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Sampling protocols from heterogeneity tests on

gold, copper and polymetallic ores of Mexico

Pablo González
Servicios Administrativos Peñoles, S. A. de C. V, México

José A. Delgadillo
Universidad Autónoma de San Luís Potosí, México
Content
• Introduction
• Methodology
• Experimental results
• Sampling protocol for copper ores
• Sampling protocol for gold and polymetallic ores
• Conclusions
Introduction

Sampling is an important issue in:


– Exploration

– Ore control

– Process control

– Metallurgical accounting

– Marketing
Introduction
Objectives:
– Optimise protocols in actual operations

2 Gold mines

1 Copper mine

8 Polymetallic mines with Au, Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn


Introduction
Objectives:
– Optimise protocols in actual operations

2 Gold mines

1 Copper mine

8 Polymetallic mines with Au, Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn

– Design protocols for advanced exploration projects


Introduction
Objectives:
– Optimise protocols in actual operations

2 Gold mines

1 Copper mine

8 Polymetallic mines with Au, Ag, Pb, Cu and Zn

– Design protocols for advanced exploration projects

– Apply protocols in early exploration projects


Methodology
38 Heterogeneity tests were performed in order
to determine “C” in the Pierre Gy equation
Methodology
38 Heterogeneity tests were performed in order
to determine “C” in the Pierre Gy equation

Where:
2
S FSE = Variance of fundamental sampling error
C = Sampling constant for particle size “d”
d = Maximum diameter particle size as K95, cm
MS = Sample mass at any given stage, g
ML = Lot mass at any given stage, g
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
• Select the fraction -12.7 +6.3 mm
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
• Select the fraction -12.7 +6.3 mm
• Obtain randomly 100 samples with
30 fragments each one and perform assay
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
• Select the fraction -12.7 +6.3 mm
• Obtain randomly 100 samples with
30 fragments each one and perform assay
• Calculate “C”
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
• Select the fraction -12.7 +6.3 mm
• Obtain randomly 100 samples with
30 fragments each one and perform assay
• Calculate “C”
• Construct nomogram
Methodology
• Define a lithology, mine section or zone of interes
• Colect 250 kg from increments of 5 kg
• Crush to -19 mm and perform screen analysis
• Select the fraction -12.7 +6.3 mm
• Obtain randomly 100 samples with
30 fragments each one and perform assay
• Calculate “C”
• Construct nomogram
• Define sampling protocol
Methodology

Where:
2
S = Variance of assay
2
a = Average assay squared
N = Number of fragments per sample
ρ = Density of fragments
Methodology
From sampling theory:

Where:
f = Shape factor
g = Particle size distribution factor
c = Mineralogical factor
l = Liberation factor
Methodology
If:
Methodology
If:

And:
Methodology
If:

And:

Then:
Methodology
If:

And:

Then:
Copper ores results
Boxplot for Cu ores
35

30

25
K value

20

15

10
Nomogram for copper ores
Sampling protocol for copper ores
Gold and polymetallic ores results
Boxplot for gold and polymetallic ores
700

600

500

400
K values

300

200

100

Au Cu Pb Ag Zn
Nomogram for gold and polymetallic ores
Sampling protocol for gold and polymetallic ores
Conclusions
• Heterogeneity tests are necessary in order to
design an appropriated sampling protocol.
Conclusions
• Heterogeneity tests are necessary in order to
design an appropriated sampling protocol.
• Copper ores were the less heterogeneous.
Conclusions
• Heterogeneity tests are necessary in order to
design an appropriated sampling protocol.
• Copper ores were the less heterogeneous.
• Heterogeneity in gold and polymetallic ores
was Au>Cu>Pb>Ag>Zn.
Conclusions
• Heterogeneity tests are necessary in order to
design an appropriated sampling protocol.
• Copper ores were the less heterogeneous.
• Heterogeneity in gold and polymetallic ores was
Au>Cu>Pb>Ag>Zn.
• Sampling protocols in actual operations and
advanced explorations projects were
optimized.
Conclusions
• Heterogeneity tests are necessary in order to
design an appropriated sampling protocol.
• Copper ores were the less heterogeneous.
• Heterogeneity in gold and polymetallic ores
was Au>Cu>Pb>Ag>Zn.
• Sampling protocols in actual operations and
advanced exploration projects were optimized.
• Protocols can be used as a guide during early
exploration stages in Mexico.
Gracias