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05/04/2016

Module 3 Pharmaceutical calculations


Topics Percen
tage
Competency Number Level of difficulty
of
Fundamentals of measurement and calculations
Different systems of weights and measurements and conversions
1
1
Review of
question
s Interpretation of the prescription and medication order 1
Pharmaceutical
Compounding/dispensin 21
K
4
C
4
Ap
8
An
2
S
2
E
1
Density, specific gravity and specific volume
Percentage ratio strength and other expressions of concentrations
1
1
Calculations
g
Clinical pharmacy 37 6 7 13 2 2 1 Calculation of doses 2
Units of potency 2
Hospital pharmacy 21 5 5 10 1 1 1 Isotonic solution 1
Electrolyte solutions 1
5 5 10 1 1 1
Pharmaceutical 21 Dilution and concentrations 2
Reducing and enlarging of formula 1 Margarita M. Gutierrez, RPh MHPEd
calculation BMI and nutrition label 1
thermometry 1 Department of Pharmacy
College of Pharmacy
Proof strength 1
University of the Philippines-Manila
Drug pricing 3

Parentheses
PEMDAS
Exponents
• Pharmcalc: Multiplication • Order of operations or
http://www.proprofs.com/training/course/?ti precedence rule is a rule
tle=inpharmatics-module-31-review-of- Division used to unambiguously
pharmaceutical-calculation Addition clarify which procedures
should be performed first
Subtraction in a given mathematical
REVIEW OF expression
MATHEMATICS

PEMDAS Algebra Proportional Calculations


Example:
• Example

[( 3.5  3  4) 2  12  250 ]  0.08205  ?


A = bx+c A suspension is 250 mg/5 mL. Calculate the amount
needed to give a dose of 400 mg.

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Dimensional Analysis Metric System


Example METRIC SYSTEM
SI Unit
• International Bureau of Weights and
Measures
A 36-lb child is to be given amoxicillin
suspension. The dose is 13 mg/kg and
the strength of the suspension is 250
mg/5 mL. How many mL should be given • SI (Systeme International) units
the child?

SS AY2010-2011 10 SS AY2010-2011 11 SS AY2010-2011 12

Metric system Metric Prefixes length


yotta [Y] 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 24

Mass gram (g) or


zetta [Z]
exa [E]
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 21
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 18 • 1m = 39.37 inch
peta [P] 1 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 15
kilogram (kg) tera [T] 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012
giga [G] 1 000 000 000 (a thousand millions = a billion) = 109
mega [M] 1 000 000 (a million) = 106
kilo [k] 1 000 (a thousand) = 103
hecto [h] 100 (a hundred)
Length: Meter (m) deca [da] 10 (ten)
1
deci [d] 0.1 (a tenth)
centi [c] 0.01 (a hundredth)
milli [m] 0.001 (a thousandth) = 10-3
micro [µ] 0.000 001 (a millionth) = 10-6
Volume liter (L) nano [n] 0.000 000 001 (a thousand millionth = a bllionth) = 10-9
pico [p] 0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12
femto [f] 0.000 000 000 000 001 = 10 -15
atto [a] 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10 -18
zepto [z] 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10 -21
yocto [y] 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10 -24

SS AY2010-2011 13 SS AY2010-2011 14

Apothecaries System Solid Measures Apothecaries System Fluid Measures


APOTHECARIES (Weight) (Volume)
minims
grain (gr) ( )
1 fluidram 60 

1 scruple 20 gr f
1 fluidounce 8 480 

1 dram 3 60 gr f
1 pint 16
(pt or O)
1 ounce 8 24  480 gr
1 quart (qt) 2 32

1 gallon 4 qt 8
1 pound (lb) 12 96 288  5760 gr
(gal or C)
17
SS AY2010-2011 16 SS AY2010-2011 SS AY2010-2011 18

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Avoirdupois System

INTERSYSTEM
grain (gr)
AVORDUPOIS CONVERSION
1 ounce (oz) 437.5 gr

1 pound (lb) 16 oz 7000 gr

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Intersystem Conversion Common or Household System


1grain= 65mg 1 teaspoonful = 5 mL
1 kg = 2.2 lb (avoir) 1 dessertspoonful = 8 mL
473ml= 1pint 1 tablespoonful = 15 mL
1 wineglassful = 60 mL
3785 mL = 1gallon 1 teacupful = 120 mL
COMMON HOUSEHOLD UNITS 1 tumblerful = 240 mL
1glassful = 250ml

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Temperature Conversion Exercise 2 Parts of the prescription


Standard Easy Convert the following to oC or oF (as
applicable):
• Fahrenheit to Celsius 9oC = 5oF – 160
1) 35oF C
oC = 5/9 (oF-32) 2) 37oC F
K= 273+C 3) 60oCK
• Celsius to Fahrenheit 9oC = 5oF – 160
oF = 32 + oC 9/5

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Frequency Frequency
Abbreviation Meaning Abbreviation Meaning
alt Alternating q.i.d 4 times a day
b.i.d
b.i.w.
Twice a day
Twice a week
q.o.d.
t.i.d.
Every other day
3 times a day
QUIZ!
HS Bedtime t.i.w. 3 times a week
od Once daily h hour
q Every
q12h Every 12 hours
q24h Every 24 hours
q4-6h Every 4-6 hours
q4h Every 4 hours
q6h Every 6 hours
q8h Every 8 hours

Question 1 Question 2

Disp. gr xi sulfur. M. et. ft. ung. Tab. ss prn pain

Question 3 Number of Doses in a Specified


Amount of Medicine
Gtt iv a.s. b.i.d. x5d Dosage Problem
Example:
Calculations: If the dose of a drug is 150 mg, how
many doses are contained in 6g?
Ratio and proportion
Dimensional analysis

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Quantity of ingredient in each specified Quantity of ingredient in each specified IV Fluids & Rate of Flow
dose, given quantity in total amount dose, given quantity in total amount Sample Problem #1
A medication order for a patient weighing 154 lb calls
Example: for 0.25 mg of amphotericin B per kg of body weight to
Example: be added to 500 mL of 5% dextrose injection. If the
If 0.05 g of a substance is used in amphotericin B is to be obtained from a constituted
1.8 g of fluconazole was used in
preparing 200 tablets, how many injection that contains 50 mg/10mL, how many mL
compounding a 60mL suspension. If one
micrograms does one tablet contain? should be added to the dextrose injection?
dose is one teaspoonful, how many mg
are contained in one dose?

IV Fluids & Rate of Flow Pharmaceutical calculations


Sample Problem #2
Topics Percen
tage
Fundamentals of measurement and calculations 1
A medication order calls for 1000 mL of D5W to be
Drug Dosage
Different systems of weights and measurements and conversions 1
administered over an 8-hour period. Using an IV Interpretation of the prescription and medication order 1
administration set that delivers 10 drops/mL, how many
Adjustments
Density, specific gravity and specific volume 1
drops per minute should be delivered to the patient? Percentage ratio strength and other expressions of concentrations 1

Calculation of doses 2
Units of potency 2
Isotonic solution 1
Electrolyte solutions 1
Based on Age
Dilution and concentrations 2 Based on Body Weight
Reducing and enlarging of formula 1 Based on Surface Area
BMI and nutrition label 1
thermometry 1
Proof strength 1
Drug pricing 3

Pediatric Population The Pediatric Population Young’s Rule


Preschoolers: 3-5 years
• Neonates: 0-30 For children from 1-12 years
days
School age aka “late childhood”: 6-12 years
Age
• Infants: Birth to Child dose   Adult dose
12 months Adolescence: 13-17 years Age  12

• Toddlers: 1-3
years

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Cowling’s Rule Fried’s Rule for Infants Clark’s Rule


For infants and children up to 2
Based on weight
years
Age (years)  1 Age (months)
Child dose   Adult dose Infant dose   Adult dose Child dose 
Weight (lb)
 Adult dose
24 150 150

*150 – conveniently based on 154 lb, which is the average


Disadvantage of the 3 rules: children treated as weight of an adult
“miniature adults”

Drug Dosage based on Body Drug Dosage based on Body Dosage Calculation in Children
Surface Area (BSA) Surface Area (BSA) based on BSA
Commonly used methods to calculate BSA: Mosteller formula Using the adult dose and a child’s
• If weight is expressed in pounds (lbs) BSA:
1. DuBois formula – most widely used
and height in inches (in):
Child' s BSA (m 2 )
BSA  W 0.425  H 0.725  0 .007184 Child dose   adult dose
2. Mosteller formula 1.73 m2
W H
Where… W = weight (expressed in kg) BSA 
H = height (expressed in cm) W H 3131
• 1.73 m – average adult BSA
BSA units: m2 BSA 
3600 • BSA is still in m2
If

Am I at my HEALTHY
WEIGHT?
Sample problem
BMI = kg (weight) • The 5yo patient weighs 35kg the height is
m2(height) 1.2 m. the normal adult dose is 350mg.
A. youngs
Expressions and Calculation
B. frieds of Drug Amounts
C. cowling
D. clarks IP 121
E. BMI
University of the
F. BSA
Philippines Manila

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Expression of Concentration
Percentage Percent Weight-in-Volume (%w/v)
Part 1
• Percentage • For solutions or liquid preparations,
Strength expressed as:
• Ratio Strength
– Percent weight-in-volume (% w/v)
• Parts
– Percent volume-in-volume (% v/v)
• Proof Strength
– Percent weight-in-weight (% w/w) in 100 mL of
• Units of potency solution or
liquid
FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 55 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 56 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 57

Percent Volume-in-Volume (%v/v)


Sample Problem Sample Problem

How many g of dextrose are required to What is the percentage strength (w/v) of a
prepare 4000mL of a 5% solution? solution of urea, if 80 mL contain 12 g?

in 100 mL of
solution or
liquid
FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 58 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 59 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 60

Sample Problem Sample Problem Percent weight-in-weight (%w/w)


How many mL of liquefied phenol should be In preparing 250 mL of a certain lotion, a
used in compounding the following pharmacist used 4 mL of liquefied phenol.
prescription? What was the % v/v of liquefied phenol in
Rx Liquefied Phenol 2.5%(v/v) the lotion?
Calamine Lotion ad 240.0 mL
Sig. for external use.

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 61 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 62 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 63

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Percent Weight-in-Weight (%w/w) Sample Problem Sample Problem


How many g of a drug substance should be
dissolved in 240 mL of water to make a If 1500 g of a solution contain 75 g of a drug
4% (w/w) solution? substance, what is the % w/w of the
• True percentage or percentage by weight
solution?

• For mixtures of solids and semisolids; also


for liquid preparations

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 64 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 65 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 66

Sample Problem Ratios Ratios (cont.)


If 1500 g of a solvent contain 75 g of a drug • Relationship of a part to the whole Examples
substance, what is the % w/w of the Convert 2:3 to a
percent. Convert 25% to a ratio.
solution? – Relate a quantity of liquid drug to a
quantity of solution 1.

– Used to calculate dosages of dry


medication such as tablets 2 2.

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 67 2-68 2-69

Sample Problem
Sample Problem
Parts Per Million (PPM)
Express 1:4000 as a percentage strength • Parts per one million parts
Express 0.02% as a ratio strength • Used to express concentrations of dilute
solutions
• Used to designate test limits
– Limit of arsenic in zinc oxide is 6 ppm or
0.0006%

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 70 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 71 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 72

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Sample Problem
Parts Per Million (PPB) Sample Problem

• Parts per one billion parts Express 5 ppm of iron in water in % strength The concentration of a drug additive in an
and ratio strength? animal feed is 12.5 ppm. How many mg of
• Used to express concentrations of dilute the drug should be used in preparing 5.2
solutions kg of feed?

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 73 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 74 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 75

Alcohol Concentration Proof Strength Proof Strength


• Pharmaceuticals expressed in % (v/v) on • Expressed by taking 50% alcohol or proof spirit
as 100 proof Proof Gallon
the quantity of absolute alcohol present
was determined at 15.56°C
• Always numerically twice as great as percentage • Used to measure or evaluate alcohol of given
strength (v/v) quantities and strengths for purposes of taxation
• Commerce proof spirit which is an 100% or absolute alcohol is 200 proof
aqueous solution containing 50% (v/v) of 25% alcohol is 50 proof • 1 wine gallon of 100 proof or 50% v/v
absolute alcohol
above proof
below proofDept of Industrial Pharmacy
FS AY 2010-2011 76 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 77 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 78

Proof Gallon Formula Sample Problem Units of Potency


• Measure of potency for some antibiotics, endocrine
How many proof gallons are contained in 5 products, vitamins
wine gallon x strength of solution wine gallons of 75% (v/v) alcohol? • Examples,
Proof gallons  – Insulin Solution or Suspension
50% • most commonly used drug in units
• U-40, U-100, U-500 mean 40, 100 and 500 USP
Insulin Units per mL
wine gallons  proof strength of solution – Ampicillin Sodium
Proof Gallons 
100% 845 –988 g of Ampicillin per mg

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 79 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 80 FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 81

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H2SO4 (MW = 98)


Sample Problem 1
H2O- 18g/mole.
• How many mL of U-100 insulin should be • If neomycin sulfate has a potency of • 34g H2SO4 dissolved in 500 mL solvent
used to obtain 40 units of insulin? 600mcg of neomycin per mg how many • A.) %w/v E.) Molarity
mg of neomycin sulfate would be • B.) %w/w F.) Molality
equivalent in potency to 1mg of neomycin?
• C.) Ratio strength G.) Normality
• D.) PPM H.) mEq/L
I. ) Mosm/L
J.) Mole fraction

FS AY 2010-2011 Dept of Industrial Pharmacy 82

Pharmaceutical calculations Expressing Concentrations Mole (n)


Topics Percen
tage
Fundamentals of measurement and calculations 1
Different systems of weights and measurements and conversions 1 • Mole (n), millimole
Interpretation of the prescription and medication order 1
Density, specific gravity and specific volume 1 • Mole fraction (X) Weight of substance (g)
Percentage ratio strength and other expressions of concentrations 1
• Molarity (M) Molecular weight
Calculation of doses 2
Units of potency 2 • Molality (m)
Isotonic solution
Electrolyte solutions
1
1
• Normality (N)
Dilution and concentrations 2 • Milliequivalent
Reducing and enlarging of formula 1
BMI and nutrition label 1 • Osmolarity, Osmolality
thermometry 1
Proof strength 1
86
Drug pricing 3

question Mole fraction


• What is the mole fraction of
• What is the mole and millimole of a 50g of • is the ratio of the number of moles of one sodium chloride (MW NaCl = 58.5
NaCl. (MW NaCl = 58.5 g/mol) component to the number of moles of all
components present g/mol) in a normal saline solution
(NSS)? (MW H2O = 18 g/mol)
– Determine the number of moles, n, of all
components

– Divide n of the desired component with the


total ntot of all components, multiply by 100%

90

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Molarity vs Molality Molality(m)


• What is the molarity and molality
Molarity(M) = number of moles = number of moles solute of sodium chloride (MW NaCl =
L solution. kg solvent 58.5 g/mol) in a normal saline
solution (NSS)? (MW H2O = 18
• Remember that the denominator is g/mol)
the weight of solvent only, therefore
the weight of other components
should be subtracted from it.
93

Normality (N) Factor


• Diluted Sulfuric Acid, NF X
• The normality of a solution expresses the • With respect to acids,
number of gram-equivalent weights (GEW) of • the equivalent weight (EW) is the amount of acid that
contains 10% (w/v) of H2SO4
the solute in 1000 ml of the solution. can furnish 1.008 g of hydrogen ion, i.e. 1 H +; (MW = 98). What is the normality
• with respect to bases,
of this solution?
• N= mole x F (factor) • the EW is the amount of base that can furnish 17.008 g
of hydroxide ion, i.e. 1 OH-.
–L
– Salts
N = M x f, where M= molarity
» total positive ionic charge

96

Milliequivalent Formula • Lactated Ringers’ Solution (aka


Sample Problem
Hartmann’s Solution) is a preparation What is the concentration in mg% of a solution
mg x Valence
mEq  which closely approximates extracellular containing 2 mEq of KCl per 100 mL?
Atomic, molecular or formulawei ght
fluids. It contains 2.7 mEq/L of Ca2+, 4 Molecular weight of KCl = 74.5
mEq/L of K+, and 130 mEq/L of Na+. How
mEq x Atomic.mol ecular or formulawei ght many CaCl2 (MW = 75.5 mg/mmol) should
mg 
Valence be used to prepare 1 L of this solution?

98

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Osmolarity Osmolarity
• Osmotic pressure is proportional to the mOsmol/L
• How many mOsmols are
total number of particles in solution
= wt of substance (mg/L) represented in a L of 0.9%
------------------------------------- x no. of species
• The unit used to measure osmotic MW
NaCl solution? MW 58.5
concentration is the milliosmol (mOsmol)

H2SO4 (MW = 98) Pharmaceutical calculations


Topics Percen
H2O- 18g/mole. tage
Fundamentals of measurement and calculations 1
• 34g H2SO4 dissolved in 500 mL Water Different systems of weights and measurements and conversions 1
Interpretation of the prescription and medication order 1
• A.) %w/v E.) Molarity Density, specific gravity and specific volume 1

• B.) %w/w F.) Molality Percentage ratio strength and other expressions of concentrations 1

Calculation of doses 2
• C.) Ratio strength G.) Normality Units of potency 2

• D.) PPM H.) mEq/L Isotonic solution


Electrolyte solutions
1
1

I. ) Mosm/L Dilution and concentrations 2 PHYSICAL CALCULATION


Reducing and enlarging of formula 1
J.) Mole fraction BMI and nutrition label 1
thermometry 1
Proof strength 1
Drug pricing 3

DENSITY = grams/ mL • 1. what is the weight in g of 500mL • 2. if the weight of the oil sample is 52.78
glycerin having a density of 1.25g/mL and the weight of an equal volume of
Specific gravity= wt of substance* standard used water is 54.96 what is the
wt of water specific gravity?

Specific Volume= reciprocal of density

*same volume of water

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INTRODUCTION Method I – By ratio and proportion

• These formulas list the amount of each - Official formulas and most other formulas are based on
the preparation of 1000 ml or 1000 g of product.
Reducing and enlarging of ingredient needed to make a certain
formula amount of the preparation. = Quantity of each ingredient
X in formula
Total amount desired Total amount specified in
• At times, it is necessary to reduce or formula
enlarge a formula to satisfy the needs of
your pharmacy
X = Quantity of each ingredient in amount desired

Method II- CONVERSION


Sample Problem Sample problem
FACTOR METHOD • Use the official formula below to calculate
• Using the official formula below, calculate • The conversion factor method is the how much of each ingredient would be
the amount of each ingredient needed to easiest and therefore the most widely needed to make 120 ml of Cocoa Syrup.
make 240 ml of Peppermint Spirit. used method for reducing or enlarging • Cocoa Syrup Cocoa…………... 180 g
formulas. • Sucrose……….………………… 600 g
• Liquid glucose……..………… ..180 ml
Peppermint Spirit • Glycerin……………..………… ..50 ml
Peppermint Oil............ 100 ml Find the conversion factor: • Sodium chloride………………… 2 g
Total quantity desired = Conversion Factor • Vanillin……………….………… .0.2 g
Peppermint Powder.........10 g
• Sodium benzoate……………… 1 g
Alcohol.....qsad.......... 1000 ml Total quantity of official formula
• Pure water ……… qsad. …… 1000 ml

Stock Solutions Formula


• Solutions of known concentration that are frequently Formula: C V = C1 V1
prepared by the pharmacist for convenience in
dispensing usually strong solutions from which weaker
ones (dilute) may be made
V = Volume of stock preparation
Example: C = Concentration of stock preparation
• 80 mL of a 1ppm Nacl stock solution is used to prepare V1 = Volume of desired preparation
10mL of a 1ppb solution
C1 = Concentration of desired preparation

FS AY 2010-2011 Department of Industrial 116


Pharmacy

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Sample
Formula Sample problem
problem
• Formula: W C = W1 C1 How many milliliters of a
How many grams of 14% zinc oxide
2% stock solution of ointment can be made from one pound
W = Weight of stock preparation potassium of 20% zinc oxide ointment?
permanganate
C = Concentration of stock preparation (KMn04) would be
W1 = Weight of desired preparation needed to compound
C1 = Concentration of desired preparation the following
prescription?

Sample Problem Sample Problem


• If 500 mL of a 15% v/v solution are diluted • How much water should be added to 500 Dilute HCl (MW = 36.5 g/mol) contains
to 1500 mL, what will be the percentage mL of a 15% v/v solution to be diluted to approximately 10% (w/v) HCl. How many
strength (v/v) 6.5%? mL of dilute HCl is needed to prepare 1000
ml of 0.5 N HCl?

FS AY 2010-2011 Department of Industrial 121 FS AY 2010-2011 Department of Industrial 122


Pharmacy Pharmacy

Alligation Alligation Alligation Medial


method used to solve problems that involve • Arithmetical method of solving problems that • Method by which the “weighted average”
mixing two products of different strengths involve the mixing of solutions or mixtures of percentage strength of a mixture of two or more
to form a product having a desired solids possessing different percentage strengths substances of known quantity and concentration
may be quickly calculated
intermediate strength.
Two Methods
– Alligation Medial
– Alligation Alternate

FS AY 2010-2011 Department of Industrial 125 FS AY 2010-2011 Department of Industrial 126


Pharmacy Pharmacy

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Example Sample problem Example


When 3,000 mL of 40%(v/v) alcohol, 1,000 • What is the Percentage of zinc oxide in an Mixture of 95%(v/v) alcohol and 50%(v/v)
mL of 60%(v/v) alcohol and 1,000 mL of ointment prepared by mixing 200g of 10% alcohol will result to 70%(v/v) alcohol
70%(v/v) alcohol are mixed, what the ointment, 50g of 20% ointment and 100g
resulting alcoholic concentration of the of 5% ointment?
5,000 mL product?

Sample problem Alligation with 3 concentration Alligation with 3 concentration


A pharmacist has a 70% alcoholic elixir and A hospital pharmacist want to use three lots A hospital pharmacist want to use three lots
a 20% alcoholic elixir. He needs a 30% of zinc oxide ointment containing, of zinc oxide ointment containing,
alcoholic elixir to use as a vehicle for respectively, 50%, 20% and 5% zinc respectively, 50%, 20% and 5% zinc
medications. In what proportion must the oxide. In what proportion and volume oxide. In what proportion and volume
70% elixir and the 20% elixir be combined should they be mixed to prepare a 500mL should they be mixed to prepare a 500mL
to make a 250mL 30% elixir? of 10% zinc oxide ointment? of 10% zinc oxide ointment?

Alligation with 3 concentration Alligation involving 4 proportions


A hospital pharmacist want to use three lots In what proportions may a manufacturing
of zinc oxide ointment containing, pharmacist mix 20%, 15%, 5% and 3%
respectively, 90%, 50% and 5% zinc zinc oxide ointment to produce a 10%
oxide. In what proportion and volume ointment?
should they be mixed to prepare a 500mL
of 75% zinc oxide ointment?
ISOTONICITY

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Osmosis Fate of cells


2 solutions of different concentrations are
separated by a semi-permeable membrane
(only permeable to the solvent) the solvent will
move from the solution of lower conc. to that
of higher conc.

METHODS TO MAKE
SOLUTIONS ISOTONIC

Methods of Adjusting
Isotonicity ISOTONICITY ADJUSTMENTS
• Class I: Addition of a tonicity adjusting BY NaCl EQUIVALENT
agent
– Sodium Chloride Equivalent Method / E Value • most frequently used method in the
Method calculation of the amount of sodium
– Freezing Point Depression Method / chloride needed to prepare isotonic drug
Cryoscopic Method solutions.
• Class II. Addition of water and dilution
with buffered isotonic solution
– White Vincent Method
– Sprowl’s Method

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TONICITY AGENTS OTHER


The freezing point depression
THAN SODIUM CHLORIDE • Find the quantity of boric acid (in grams) to
• such as dextrose or boric acid be used in compounding the following • dependent only on the number of particles
• A proportion can be set up which can be prescription. Boric acid E value= 0.52 in the solution.
treated as Step 4 in addition to the three Atropine E= 0.13
steps described earlier • Blood plasma has a freezing point of −0.52
{or freezing point depression of 0.52, i.e.,
• the quantity of that chemical can be (− [−0.52])}.
calculated by dividing the amount of
sodium chloride needed (step 3) with the
E value of that chemical.

Example Sample Problem


• Compound the prescription: Freezing point How many milligrams each of NaCl and dibucaine
depression (Tf) of 1% atropine solution is 0.07. HCl are required to prepare 30 mL of 1%
solution of dibucaine HCl isotonic with tears?

• To make the solution isotonic , the freezing point


must be lowered to – 0.52oC

• A 1% solution of dibucaine HCl has a freezing


point lowering of 0.08oC

White-Vincent Method Formula


• provided a method for readily finding the • If more than one ingredient is contained in
correct volume of water in which to an isotonic preparation, the volume of
dissolve a drug to produce a solution iso- isotonic solution obtained by mixing each
osmotic with tears. drug with water are additive.

• followed by the addition of an isotonic


vehicle to bring the solution to the final
volume.

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Sprowls Method
• E value of procaine HCl = 0.21

V = 0.3g x E x 111.1

Discounts Example
PHARMACOECONOMIC • Provided by supplier may be based on the The list of price of an
COMPUTATION quantity on buying and/or payment of
invoice within a specific period. antihistamine elixir is P65, less
40%. What is the net cost per
• Maybe a means of increasing gross profit. pint of the elixir?

Series Discount Sample problem Sample problem


• A technique used in promotional deals • The list price of 12 bottles (100 caps) of • A promotional deal provides a trade
analgesic tablet is P360, less trade discount of 33.5%, an off invoice
• Chain of deductions that can be converted discount of 33.33%. If purchased in allowance of 12% and a display allowance
to a single discount equivalent. quantiy of per dozen an additional of 5%. Calculate the single discount
discount of 10% is allowed by the trader, equivalent to these deductions.
plus a 2% cash discount for payment
within 10 days. Calculate the net cost of
144 bottles when purchased under the
terms of the offer.

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05/04/2016

MARK UP Markup percentage Sample


• Sometimes used interchangeably with • Aka percentage gross profit • The cost of 100 antacid tablets id P21.
margin of profit or gross profit what should be the selling price per 100
• Refers to the mark up divided by the tablets to yield a 66% gross profit on the
• Refers to the difference between the cost selling price. cost?
of merchandise and its selling price.

ALCOHOL AND TAXATION Sample problems

Purchase of Alcohol for If the the tax on alcohol is quoted at P135.0


per proof gallon. How much tax would be
Pharmacoeconomic aspect of Pharmaceutical use can colledted on 10 wine gallons of alcohol
Proof strength receive a refund on the marked at 190 proof
alcoholic tax.

Reconstitution
Powders or crystals occupy a greater volume
than after reconstitution

– Once the powder or crystals are dissolved


Contemporary in the solvent, the volume may be more
Compounding than the amount of solvent added

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05/04/2016

• Label instruction for an ampicillin prodct calls for Pharmaceutical calculations


the addition of 78mL of water to make 100mL of Sample Problem Topics Percen
tage
constituted suspension such that each 5 mL Fundamentals of measurement and calculations 1
contains 125mg of ampicillin. Calculate the • The label of a dry powder for oral Different systems of weights and measurements and conversions 1
volume of dry powder in the product and the suspension states that when 111mL of Interpretation of the prescription and medication order 1
total content of ampicillin?
water are added to the powder, 150mL of Density, specific gravity and specific volume
Percentage ratio strength and other expressions of concentrations
1
1
a suspension containing 250mg of
• Using the product from last problem. If the Calculation of doses 2
ampicillin per 5mL are prepared. How Units of potency 2
Physician desires an ampicillin concentration of
100mg/5mL. How many mililiters should be
many mililiters of purified water should be Isotonic solution 1
Electrolyte solutions 1
added to the dry powder? used to prepare, in each 5mL of product, Dilution and concentrations 2
the correct dose of ampicillin for a 60lbs Reducing and enlarging of formula 1
BMI and nutrition label 1
child based on the 8mg/kg dosing. thermometry 1
Proof strength 1
Drug pricing 3

Sample problem Sample problem


CONTEMPORARY • Only capsules, each containing 25mg of The drug available is 50mg tablets. When
COMPOUNDING PROBLEMS drug are available. How many capsules the pharmacist weighed the tablet the
should be used to obtain the amount of weight is 120mg. Compound the RX
drug needed in preparing the prescription
Rx
Rx Drug 15mg
Drug 2mg/mL lactose 300mg
syrup ad 150mL prepare 24 capsules
Sig 5 mL b.i.d Sig 1 cap b.i.d

Sample problem Question 1


• The only source of NaCl is in the form of 1. A prescription is to be taken as
follows: 1 tablet q.i.d. the first
tablets each containing 1g. Explain how day; 1 tablet t.i.d. the second
you would obtain the amount of NaCl for End day; 1 tablet b.i.d. x 5 d; and 1
the prescription tablet q.d. thereafter. How many
tablets should be dispensed to
Rx equal a 30day supply?
Drug 0.5 a. 18 tablets
isotonic sol 50 b. 40 tablets
Sig for nose c. 22 tablets
d. 47 tablets

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05/04/2016

• Rx Zinc sulfate 0.06


Question 2 Question 3 • Boric acid q.s.
2. In what proportion should 3. Sudafed cough syrup contains 0.09 g of • Purified water ad 30.0
alcohols of 90% and 50% dextromethorphan hydrobromide in each • Make isoton. Sol. How many grams of
strengths should be mixed to fluidounce. How many milligrams of this boric acid should be used in compounding
make 70% alcohol? agent would be present in each the prescription? The sodium, chloride
teaspoonful dose? equivalents of zinc sulfate and boric acid
a. 3 parts / 5 parts
a. 10 mg are 0.16 and 0.52, respectively.
b. 1 part / 1 part
b. 12 mg • a. 0.50 g
c. 5 parts / 4 parts
c. 15 mg • b. 0.45 g
d. 4 parts / 5 parts
d. 20 mg • c. 0.59 g
• d. 0.30 g

• A perfume oil has a specific gravity of • How many milliliter of U-100 insulin How many milliliters of two liquids with
0.960 and costs P776.25 per kg. How should be used to obtain 50 units of specific gravities of 0.950 and 0.875 should
much would 5 fluidounces cost? insulin? be used to prepare 1500 mL of a liquid
• a. P110.15 having a specific gravity of 0.925?
a. 1000 mL (sp gr 0.950) c. 500 mL (sp gr 0.950)
• b. P111.15 a. 5 mL b. 50 mL c. 0.5 mL d. 500 mL 500 mL (sp gr 0.875) 1000 mL (sp gr 0.875)

• c. P109.15
• d. P 180.15 b. 2250 mL (sp gr 0.950) d. 1125 mL (sp gr 0.950)

,, , 1125 mL (sp gr 0.875) 2250 mL (spgr 0.875 )

• If a pharmacist dissolves the contents of 8


How many milliequivalents are there in 15 capsules, each containing 250mg of • Using a vial containing 200,000 units of
mL of a 50% MgSO4 solution? (mol. Wt. clindamycin hydrochloride, into a sufficient Pen G sodium, how many mL of solvent
246) amount of Ionex Astringent to prepare 120 should be added to the dry powder in
a. 6.097 mEq b. 60.97 mEq mL of solution, what is the percentage preparing a solution having a
strength (w/v) of clindamycin hydrochloride concentration of 25, 000 units/mL?
c. 6.96 mEq d. 69.7 mEq
in the prescription? • a. 5 mL b. 10 mL c. 8 mL d. 12 mL
• a. 1% b. 1.5% c. 1.67% d. 2% e. 15 mL

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05/04/2016

• Convert 5%(w/v) to mg/mL: • The pediatric dose of cefadroxil is 30mg/Kg/day. • A manufacturing pharmacist received a
If a child was given a daily dose of 2 drawback of P1500 on the alcohol that was used
a. 50 mg/mL teaspoonfuls of pediatric suspension containing during a certain period. If the drawback on
125 mg of cefadroxil per 5 mL, what was the alcohol is P12.50 per proof gallon, how many
b. 500 mg/mL weight, in pounds, of the child? wine gallons of 95% alcohol were used during
c. 5000 mg/mL the period?
d. 5 mg/mL a. 19 lbs a. 63.2
b. 17.3 lbs b. 60
c. 18.3 lbs
c. 58
d. 18.5 lbs
d. 65

• If 800 g of a 5% coal tar ointment is mixed Concentrated HCl (MW = 36.5 g/mol, s.g. =
with 1200 g of a 10% coal tar ointment,
what is the concentration of coal tar in the
1.18) contains approximately 36.5% (w/w)
HCl. How many mL of concentrated HCl is KEEP
finished product? needed to prepare 500 ml of 0.1 N HCl?

a. 8% b. 8.5% c. 9% d. 9.5% A. 1.825 ml


B. 1.547 ml
PRACTI
C. 4.237 ml CING!!!
D. 3.093 ml
2-195

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