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Optical Instruments ||Chapter 4 || PHYSICS

Fundamental Questions
Q1) What are optical instruments?
Ans) Optical instruments are defined as the instruments used to enhance the
viewing capacity of the human eye. They can be based on the phenomenon of the
reflection or refraction of light or both. E.g. cameras, microscopes, telescopes.
Q2) What is a telescope?
Ans) The telescope is an optical instrument that is used to view distant objects,
clearly. The first telescope was invented by Johnnes Kepler in 1611. There are
different types of telescopes used for different purposes. An astronomical
telescope is used to view celestial bodies and a terrestrial telescope is used to view
distant objects on the earth’s surface.
Q3) Explain the working of telescope?
Ans) A telescope consists of two convex lenses. They are objective lens of a very
large focal length and eye lens of very small focal length. These convex lenses are
mounted on separate metallic tubes which can easily slide into one another. These
tubes are backend from inside, so as to prevent reflection of light from its side.
Let AB is a distant object in front of objective lens. It forms its image A1B1 which is
inverted and diminished almost close to its principal focus F. The eye lens is so
adjusted that the image A1B1 falls within the optical centre and the principal focus
Fe of the eye lens. This gives rise to a divergent beam, which on reaching the eye,
appears to be coming from A2B2. Thus, A2B2 is the image of the object which is
virtual, erect and magnified formed close to the eye lens.
Q4) What is astronomical telescope?
Ans) An astronomical telescope consists of two converging lenses placed
coaxially. One of the converging lenses is called the objective, which is closer to the
object to be viewed and the other is closer to the eye and is called the eyepiece.
The image formed by an astronomical telescope is inverted. However, it does not
make any difference as heavenly bodies are generally round and appear similar
even when seen upside down. The astronomical telescope is used to study the
surface features of moon and the planets. It is also used to study distant stars.
Q5) What is terrestrial telescope?
Ans) If the astronomical telescope is used to view a terrestrial object, then the
final image being inverted would be a cause of discomfort for the viewer. To
overcome this problem, we use a terrestrial telescope which produces a final
image that is erect with respect to the object. By placing a third lens, known as the
inverting lens, between the objective and the eyepiece we can get an erect final
Q6) What is magnifying glass?
Optical Instruments ||Chapter 4 || PHYSICS

Ans) A magnifying glass is used to view a magnified image of an object. It

consists of a convex lens of a small focal length fixed in a circular frame with a
handle. When an object is placed at a distance less than the focal length of the
magnifying glass, it produces an erect, virtual and magnified image of the object.
Q7) List down the use of magnifying glass?
Ans) The uses of Magnifying glass:
i) It is used by jewelers to study gemstones.
ii) It is also used by watchmakers or repairers to work with the minute parts of a
Q8) What is a camera?
Ans) A camera is a device used to record permanent images of an object on a
photographic film (in simple camera) or on a sensor (in digital camera).
Q9) Explain the construction of camera?
Ans) A simple camera is a light proof box, painted black on the inside. A hole is
made at the center of one end of the box and is fitted with a small tube called the
focusing ring, which has a convex lens at its front end. Behind the lens is a
diaphragm with an aperture to control the amount of light passing through the
lens from the object.
Q10) What is a Microscope?
Ans) A microscope is an optical instrument used to obtain highly magnified
images of very small objects that are not visible to unaided eyes. Microscopes are
of two types – simple microscope and compound microscope.
Q11) What is a Simple Microscope?
Ans) A simple microscope is nothing but a magnifying glass. It can magnify
objects to about eighteen times their size. However, cells and bacteria cannot be
seen even with this magnification.
Q12) What is a Compound Microscope?
Ans) The compound microscope was invented by Antonie Van Leeuwenhock.
This microscope is a combination of two convex lenses – an objective and an
eyepiece. Both the lenses are fitted at the ends of two metallic tubes blackened
from inside. The two tubes are fitted in such a way that one can slide within the
other to adjust the distance between the two lenses. The objective lens has a small
focal length and is placed close to the object. The eyepiece is a lens with a large
focal length. The eye of the observer is placed near the eyepiece.
Q13) Mention the principle behind the working of Compound Microscope?
Ans) A compound microscope works on the principle that when the object to be
viewed is placed between F and 2F of the objective lens, a real, inverted and
enlarged image is formed. This image is made to fall well within the focal length of
the eyepiece to give a virtual and re-enlarged image of the object.
Q14) Explain the working of compound microscope?
Optical Instruments ||Chapter 4 || PHYSICS

Ans) A well illuminated small object XY is placed between F and 2F of the

objective lens (written as F0 and 2F0 ) . A real, inverted and magnified image X’Y’ is
formed on the other side of the objective lens. The image X ’Y’ acts as an object for
the eyepiece lens. The eyepiece lens is so adjusted that the real image X ’Y’ falls
between the focus (Fe ) and the optical center of the eyepiece . finally a virtual
highly magnified final image X” Y” is formed. This final image is inverted with
respect to the object, as it is the erect image of the inverted image produced by the
objective lens.
Q15) Explain the different parts of Human Eye?
Eyes are the sense organs which give us the sense of vision. The human eye is
almost spherical in shape. Following are the main structures in the human eye.

Cornea: The eyeball is covered with a tough layer. This layer is transparent on the
front. This transparent portion is called cornea.
Irish: Irish is a thin circular structure. It works like the shutter of a camera. It
controls the amount of light entering the eye. The colour of iris imparts distinct
colour to the eyes of an individual. A person with blue iris has blue eyes.
Pupil: There is a hole in the centre of iris. This is called pupil. Light enters the eye
through the pupil. When the light is bright, iris contracts and thus allows less light
into the eye. When the light is dim, iris dilates and thus allows more light into the
Lens: Lens is present behind the pupil. The lens in the human eye is a convex lens.
The size and thickness of the lens change as per the distance of an object.
Retina: Retina is at the back of the eye and marks the inner layer of the eyeball.
Images are formed on the retina and thus it works like a screen. There are
photosensitive cells in the retina. These cells are of two types, which are as
Optic Nerve: The optic nerve emerges from the back of the eye ball. This nerve
goes to the brain.
Optical Instruments ||Chapter 4 || PHYSICS

Blind Spot: The junction of retina and the optic nerve is called the blind spot. There
is no photosensitive cell at this spot, and hence no image is formed at this spot on
the retina.
Q16) Explain power of accommodation of eye?
Ans) To see a distant object, the ciliary muscles in the human eye relax. This
causes the curvature of the lens to decrease, allowing to achieve the maximum
aperture and the maximum focal length. Similarly, the ciliary muscles contract
while viewing a nearby object causing the curvature of the lens to increase ,
thereby decreasing the focal length. This ability of the eye lens to change its focal
length in order to focus at nearby or distant objects is called the Power of
Q17) What is Far point?
Ans) The maximum distance up to which an eye can see is called far point. The
far point of a normal eye is infinity.
Q18) What is near point?
Ans) The distance ( 25 cm ) is called the least distance of distinct vision or the
near point of the human eye.
Q19) What are the characteristics of Myopia?
Ans) Characteristics of Myopia :
i) A person suffering from myopia cannot see distant objects , but can clearly see
nearby objects.
ii) The image of a distant object is formed in front of the retina instead of forming
on it.
iii) Myopia can be corrected by using concave lenses of suitable focal lengths in
iv) Concave lens used in spectacles provide extra diverging power to the eye lens.
Q20) What are the characteristics of Hypermetropia?
Ans) The characteristics of Hypermetropia:
i) A person having hypermetropia cannot see nearby objects clearly, but can see
distant objects easily.
ii) The image of a nearby object is formed behind the retina instead of forming on
iii) Hypermetropia can be corrected by using convex lenses of suitable focal
lengths in spectacles.
iv) Convex lens used in spectacles provide extra converging power to the eye lens.

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