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1 ) discuss the essence of transportation engineering in the field of CE

2.) Enumerate the diff. Mode of transportation. Give a brief discussion of each type

3.) Differentiate a law from an ordinance. Cite one specific example of the 2

4.) Give your opinion regarding the proposal to merge DPWH and DTO as one government

5.) Discuss some legal constraints and impedements in the implementation of the new road right of way

1. Essence of transportation engineering in the field of civil engineering.

Transportation engineering is the application of scientific process (such as observation, analysis
and deduction) in order to plan, design, operate and manage transportation facilities. This considers
different factors including population, land use, travel patterns and volumes, laws and ordinances,
economic activity etc. The major essence of transportation engineering in the field of civil engineering is
the overall planning and management of roads, highways and other modes of transportation. The careful
planning of these different modes of transportation would result to a more efficient and balanced flow of
traffic in the different parts of an area. This goes hand in hand with the construction of structures and
other public facilities. Through transportation engineering, roads and railways would be carefully planned
out together with the location of the structures in order to avoid higher amounts of traffic being
accumulated in an area.
2. Enumerate the different mode of transportation. Give a brief discussion of each type

Roadways – this is a strip of land (either paved, concrete, or not) in which vehicles pass on to travel from
one point of another. Roadways may be majorly categorized as local roads which has very good
accessibility but offer lower speed of travel, or intercity roads which offer high speed of travel but have
limited accessibility.
Railways – a railway is a transportation system involving vehicles that uses rail tracks to move from one
point to another. Locomotive vehicles such as trains are involved in railways, either using diesel or
electricity as fuel. In the old days, coal powered trains are used but has been rarely used today.
Waterways – a transportation system which uses channels in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and oceans
to travel from one point to another. This involves ferries, ships, and other water vessels and is mainly used
for inter-island transports. Importing and exporting large amount of goods typically involves waterways.
Airways – mode of transportation that involves air routes to travel from one point to another. Air routes
are paths in the air based on directness of connection, prevailing atmospheric conditions, international
agreement and safety issues etc. Airways are typically used in transports which require farther distances
and lesser transportation time.

3.) Differentiate a law from an ordinance. Cite one specific example of the 2

A law is a body of rules which is issued by a government, or to be applied by courts of higher authorities.
Basically, these are rules which are permanently established for with a higher scope or area of effect. In
the Philippines, laws are named as republic acts. One example of a Philippine law is the REPUBLIC ACT NO.
Engineering Law which details the definition of the civil engineering profession in the Philippines.

On the other hand, an ordinance are also laws, but passed by lower-lever jurisdictions or lesser authorities,
usually in a municipal government. Ordinances are based and cannot disagree with laws, because
ordinances have lesser jurisdictions compared to laws. An example is the Cebu ordinance CREATING THE

4. Discuss geometric properties

Road cross section – this includes the parts and other facilities included in a road such as the drainage,
curb, ramps, slope of the road, centerline etc.
Vertical alignment - The vertical alignment includes straight (tangent) highway grades and the parabolic
curves that connect these grades. The design of vertical alignments involves the selection of suitable
grades for the tangent sections and the appropriate length of vertical curves.

Horizontal elements- The horizontal alignment includes the straight (tangent) sections of the roadway and
the circular curves that connect their change in direction. This serves as the primary controlling element
associated with the design of all types of public streets and highways.

Sight distance – is the actual distance along a road surface in which stationary or moving objects are visible
to the driver at a specified height. This is important in order to provide adequate sight distance to prevent
road accidents.

5. Road cross section