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Skylark Analysis

Extending Julliard Notation to Incorporate Inversions

Inversions

First, second, and third inversions.

Ⅰ/3

Ⅲ/3

Basic Chord Substitutions

Major 7 for triad

Ⅲ for Ⅰ

Tritone Subsitution with an adjusted melody

Bar 1 1 2 2
New Real Book E¨6 F>7 E¨/G A¨¾7
Symbol
Key of C Symbol C¨6 D>7 C/E F¾7
Substitution C¾7/E
Roman Numeral Ⅰ6 Ⅱ Ⅰ/3 Ⅳ
Key of C CEGA DFAC C E G B/E FACE
Spelling
Voicing 3157
Notes 1.1 1.2 2

2) The New Real Book Symbol is calling for a first inversion of an E¨ major triad. To avoid a pop
or classical sound, we won't use triads. We will change the chord to be an E¨ major seventh
chord with the third in the bass (first inversion).
Bar 3 3 4 4
New Real Book E¨¾7 A7 A¨¾7 E¨/G
Symbol
Key of C Symbol C¾7 F©7 F¾7 C/E
Substitution E>7/G E>7
Roman Numeral Ⅲ/3 ¨Ⅴ or ©Ⅳ Ⅳ Ⅲ
Key of C spelling E G B D/G G¨ B¨ D¨ F¨ FACE EGBD
G¨ B¨ D¨ E
or
F© A© C© E
Notes 2) 3)

2) If we use the New Real Book recommendation for E¨¾7, we will interrupt the ascending bass
line that we have created so far; therefore, we want to choose a chord and voicing that will
continue our ascending bass line. We want a G in the bass. Two choices are C major 7 in second
inversion or E minor 7 in first inversion. Since we already used a C major 7 in first inversion, we
will use the E minor 7 in first inversion. In this case the chord inversion is a tool we use in order to
get a smoother bass line.

3) The New Real Book calls for the same chord and inversion as in bar 2; namely E¨/G. We don't
want to repeat the same chord and inversion so early in the song; instead we want some
harmonic variety; therefore, we will use a substitute chord and possibly its inversion. A common
substitute for the Ⅰ chord in any key is Ⅲ. Note that Ⅲ in root position continues our smoothly
descending bass line.

Bar 5 5 6 6
New Real Book A¨¾7 E¨/G F7 B¨7
Symbol
Key of C Symbol F¾7 C/E D7 G7
Substitution D>7 (Ⅱ for Ⅳ) E>7 G7/D
Roman Numeral Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅱx Ⅴ/5
Key of C Spelling DFAC EGBD D F© A C G B D F/D
Notes 4) 5) 6)

4) Here we make a common substitution of Ⅱ for Ⅳ. The substitution works because of the
common tones in the chords.

F¾7: F A C E

D>7: D F A C

There are a total of three common tones.

5) For the third time the New Real Book called for the E¨/G. Instead, we substitute a root position
minor seventh chord.

6) We use an inversion here in order to keep the bass line static. The reason we want to keep the
bass line static is because there is a large amount of movement in the melody and we want to
avoid clutter.

Bar 7 7 8 8 8
New Real Book E¨6 C>7 A¨¾7 F>7 B¨7
Symbol
Key of C C6 A>7 F¾7 (Ⅳ) D>7 G7
Symbol
Substitution C>7 (Ⅰ for A>7/C E¨ º7 G7/5
Ⅰ6)
Roman Ⅰ Ⅵ/3 ¨Ⅲ° Ⅱ Ⅴ/5
Numeral
Key of C CEGA A C E G/C FACE DFAC G B D F/D
spelling
Notes 7) 8) 9) 10)
7) We used the Ⅰ major seventh chord instead of the major sixth chord for the sake of harmonic
variety.

8) Notice that the spelling of the Ⅵ/3 chord is the same as the spelling of a Ⅰ6 chord.

9) Here we substitute a diminished seventh chord for the F¾7 (Ⅳ) chord. We substitute first for
harmonic variety. The progression without the substitution is Ⅵ -Ⅳ-Ⅱ for two bars. There is not
much harmonic variety here, and one hardly notices when we reach the Ⅱ chord; listen for
yourself. Instead we emphasize our arrival at the Ⅱ chord by using the diminished seventh chord
that has two notes in common with the Ⅱ chord.

A chord that moves between two diatonic chords that are close together is commonly called a
passing chord. We can analyze the ¨Ⅲ° chord as a passing chord.

Exploring Jazz Piano, Page 122

10) Here we used the inversion in order to use the same bass note. We want to use the same
bass note to make the harmonic change more subtle.

Bar 15 15 16
New Real Book E¨6 B¨7(#9) E¨6
Symbol
Key of C Symbol C6 G7(#9) C6
Substitution C¾7 (Ⅰ for Ⅰ6) D¨7 (¨Ⅱx for Ⅴ
(#9))
Roman Numeral Ⅰ ¨Ⅱx Ⅰ6
Key of C spelling
Notes Here, because For now ignore
we are going to the 9 in the
end on bar 16 C6 chord symbol
chord that lasts and think of the
an entire bar, we chord as a G7
substitute C>7 chord.
for C6 to give
some harmonic If we substitute
variety. the dominant
chord whose
root is a tritone
away from G, we
get D¨7.
Now compare
the spelling of
the two chords:
G7: G B D F

D¨7: D¨ F A¨ B
The third and
seventh of one is
the seventh and
third of the
other, and vice
versa.

The D¨7 chord


wants to resolve
to the C chord
the same way as
the G chord
wants to resolve.
This is why the
substitution
works.

The substitution
also allows for
stepwise motion
in the bass, i.e.,
D¨ to C, giving a
very nice jazzy
sound.

Also notice that


we change the
melody note. If
you listen to
performances of
Skylark, you will
notice that this
part of the
melody is often
played with the
sixth note of the
scale flattened to
give a more
modal sound.
The flattened
sixth (A¨), is also
one of the notes
of the substitute
chord, making
the substitution
that much more
effective.

Bar 17 17 18 18
New Real Book C>7 B7 B¨>7 E¨7
Symbol
Key of C Symbol A>7 G©7 G>7 C7
Substitution
Roman Numeral Ⅵ ©Ⅴ or ¨Ⅵx Ⅴm Ⅰx
Key of C spelling ACEG G© B© D© F©
G© C D© F©
or
A¨ C E¨ G¨
Notes

Bar 19 19 20 20
New Real Book A¨¾7 None G>7 (b5) C7
Symbol Add D¨¾7
Key of C Symbol F¾7 B¨¾7 E>7 (b5) A7
Substitution E>7 (b5)/ B¨
Roman Numeral Ⅳ ¨ⅦM Ⅲ±/5 Ⅵx
Key of C spelling FACE B¨ D F A¨ E G B¨ D/B¨ A C© E G
Notes Because the
melody is mostly
static, rather than
hold the Ⅳ for
four beats, we
are going to add
a chord. We will
add B¨¾7.

Bar 21 21 22 22 22
New Real Book F>7 D¨7 B¨>7 E¨7 (#5) A¨6
Symbol
Key of C D>7 B¨7 G>7 C7 (#5) F6
Symbol
Substitution
Roman Ⅱ ¨Ⅶx Ⅴm Ⅰx©5 Ⅳ6
Numeral
Key of C DFAC B¨ D F A¨ G B¨ D F
spelling
Notes

Bar 23 23 24 24 24 24
New Real Book G6 E>7 A7 D7 G6 B¨7
Symbol
Key of C E6 C©>7 F7 B7 E7 G7
Symbol
Substitution F7/5 B7/3
Roman Ⅲx7 ©Ⅰm Ⅳx/5 Ⅶx/3 Ⅲx Ⅴ/7
Numeral
Key of C
spelling
Notes

A C© E G

¨Ⅲ°: (B) D© F© A C
Bar 16 16 16 17 17
Chord Ⅰ6 Ⅴm Ⅰx Ⅳ ©Ⅳ°
Voicing 1735 1735
Notes

Bar 18 18 19 19

Chord Ⅴm Ⅰx Ⅳ ¨ⅦM
Voicing

Bar 20 20 21 21 21
Chord Ⅲ±/5 Ⅵx Ⅱ##7 Ⅱ#7 Ⅱ
(E G B¨ D)
Voicing 5 7 3 1 (B¨ D G
E)

Bar 22 22 22 23 23
Chord Ⅴm Ⅰx#5 Ⅳx Ⅲx ©Ⅰm
Voicing

Bar 24 24 24 24
Chord ©Ⅳx Ⅶx Ⅲx Ⅴ
Voicing