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# Numerical studies of texture and

## liberation in microscope images

Everardo Suarez S.
Pedro Carrasco C.
Objective
• Obtain relevant information from a
microscopical image to calculate the liberation
factor for a mineral of interest
Image Preparation
• Define with a geologist which is the area of
interest in the image
• Transform the image into a binary type
• Calculate the divisions for the different
particle size
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Numerical models
• Take the data from the binary image
• Use the data to calculate the liberation factor
and differentiate the texture of the mineral
using the three models proposed
– Proportional model
– Maximum content
– Heterogeneity Model
APLICATION IN DIFFERENT CASES
• We work with five different images
• The white area represents chalcopyrite
• The size of the images is 7447 x 5585 microns
• The resolution of the images is 2048x1536
pixels
IMAGE DETAIL
• For the every image particles
12
diameter (mm)
1862
48 931
we have: 192 465
768 233
3072 116
12288 58
• With these ‘particles’ we 49152 29
196608 15
apply the three models 786432
3145728
7
4
Case L1
Case L2
Case L3
Case L4
Case L5
WORKING WITH INDICATORS

## THE PROPORTIONAL METHOD

PROPORTIONAL METHOD
• Take account the total of ones in the image
• Number of ones into a particle
• When the particle’s average is 1, it is liberated
• Calculate the ratio of the liberated particles
respect to the total
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6
l

0,5 L1
0,4 L2
0,3 L3
0,2 L4
0,1 L5
0

## 1 10 100 1000 10000

Particle Size(mm)
CONCLUSIONS FOR THE
PROPORTIONAL MODEL
• There is differentiation on the texture of the
image
• This liberation factor is affected by the size of
the mineralization
PRACTICAL MODEL FOR THE LIBERATION FACTOR

MAXIMUM CONTENT
MAXIMUM CONTENT
• We work with the equation for maximum content

a max  a L
l 
1  aL
– The values of a is the concentration of mineral

## • We calculate the liberation factor using the maximum

content of mineral find into all particles
AMAX1 AMAX2 AMAX3 AMAX4 AMAX5

0,9

0,8

0,7
Remark
Same slope
0,6
l

0,5 Amax1
0,4 Amax2
0,3 Amax3
0,2 Amax4
0,1 Amax5
0

## 1 10 100 1000 10000

Particle Size (mm)
CONCLUSION FOR THE
MAXIMUN CONTENT MODEL
• This model works better when the mineral is
disseminated and the content is low
• Use this model in coarser particles
• The slope is similar in all the cases
THEORICAL MODEL FOR THE LIBERATION FACTOR

HETEROGENEITY MODEL
HETEROGENEITY MODEL
• Using the variance of the content of
chalcopyrite between particles
  
2

VAR Z  2
 H
N F
 mi a i  a L 
H    
1 M L aL 
• The a is the concentration of mineral in the particle or in the lot

## • The heterogeneity is related with the

Mineralogical Factor by
Y  H  c  l
HETEROGENEITY MODEL
• Rearranging the equation, we obtain the
liberation factor for the grain sized class :
Y H
l  
c c
LH1 LH2 LH3 LH4 LH5

0,9

0,8

0,7

0,6
l

0,5 LH1
0,4 LH2
0,3 LH3
0,2 LH4
0,1 LH5
0

## 1 10 100 1000 10000

Particle Size(mm)
CONCLUSIONS FOR THE
HETEROGENEITY MODEL
• We can differentiate the textures from the
images
• The first and second case are have the same
heterogeneity because they have the same
particle size
• The fifth case is and opposite situation. It
liberates at coarse size
EXTENDED MODEL FOR THE LIBERATION FACTOR

## APPLICATIONS OF THE LIBERATION’S CURVE

COMPARE WITH LIBERATION’S MODELS
• The models simulate the liberation’s curve
• Use our liberation´s curve to obtain the
liberation diameter [dl ] (when l =0.85)
• Replacing the values into the Gy’s extended
model for liberation to calculate the exponent
b at different particles size
b
 dl 
l  
 d 
LH1 LH2 LH3 LH4 LH5

1,2

1,1 LH1

1 LH2

LH3
0,9
LH4
0,8
LH5
Calculated b

0,7

0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0,1
29 58 116 233 465 931
0
10 100 1000

## Particle Size (mm)

Conclusions for the Exponent
• The exponent is near to 0.5 when the
conditions are very special, with a
disseminated mineral and between a
particle’s diameter of 100-300 mm
• When the mineral is in veins, the exponent is
lower than 0.5
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
• The three models can discriminate the texture
for the studied cases
• We can build the liberation´s curve for a
mineral
• The next step will be the experimental
validation