state of bacteriophage and host chromosome is called?


a prophage

step two?
prophage will remain integrated and replicate along with the host chromosome until
environmental conditions become bad

These cells have a choice of their life cycle: lytic or lysogenice they are called?
Temperate phages

an example of a temperate phage?


Bacteriophage lambda

specialized transduction?
temperate phages are capable of this, only specific genes can be transferred by this mechanism.
Specifically, the genes that flank the integration site

Homologous recombination leads to?


integration of the prophage

The Lytic Life Cycle