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Pascal (unit)

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Pascal

A pressure gauge reading in psi (red scale) and kPa (black scale)

Unit information

Unit system SI derived unit

Unit of Pressure or stress

Symbol Pa

Named after Blaise Pascal

Unit conversions

1 Pa in ... ... is equal to ...

SI base units: kg⋅m−1⋅s−2

US customary units: 1.450 × 10−4 psi

atmosphere: 9.869 × 10−6 atm


bar: 10−5 bar

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal
pressure, stress, Young's modulusand ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as
one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymathBlaise Pascal.
Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to
one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar.
The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined
as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.

Contents
[hide]

 1Etymology
 2Definition
 3Standard units
 4Uses
o 4.1Hectopascal and millibar units
 5See also
 6References
 7External links

Etymology[edit]
The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and
hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer. The name pascal was adopted for the SI unit
newton per square metre (N/m2) by the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures in
1971.[3]

Definition[edit]
The pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively solely SI base units, as:

where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram, and s


is the second.[4]
One pascal is the pressure exerted by a force of magnitude one
newton perpendicularly upon an area of one square metre.

Standard units[edit]
The unit of measurement called an atmosphere or a standard
atmosphere (atm) is 101325 Pa (101.325 kPa).[5] This value is
often used as a reference pressure and specified as such in
some national and international standards, such as
the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 2787
(pneumatic tools and compressors), ISO 2533 (aerospace) and
ISO 5024 (petroleum). In contrast, International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends the use of 100 kPa
as a standard pressure when reporting the properties of
substances.[6]
Unicode has dedicated code-points U+33A9 ㎩ SQUARE
PA and U+33AA ㎪ SQUARE KPA in the CJK Compatibility block, but
these exist only for backward-compatibility with some older
ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated.[7][8]

Uses[edit]
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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how and when to remove this template message)

The pascal (Pa) or kilopascal (kPa) as a unit of pressure


measurement is widely used throughout the world and has
largely replaced the pounds per square inch (psi) unit, except in
some countries that still use the imperial measurement system or
the US customary system, including the United States.
Geophysicists use the gigapascal (GPa) in measuring or
calculating tectonic stresses and pressures within the Earth.
Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively
with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, and often
displays the Young's modulus or shear modulus of tissue in
kilopascals.
In materials science and engineering, the pascal measures
the stiffness, tensile strength and compressive strength of
materials. In engineering use, because the pascal represents a
very small quantity, the megapascal (MPa) is the preferred unit
for these uses.

Approximate Young's modulus for common substances [9]

Material Young's modulus

nylon 6 2–4 GPa

hemp fibre 35 GPa

aluminium 69 GPa

tooth enamel 83 GPa

copper 117 GPa


structural steel 200 GPa

diamond 1220 GPa

The pascal is also equivalent to the SI unit of energy density,


J/m3. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurised
gases, but also to the energy density of electric, magnetic,
and gravitational fields.
In measurements of sound pressure or loudness of sound, one
pascal is equal to 94 decibels SPL. The quietest sound a human
can hear, known as the threshold of hearing, is 0 dB SPL, or
20 µPa.
The airtightness of buildings is measured at 50 Pa.[10]
Hectopascal and millibar units[edit]
Main article: Bar (unit)
The units of atmospheric pressure commonly used
in meteorology were formerly the bar, which was close to the
average air pressure on Earth, and the millibar. Since the
introduction of SI units, meteorologists generally measure
pressures in hectopascals (hPa) unit, equal to 100 pascals or 1
millibar.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]Exceptions include Canada, which use
kilopascals (kPa). In many other fields of science, the SI is
preferred, which means Pa with a prefix (in multiples of 1000) is
preferred.[18][19]
Many countries also use the millibars. In practically all other
fields, the kilopascal (1000 pascals) is used instead.[citation needed]

See also[edit]
 Centimetre of water
 Metric prefix
 Orders of magnitude (pressure)
 Pascal's law

References[edit]
1. Jump up^ International Bureau of Weights and
Measures (2006), The International System of Units
(SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), p. 118, ISBN 92-822-2213-
6, archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-14
2. Jump up^ "Definition of the standard atmosphere". BIPM.
Retrieved 2015-02-16.
3. Jump up^ bipm.fr Archived 30 June 2007 at the Wayback
Machine.
4. Jump up^ Table 3 (Section 2.2.2) Archived 18 June 2007 at
the Wayback Machine., SI Brochure, International Bureau of
Weights and Measures
5. Jump up^ "Resolution 4 of the 10th meeting of the
CGPM". Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM).
1954. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
6. Jump up^ IUPAC.org, Gold Book, Standard Pressure
7. Jump up^ "CJK Compatibility" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 2016-
02-21.
8. Jump up^ "The Unicode Standard, Version 8.0.0". Mountain
View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. 2015. ISBN 978-1-
936213-10-8. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
9. Jump up^ "Tensile Modulus - Modulus of Elasticity or Young's
Modulus - for some common Materials". Retrieved 2015-02-
16.
10. Jump up^ "Chapter 7 ResNet Standards: ResNet National
Standard for Home Energy Audits" (PDF). ResNet. 2010.
Retrieved 2011-03-03.
11. Jump up^ "KNMI - Weer - Waarnemingen". Retrieved 4
December 2016.
12. Jump up^ "Comment convertir la pression? - IRM".
Retrieved 4 December 2016.
13. Jump up^ DWD[permanent dead link]
14. Jump up^ "Japan Meteorological Agency - Weather Maps".
Retrieved 4 December 2016.
15. Jump up^ MDD Archived 6 May 2006 at the Wayback
Machine.
16. Jump up^ NOAA
17. Jump up^ Kingdom, Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter,
Devon, EX1 3PB, United. "Key to symbols and terms".
Retrieved 4 December 2016.
18. Jump up^ CTV News, weather; current conditions in
Montreal Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
19. Jump up^ Canada, Environment. "Montréal, QC - 7 Day
Forecast - Environment Canada". Retrieved 4
December 2016.

External links[edit]
[hide]

SI units

Authority: International System of Units (BIPM)

 ampere

 candela

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Base units kilogram

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 gray

 henry

 hertz

 joule

 katal

 lumen

 lux

 newton

 ohm

 pascal

 radian

 siemens
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 astronomical unit

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epted units hour

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See also
 Proposed redefinitions

 Systems of measurement

 Book

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Categories:
 SI derived units
 Units of pressure
 Blaise Pascal
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