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Tools and materials 6

Workshop safety 8


Celtic knotwork border 12

Knotwork overlays I5

Initial memo holder 18

Claddagh lovespoon 20

Double photo frame 23

Eagle wall plaque 26

Message board 31

'Tree of Life' seed keeper 34

Hand mirror 37

Dragon trinket box 41

Knotwork jigsaw boxes 44

Celtic cross 48

Fun photo fram(' 52

Mirrored cJndle sco ne~ 57

Zoomorphic lovespoon 61

Coasters in holder 64

Trivet 67

Claddagh mirror 71

Stained glass uplighter 76

Bathroom set 82

The project designs for

tra cing and photocopying 87

Glossary 126

Further readi ng 12 7

About the author 129

Index 130
I ... •


t Columba; Who ~s born developed their own cultural dl\letSitt~

In Jreland around A0520,_ mqctt of Celtic symboll-srn --~l~:
was possibly one -of the romril~n ~to them all.
rnost Influential people Jn :rhe_·Qtlgtns of CeltlC artg0:1>adc:.as fat
the history of Celtic art. Following a as :JOOQec;, when megalithJt stone
dispute with the king of Ireland In· carvings .were decorated With geometric
Ao563, over the copyright of a book he patterns, but 1ts foll devel9Pment came
had duplicated, St Columba enug,ated between 450Bc .;tnd:;$Ql!c,.a tfme _known
to Iona, off the west c.o ast o.f SC'otland, as La Tene petiod• The C!l.ts: ofLaT~lie
ta set up the monastery. From th~re hli; period prQduC'ed l,Jr()nze repouS&.t
impact spread throughout Europe~ and oblects for pe™>nal wear, as well as:Wr:
many of the manuscripts still In hoPSe ornaments and religious purpoM.
existence - were produced as a direct Frqm SDsc the Roman Emptre grew in
result of hls-1nfluence. str~ngth and Influence and consequ~11tly
St ColumQa understood the Importance much of the. Celtk culture was
of lea ming hvm ~st ma$ters. not only Jn su.ppress-ed arrti: , dtJu~. -~ ~ote
an artiStic sense, but also In ·a sp1rtruaf' outposrs of Western·:eu:~m~. . ro
way, a _l~son that still hAs ~fw..P®:' tetaln their :tradftfO'ris.-aml $.ntlnued to
today. In his dying prayer forth,'.mqf)e'. ~lop their art. th~ - ~'5- -\\le~
of Wna he said: Caltcla In NOrthern spmn, Br!tta:11y.
Wales; ~.tland, Cornwall, the Isle of
-see thal you be at peace amdhg youru~, Man and lrelarJd. In Ireland especlatfy,
~ chl1d!en, arid love one-anothtt. FOllC1W the ha\il~: rertudned ttce from Roman
example of good men qfoid~ control. G¢1tlt_art flourished, so by the
time ·Chrtstlanlty reached. there Jn: _the
Much of modern c~ftlt dest•n fs 'taken fifth at1d sixth ceritury Ao the Celtic
from Irish manuscripts o( the -~tXth to artlsrs were able to brlng thclr own
eighth centuries, rriost noiablf from .unique Influences to th~ )fJL!lrilnated
The Book of Kells, the Llndl$fii:m~­ manuscripts that me mohasterJes
Cospels and The Book of Durrow. , Q-~ ,pl'O(juced. Their pagan af:lfs~ ttadlllons
the arti~ts who decorated the ~spels we.re not swept aside by the coming of
c:on{<;l1ned ·Jn these books we~ dr,awtng Chrtstlan tty, but weie-·1:ncorporated Into
on a much okler pag~ artistic the artw9r~- _:that d_ecorated the
tradition, developed· by ,aooent Celtic handWrirten pJ1e/$ and enriched them
tribes.-From about IOPOac.tbey ()qruj>ted greatly. Th¢se tnSU:lar -manuscripts were
a vast area radiating from «ntral Europe made 1.1p qf the four N~w Testameni
to Scotland, Ireland and Spain. Altho_ugh gospels of Matthew, Mark, Lu~ and
many different tribes existed and John, written In the Latin ofthe vutg<1te
Tools routing, scrollsawlng etc., and these are
Invaluable for finding out which mode!
It is possible to make all the projects In would best suit your needs. If It Is not
this book with a falrfy basic range of tools possible to attend a course, a lot can
and, where I have used power tools. I be learnt from demonstrators at
have tried to suggest less expensive hand woodworking e.)(hibltions. wha will
tools that can be used Instead. willingly give free advice and tips on
Having said that, there Is no doubt
that power tools can save a lot of time In 8"51r bench~top scralfSRW
shape-cutting, and in reducing the bulk
of material In certain projects. For the
.. .. . ...... ......
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.• "' .•

reader who Is thinking of Investing In

new tools, my advice Is to buy the best
you can afford. I would also recommend
taking a training course to acquire
power tool skills before making a
purchase. Many tool stores run half-day
or full-day courses to teach the basics In ....a
Tbp-of-tlte-rangt scrol/saw Jjns/(' Jigsaw f1nd rotary tool with commonly used accessories

their products, so never be afraid to ask.
The power tool I use most is a variable
speed scrollsaw, b1,1t I also us.ea plunging
router, Dremel rotary tool, electric drill
and power sander.
On the facing p~ge th~re is a ba.$lc
benci:i-top scrollsaw ( 1) 1 a top...of-the-
. 'range scroll~w: (2)' a basic jigsaw that
can do a Lot of the work of a scrollsaw
(but not the fine fretWork), and a rotary
tool with some commonly uw.cf
accessories (3). Where a scroflsaw is .not
available for making iritemal cuts, a hand
fretsaw with removable blade can be used.
When !t comes to woodcarvingr hand A selection of palm c111vi11g tools
to.o!s, there Is a bewildering variety and chip carving knives

ava1Jable, but the projects ca.n be ma<ie ls. classed as a harciwooq. syoam0.re 1.s.
without having to .invest in a great ran:ge alsci: a s.ooc1 timber for carvin~ Celtic
of them. I tend to. use my favourlte two pr designs. BQ.th st these \.Voods ·are v¢cy
three palm tools and a German chip knife light In colour; s.o you rnay prefer tQ
in mostof my work. experiment with darker timbers, such as
Lt really is a case of your personal mahogany or cli~try, providing th~ gra)ri
preference when it comes to choosing paneming Is not'.too prono1.mcect
and .using tools. There are. many bo.oks softwoods such as. pine- may at first
you can refer to. in order to 1¢am more s~erti .ealiy to qr\'¢> a11d can eye us~ tot
aboutwoo<lcarvlng tools, but !t ls be,st to certain a:pplicatlorts~ l;>ut they do noi hold
work your way systematically ·thr0ugh del<iil .W!d.I and. cao be eaS!ly damaged. Some Qf the materials needed to
the projects .<ind only acqutr-e new too.ls complete the projects
as and when you need them. This wfU
hot apply, of course, Jf you alre<1.dy have
all the necessary tools .. and are just
looking for new designs to work on.
The. most important thing Is that,
whatever your choice of C<jrving tools,
they must always be. kept in good
condltl.o n and sharpened pro~rly.

There :m m4tly ti.ti!~' $~1~, m.
~ngJ1'l gertet.a4b.U;r;~~~ate
desfgn:s. <J. kn~~e ;;lJ~ ~~ .ti)~f.
best when the..Y, ar.e' made'' .' " ' ftiifuie.~
" .· ··.' ' ''"·'',·.. ,·· ·..
and •.
. no. · it tti~(b1n-hty
• ft
. ~ ··, ~ red. .. ti~ . .··· •...0;·n~
9f. ~ m,(}$ sg~b.J~ ts Itn:re.~/al~9 ~~It~
bassw60Q, :as It ha~fa: ftrl~ -e.ven. ~tn
and, alth~gft ft ts, fairly &Off ut;~~/Jt

several phot~pi~Of
t~rfiplatc IA (sc~ page Slf,
e-9fargcd J>y I 25 %
his. prOJ~t $hQws you how recent i:frneS,; It is easy to see, however,
P.fne st4fr wood, 6 x
to aclill!Ve the ribbon-like why other peaple belleve that the
6$mm ·{It, .x ]Min) ~ lengtlt
Interlacing so typical of unbroken bands of the knotwork
req~i'l rcd
Celtic knotwork, whJd:t ~present a saqed path through llfe, with
~posl.!f~gable ·Sp_r~y. forms the basis of many of the designs,in no beginning or end, an ..et:e.r.n~I Journey
adhesive this book. The simple but lmpresslv¢ of spiritual growth.
border adds the perfect finishing touch to This project may look daunting but.
Dooble-slded s~ t~P.~!
a room and, by using a variety of beCause the de$lg,n Is worked In small
Palnt. V¥nlsh or wax finishes. you can achieve a hlghly manageable sections, It Is not difficult to
fjflish, as ~eq u l rcli Individual look. make. The main sklll required Is patience,
Celtic knotwork, which appears on and. In my eXperience you wouldn't be a
stone crosses of the sixth century AD and woodworker if you did not already
Sc~llsaw. etectrk Jlgsa\¥.
onwards, and In the Intricate pattern- possess this trait.
or hand tretsaw
fllling designs of the eighth-:tentury Once the sections are <:omplete. they
Orlll fined with sm~P blt Illuminated manuscripts, ·can Qe. made Join to make a continuoiis border, as
up of one, two or more Interlacing bands. shown. which can ~ rut to tit corners.
I 2mm ('hln) ~~t ch1,e1
Some people believe that there ts no Alternatively, lf y<;;u. want to use the
craft knife or~~P !qufe symbolism att;:r~he_d to the different types bor~r to decorate small pieces of
of knotwork; and It Is probable that furniture, cupboards or boxes, simply
meaning has been conferred In more redU.~e the design to the size required.

Mc b"d
I (Ui lf't ~1r1ri drllled hole first. A scrollsaw Is Jdeal
gt ~ §S
1;h"1H11 tc
upc- 10 tg
11 'O

design, carefully separating the
"' r pieces and removing all traces of
~ i -11 sticky tape.

6 Using the original template as a
1 nrtL r;J lhr udnJ
guide. transfer all the crossing lines
onto the pieces with a light pencil \
rurs mark. It Is essential to copy the lines
faithfully so that the woven effect is ........._
L~ even and continuous, especially ..
"' h1-eadl lht M~ when pieces are Joined end to end.


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I .
7 With a sharp chip knife or craft knife. • Alternatively, ff you wish the border to
score along 1hesc lines to a depth of contrast with Its background. prime
3mm ('hin). and paint the sections first, then glue
in place as above.
8 Using the chisel at right angles to
each line. gradually slope the wood • To give the effect of a plaster relief
down towards the line. so that the finish, prime the wood before sticking
band appears to weave under and It In place, then paint the whole wall
over. as shown. Also reduce the and Celtic border with the same paint.
wood by 3mm ('/91n) at each end of
the border where ft wlll meet the • Or, to achieve the antique weathered-
next piece. bron ze effect. apply a base coat of
emu lsion paint In a terracotta colour
9 Give each piece a final light sanding. after priming. When dry apply a coat
of metalllc copper paint. Allow to dry
To complete the profect, you have a and then dip a small stencil brush in
choice of finishes: gold metal paint, wipe off until almost
dry, and then stipple randon:ily over
• Varnish the border, then fix it in place the copper. Repeat with another darker
around the wall using a suitable shade of copper until the desired effect
adhesive such as 'No More Nails'. ls achieved (see below).

Tl1t 11nl/qut, wcalltt r(d-bronze effed

kNoTWoRk oveRIAys

he previous knQtwork
border is just one
example of the variety of
Celtic knotwork designs
that exist. Single knotwork motifs can
be used to great effect as overlays on Some suggested uses for the overlays:
a variety of objects, and are mad\?
using similar techn'iques to the • Decorate the lid of a purchased or
previous profect. home.,.rnade box (above left).
Four different templates for overlays • use four matching comers to deeorate
are provided on page 88 but, once they a chunky plain picture frame (right).
have been mastered you will be able to • Decorate drawer~fronts or doors on
use other patterns from Celtic art source furniture.
books to.make your own overlays. • Make the same design In contras~ing
The templates can be enlarged to tlnibel"S to create a semi-abstract picture.
any size to suit the object they are to • Connect the open-ended pattern
decorate, and I suggest enlarging by (template 2A, on page 88) with straight
140% for the first attempts, as this will strips of matching timber to form a frame,
make the internal cuts easier. as shown in the drawing overleaf.
Place the chosen template onto the
smooth face of timber using spray
adhesive. Drill pilot holes In all the
areas to be cut out.

2 Using a scrollsaw or hand fretsaw,

a thread the blade through the pilot
Materials holes and make the internal cuts.
EE\larged pho~opy' of Make sure the corners have sharp
template 2~, 28, i.c or ZD angles. with no roundedness.
(iis prefepie.d: see page S8J
Assorted timbers to siz~ of .u
template Cot ~!lla~ment~
4-6mm P~•'Airl) thick
(e.g. pinft ivory. jarra,
American hard maple,
hardwood strip) guide to which way they cross. It Is
Important to get the lines right at this
Repositiona~le $pray stage so that the weaving effect w!ll be
adhesive correctly carved.
Double~slded sticky. fape
s $cg~. ~IQng'.· the l~s using a sharp
Glue knlftt ·
Cfear wai< poltsh. varnish,
6 Use the chisel at right angles to the
or pref~~~ finish
bne and I~ the material on either
Tools side of a crossing band, ·to give the
SCfollsaw or hand fretsaw appearance of weaving underneath.
Small chisel Slope It down to about half the depth
of the tJmber. The angle of the slope
Chip knife or craft knife wtll depend on how cl<>sely the band&
Drih with. s~!l drill bit
are to each other - sotne Wt.II nftd.to
be quite sreep to acht~ the depth;
while others can be.mo.re~gradifal.

,,. .,,.
1 I

··." »{'- . ~ -.··- ~ ....

i _· - ~-~~~~- ~
r'c·-- -----

7 The photographs above show a 10 Cut out the waste areas.
different, enlarged, template (28)
being used on a piece of 'pink Ivory' n Cut round the outside of the-de~;
variety of timber, which was used to
decorate the box lld on page ls.. 12 carefully separate the prece.s af:td
ciean off any glue residue. itansi'et.
8 [f you wish to make a set of fq\tr tJte llnes onto the face of~ pt~
corners. use the same ;sta.ek-
cuttlng technique .as in the t 3 score atong the llne.$_
W.ttha sharpknJfe.
previous project (see page 13). Cut
four pieces of timber to the I 4 Lower the '.nfiit~fial .Ort each stde of
approximate size. of the template the croS$1ttg :~mi to create the
and layer firmly together using weavtrig effect_
dou ble-slde.d tap~. suck the
template on top usl.ng spray- 1s $eal the QVei'lays using i:lear. wax-
mount adhesive. pollsh, varnish, paint or any Pth~­
cltosen ftnlsh, before gluing u:f ybiir
9 Drill pilot holes through all four la~rs· c:hosen obfed.

lNITIAf_. memo boLOeR

P'ftotq¢opie!t~ let~l
r~~iredr(~~~es S<?;l,l3i,!
~larg~)i¥, Izsf&

Fo:r _:ach 1n1r~\:~,~ faie·, dl'

tlrri_lSe-r app~x, ~-x 1m x
2$nm (~ Jt~~ 1c 1iry)
(Some ~tiers rrufy~ulte l~
v.ider. p;'~atJJJWe;"Jb b~r)fr1 ,._ he previous two projects

P1¥'e -0f wiR""" 7®'m (2'1~)

~_ have demonstrated the
~-- :.~~~·
..c.: ..•.
N:.l method of carving
l~g, 2mfn U~) dia~~ett !>-~~
8Sl knotwork in a fretwork
Srnal! ¥~led~ style. Thi~ proj¢d $hows; you ,how to
c-aiw krtotWbtk fi:i: low relief; thafls, on:ro:
GJ\w' the; surfa<:t? pf the tlml>¢r. Th:lS: te¢hniq®
~tposit~a~~.pr~i :wlfl be ¢mploy~ ·(n ritanY ofthe:prof~~
a.uhestv:e- tM:t follow.
1n1ttl;l( .len¢:r1>ow:eye:·~w«~~tethf.'
manusci'fp'is prOdu#cf by :'CeltJc arttsts;

~~ro11~~ er -frc~~~
letters: fmaglnabfo~ l~ -some are so
d~n Wfth 2rrim ·PA~lfl) bit ;
.- ~labt.'irat¢that 11 c:an: 0¢'· dlffiettlt for the:
Pliers Wttralnecl eye, to d~)f'her them. Jn
inaituscrlpts rudras: The &rok:'b-f kells thts,-
\V<lS: alroQ'St Jffi!{¢y.\mf, 'SlhCe: 'the artist
di!P-. Arv1nkntf~ ' ii' d:aij' could Jnd11lge l:n ~tunning ~lgpts qf
kJff{-· _ ~A:;·'· r: .if:i fantasy when decofatt~g ~tters, sure In
the knA\V~clge that the -scllolcirly reader
WOU]d be vecyfamlli.9J with the text. /nit/a/ letter A In the stykcf The Book -0f Kells

Ornate Ciipn.l m 5 Carefully lower the background
loc.1 :.e a p.aro;:u around the knotwork to a depth of
~ lh.. l-2mm ('A•-'kln).

6 Score the crossing lines of the knotwork

to half the depth of the raised bands II
using a sharp knife. Slope bands down
small cal ' 'Shdppl at right angles to the llnes on either
•>r r iey couW,; U side of the crossing points, as In the
ie::oratt previous project (see page 16 step 6).

7 To assemble the clip holder, fasten the

Method crocodile clip around one end of the
1 Photocopy the chosen letter apd s~ piece of wire, using the pliers to
It to the Umber with spray adhesive. achieve a very tight flt. Make sure that
If necessary, drrll a pilot hole for the dip .cannot mo\le· around on me
blade access to cut out the cenue of wh:e~ using a dab .of:glue!/~
the letter.
8 Drlll a hole In the top of ihe Jetter
2 Use a scrollsaw or fretsaw to OJt out using the 2mm ('l,&aln) drlll..btt. (Jf~
the letter. piece of wire Is of a dlffeJCnt ~ie.t.
use a drtll bit that coi'mpehdS t<rii.)
3 To transfer the ~ign to
the wood,
place carbon paper between the 9 Place the ptaln end ot the Wire In the
template and the wood and trace drilled ho~ uslntra small amount of
round the design. glue to h9lq. It.lrr place It ne<:e$Sary.

4 Score carefully along the outsJde lines 10 Stal d:\e. '~With .~ .or varnish as
of the design usfng a sharp chip knf~ pmtr~
or craft knife.


l.;Q.V~s~n· ~~e:sig.ilil Qften fnco:rporate
ce.ltlc :kll<>twor-k iitlong; th~ handle,
arid I .hav.e :d~wlo.ped this ld.e.a
further ·by· .a dapting th~ tra:ditlona I
Claddagh design from Galway.
claddagh Is a .small vJIJ.age on the
co~s.t of :~lway Bay Jn Ireland, and
tM. ~ltit1,n~lve Claddagh design Is
s~d '.ta: ·tta~: be:en: developed by a
native ~i the. vJUa.ge; Richard Joyce.
who fashioned gold rings.
The heart, hands and crown
re.p resent love, friendship and loyalty.
The legend Is that when the. Claddagh
ring Is worn on the right hand with the
heart pointing .outwards, It shows that
the wearer Is unattached, with a free
heart. If the heart.points Inwards a love
Is betng constdered. Worn on the left
hand with the heart pointing Inwards
means .two · loves .have become
There are many suitable timbers
that can be use<l tG mJke the
he tradition of giving lovespoon - here 1nave used American
lovespoons Is alleged to tul!pwood, which is fairly ea:sy:to c.atve
have originated Jn Wales wfth the most ba$.lc of tool~, Y.ct1 can
during the seventeenth see from the ph'afugraphs that gOOd
century, when a young man would results can be acliteved uslng; e~n
carve a piece of wood Into a spoon to the lea~ exp.ensl'.ve of ~raft knifes.
give to his love as a token of courtship. As always chough, use the .toots that
1t Is possible that the degree of you are most comfortab~ With anq,
Intricacy In the carving reflected the most ln:ipQrtantly, always keep a good
greatness of his love. sharp edge.

1 Pn!pare a good~ surfac:eon ~
bade and front on yolir timber. use a
plane If it is very une'Ven, then sand
with medium ( 120 grade) to. fine
( 180. grade) sandpare~ Pl~· . the
templa~. to the ftont of the th'rfbf.r
using spray ~heslve.

2 Drtll apilot hole tn .each at the shaded

areas to allow .access for the
frecsaw/scrollsaw blade

3 Make all the Internal cuts first~ by Materlallli

threadtng-the fretsaw/scrollsaw blade. or Pt.!etocopy or
through the pilot hole, ·th•n c:.umng teMplate 4A (see. t'ag~ 94),
round the Internal llnes. en1argect'by rtl %
PJece of timber, 230 x 70 x
4 When all the tnt~rnal cuts are
I .Zmm (9 x 2 )C hill)
complete, cut around the out&lde Of
(Arjt~rican ~llpwood)
the lovespoon. Remove the template
and transfer. the. gµldellnes onto the: R'posltlOnable 51pray
wood as shown. adhesive

5 Starting with the central ~~die' Wax or other- j>f~errcd

section, use a sharp chip kiiltei craft
knife, or chisel to score ~n11thel1n11:s
Where the bands will .a t)$$ over and
under. It is essentialiU).keep these In
Pl¥1e foptLmi;tat If the
the rfght order so th~ weaving. worb
tiinber Is very uneve.D)
correctly. Score to a depth of about
2mm c~min) to begin with, then using ~ndpcg>er~ If reqtlfred
a straight chisel at right angle~ t9
Sergflsaw, t18s~ fitted
each Urie; gradually reduce the WOod
with scrplling blade or
at each .side of the weave.

6 Next round over the edges of the orm fitted whh small
b.inds using a knife or chfsel, wciod bit
taking care to also round. the
~Ip knife or craft knife
corners where the band appears· to.
cross under another. Round off the I 2mm (~hfii') chisel
bands all the way round the wp
Rorary tool fopttonal) or
and down as far as the point where
g!1ugc fQI' bow~ shaplrJg
they meet the cuffs above the
hands, then reduce the area behind Round pu~h and hammer
the cuffs by a mlllfmetre or two to
make the cuffs more prominent.

1 Shape the back of the spoon Into a 12 Using a punch about 4mm ('h,Jn) in
convex shape, tapering the pointed diameter. make a series of circle
end more steeply towa.rds the fron~. shapes all round the outside and
([f you need help with the s.hape, use down the middle. I Improvised as
the shape of a sl>oon from th~
you can see. by taking a ball pen to
' catlery drawer as a guide.)
. . . t used ..a pieces and using the metal ferrule as
•· tungsten burr bit · fitted on :the a punch. Fortunately ii survived the
Dremel to remove ·.the bulk of the experience and lived to write
waste, followed by a sanding drum •. another day.
but you ·could use a gP.uge to shape
the back lnttead. I 3 Mark a line around the Inner edge of
the punched circles, then score it with
s SCQOP- ~u.t the Inside bowl of the a sharp knife or V-tool. Cutting from
spQQ.fl!': carefu1!y ch~ing . the depth inside this line. angle the blade and
a:s. you go along and matching C'\.lt away some of the wood to give the
.the.wpJngyou. have given the back: appearance of puffy material. Create
·~I'll to ac!ileve an even thtckness over some creases at the bottom using
the whole Of the.boWI of the sPQOn. either a V-tool or knife.
Ag~n tu~ the bremel for this, but a
gouge can ~, u$e.d If preferred• Ii Sand If necessary, then apply a coat
of wax (or your preferred finish). l ftnd
9· :!9.un~ gy~r ri.t~ ~~s . of the .c.u·f.f$ an old. soft toothbrush ideal for this,
a·nd mmds, then.taper the ends of as it can get Into most of lhe nooks
the fin~rs and thumbs down, so and crannies of the carving. When
th.11t they tlppear to be holding the dry, buff with a llnt~free cloth.
heart from just behind. Next, score
along e.ach sid.e of the ~and.s at .the 1.5 To hang rhe lovespoon, di1U a small
wrists, taper ~own ~-~- wood hole In the back of the crown. -Asmall
on both sides of iheSe, ·then round nall or tack In .the wall Is all that Is
over the edges, of th~ b;ind <J.~shown, necessary to hook It onto.
Re-mark the guldeJln~ ~;. tlle:frlll~
on the cuffs and the fingers.

10 Use a V-tool, Ifyou ha\te one, td

make the lines be~~n · ,ire tiJ{f$
and flnge~ othe..Wtse .a ~ft krl1fe
or chip kntfe can be used. Round
over all the sections Of the cuffs..-.nd
the fingers.

I I Now shape th~ crown. Fl~t r.e~t.1q.e

. the dept~ by abcut 2m:m 0n'2fn) and
' use a 'chisel ro.btVel It down where
. ;It meet$ the top b.a nd. Notch the
:'V' of the lite.le t.r.langular shape at
. ~the top,. then curVe Just thfs part.

OouBle pboTo p~me / .

his project introduces the

Celtic zoomorphic motif in
an ek111entary form.
combined with the style of
knotwork used for the Initial lvlemo
Holder (p ..~gl' 18) . The serpentine body of
a dog forms the borders of the frame.
1.vith its hc;:id and tall L~Ompleting the
design. The ear lappet extends to form
the knoiwork on one si e, with t.he lail
dividing to 111~1kc tlw knotwork on the
opposing .side. As i~ comnwn in
zoomorphic design. the tongue also
gives rise to a little nourish of irs own .
Normally a dog design woul d have at
least two legs visible, bl1t I wanted to
keep the outline of the irame fairly
simple. so this hapless cre<.,tme \Viii have
to n:·rnain J victim of artistic licence. lrel,111d, Dubli11 , have n1.1ny exquisitcly
There w,1s gr·eat bclid ,1mong the Celts crafted filigree panels of interlaced birds
that tlwir deities were c,1pable of shape-- and beasts.
shifting or meL:1111orphosis. laking on the 1\nimJI $ were revered by 1he Celts and
guise of animals and birds. This gave rise symboliied the power of nature. yet 1vcre
to the mnny zoornorphic forms to be sct•n often cL1mpan~d to hum.1ns in terms of
in the ea rlit•st Celtic Jrt. A panel on the first the ir qualitk's of loyalty and bravery. It is
century nc Gundestrup Cauldron depicts this mdding of human and animal
the forest gpd Cerunnos with antlers on his qu,ilities thar m,1h·~ the zoomL'rphic
head and holding a sn,1kc that has ram ·s de-signs so fascinating.
horn s. GL1th !h<C ,1ntle1·s and snakeskin arc I have ddiberately u!;~d 25 mm (I in)
symbolic of regenerCltiC1n . as rhey can be deep timber to make the frame. so that it
shed and re-grown . l\'u merous other will be frl'E'Sla nding whe11 finished . Ii you
examples of zoomorphfc design appear in would prefor ir to be less chunky. then by
manuscripts such JS The tlaok of Kells .:ind all mc<ms use thinner stock and make thl'
the Lindisfarne Gospds. and tht• rebat e shallower, then make either ,1
magnificent /\rdagh Chalice and Cross of supporting stand for the b,1..:k. or attach a
Cong. housed in the N,1tional Museum of h ..rngt'r Ill the back for wall ha riging.

Ensure that the face and b1.Kk of th e
timber are periectly E'ven and smooth.
planing if necessary. then sanding
with medium or fine s,rndpaper. Stick
!he templ.:lle to the face side of the
timber. using spray adhesive.

2 Cut round the outside of th e design on

Photornpics of template
the scrollsaw or. if you prt'fer hand
.51\ lsc-c page 9 5)
tools, use a fretsaw .

RepllSith.>11c1bk !lprcly J Drill a pilot hole in Cdch of the thrt'l'

adhcsi c shaded areas to accept the scroJlsaw

l-'iel·e 1.1f timber 2 20 x I 50 or lrt'tsaw blade. then cut out these

internal a re as.
)( 25mm (8'/.I x 6 x Jin)
4 Carefu ll y lift off th!'.' 1empl.1tc and
2 piece's of b.Kking timber r 'move any glue re sidue from the face
appro x. I JDrnm x !OS m m of the timber by sanding with fine
(S·A x ~'I.in) {plywood or sandpaper. Replace lhC' template on
MDf) the wood, slip some carbon paper
beneath it and place ,1 litik masking
2 picccs l1i acetate approx .
tape al rhe side to hold the tt•mplate
I JO x 105mm (S ,~ x 4'/1 inl
in pl,Ke. Trace the knotwork design
(option,1 ll
onto the surface of the WOl)d.
Sm.:ll! t.;icks or glaziers·
points 5 Before starting to carve, turn tht' frame
over .and make lhe rebates kir the
photographs: mark a line approximately
Tools 4mm f'/dn) in from rhc cutOlJts and
l'l.;;ne (if reqLliredl then rnake a reba!e with th~' router to a
depth of I 2-15mm !'h- 'A: in). (If you do
s.111dpapl'r: 120 grade
(nwdium) and 180 grade
not have ;;\ccess to a rouk'I', thl" rebates
(fine) can be made using a chisel.) You will
need ro make several p.1sse. 1vith
5crol!saw or fretsaw the router. about 3mm ('kin) deep
each successive lime. 10 avoid putting
Router '"-'ith 4mm (·;;,Jn)
('XCcssive pressure on rhe cutting bit.
st r.,ight bit (optiona l}

Chisels ,111d gL)Ugcs 6 To make the backing pieces th.;it hold

Cle.ir w.ix polish or the photographs in pl.1cc. lay the

frame foct side up on the 'I mm ('/,in)
preferred finish
board and draw a line round the
Crail knife or chip knife inside of the rebate onto the boc1rcl a s
shown. Cut these Lwo pii?ces out
using a scrollsaw or fretsaw.
7 Next. turn the frame face upw.;irds.
nnd score .:ilong the Jims oi the
knotwork using J chip knik, craft
knife or chi sel.

B Using the chisels ,111d gL1llges, remove

the material between the bands
of knof\vork. ,1i111ing to cut tht-
background to ,, depth of 2-3mm
( ';., - ·;~i n) to allow for definitiL,n. Some
of the sm.:ill .-ircas to be removed an::'
besl tackled with rhe point of J chip
knife, or a sc.:ilpt' I can be ust'd on
softer timbers. B
9 When all the background has been
lowe red . begin to m,ike the weaving
effect oi the bands. Make sure that
the crossing lines have been scored,
then lmver· the m,1 terial on either side
of each crossing point using a
str,1ight chisel. working at right
angles to each band. \l\lhcre a band
crosses .;mother in dos•' proximity.
the gradient of the cut must be foirly
steep, but can be more grc1dual II
where the crossing point is further
.:tway from the next.
then round the sides of the eyeball by
10 Where each of the bands comes to a 11 cutting rhe scored lines down at an
end, form it into J bJ/I shJpe. angle. 1v1ar·k out the sm..ill circle at the
ccntTe of the e-ye.
I I Reduce the depth of the body on
either side of the head by abolf! I 3 Complete the fr<imc by carefully
l-2rnm ('/i,.-'h,in) to enable the head sanding where neccss.Jry. then apply
to be carvC'd. Round off the !op of !he at teas! two coats ol dear W c"IX pollsh.
head and reduce the level of the or a finish of your choice. II
material around the jaw line and up
to I he car lapp<'I. RoLmd the edges of 14 Cut ~1our photos to size using the
tlx' check . jaw and snout and give bading pil•ces as a template . li you
ddinition lo tlw tongue and te::cth. Wish to make a protective front for
f\.1ake a groove ior rhe nostril with a the phot og raph. cut a riece of
knife or V-tool. acl'lille the s<1mc size. Put th e
acc1,1te ,rnd photograph in the
12 Shape the eye by marking out the frame. with the backing pil'ces
lines with a sharp knife. Remove the behind, and hold it all in place \>./Ith
trlilngul.:ir shape behind the eyeball sm<1ll tack or glaziers ' points. m

- -- -- - - --- - - - - - -- -

1 '
Q_Gle wAl.l plAque

he e a~~ll' is ,1ssod atcd w it h In The Book of l<dls the eagle appe.:irs
Phocornry of tc-m pJ,1t(' 6A
strength .in d \\·isdom. It m uch mo re frequ en tly. gi ving till'
lst'l' rage 961 . en larged to
appea rs m.:rny rime s ln opportunity for a iar gr eater variet y of
I 76'Ki
il lumin.itcd m a n uscri~>ts designs. Some eagles are depic ted wi th
Tim ber mcasmin g as an evange li st symbol for St lo hn. fuu r \,vings . and one ha · eve n bc c~1 given
.3 90 x I 65 x 2smm al though in The l:klLll.: iJf D11mw the eagle a h"m d w ith which to hold a book.
115 1<.x ti h x linl (lime) is used to repre enr Sr M il rk. In Durrow. Along wit h the three other ev.:mgdist
the eagle is very stylized. having a symlxi ls, lic•n. calf •md m.Jn, the symh1..1ls \l.l('re
lkpositionabk sprcly
pe rfectly roun d head and eye facing righl , l.Jken as a refcrcnl-e 10 Christ's incam<11ion.
ad hesive
with ,, illrW<ird fac ing body. lhl:' soaring eagle rt•pn.,senting the i\sc~'n~ion .
Ckar w ax or p 1·cfcr red
fin ish

Scro!Jsaw or fret :;aw

Rotary tool (o pt ional)

Craft kn ife or chip kni fe

En,1:k in 1/1,· ~ tylr of The B"ok ot Oum.1w

Method 6 Round over 1he edges o( the chest,
I Paste the enlarged template onto the back and body down towards the
timber and cut round the outside legs. Rol111d the legs and taper in
using .:i scrollsaw or hand fretsJV./. the Jnklcs.
Take particular care .:iround the head
and ied and make s ure the comer 7 Take about 2- Jmm e;.;-'4in) off lhc
cuts are nice and sharp. depth of the whole right-hand
wing, belo\.\I the topmost feather
2 Transfor the lines of the design onto and large curl.
the timber, but don't transier all the
chest feather details at this stage. as 8 Keeping the over<Jll depth uniform.
they would dis<ippcar during the round over· the top ,rnd bottom
initi.:il shaping. edges of the neck-ring and curve it
around the neck.
3 Begin roughi ng out the shape of the
eagle, r·educing the depth of the 9 Once all this basic shaping has been
front leg by abour half and the back .'.lchievcd, add the finer details. First
leg by about a third. Reduce the step down the wing feathers from
depth of the left-band wing by <ibout the top row, neare.;t the body. to the
a third, working around the neck- wing tip. To achieve this. pencil in
ring. To save time I rt>duccd most of the lines for the top row of feathers,
the bulk using a structured tungsten then scor~ around them with a sharp
carbid~' bit in my Dremel. but it chip knife or craft knifo. Create the
could also be carved with chisels step- down effect by reducing all the
and gouges. material behind the lines to a depth
of 2mm (1/,, in), working in the
4 To allow the neck-ring to sit proud, direction of the wing tip . Once the
reduce either side by 2mm Ch:in}. and first row of fcather5 is complete.
then round over the sides of the neck mark out the next row, repcating 1he
and head . Reduce the t1No head process and stepping clown each
' ,.·:.: feathers at the same time by about time by about 2mm ('/,,in).
<S:P- 6mrn (1/.in) .
10 Work the long lateral feathers in a
5 Reduce the beak by ,1bout 6mm ('!,in) simil.1r way, stepping them down
as you round off the front of the head. from top to bottom lengthwise.

Ill m
II When all the long feJthcrs have been 16 Round the two fe,1t hers at the back of
stepped down you will notice that the head. making the t e rmirh~I Into a
the previously carved feathers have ball s hape as shown .
been left \Vith irre.gular depths. and
these can now be sloped down l 7 Reduce the depth of the tail feathers.
towards the bL'ltom of the wing to behin d the two rings. by aboLJt .Smrn
regain uniform depth. (',{,.in) as for the body, ,1nd then round
over the sides.
I 2 !found over the top feather t IMt
runs the length of the wing , 18 Mark the line in the middk of the ring,
reducing the tip as necessary to give notch a ·v· along chis line and round
an even depth . over the sides of the rings. Also shape
the ring around the bod}'· keeping
I J Smooth the chest of the ecigle and the depth uniform .
taper the body where it meets the ring
of t<1il fc-Jthers by abotrt 5mm ('l..in). I 9 Mark in the two lines along the length
Round ii over inio the back at the of the tail feathers and notch a 'V' into
same time. them. widening the ·v· towards the
tip of the feath ers. Round over the
14 Draw in the feathers on the ch est and side edges of e,ich feather as before.
then score along the lines. Work ing
from the neck end towards the tail. 20 Round over the sides of the legs and
define each fe,1ther by lowering the toes but leave the cla\vs as high as
adjacent feather where it meets, but possible to allow for sh<1ping. Milke
keep the tip of the next feather at its each claw appear to grow out of its
original height. cuticle. by notching into the base of
Make sure that the original shape the dmv to create a crease.
oi the body is maint<Jincd while these
feathl'l'S are being carved . 21 Taper the tip of the claw downwards
and round along its length . Next. make
I 5 Round over the edges oi the large curl two creases behind each culide by
at the front of the right wing. to make marking out with a curved gouge and
it into <J dome shape. !hen undercutting behind the curve. ID·

r r\GtE \.\I.Al I l'L/\Qlll" 29

I •
22 To finish the head, reduct• thL' 101,vcr 26 The diagonal lines along the wing
half Df thC' bc,1k by scoring ,1long fcatht'r" <1rc made by cul1 ing duwn at
the mid-line and ra ring .l\Vay ahLUl right ,111gles with a str.:iight chisel. or by
2mm l '/.>in). using a V-tool to mark along the line.
RL•u nci over the cop J nci luwer
edges of the beak . 27 If nCCl'SS&iYy, sand lightly. ;.111d then
apply the iinish of your choii.:C'. l used
2J Undercut the point whert:' the a clear w.:ix polish .111d thi:n, lo give
forehead ornd dieek meet the I c:ak to the c1ppt•a ran ·e of age. I went over it
give gn:'cltt'r rJefin it ion. wiih a d.1rk wax polish. 1 wiped this
off before it dried. so that it stayed in
24 Pe1Kil in the eye , then use .1 goLtge lh lil1l'S and creases, tlw11 applied a
with the• same sweep oi rnrve to further· L'(1Jt of clear wax polish.
mark it out. keeping tlw t )L)I

at ri ght .~ngles 10 till' h c,~ d . 28 To allow tlw e,1 glc to be hung on

.:i wall. drill a 2mm ('/,:i nl hole in
25 Sh.-ipc the eyc- by chamfe1·ing intl• the the b:ick. slight ly off-centre tLl

marked line with a shMp k11ife. countl'Tb..'llance the difkrerKc in size

leaving the centre of tlw eye and sluipc l)f the \·Vin gs. This c..~n
dome- sh,1ped th en he hooked over ,, sm,1 11 nail
1\.-lark the mall circle in the c~ ntre tapped into the wall. so that it . its
of the eye with the tip of a knife. flLrsh agai nst the wall.
PhL•tocory oi templalL' 71\,
t•nlargcd to I H80o (sec
page 97) and rn. c or D.
if dcsir1.•d (SL'l' pagt> 98)

Piece of tirnbt•r measuring

•100 x :?.90 x I 2mm <15 '• x
11 .6 x !in)(lirncl

Pii.'cc L)f MDI· measuring

't00 x 290 x -Jmrn (15'., x
II '.I'. x '/,.jn)

Rcpositionable sprvy

Carbon paper

Wood glue

he border on this mes ~age The message bo.nd itself is a blackboard
bck1rd introduces a 11l'I"' for good old- fashioned chalk. which can
styk of knotwork. lnstc.:id be cleaned .-ind re-wri tten . but alternative Bia kbo.Jrd pJint
of Lhe opcn-wt'ave surfaces could be use such as a cork
knotwork of the previous pro jects. board. u.,;cd with rushpins. or a
her(' it is closely intertwinL'd so th,H whitt'boar·d that can be used with dry- Toe> ls
no spaces are vi sible between the wipc markcr· pens. Scrollsa\~1 or fretsaw
bands. II is still ~'ossiblc L 1 trace the The wording ill the top o( the bo,1rd
p<lth of each b,111d rhat makes up each can L'a -ily be ch.:inged for something that
eternal knor. but it reqLtire s jLtst a little has <1 personal me,rning; it does n't Router lif avai/,1ble)
mor"l' conccntratiL)n . 11ec1.:•ssarily have to be ,, place.:'. as I h<Jvc
Sdcction L1i chisels and
Cl111ccrH1·a ti on is ,1 lso the key to cho:.;l'n. i\ singll- wurd works best.
-uccc sfu/ carving in this project. in hm·VCVL'r. sc) th<1t the letters can be jllincd
order ro m.1imain the currcc.:t wcaws oi and cut vLI[ as one. If nothing inspires Chip knife or craft knife
the bands bL1t. once you master the ymt. you could do w >rsc than choosing
technique, the effect is very pleasing. iust the word ·messages'.

After mu ch deliberation. chose Whatever one chooses to believe, there is no
·Glastonbury· as rny header. Glastonbu ry doubting the imporuncc of G!astonbmy in
in Som erset. England. is a mystical and folklore. and ln the continuing fascination
enigmatic rlace . .:ind the Tor rhat rises with its mystical associations.
from the surrounding pl<iins h.i s given
rist' lo m.:iny myths and legend s. Method
The early Celts regarded high ground Stick photocopied template 7A onto
<i s ,1 sacred place. and revered it as such. the face of the timber, using spray
The Celts s.:n..v their gods as the .:idhesivc. Cut around the outsidl' \Vi th

1)crsonificati on oi the natural fo rces a scro ll sav..· or fretsaw.

around which rheir lives revolved.
The Tor Itself was believed to be 2 Drill a pilor hole in the cl"ntral wast e
m<igic,illy holl01.v. with ,1 secrel entr·ance are<i 10 ,1llow the blade to pass through .
IL) I he Isle of Ava Ion hidden in iL side. Cut out the internal waste, carefully
Av,1 lcm was the re.:ilm of King Arthur follmving the curves ~>f the design .
\·v ho. in the sixth century. ddcnded the
Celts against the 1\11glo-Saxon invasions. 3 Transfe r the design onto the face of
following the withdrawal of the Romans. th e framework , using tracing paper.
End I 'SS myths and legonds have grown
up around King Arthur and his Knights of 4 On the reverse, rn.irk a straight line
II rfo~ r~ound · r~ible, and niany places lay 5mm f>li.inl away from the cut out
claim to being the site of his court. section. Use this as a guide to make a
including Cornwa.11 and Wales. The truth is 4 mm (51J, in) deep rebate.
that as a great king he would have had If you want to mJke pierced
many strongholds up and down the lette r ing rather than r<i ised lt>tt01·ing.
country. Clastonbury 'JiJr being lxH one, make the rebated area rt'ach within
albeit a signiiicant one. His iamous Smm (';,,.in) of the top of the frame.
111agid.111. Merlin. was credited with laying following the arched shape. You can
out a huge ten-mile wide zodiac around then cut letters out so that the black
.' the Tor. using fc.:itures in thio' landsc.:ipe. of the b.Kking bo<ird shows through
1. I The Tor is also reputed to be th e burial (see step I 2). If possible. use a router
place of the Holy Gr.iii: a it er the to cut the rebate - otherwise use a

.. c.rucifixion. Saint JosE'ph of Arirn<1th eil is

said lu have brought the chalice ti sed in
chisel. and squar~- off the bottom
corners using a small chisel.
the I.as! Supper to Glastonbury. and
buried it on the Tor at Chalice Well. 5 Cut out a piece of the 4mm ('h,in) thick
MDF. to fit in the routed area. The
11 easiest wily to get an accurate iit is to
lay a sheet of tracing paper on the
board, tr·ace the routed shape, then
use it as a template. When cut out it
will be used to make the ch.:ilk board.
bur it ciln be pur to on e side for now.

6 Scor·e along the lines of the design on

the ftice of the frame. using a sharp
II chip knife or craft knife.

32 (LITl C W Ot'OCR 1H I'


7 If you think you may h.ivc difficulty 13 Protect the frame w ith a cl~<Jr v<irnish.
in identifying the thread of the This is part icularly important ii it is to
we.we during carving, try shJding be sited in cl kitchen.
the arec:is that have to be reduced
wirh J p~'n or pencil. 14 After priming the MOF backboard
<ind lettering. apply at lcasr
8 LO\ver thC' bJnds where the~' wcJve two coats of blackboard p.11nr
behind. ;ind make a dt• •p 'V' b~ tween to both.
bands that pass alongside each other.
I 5 To Jssemble the message bo<.JrJ, glue
9 Use an inverted curved gouge or a the backbo,~rd and lettering in pl,1cc.
knife to rmmd the long edges oi each
band. to form a rope-like shape. Th is I 6 As an optional extra. you can make
will help separate the bands and ,, chalk holder for the board. To do
define the knot\.v ork . this . take a piece uf mJtching sGap
timber mNsuring 10mm high x
JO Where a band turns sharp ly back on 50mm wide x l 8mm deep ( \ 'h x
itst'lf. use the point of a knife to cut 2 x ;/,in). Cut it to an 'L' sh,~pc .

the tiny triangle ell the bend. leaving the back 4mm f/d n) deep
and the bottom leg aprrox. Smm
11 When the entire knotWlJrk fr,1me has (';,. in) dec1 . Make a concave
been c.1rved. reduce the area at the groove along the top of the leg as
top. between the two bands, to J shown on the right.
depth of 4mm (>Jdn).
I 7 Cut a 4mm ('k in) rebate into the b;ick
l 2 Using a scrap of 4mm p;, in) plywood of the frame, at the bottom where m
or MDF. cut out your chosen lettering shown, for the chalk holder to sit in,
templa te. D1·ill smal l pilot holes where and then glue it in place. V.Hnish the
necessary to make the internal cuts. chalk holder to match the frame.
If you prefrr 10 have the letters cut
out, as described in st<'p 4, do th.1t <it l 8 Ttl ensure that the message board
lhis stage. Rear in mind that the doesn't move about when in use.
throat of your scrollsaw needs to be fasten it to the wall using adhesive
1..:irge enough to accommodate the foam pads.
len gth of the board.
'TRee OF l1Fe'
seeO keepeR /

Photocop y of lempl.Jtc 8;\
ex 8B (rage 99 or 1OO),
and 8( (page 101 l.
cnl.:i rgcd by I 25S·&

Suita ble timber measuring

2 70 x 160 x I 2mm for
ba ckboard ( IO"h x 6 /, x
Ain l (lim e)
recs held particu lar The mNif Jppca rs in The /fool? (If Kells
~l ,1t c hin g timber 270 x 60
sign ifica nee fL11· the Cel ts, several tirncs. the 'ArTc!';t of Chri. 1'. folio
x I 2 mm for shelf ( IO'!. x
w it h their b ran ches 11 '1 recto. being .:i good l:!).'.amplt.> (. ee
2'/< x 'hin)
reaching heave nw ard and lntroducrion. page I) . The vin e and
Carbon p<iper th ~ir mL1ts fi rm l y plan ted In r-. lo t hcr grapes appe.irs 011 eith er side of the head
Earth . Trees represe nted not only a li n k of Christ as well as on th0 co ltun ns .:it
Repositio nab le spr,1y
between the= upper and lower world. but either side of the piclure.
were also a reminder of the etern<il cyde Gr ap es frequent ly appear in th r<X'S,
2 brass SCl\ 'WS of the scn sons. whi c h is an important number in Celtic
The ' tree-of-life' motif is found in both mythology. .:i s it represents th e trinity.
Wood glu e
p<1g.1n and Christian art. Jnd stands as a Thu s in this on~. JpparC' ntly simpk'
5 empty -15mm film symbl1I of b.1larn.-e .md unification of the mot ii. many layc r·s of symbolism exist.
c.:mi slers. prd<e'rahly hl.ick, two rea lm s. In ordt~r to in(orporatc the The ·cree-of-liic" motif has bl~Cn used
for seed swr.1ge 'tr~~· of lift'' into m,1mrscripr decoration. as the basis of th is project. wh id1 is
the d,'sign was often m ad e 10 emerge fro m dcs ig 11 ~'d to store St' c•ds g.ithcrcd .1t
W r:ix or Vilrn ish finish of
~1 ~'Ot . which symbolized 1vlother Earth. harvest ti me .1nd prescrwd in the d.:i rl< and
The tree itself w as mostly portrayed as the dry. re Jdy fo r sprin' planting. Tlwre cir~
2 picturt' hangers vinl' .rnd ~ r.l pl'S . a symbol associated 1..vith 1wo designs ro choose from . one of w hid1
Christ,which rep resents the 1·esurrect io 11 is heJdcd ·seeds ', the 1.1thcr ·oo..:has·.
and his l'te rnal Ji(c_ which trJn slares from the Irish into 'Hope :

I chose the word because I feel th c1t when 3 Ne xt. trim along the pattern lin es to
we 1ilant nc\v seeds . we pl<lnt ho pt• for the produ ce clean vli'rfic.1! side s to JI! the
iuturc. continu ing the circle oi life. Both bra nches. kaws and gr;:ipcs. This
designs ure made in the same \V,~y ,1pa r1 will ensure th<it you have ,1 good
Scrollsa1v Dr frets,1w
from chunging the letters. t'Ven design to work wilh w hen you
For the project shown here, I Llscd lime 1·m111d th e br.:rnc hcs. I used .1 chip
wc1od (basswood). The film can!stt'rs used kn ife to score .1long th e lines. and
Chis('\s .md gouges
are bl,Kk so thal lhe seeds can remain in then cleared the waste away using.
the d.~r k owr win ter. If prefern.:•d, they can . ni.111 chisels and go uges. Trim a long l1rill wil h bit to matd1
be painted on the outside . but in that ca se the inside of the r·aised bordl'I' in the br.iss SLTl'WS

k,we the art«1 where the lid sn~1 ps ()11 s.~ me way.
Collntcr~ink bit
unpainted. to ensLrrl' a good fit.
The project c,111 easily bc ;:idapted for 4 Sh.1 pe the pot from which the .12mm (I t,in) ilat 1\'LK1d bit
olht•r storag~' ust•s, such ..:is papN clips. tree grows by l'L1Linding th e sid es k1r h1..ik culling
push pins. sewing pins, golf tees, or even and bowl.
CrJft kniic or chip knife
J'.imm fil m s. For· so me of these it would be
useful to use clear plastic film canisters 5 lkgin shaping the branch1.'s.
,rnd in any case you would. of cou rse. sta rting .:it the I oint w here they
nt•ed to choose ,, more appropr·i,1tc word c111erg"' fro m th~' f L~t. and w1.1rki ng
than ·seeds' ro identify the contents. towards tht' ends. Thi s way you c,1n
gr,1dually reduce tht' branch depth ,1 s
Method you go along.
Place carbon pilper bet\wen your
chosen templa te and the larges t piece 6 At the point wht-re branches wc.:ivc
of timber ,1nd trace the design on to it. under Jnd over. score J long the lin l'S
Cut round till' outside lines. thM crns . then USt:' the chisel .11
rlghr angles to grade down the
2 Careflilly reduce all the backgwund rn,11 erial to give the appearance of
from around th <' 'tl'ee-of-lift' ' design weaving under. Only l'OUlld th e sidt•s
to a depth of 5 -6 111111 (';.,-'/.in). I used after you ..1J'c sati sfied with th e dept h
a rou ter fitted wi th a 7mm ('/d n) L1f the weave.
s1raight cutter for most of the 1vJste
remova l. then used a 2111111 h'd nl 7 As )'O u co me to a leJf. reduce the
cutter tu get to the smaller areas. If dt'pt'h of it by .1bow half. and sh.lpe
you don't h,wc .1 router. tht' IVJst e C'Jn the ste m into it. for ming ,111 invertl'd
be removed using chisels and gouges. ·v· where it meets rhe leaf.

'T1 <1 I· o r L11· c ' s ~r r• ~l ·t l'~ll .35

:-: . 1!...... ·..

' .
.. -··.' ...

8 As you come to a bunch of grci pes, to size ,~iter CLttting. This is easily done
redL1cc the depth by only l-2mm with a small sanding drnm.
( ',~o - '!d n) and re-draw the three
circles. Cut out the small tri.rngle I 3 The shelf. ready for joining to the
formed at the centre of the circles backboard. is shown above. Che~·k
using a chip knif<' or craft knife the holes for si ze.
then round l.'ach of them over to
form a ball shape. Again. sha re the 14 With the shelf held at righ1 angles lo
str--rn into the grapes . The grapes the bottom of the b,Kkboard, where
can be made tcJ look more re.J listic indicated on the template. cfrill rv.10
by underc utt ing them slightly. pilot holes for the . crc\vs. Use a
using a srna II gollgc to rt-move ,, countersink bit on the back of the
little of the material all round the backboar·d so th.H the screws ca n sit
base of eJc h cluster of gr.oipes. flush with the bJck. I !old the shelf in
place in a workhend1 or vice. apply a
9 i'v1ark the curved lines lll1 each leaf. layer of wood glue along the edge.
Llsing a small gliugi:- held vertic.illy. then scre•v the b~ickboard to it.

IO Tidy up the lettering. making sure Is Finish the piece using cirher wax or
1ha1 the sides are vertical. I have kept varnish. lf the seed keeper is going
the letters at their full dt•pth. b111 you to be hung in an outbuilding. a
can reduce them if you preier. \Vaterproof varnish would be the
most suit<1ble finish . Attach two
11 Next, make the shelf to hold the picture hangers to the back of the
ca nisters. Stick templ.~te 8C onto the seed keeper. to ensure that it ha11gs
smaller piece of timber, using spray firmly as the canis ters are taken
adhesive. and cut to siZl'. in and out.

12 Using the flat bit, CLlt out the five holes 16 Make ,1 se t of labe ls ior the
as shown. The 1.Jrgest flat bit avail,1ble canisters to identify the ~'.ontents oi
is 32mm (I 'J.inl. which is jL1st slightly each. and stick them onto the
too small for th~ 34mm (I '!..in) can isters near thC' botlom , where
diameter canisters. so sand them back they can be more easily read.

his hand mirror introduces

,, new clement of Celtic art,
that of the spiral . The
spi1·al. m tr·iskck. is made
up ot three legs or curves thal radiate
from J common centre, and is thought to
represent the sun and the movement of
heavenly bodies 0th <: rs interpret the
three coils as representing the three
elements of hecwc11. eanh and \Varer. and
a safeguard against evil.
The spira I motif appears in very
(',uly pagan Ct•ltic .art: one of the oldest
examples is on the entrance stone at
Newgrange i11 Count y Meath. Jrel<rnd.
which dates back to 3000L1c.
Newgrange - a p.1ssage-tom b and th e
alleged bt1rial place of the JIKient Kings
of T..1ra - is one of the most famous '·
prehistoric monuments.
Spirals with two coils appea r on
e<irly Celtic jewd!cry. such as bron zc-
,1ge tnl"tal clo,1k f.i steners <ind th ird-
ccntury Iri sh horse orn<iments. These
mot ifs are also found on ston e crosses
carved by stonemasons worki ng in the
sixlh century.
Spira ls appc;,1 r in pictorial form in TIJe
Book of Kd/s, where the Celtic cul isl look
the simp le sriral and introduced
fantastic variati ons by adding anim,11
clnd bird features.
The mirror ieaturcd in this project
follows the tradition oi the ena melled ..~ nd
engraved bron ze mirrors prL1du.:ed by
nJitsmen of the pre-~oman i._dti c i.wrkd
of British culture.
The Celts were p.:irticularly co11sck1u~
of their .:ippcara 11 ce. especiall y th1:ir
cloth ts and hair. so m irrors and combs
Matcri.-iJs were ve1·y impona nt L)bjccts. M<1!1)'
Photocopy of rcmplat(' l)1\. Pictish stone carvi ngs beJ 1- .1 mirror ;.ind
on pcige I 02. cnlMgtd by comb motif. In this dra1V i11g of Jnorher
125% oi the i\berkrnn o stones. the mirro r ,i nd
·r/1t' double-sided cross sla l> -~lt>m· /11 1lbalrm110 comb can bc seen in the luwcr righ l -
Carbon paper churchyard_ i\11g11.~
hand corner.
Rl'positiona bk spr..,y The actual design on !he bark o( the
<1dhcsive mirror has been adapted from rhc cent ral
motif on the eighth-century High Crnss of
Timbl.'.'r. at lc ..~st 160 x 260
1\bcrlcn1110. Scotla nd. : hmv n bek1w.
x 12mm (o/, x 10•; , x 'tin)
Two legs from the Jowe1· spiral s brL·.1k
(European oakl
away t\.) create the knotwork 011 th~·

Round mirror. I 25 mrn h.;ind k-, for ming an eternal knot.

(Sin) in dia rnL'tl'r For thi s proj ect. I ust'd Europe.:111 o.1k
for strength . as the handle hJs ti'.' be strong
Gluc SLlit.:ihle fr.'r stil'ki ng
enough to support the 1.w ight of tlK'
glass to timber.
mirror. O.:ik is not t he ec"l ~ ieq of woods to
carve. as thL' grain is quite coarse. but lhc
Stirn r at A/Jale111110 fini~hed result makes ii worth the effort.
Scrollsaw or hand fr('tsaw

Ro111cr wirh straight CLllC"r

fllptk1 nall .1 nd 1K1n-slip mat

Dre1ncl \·vith cutler bit Nl1

9936 (upt iL1n,11)

c..uving ch isels and guugl'S

Chi1 - carving lrnift•

Clear wax polish . or firn~h

of your choicc

U.:tai/ 011 th,· dghtl1-ccn/11ry lli>:/1 Cross of 1\bcrlc1111w

•• •. I

Me th o d
Either trace the dl'Sign for the b.~ck of u~~d to guide rh e basl' of the rout~ r
th e mirror frame (templ ..1te 9A) i nstcad of using the h.1ndks. As \·Vi th
thr 1ugh carbon pa per onto l he any routing operatirn1. ensure that the
timber, .:ind cut <iro und tlK' outside of base i · kept level at all times. so that
it, L1r sl ick the tcmpl<it e onto the thl' cutting bi t cuts .:ii an even depth
timber for cutting out usi ng spray throughout. Use .:i 11011- sUp router
adhesiw. as shown hen.·. I prekr the 111.1t under the wL rl< t ll l1L1ld it in place
la11e r method. as l find ii easier to during the routing oper.~tk1n .
foll ow a black lini;- c111 white
background. but it me.ms that thic -I J(oLind ufi the mttsidc edges. also
design must then be 11-.~ccd onto the using the rnuter fitted \Vith ,, round - Tire rdmi.· wt It) /rl lf1<· mirror. mtd l/tf
rdgc.< nl!1mfrd
timber .1frer cutting out. O\ er bit. i\ 'ain. if no router is
..w ailabk. you c,111 use ..~ gouge,
2 Turn 1hc mirror frame over. and chisel. or a rotary .::.1rving tool.
posit ion the mirru r cc ntr..~ll y on th e
larw' circle. holding it firmly in pla ce 5 Working still on the m irror side.
with one hand. ur·.:iw 1·ound the shape th e handle by rounding il .ind
mirror to mark w here the rebate slimming down rhe '\.vaist ' where' ir
needs to be cut. meets the l.;i1·gcr ~·irc l e. This c.;in bl'
quickly .:ichicvcd using a stru cllll\.'d
3 The rebate is cul to lht.' depth o( the tooth tungsten c.:irbide bit in a rotary
mirror, plus an extra millimt> tre to tool. but only if you arc well ~·ractised
,1llow tor glui ng .ind tin,;d sanding. A in its use .•111d are smc of vour
, ,
router is the ohvi~1~1s choice for th i~ ro contro l the cuttl'r. Othen.visl::', use J
Of'eration. but if you dL) not have gouge or chip l'.:t1·ving knife.
,1ccess to a rou!C'J' L r <> Dre me I witl1
rLiuting facility. the rebate can be 6 Next bl'gin the carving on the reverse.
made usi 11g ch i~eb and goL1g~·s, lk'forc starting Io carw the spirals,
making su1-e l'h,1t the base of lh~' the ce11tr<il Jinl' must be scored. There
rebate is s.moolh .:ind even. arc several ways l•f doing this - the
Nlost st.111d,1rd roulers will have to choicl' is yours: you can cut the sh.:tpe
bL' used frceh.:ind IL cw the ci rcle. as using .:i gouge o ( !he same SWl'CP oi
the diam C' tc r is roo . mall to be cu l curve. he ld at right angles ; mJrk !he
us ing th e centr.11 pivo t meth od. Th is line with i.1 V-tool. or score it with .:i

is not a problem if both hands ~n·· chip knife or craft knife.

7 Deepen a \I-shaped grl1ovc between 11 Using <1 fine 5mm (-'A. in) :;t raight
the coils by removing material evenly chisel, redt1ce tht' r<iiSel bands 011
on either side (1f the sco1-ed line and either side of each crossing point to
cu rve OVt'r the top of e.Kh coil ,ls it is give the effect of them weaving under
formed. Work Jt right .:ingk's to rhe <1nd over cJch other.
cenrrnl line. unle s u. ing .J \!-tool.
I 2 When <1 11 the c.-irving is complete.
8 When .lll the spirals are complete. sand as appropri.1te and apply the
remove the areas between them iinish of your choice. I used a clear·
(shown shaded on the template) to wax polish. as the colour and grain of
an even depth. Try to make th i s the wood needed no further
depth the same as the depth cnh.:inccment. Do not apply .my
between the coils of thi: spirn ls. fin ish to the ar .:i where rhe mirror is
to be glued, however, as it may
9 Reduce the outer ring to the same prevent <l good bond.
depth and round over the large coil
th.-it is left rndosing the spirals . 13 GILi(' the mirror firmly in place on
the reverse side.
10 Work the knotwork design on the
handle in the sa me rn.-inner as in
previous chapters. by scoring the
lines then reducing the backgrou nd .
his rro;cct i ntroduccs symbol. and became part of tiK' \\/clsh
a zoomorphk design in J fl<ig in the mid-twentieth century,
different material: ,1 brass 1\ recurrent theme rhroughLlut the
dragon inset into the lid of history oi lhe dr<1gon has been one L'f
the box. For once. there is no <.Klual guardianship, The dragons of f.iiry tales
carving to be done, since the pattern is famously guard caves full of treasure. so
woi-ked on the scrolls.:iw (or fretsaw) and what better symbol tl.1 protect the
with an engraving tool. cht?"rished possessions within yom box.
The dr..:igon i~ a mythic,11 bea ·t that
appears in many shapes and guises in Method
Cl'l!ic folklore. Dr.:Jgon pairs, 'S' sh.-tped U~c doublc-sid,,d st ic ky l<1Pl' to
and placed back to back, ;ippcar in Celtic attach the dragon template JOA to
art from as early as the fourth century the f,1 ce of rhe brJss. If the brJss is
BC. mainly 011 meia!\-vork objects such as thin. it (',111 be stuck lo a piece of
sc,1hbards and spears, This signifies the SCl'up plywood lo make cultin~ and
pro1cctive role they played . handling easier. If not, slick a layer
The symbol oi the dragon has or two of masking t.~pe lo thl'
particular signiiica11ce in 1he Cdlic underside of the brass 10 prevent
l·ulture of the Welsh. Since J 901 the red J.1mag~·ll1 the s.11w tabk and to m,1ke
dragon has been adopled as a national hJndling easier.

Photocopies of k•mplJtes 2 Drill pik1t holes in th e sh..ided o.=tn'<l S of drawi ng pen. When this is dry. it is a
IOA .1nd JOB. on p<1ge 103 the dragon design 10 .:illow the necessary to apply .:i co.:it L)f l.icqw~r to
intern.:il 'Lits to be made. prevent oxidiz.:itio11.
Piece of brass me.1suring
90 x I SOmm (3'/. x 6inl
3 Using .1 iine-tLx1thcd bl21dt> .:ind half 8 Use double- sided tape to st.Kk lh c
rimbcr. 100 x \ 50 x 40mn1 speed, cut out all the intern.ii w,1stc. omm ( 1.tinl piece of rirnber onk1 thl'
(4 x 6 x l'f in) 10mm (I '.!:in) piece oi timber.•incl
4 Whe n all the internal \vastc has bee n the n stick the- box tcmpl.:ite. IOL\ , onto
Timber. IOD x I SO x 601m
re moved. cut aruund The outside oi the top osi ng spray adhesive. Cut
{4 x 6 x 'Ain)
the drZJgon motif. ,1 round the outside of the box.
2 pk•i:es of timber, 100 x
150 x 4mm / ..\ x () x '/dn) 5 \:Vhilst thl~ template is still .ittachcd 9 Separate the t0p from the botWm,
to th e brass moti f. use thi.:· small peel off the tem pl ate. and re-apply it
Double-sided sticky tape
engrJving bit iirred in a rotary 100110 to the top of the '10mm (I 'hinl dl'ep
Wood glue cardully cngr-ave th < lines that make piece oi limber. whi ch will form th e
up the rest oi the design_ The bod y of the box.
General-purp~) S1..' glt1c
eng1·avi11g bit w ill cut th rough the
~u-.:h as Bostick
paper onto tht.> brass. I ut the IO Drill J pilot hole inside the innt'r line:
Fast-dry enamel. matt presence of tlw p<1pe r 1vill stop the bit th read the saw blade through, Ihen
black paint (uptkm.:ill from slipping. .:ut around lhc- inner lin e. ki form the
straight sides of the box.
Clear varnish
6 Remove the tcmpl.:ite and st1cky tape
Brass polish and lacquer and file .1ny sharp edges as necessary. 11 Place the body of the box 01110 c.:ich
oi 1.hc 4mm ('/.,,Jn) p ieces of timber
Repositionabk "pr.1y
7 Polish the brass and. if desirl'Cl. define in turn and dr,iw round th e i11 siJ1..· of
the cngr,wed lines by going uver them the box to m a ke u base and a reb:itt·
1\1th a ii11c, blZJck, W<1tcrproof ink for the lid .

S1..·rollsaw or frc1s.1w

Drill fitted with 2mm

('A ·in) bit

Rotary 1001 fill 'd with

small t'ngr.:iving bit

I 2 Glue one of the pieces into the base of
the box .1nd leave to dry.
I 3 To make the lid. place the br.:iss
j dragon m0tif centr<1lly on the top of
the lid .:ind draw round the outside.
bu! don't go into every indentation.
make the line ,, smooth , gener.:il

I 4 Reduce the depth of the wood inside 16 When dry. glue the brass in place in
this line to matL·h the depth of the the reb,1te.
brass motii. This can be done \Vi!h a
chisel or gouge. or a router if you 17 C:luc the remaining 4mm (·'1U n)
h.-iw one. Make sure that the surface timber shape to the und~rside of the
is ldt smooth and L'Ven . lid to form an artificidl rebate th.1t
will hold it in p·lace when ii sits on
15 Paint the inside of this l'cbMe matt top of the box.
black to create a strong contras! to
the brass. If vou 11.we chosen a dark I 8 Tc.1 complete thl' box, ;ipply two coars
limb('r this may not be necessary. o( clear varnish. inside and our. II

[)I~ ACit PN TRrN to;(' r til>X 43


Photocopies of templates
11 A, 11 B and 11 C on pJgcs

I 90mm (7'hin) square

pieces of MDF. I each of
4mm. 6mm and 30m m
C'h·in. ·.~in .md l 'hin)
hi~ challenging piece Several t' l.Jborar(> book covers and book
Spare 4mm C'h1in}
comprises J set of five shrin es also feature this design in
thickness MDF
ltdded boxes. which link embossed metalwork ,1nd the notable
Duublc-sickd sticky tap~ 1ogethcr in cl jigsaw cross slab-stone of Ulbster in C<1i·thnes s,
f.:ishion . The greatest challengt' is to fit Scotland, a Isa beMs the same P<l llern.
Repositionable spray
all the boxes b.:ick togethe r in tlw l r For thi s project \ have:• used a m.:in-·
correct place. \virh their matching lids. rnade materi,1 I, medium densi l y
Carbon parer when th e project is fin i sh~ d . fi breboard (1vWF). I chose this pcirt ly
Once all the boxes arc set up because it is rc.:idily availc1blc in l ht.'
Impact adhesive
togetht>r, the knotwork decoration on th ickness ncedt'd. partly bec ause it ls
MDF primer (see scage I JJ the lids forms one continuous th n:-.:id extremely easy co work, and also
weaving from box to box. so becJusc I wzinted to use a paint finish.
Emulsion paint
reinforcing the link . The continuity is J\s always when using rnan-madt.>
Paintbrush (I 2mm/ hin) intention<il. a symbol of 'ternicy. materials . pMticu!arly 1\1DF. dust
The equa l-a rmed cross with mask s must be worn at all times . dL1c
C.lndlc and 0000
interlc1CC is a common C'lenient of Cdtic 10 the resins !hat arc used In lhr
sandpaper (opcionaU
decoration, .Jl1d occurs on _ewra l pages manufa cturi ng process. (You w ill find
Clei!r wax polish of The Doak of Kells. most prominen tly advice on workshop safe ty generally.
flanking the figure Df Christ and SI John includ ing precautions to take whc:n
(sec page viii. facing the Introd uction}. using MDF. on pages 8-9 .)

44 Cr: TJc \'l<H'flC R.11 1

Method Cl11lfident enough to t.:ick!e rhe real
I First prepare for cutting, by stacking thing . Fortu n.:itdy MDF is inexpensiVl'.
the three pieces of MDF and firmly s~ it ·s not the rnd of the 1.v orld if
fixing them together using double- you do make .:i mistake.
sidcd sticky tape between the layers.
Pl.1ce the 4mm (-·.1i,in) piece at the 5 When all four ·arms· have been
bottom. the 30111111 I I ',{,in) in the separated from thl" centre blix, mark
middle. then the 6mm (' /,in) on top. each part of C<lCh box with the S<lll1'
Tfwse \Viii be the box components of letter or number. This makes it easier
base. body and lid respectively. to identify thl' com.>ct pieces whL'n it
comes to reconstructing it nil.
2 Stick the box rc1nplnte 11 t\ onto the Carefull y sepcJrate the three layers of
top using spray adhesive. The boxes i'v1DF l)n all five bOXL'S.
are now ready lo he cul out on the
scrollsaw but. before l:ieginning. use a 6 Tilking the middle section of each box. Tools
set square to check that the bladc is mark a line 4mrn Ch in) in from the Dust mask
pE'riectly vertical .:is, if it is even edge. The cenrre will be cLlt out to
Scrollsaw or hand frC'tsaw
slightly out of true. you will only be make thl' box c<ivity. The four ·arm'
able to slide the boxes up or down in boXL'S can be cut following the whole Small chist>-ls and ~otigcs
one dlrc:-crlon instead oi both . box shape, but for the cl?ntral box just
cut J squ.;ire and do not attempt to
3 Cut roLind the outside o( all the boxes cut into the protruding circles (unless Craft knife or chip kniie
first, before attempting to scp.lrate you're a complete m;:isochist ).
the jigsaw shapes. Tt'm plate 11 B. on page 105. shows
how it should look.
4 Wry c.lrefu lty cut Olli the jigsaw Drill J pilot hole in the middle
shapes. Each has to be done in one waste area, th read 1he scrolls.~w

sweep to give a good clean single cut. bl.:ide through and cut along th~'
so !Jke care ncgotii.'ltl ng the corners ma r-ked line.
and curves. If you Me not completely
confident about it. practise by 7 Make a rebate to hold the lids in place
making soml:' spare template copies from rhe ·pare 4n1m ('h,in) MDF
and cutting them out using waste Using lht' box body as a f('mplate,
pieces of MDF. You will soon become dr.lw a line round the insidt' of the
cavify onto the MDF, numbering the rebate to lhe underside of the lid.
each piece to its correspond ing box. m.:iking sure that the lid will sit
Cut th ese out usi ng the scro ll s,1w or c~1rrcctly on the box befo re ..111 lying
hand fretsaw. fin.ii pressure to the join. Above you
can st•e the four section of th(' box
8 Assemble each box. using i mpact glL1ed and ready tl' .:isscmble.
Jdhesive to give a strong bond. App ly
a layt>r of glue. 4mrn ('Jijn) wide. to 9 Assemble- the five boxes into their
thL' edges of i he b:rsc to correspond finished sha pe, so t ha t rhe k notwork
to the walls of the box , and to the design can be transferred to I h<.> lids.
underside of the middle sectio n. The Lwsr way to do this is to stick
Press together when dry. according to a p hotocopy of template 11 C w
the manufacturcr ·s instructil)llS. Gluc sonw c JrbL)ll paper using spray
adhesive. then cut round the outside
of the design. Use masking tape to
ho ld this in place on lhc boxes and
trace the design o nto 1he lids. Lift
th e template in -~ few pl;iccs l o
make sure the dt.•sign has
transferred successfully before
removing it comp lc t.d y.

10 All the carving is done wh ilst the

boxes are joi ned, so that lhl' lines
of tht' knotwork follow smoo thl y
from llne lid to the nex t. T,1ke a
sha r p chip kni fe or c raft kni fe and
first score ,1long the pencil li nes.
Next, very carefull y rcdL1cc th e
b,1ckground between the 1·1bbons.
using a small gouge. Ideally. the
background should be reduced to a
dept h of 2-Jmm (l,;;,-'J.i n) .
I J Paint all the parts of the box wilh
primer. 1\l\vays use <1 primer that is
compatible with rhe fin.al finish- Wlwn
the primer is dry sand it smooth, .-:is it
v..rill have raiS('d the iibres of the MD~.
Apply two co,1ts of cream emulsion
paint. or whatever base colour you
choose. \Vhcn this is dry. apply the blue
paint (or what~vcr colour you prcier) to
I the bad ground.

M If your skills 1-vith a fine p.:iintbrush

arc limited. you may find the
following method useful: take a w<ix
c4lndlc and rub it over the raised
surfaces of rhc knotwork. mJking
sure all areas are fully covered .
11 Once .1JJ the background has been
r~duced, crt ate the weaving eiiect
oi I 5 Next. rain! in between !he knotwork
the by redLlcing the
interlacing without worrying if you get paint on
ribbons on either side of each th~ top surfaces. When the paint is dry
cro ssover point. l\lv,1,1ys be mindful of n~rnovt~ the wax by rubbing down with
the way the ribbons weave regularly a very fine grade of steel wool.
under .:md over. prdN,1bJy 0000. This should k,we the
two colours separate. with a slightly
I 2 In the photograp h above you can see di s trcss~'d type of finish .
the progression oi the carving,
clockwise from the top: the design J6 Apply a th in application of dear v11ax
has been scored along the lines. ihe palish to all the our_ ide surfaces. so
next lid h,1s hJd the b.1ckgrou 11d th.1t the boxes slide ap.ut easily.
reduced, ncx! shows the ·weaving'
completed, ,111d the final lid has been All that rema ins is for you to pLlt the
sanded and is ready lo be painted. boxes back together Good luck!

he design of c.lrvcd stone

crosses evolved ()VCr

thousands of ye;:irs, Jll

amalgam of rn•iny
concepts .:ind cultures. There
arc influences from the standing ston~ s
of so!Jr cults. frum the cross carvings
on 'ancestor stones· dating back to
10.ooonc France. through t·o chc
Christ ian iz.Hion of the \Ne st in the sixth
century. AlthL1ugh the cross shapt.> is
most obviuu sly associated \·Vith
Ch ris tianity. the Callanish Stones in
Scotland MC arranged in the form of
a Celtic Cross, {a cross with a rin
surrounding it), and pre-dat<> Christianity
by at le.:ist 2 ,000 years.
The ringed cross is a particu larly
stron.' and striking image in Celtic <ir·t. It h
thought that"the design came about when
early missionaries carved crosses onto
standing stones, which had bet•n pagan
objects of worship. rather than alienating
their potential conwrts by pulling them
down. From there. slab-stones were
purposely carv d to take cross d esign s.
and then rhc slab-stones thems Ives were
carved into cross shapes.
The roadsid.:' cross-slab at Aberlre mno.
Scotla nd !see top right). is a fine example
of an eight h-ccnrury ring cross carved
onto a s:to11c slab.
Elaborate knotwork and spiral designs Cross-slal• tit 1\hcr/cm110. Srntlmul
began app0aring on the cross faces, then
later 1r·ish crosses depicted scenes irom
the scriptlircs, which would h.Wl~ been
useful tcad1ing aids in a world when:~ the
written word was not familiar to the
masses. Pictish sla b-stone crosst•s ()ften
depicted battle scenes on the bclCk. The
great c-ross-sl;,.~b in Aberlernno grnveyard
in Scotla nd is s.1id to he a depiction d the
Rattle oi Nccht<insmen:: that had been
fought nearby in A0 685 {sec below lefLl.
Sevcr:tl stont• crosses haw bosses
carved on them, which have no fL11Ktion
other than to represent n.1il he,1c.1s that
would have bCl'n on wooden crosses. I
have incorporated a small boss <it the
centre of my design.
The frcl'slanding. ringed cross design St M11rti11 's Cros.~ . Iona
dcvcloptcf in Ireland. but is found in other
Celtic societie!S, ;.rnd m<iny fine examples
cJn be St'cn in Scotland. St Columba
tr,welled from Glencolumbkillc on the
northwest co.:tst of Ireland in the sixth
century and established a monastery on the
small isl,111d of Iona off the coast of S<'L1tland.
Many elabor«1tc stone crosses 1wrc C.Jrved
.:it this time, bllt tragically. puril.anical /.~·a lots
of the sixteenth ccnrury destroyed a huge
number, with over 150 being thrown into
the seas off Iona and other islands ,1lone.
The ·rin~· ('lcrncnt of rhe l'ingcd cross
is 1,vidc: ly rec"1gnizcd as a solar sym bol.
lvlany interprct.1rions have been ascribed
to the de-sign as ,1 whole, one oi which
suggests th.-it the four points at which the
cross and ring inr.erscct represent the four
seasons, which the Celts knew as Jmbolc
(spring), Bcltainc (summer-). Lugnasadh
(autumn) and Samhain (winter) . This firs
in neatly with tht' solar symbolism of the
circle motif.
The stepped base is similar LO the one
supporring St Martin's Cross on Iona
(shown far right). and I h<wc made it
deliberately rugged to contrast wilh the
detailed symmc-try of the cross its!.' If. Cross-slab /It Abcrlcm110 gmveynrd
Male rials In this project the cross is ca1ved on both 4 Draw in che Jim's where the cross
Phow..:opy of 1emplc1te the b.ick .ind front bees. so that it ca n be intersects the ring, on both back and
2A on p.~gc
I 107. enl.irged viewed from both sidt•s, hLit you may fmnt of the cross. using ,1 ruler for
by I 251'.Jt, prdcr to carve just rn1e face-. accuracv.

T imher for cross: 280 x

Method 5 On the outside edge of the ring. dt«1W
180 x at lcasL 25mrn
Ensure Ihc11 both sides ~if the timber for two lines around the ci rcumference.
llJ x 7 x I inl Oimel
the ao. s .:ire perfectly smooth and i:ach :- mm ('/".in) in from the front
Timber for b.~se: I 10 x 90 even - if not. plane whc'rc necessary and back as shown. Th ese lines
x 4Smm (4'/: x 3;, x 1JAin) Jnd sand with medium or fine Indicate the depth to which the ring
(lime) sandpaper. Stick the temp1<11e onto one must be rcdLICl'd, so that t ht:• cross
side of the timber using sprcly cldhesivc. sl;:inds proud.
l~cpositionable spr.ay
2 Drill pilot holes into c.Kh of the centr,11 6 To reduce the depth oi the ring by th is
Carbon paper sh.~dcd areas of the design lo allow blade amount, score c1long the lines on the
ncn'ss. and make the lntl'rnal cuts. face of the cross. th en use a chisel or
Wax polish. or pn·ierrC'd
Maki: sure that the points where gouge to remove the waste from the
the ring and cross me('! art> shclrp. by front cJnd back. as shown.
Wt.iod glue cu lting in from opposite diri;:ctions -
do not cut the corner in one sweep. clS 7 Trace the cle!>ign onto the arms of the
this w 1uld round it. cross a11d ring on both sides. using
Tools c.:irbon paper between the tcmrlat0
Plclnc (optional - if required) 3 \<\!hen all the internal CLllS helve been and wood. You will find it ecJsicr to cut
m.:ide. cut met around the outside and out the ring sections of the temp!.1tC'
Mcdillm or fine sandpclpcr
tht•n remove the tem pl.1te. before tri'lnsicrring them .
(I 2.0 or I 80 grades)

Scrollsaw. fret~aw or
ek'ctric jigsaw

Drill \Vith wood bit

M~tal r ule

ShMp kniic

Chisels and gouges

II '\.
-...,r- •::;-., ..

so Ci i l l ( \i\/(ll) DCR~ fT
8 Use a metal rule and sharp knife to 12 Complete the tenon at the bcN;' of the
sec re along the str.;iight lines. cros:;-, by taking 5mm (·'.\.. in ) off the back
an i front oi the bottom e:i..'tcnsion.
9 Scort' along the lines of the
kno1work design. 1hen reduce al l the I .3 Use the remaining piece of timber· to
background m.iterial to the s:ime make th e base. Cut in two steps on .111
depth. This can be 1- 2n1m ('/i1,-·/',, in) fom sides and then round off th e
as preferred. shoulders of the steps.

10 Create the weaving effect by 14 On the top oi thf:' base. cut iri a
reducing the materi<JI o n either side mortice ioint tlw "imc size and depth
of th e crossing points. as in projects as the tenon.
3, 5 and IL
15 Gluc !ht cross onto th e base and.
I I Next. round over the sides of the when dry. finish with two or rhretc'
central boss. or JS prcfcJTl'd.
t:L1,1ts of wax polish.
The: 111ot1ict 1111111..,1011 joi111 11s(d to joi11
tlir cro5$ 111 tlr<' l>ase
J=uN pboTo FRAOJe

Photocopies of templates
13A. 13B and 13C on page

Suitable timber measuring

160 x 110 x 25mrn {6 '!. x
1'i-x lin) (sycamore)

N.B. See notl' <ibout

direction C.'f grain in Stage I. ,wing Lacl<l ed some of the
prcviou s projects. you
R~positionable spr<iy
c.:in now rel,1x ,1nd have
some iun w ith this small ,
Carbon paper chunky. photo fram e. I have b.::isl'd the
design on a dog. which appe.H:> in
Approx IOOmm Hinl of
various forms in Celtic art .
nilrrow cord or string
Dogs had great symbolic significc1nce
Acetate if required in Celtic folklore: they were associated
wilh healing and protection and would
lmp,1ct .ldhesive
invariably accompany their masters into
Clear w01x and baby battle, or on ianlastic journeys. SLKh
toothbrush. or preferred was their importance tha1 they
finish appe<ircd in almost every type of Celtlc
;in <lnd legend. including epic tales.
illuminared manuscripts. metalwork and
sto ne carvings.

:;2 Cf-. 1 1 IC \V O L'IDC~ .-\ FT

Scrolls.:iw l'r hand frctsiiw

Drili for pilot holes

Long-nosed pliers
(option,1 I)
Tile <:i,<;hl/J "'11t11ry SI 1\ nrlr~w ·s s11rwphr1>111s in
Fift·. Swtlmttl, slmwi11g stwrnt /11111ting 1/ogs small gougt's, chir carving
carved it/ lrtg/J rdie/ knife. or Cr.:111 knife

Ci rving tools or rot,1ry

In th~' design used for this rrojL'C!, the The chunkiness ~1( the' frame cn<1bles it to tools and cutlers
arms of Lhe dog arc fai rly normal , not bt> fr<.'estanding .:111cl self-supporting.
Router ,rnd ~lraight cuttl'r
intertwined as might be expected. bLJt the I u ed sycamore for the project, but
legs are something dsc altogether. The It works w ell if yuu use t\VO contrasting
interladng of the lt>gs is t;iken over by timb<.>rs for the dog and fr,1n1(', as )'OLI
cords to which the feet are au.ached: 1hese can see on the facin g page. where dark
in tmn d.:rngle over the lop of the photo. cmly jarra was used ior the dL)g, and
and it Is almost as if the toes are pointing syc,rn1me for the frame.
to the pkture contained in the iranw.
Stick the three template s L>nto the
timber using spr<1y adhesive. ensuring
tlMt the grain runs vertic<1lly. The feet
need to be con iclerably thinner than
the frame and dog. jL1st 3-4mm

('4 ':.',~in) thick. so you could cut one foot
at 25mm ( I In) thick from y0u1· block of
I l. , ' wood. then slice off two sections the
I1 ~ - -
required depth with a fretsaw.
'------- __)
2 Using a scrollsmv or hand fretsaw, cut
out the dog. frame and foot.

3 Drill small pilot holes for the blade to

m.-ike the intcrnJI cuts for the <.Jog
(template 1313). The area.s of the dog to
remove arc the rhree shaded are.i_s on
the ternplJ!(' between the r,1il. the two
l s 'cl ions sep.irating the legs and the

.~ gJp in the belly.

4 Drill pilot hoks for th e intcrnJI cuts !n

T/11· <0111po11e11!.< rnl out r~111(1• lo b1·gi11
the frame (template I 3i\). 1/1c sllllfif!g

l' LJ.~ l'HOTO FR~MI· ~J

I -

I •
s Slip some carbon p,1pN between the B Remove .-ibout smm (-';;,.in} from
template .:rnd the wood and lr.:insfcr the leg that is ne.'.lrcst the centre.
the remai ning design li nes onto the at the point wher·e it meets tht' back
su rface of the dog. of the dog. Gr adually slope it back
up towards the rump. curving the
6 Begin shaping the dog: reduce th e sides at th e same tim e. to m<ike it
depth oi the tail by removing Jbout look as if it is weJ.ving behind th e
tOmm ('4inJ, kaving a dL'rth of about back of the dog. Then re move a
I Smm L~ inl. For this I used a similar· c1 1l10Lll1t of material from
structure>d -too th tung sten cilrbide belov.: the other leg to make it
cutter in a rot.lry tLK>I. but sm.:ill clppear to we.:wc i11 front of th e body.
chisels or gouges could al L) be used Keeping the base oi the kg ii.i t,
l'ffcctive ly. Kee p the tJil area flat for curve the sides of the leg and body
now. as this m ake!' ii easier to crcdte in betwee n the legs.
the weavi ng l'ifcct later. but curw the
area of tht body where it meets the 9 Score along the line that sepa ra tes the
t.1il to give a nice rounded b,1ck . snout from th e head. <ind then red uce
Continue c11rving all the edges oi the the snout by ;:ibout Jrnm {',~ in) <ind
body except th e b<isc. wh ich needs to cmve over the edges.
be kept fla1 for attaching to th e fram e.
10 Curve the edges of the rest of the
7 Re duce the depth of the top arm , so head, incl uding the step tha t >V<lS

that it .:ippca rs to be b~hind the lmver created wh en redu ci ng the snout.

arm, and curve the edges over to giw Remove some of the; material below
J. rounded look . This c.:in be done wi th the ear .11 the back of the nt:>ck, to give
either small gou;~e s. a knife - su ch as it grealer definilion. Curve the top
a cfop carving knife - or even a craft edge of the ear and taper the tip
kniic. R.ernovc a little of the body down slightly.
below the lower ztrm to cre<i tc
something of an armpit for ddini!iun. 11 Ensure that all the r~maining edges
and aga in curve the ar m into a of th e body have be en curwd over
smooth rounded shape. Reduce the to give a reall y smooth finish.
depth of the arm tow;:irds the ·wrist' so including the section of lhc belly
that the I clW can be given deiini tlo n. that has been cut out.

51 CELTI<. \ ·\'OOOCR1HT
I 2 Now .::.:irve the knotwork on the t.:iil. and through the undt> rside or the belly
Transfer the guiddines onto the 1,1il lo cutout at a point belD\\I the centr~' le~ .
m,irk the \Ve,win g. Score along the about .5111111 (-·_;,,.in I in from the t.'dF,L',
lint's using either ,1 knife. or a ~ot1gc The photo below slKiws tlw position of
1h ..1t h.~s the s.:imc curve as the line. the Jwk'S , both on till' protrudin~ le~
and then reduce the material on and through the base immediately
t'ithcr side uf th~sc lines, as in tlw bdow th is.
pr·e-vious projects.
18 Cut l\Vo pieces of L'L11·d approxi rnatL•ly
t 3 Make rhc end oi the tail into J hL'.1rt 40mm l J /:in) long and glue a fLlot to
shape. by redudnt; down the l..1sl one" end oi each. Assess the fin.;il
secliun of tail bdur·lC it goes inlL' the len)ilth of the cord by holding it against
he ..1rt sh.:ipe. and notching,, ·v· shJpe the 1.fog. ,1110\ving ;;1 small piece ex tr.1
.:it this roint. Curve LWt r· all the side s to fit in1L1 the drilled hole. then cur ro
along the length of the tail. length. 25-J2mm ( 1-1 '/.in). Thre<id
L1nc curd through tht> hok i11 the b.:isc
14 The ft'et need 10 bt• shaped by curving oind ~,luc i111L1 pl.:ic12 in the prL1truding
and to es. but r,1ke .::.:ire
ovt.'r tlw sides leg. Gluc the other pil'cl' of cor·d into
with your fingers, as they are very the" hL;k L'>CIO\\' the centre- IC>g. allowin~
tiny pieces 10 \.vork \Vil h - a p.Jil' of it to dangle in the groove helow.
k1ng-nL)sed pliers c.:in bt• used to grip
the" ket. if prekrrt'd. 19 Nuw work L11l the frall)e. Begin hy
d1".11;1.ii11~ a line on the b ..1ck. 5111111
15 Bdore adding the final features, ( '.I.in) in from the eJgc of the cutolll.
give the dL1g a good sandinf!, to Th is will be the rebate 10 take the
111 ..1ke ii really srt'WOlh and cuny photograph. Rcb.:M this edge to ,,
Dr.:iw in the eye. mouth, nose ancl ckptll oi I 2mm (',<;in I. lo bring the
shoulder curl lines firs.L and ! lwn photugraph closer tu the front of tht.'
il1dL'nt along t ilt' lines.. J us\.'d ri fr.:i me. If you have ,1 router, fit a sm,111
snwll V -- tool k)r this. but a chip Lil' st 1·.1ight cutter and, securing thl'
craft knife could ,1ls1.' be ~IStd. fr.1111e firmly to your workbench. rout
the rd1arc in a seril's L f cuts. taking
16 The iinal iob is to make,, shape in the Jmm l ' ,~ in) off at a 11mc.
bJ$C fL,r the cord of the leg to wcilve
iorward. Do this by cutting m11· 0:1
sm.111 sem[-c irc ul.:ir share .1t the
bollum of the boJy, directly belmv the
(:-t:•ntre Llf th..:- le~ .

I 7 The l'Ord for the legs is iust pressed inlo

the IJL1les. rathe1· than thre,1dt'd tl1rL1ugh
thC' wood. Drill the holes with .:i bit

corl'espo11ding w the diameter Lli the

CL)fd, in this CJ st I mm (';;,.i n), and make
them only about I .Smrn (approx. 'A'..inl
dt'l'p. jusl enough IL• glue lhe cord into.
Drill <1 hole in the top edge Di each foo1.
One \Vay of making sLm' that your
route r stays level is to cut out the
shape of the frame from the centre
of a piece oi 2.Smm (I in) MDF. slot
the fr,1me .i1110 It, tlwn cl.:imp this to
the cvorkbench.
If you don 'l h.we Jcccss to a
router. then it is possible lo use a
rourer anac hmcnl .:md straight router
hit ior the Drcmcl. F.lilin~ either oi
these pt ions. )'OLI ("111 form ,1 rebate
using a chisel.

20 Cut,, backing pit'Ct> to hold the photo

in place in the rl'bate - rhe e.1s iest
way is to draw arow1d the rebate onto
the ba ·king piece. If dcsirC'd, you can
also cur a piece of acC'tJte the ·ame
size to go in front of the photo.
2J Give the compktc-d frame a suitable
21 Curve the front edges oi tlw frame finish: I applied a clear wax with .:i
and cutolJt SC'ction, and sa nd to soft baby toothbrush. to get in all
give ~1 smo1..1th finish. the Ii ttle crevices.

22 Glue the> dog in pl.ice on the to1 oi 24 Put yollr chosen photo in the
the frame. with the lt>gs dangling rebate . with acetate in front ii being
over the front. I USl'd <in impact u sed . then fc'.lstcn the backing piece
adhesive for this, as it nt•eds to be a in place behind with a small tack
really strong bond . top a 11d bottom.

.)6 Cf-LI IC... W1..Hll H." l~1' I I

cmOle SCONCe

t i$ said that rhere circ two l<notwork links the mirror~ at the sides,
ways of spre.1di11g lighi. ·10 and the spiral motif brings together the
be the candle, or the mirror three elements of the sconce. Tht'
that reflects it'. number· three \.vas very sig11ific<int in
This project L1scs mirrors to reflect the Celli<.: .irt. .~s can be seen in th e
candlelight many times; rhe larger triplication of m.1ny stonc-cMved deities.
mirror offers a continuous reflection as well as on the decorc1ted pages of Tools
J nd, .~s the candle bl1rns lower-. so the manuscripts. Scrolls.:iw m fretScl\V
lower mirrors r·dlcct the flame. This lust for go0d measure. then: is al so ,1
Chisels and gollgl'S
way. one sm.1 II fl;rn1c can spread its sm;;11l amount oi an.::hi tectu ral-style
light in many directions. carving involved in the arches. which Drill
Candlelight docs more than di spel show up to goLx1 effect \Vh cn the candle
d<.irkness: it represe nts powerful ls lit. throwing ~hadows on to the curves.
symbolism in m<1ny faiths . C indl es arc Christmas tree candles .ire ideal for Crail knife or chip knife
Ii 1 for remembrance. for worshir. tor 1his project. 1101 only beouse of their foptional)
purity and to represent Chrisl as th e light perfect size. but also because th ey burn
of the world . without dripping wax.
Photocopil's uf templates
I 4A Jnd MB on page-s
J~crosit iv n.~ble spr<iy

Method 4 Cut round the rectangul."ir outside

First make a carving pg. to rest the edges o f the mirror frame.•.
Timber measuring: 230 x
sidepieces on whilst they are being
170 x IOmm for b.Jck
carved. The- jig can be madt> out of 5 Turn the piece over and position the
(9 x 6";,, x ·/ in) (lime)
scraps of limber or ~-!OF as follows: larger. rectangular. mirror owr the
-10 x 4Ll x I 20mm for sides cut four wedg6 of IVL10d "1pprox. 4 5 x cl'lltr.~ I cut out
arezi. OrJW .1rou11d the
( 1"/i,, x I'/,,, x 4'l<in) 30 x 50111111 long (I'/.• x I'/. x 2inJ ,ind mirror's edges. then use •1 router or
{sycam1.1re) make a slope of •15' Oil L1n c side along ~:hist-I to make a rebate for lhc mirror

1h ~. length . to 111..:ikc a wedge shape. to sit in. Check for iit - tht- mi rro r
170 x '10 x IOmm for shelf
Take a piece oi bo.m! .:lpprL1x. 280 x shou Id be flush with the outt>r frame
(6',~, x I'/. x ·;..in)
200mm ( 11 x Sin) and mark .J line when in position - then put the
Sp.1rr timber for carving jig down the centre about 200mm (Bin) mirror safely 10 one sid1.'.
long. Clue the wedges in pair~ at
I mirror measuring 160 x
either end of this line..'. so that the o Position template I 4A 011 (he..' front of
68m m (b'/. x 2·1sin)
slopes fo rm ·v· shapes into which the the wood. slip in so1nc c.:irhon pJpcr.
8 mit'l'or s1.1uares mea~ur in g sides can sit. Gluc and nJil a piece of then rr,Ke on the design.
18 x I Smm (';, x ··,.'.inl ~<..Tap wood acrc..)5$ lhl' l'nd of one \!-
shaped block to form an end stop. 7 Identify the ten rriangul.u ~hapt-s at
12 ruund mirrors I 3mm
the top of the .=irc:h .:ind score .Jlong
( f in) in diamc.>ter
2 lake the piece of timber measuring 1he Jines. Reduce the depth of eac h
l\rletal tr<..'L'-1.·a ndkholdl'I 230 x 170 x 10111111 .:rnd stick template tri.:inglc by Jmm ('l inl, keepi ng th e
with srikc: in base 14:\ onto it u.;;i11g ~pray <.idhcsivc. sides wrtical to ensure .:i uniform
slope. O nce you have carved the b.:tSL'
·1ree-c:an dlt' IOOmm Jong x
J Drill ,1 pilot hc..ile to allow for the interna l triangle. you wi ll have- the line to join
11 min c.li.:1111eter H x '!'. in)
cut to be made. C~1t out the shaded up to the top of the slope.
._k.Jrproof vJmish arc.J. keeping good sh<Hp edges wht-re
the circle comes in 10 .1 point.
Stone glL1e (or similar
Sllit.Jbk to glllC g l..'ISS to


Wood gll1e

8 bras .. screws

l br.:iss pk·ture hJngrr and

2 small brass screws

8 Lightly s.:-ore a line from the corner Lli

each triangle out to v.ihere it meets the

corner of rhe next lricrnglc. This will
give .:i guide for wlK'r·c the slopin~
edges will come together. Ch~1mfcr
down from ihc line of the outer triangle
to the b.1sc of the inner triangle to form
.:i uniform slope all round. folk1wing
the sweep of the curws.

9 Lightly score the two lines at the base

of the cutout an.:a, and then slo1x'
across the base down 10 -'Imm ('Jd n)
from tlw back.

to Slope thl' sidt•s in the sam e manner.

11 Slope the inner edge of the part-cin..:Jc

at the rop of the .:utout .m~a.

I 2 Cut out the small triJngle above the

cen tral spira I. sloping <ill th re'' sides
in to1.vards the centre.

13 Carve the spir.:il by srnring along the

lines using a V-tool or ,1 knife. thrn
makt> them into ·valleys·.

14 Three spi1·al legs \Vil) sta nd out from ml

the carvl'd v.:illcys, which can then
be t\.1u11d~·d over to complc:te the
spiral molif.

J 5 Carve the two smaller spir.11 motifs in

.l similar way. but reduce the Ml' a
betwern the trumpets ,1nd spirals by
about Im 111 ( _,;,in). These two motifs
.:ll'C qu ill' small and I k1und it 1;:,1si1;:•r· to
use a scalpel to shape 1hcm.

16 Pri.>p,1 re the sides by cutting

diagonally th rnugh rhe squ.ue
length of -10 x 40mm limber. Th is
can be difficult ~v' ithLlllt the right
saw. in which case tht' altern,1tive is
to rest a squ.~rc st>ction of timber in
, \ C01llJ•lt1t1/ $ 111111/ s1•/ml molif i$' $/1011•11
the carving jig and plane down to rrt tire l<>J' of lf1t· 11it·t11rr 011 Jhc kfl


I '
form a triangular shape. Two ,ZJ Carw t he other· sid e in th\C> s.:imc
lengths oi timber will Lw 11L'eded for way, making sure that it slopes
th is. Cut e,1Ch side to length. in the opposite direction from the
ma tchin g the length of th e carved first side.
b.1ckbo ard as far .1s the lin e at the
b,1sc of the carving. 24 Glue all the sm .111 mirrors in place in
rl1<.'ir rebates.
r 7 Place one of th e sides in the c.Jrving jig
for support and, u~ing carbon paper. 25 Drill a hole in the sh elf for the spike oi
transfer the design from 1empl<1tc 14B the candlcholdcr. I h.:id to offset mine
onto the surface. Begin the .::.arving by tow.irds the frl111t. as th e dianwter of
rn.~king four. squ,m~ reb<Hes for tht' the cancHeholdcr was wider lh.:m the
mirrors. T he depth oi the rcb:.'ltes shel f. If th e '>rikc is longer tha n 10111111
should be J 111111 ('/ieil1) greater th.:in the ( 4.in). cut ofi .:my surplus flush 1,vith
thicknL'SS of the mirror til e. ihL' under·side of the shelf.

18 Reduce th e b.ickgrl'Lmd armmd the 26 The compon ents can n1.1w be

knotwork <ind Ollt:icle of the spir.il asse mbled.
motif by I mm ('/, inl. leaving the
narrow outside border raised ,1lso. 27 Gluc the shelf in place ar th<' bottom
.ind use two screws thr·ough from the
19 Creat e the we,wing dfoct on the b,ick to hold it firmly.
knot\VL)rk in the USLIJI manner.
28 Gluc rhc two sidepieces in place .rnd
20 Position the smc1 ll round mirror· in use screws from be hind <1nd bek)\V to
between th e knotwork whe re hold them firmly.
indicated on I h L' te mplate <ind draw
round them as a guide. 29 Varnish the timber using heatproof
varnish for s,1ft'ty,
21 ~,1ake J round rebate equal to th e
de pth of the minm. 30 On the back of the sconce. cut a
rebate behind the hanging plate to
2 2 c.~rve the top spiral in the same way as ,1Hmv it to pass over a screw, zind
ior the backboard (sec stages I 3-14 l. 1·hcn screw the h.Jnging pl ate in
m place, making sure that rhc screws
used are shortl'r than th(' carved
depth of the wood.

31 Fina lly. glue th~, remaining l.:irger

mirror in place and place a candle in
the holder. /\s the candle hums
down, its il,:irnc will be 1cfl1?cted in
the lm·ver mir rors.

m the Claddagh Lovespoon

featured on p.lgc 20. I put
my Ol'-/ll interpretation (1f

.'.ln Irish theme into 1A.1 h,1t Materials

started .:is a very Welsh rradition. I hope Photocopy ot Ct>mplatc
I cJn he forgiven therefore for- taking 15A rn1 pa~w 111, C'Tl !argccl
the- pn.xcss one step fLlrt her by by 125%
introducing ;i zoornorphic th eme. There
Timber measuring approx .
.:ire very few projl'CI patterns availab le
260x6Dx Jlmm (10 /. x
rhat bring new approaches ro old
2-',~ x 'Ain) ( lim~l
themes, Sl' I hope rhis will open up new
possibilities for people wanting 10 create Rcp1..1sitio11abl~ spray•
Celtic designs. adhcsivt>
The bird in this design is t,1ken from
Fine grade sandp.:iper
Tire undis{arnc Gospels. but simHar bircl
(I 80) or fine stt.'d wool
ornamrnts appear in The Book of Kells and
un Pictish stone CJ r·vings . Carbon paper
The Celts perceived the d iffe rent
Wax polish or preferred
cl.Spects of bird s' abilities clnd behaviours
,ls symbolic in various ways. Birds could
be the bearers of messages or the
pmtents L'r omens good .:rnd bad . They
possessed wide - ranging tr,1its. from
Scrolls.nv or h.:md fretsaw
beautiful singing and g1·.iceiul swimming.
lo dcstrnction with talon and bcal<. Rot.:iry tool fittt'd with no
The <tbiliry ro fly was somcrhing thar 9936 nremd bit !option,1 I)
early 111Jn cou ld not ('Ontcmpf,11t\ so this in
Chip knife or cr<1it knife
itself g.:wc rise to many mythological beliei .
Only birds could bridge the space between Chisels and gouges
th e world s of hc;:iven, earth zind \V3ter. Jnd
they were rcwred for th;:it rl'ason .
,\/let hod 4 Sh.-ipe the front of rhe spoon bowl in1o
Stick 1111.'tcmplalt' to the prcp..:ired J concave shJpc. using the dotted line
smooth smface o f the timber. using as a guide to 1.v here to start !he
spray adhl'Sivc. Drill pilot holes in alJ ck,wnward ·"lope. J\t this _tagc I prefer
the shadt•d .:ircas of th e templat~· to to just give the b.1sic shape to the bvw[
allow tlw scrollsaw blade to enter. and return to the fina l finish \-Vhcn the
rnd then make lhL' internal cut~ to re.st of the spoon i. carwd. The simple
remove rhc waslt'. reason for this is 1ha1 ff I make any
irreversible errnr·s, then .:ill the rime
2 Rcrn(wc rhe te111pl,1tC' and sand off spent on the bowl is not \.\f<:l sted.
any glue- residue using fine gr.:ldc
s.:rndp ap~·r. then reposition the 5 Begin to shapt' the bird by reducing
template, slip some carbon p.1pl'r the depth of the knotwork design at
undernC'ath it . .:ind trace the ci1?sign the neck. I Llscd a st ructmcd tungsten
onto !hc timber. bit in my Dr('md to remove the bulk.
then fini~hed off with .1 gouge. T1·y t(l

3 Shape the spoon by curving the make a slope where the tW<.)
back into a convex ~hapc. I ust'd J nt>ckpicccs join the body .::md head,
structur"'d tooth bit in my Drenwl. but keep th<' re-t of the knotwork .;irea
but WOLild only re(tJmrn e nd duing as flat and even as possible. If y1;1u
so if \'OU arc experienced i n its use. roJJow the bands of the rattern you
Otherwise gouges will do lhl' job will notice that the ear l.:lppct actually
perfectly well. becomes thL• lL1nguc.

6 Using a sharp ch ip kniie ir crait knife
SCL)rc along tilt' wing from thE' large
circle to the tip. Shape the leg and tail
fe..1thcrs below this point by reclucin ~
the depth by 2rrnn t-'ldn) owrall , then
alklvving it to rise up ag.~in towa rds
the spoon bowl. i~ound the sides of
the lc.>g ,1nd toes and llSl' J \1-tooJ to
111Jrk the divi~k111 between the front
two toes. makln~ the front Loe slightly
lower th.~n th e rc.1 r one. The toe .;it the
b,1cl< of the foot has to appear to
IN(;'.:ive under th e m.:iin t.1il feather.
over the middle feather then back I 2 Tract' on the knotwork design of the
under the re ..1r fc.:ither. Do this by 1wck and SCl>re alLlng the lines in the
r·educing the m.1reriill eithl' r side of usual 1.v.~y.
e.1ch weave, as in previous projects, II
but make the side oi tlw tOL' rounded 13 Reduce- the woo d 011 either side oi
.1nd keep the fl•Jrhers flat in contrast . E"ach b.:ind where it we<ive s Lmder
another. When all rhe kn o twork
7 Form !he claws by cutting a groove has been completed . round off the
into the line of c-ach Cllt iclc .:incl sides of the bands.
curving the cl.1w .1 nd surrounding toe.
The. e can be exaggerated to make l 4 Shape the head by reducing th(' depth
them effective. of the !OJ beak. so that the head can
be curved. and reducing the lower
8 Score .~long th e line th at endc1ses the beak behind the tongue. Rou nd r..1ff the
t>ody feathers, then reduce the whole edge: o( the head to make it meet up
section inside the line by 2111111 f'li·in). with the curves of the neck and car Ill
[nsure that the surface of this area is lappet. Qr.:iw in the eye and line of th e
smoorb, then tr.1nsier the design for iaw. and curl of the car. then mark
the ft•<:1thcrs back onto the wood. them our with a V-tor..11 or sharp knife.
ScorE' along th ~' straight lines bet1vccn
the layers oi feathers then use 41 I - Compkt t' rhe carving 011 the bLW,d of
curved gouge at right angles to score the spoon. then sand . mooth.
th e bottom of L'ach feather.
16 Wax 01· oil the fini shed lovcspOLlll. as
9 1\4ake th e vertical line between the preierrnd . I gave mine an aged
feathers using .1 \I-tool. sharp chip appear.;incc by ,1pplying ,1 dark WcW
knife-. or er-aft knik. on top of a c!E"ar wax. th.:in wiping ft
llfi before it dri es. The dark wax st.:iys
JO Remove the small t riangks oi material in the grooves after polishing.
between thl' bottom of the fo'<l thcrs. accc-ntuating the dl':iign .

11 Rou ncl off till' front chest of th e I 7 Drill a small hok in the bad in
bird, .11!owing it 10 mel't up with th e ordC'r to h<rng the lovespoon on a
curve of the kg. n<1il if l'l'quired.
Co~sTeRS lN bc1LOeR

Photocopies of templates
16A ,:ind 16H (page 112),
Jnd designs I 6C- t 611 as
required. on pagC' 11 J,
...·n!Jrged by l25 l}iJ

Piece of timber .,~.,prox.

b30 x 100 x 6mm (25 x 4
x '/.in) for coaster o,~ses
(l\tncrican tulipwood)

Piece of timber approx .

110 x 110 x somm (4'!.. x
4'.A x 2in) for holder
(beech) his set of six coasters is If you do hJve .~ lathe. use the usual
made up of knorwork and turning me1hods to produce the tiases
Contr.1sting veneers. at ;;pi 1·,1I dcsi:rns. with rw and holder, then make th e veneered
lcJst 100 x IOOmm (4 x carving Involved. lnstl' .ld patterns as shov.m.
4inJ. two per design of using three-dimensional technique s .1 Using two contrasting veneers for e<ic h

Wood glm· in prt•viGus projects. I have used de~ign will produce rwo version s of the
contrasting veneers to give life to the s..:ime design reversed. This means that a
Repositionablc spray designs. which arc tlwn ser into a set of six coJstcrs can be mJdc using just
adhesive recessed base. I have included a wooden three of tht designs. or two sets of

Fine garnet sandpaper holder to store the 1.'.o<isrcrs. coasters could be made with six differing
The method I have uso.>d to make the designs in each set. and eac.:h set
White spirit amt lintfree contrasting with the other. The patterns
coasters and holder is specifically
cloth designed 10 show tha1. ii are is taken, chosen for the coasters have beJ?n kepi

Waterproof ink dr.1wlng roLind objects cJn be made without the simple, to rcdllcc the number oi cuts

pen (fine ) use of a lathe, 1.vh ich woLild be the more needed. to c;itcr ior those who have not
obvious choice of power tool for this used veneers be-fore. When the tech nique
Doubk·-sidcd ~!icky tape prnject. l have used power cools suc h as has beL'n practis~d and mastered on !hes('

I IC'atproof varnish a scrollsaw and router. which nor simplified designs. you could go on to
everyone w ill h,we acct'ss ro. but all th<..' make yolll" own dt'signs using more
steps could be worked using hand tools. complicatt'd pattern$.


\\ '

Method J If necessary, tidy up the routed edges

Sa nd both sides of the timber that will with ,, :;harp knife. It is a goocJ idea to
be used for the coaster ba st s <1 nd use rout just inside the final linl' if you .Jre
J pair oi compasses to draw out six in any doubt .:ibout being .~bk to CUI
coaster ' , using template 16;\ .1s .1 accurJll'ly co the line, J.nd yLiu (an
gu ide to help you set the radius of che then cut b.Jck to the line with .J kniie.
inner and outer circle ·.
4 Cut out the:· six discs. following the
2 Set the router· at a depth to match the outer line. using a scroll s.:iw. jigsaw
depth of thl' veneer. plus a little extra or fri,•tsaw.
to allo1.v for· glL1i11g and sanding. In
my case it was 0. 7mm in total. Ii 5 Choose one oi the motifs ,rnd make
it is not possi ble to use a circle guide two phowcopies. Stick .1 remplate to
with yom router bcc ..n1sc Llf the caC"h c.,f two contrasting cc.,loured
small circ umforcncc. hold the base veneers, using a spray .1dhesivc.
plate of rhc router instt>ad of the
handles to gain m0re con trl1I . RL1ut 6 Using a sh.irp craft knife and culling
out the central section of each holder bo.Jrd. c.-irefully cut round the de_ign.
up to the innt•r line. It is easier to but do NOT cut any of the crossing
rout the b.1ses before they Ml' cut lines of the knotwork patterns.
out individu "1 lly, as shmvn, .~ s this As l'•Kh section is cut. cut the some
gives the muter b.:ise a bigger are.:i sectkm ~11 clic CL1ntrasting Vl'neer <ind
ior support. gradually rebuild the pallern by

Scrolls.:iw or hand frets.-iw

Router wilh straight bit or


ShJIT craft knik scalpel

or chip carving knife:


swapping the cut pici:es. The cuts must 10 Cut out two or five more designs in the
be m..~de to folk.'!\v the linl's of the design same w,1y, depending on whether you
,1.:curatdy. so that the pieces will iic want se ts of three or six different
b<ick together perfectly whL'll swappC'd. patterns, then make into coastc1· · as
explained abDve.
7 Spre<id a thin. even layer d ~lut' into
the routed are<i of the co ..1ster base 11 To make the holder for th(' set ~1f

and carefully st ick rhc rc-asscmbk'd co<istcrs. take tht' remaining limber
p.:ittcrn into place. Somt' v.:irk tics of and cu t a "i -6 mm {'/ ,in) SL'Ction fr~\!11

wood veneers c<111 cock!.;- quit.;> easily. the bottom.

for exam ~;lc the burr wnc~·r used in If you do nL'l hdvc tile facili ties tu
the spiral motif. so .1pply prt.>Ssure ior do this yourself. your kx ..11 builder,·
ris long as nei:cssary to 111 ..~l<L' sure :ill mcrch.ints m wood y.:ird will
the parts of the vencl'r stick firn1 ly. probably oblige. Stid< this piece b..Kk
to tht' bL~!torn - tising ckiub ll:.'- si dcd
8 The fine corners are susct'ptiblc to stk:ky ta~ie - ready for st.1ck cutting.
breakage 1Nha:-11 lhl' grain nms acrnss
the dL'sign . which i~ una voida ble.\ so 12 Use compci sses ro draw tcrnpl.:ite I 6B
make any necessary repairs 10 chc for the coaster-holder onto the top
veneers using sm.Jll offcuts. of the timber. again using th(.' template
D on't be put off if !ht' co ..1stcr looks .:is a guide for the radi u. oi the two
a little disappoint ing at chis stage. circles. Alternatively. !ht• t~mplat c

Le.we it to dry thoroughly !hL'n ge11tly ca n bl' stuck directl y on Ill the timlwr
sJnd it level tJ sin g fin0 g.mwt p..ipcr. if preferred.
Cle<in w ith a little whitL' spirit on ..
lint-free cloth and rlw fr~'sh rnlours oi I J Cut around th e oulsi e cirdc of
the veneer s will Lx' rcvc.~lc ci. the template then separ<rtl' the tw.._,
pieces .
9 Draw in the n:'m<iining lines of thC'
design us ing a fine. w.:ilerproof ink 14 · 1 ~1ki ng 1he largt'Sl lop section only.
drawing pen. then give 0<1ch coaster dri ll a pilot hole in the n1iddle. then
two coats Lli heat-resistant v.Jrnish. cut round Lhe inner circle using a
rubbin g down gently betwe~'n coa ts. scrollsaw or frets aw . Gluc this .._1nto
VarnisJ1 the bouom .ind sides as well, the base and leave to dry.
to prevent ,1ny mowmcnt of the wood.
I 5 To hcil iwre removing the coa. rers
from the holdt'I', cut OLlt a section from
the side of the holdt'r m1.'..1s11ring 35111111
(I 'kinl deep by I 5mm ('~{in) wide. and
round it at the bottom. as shown.

16 If liked. tlw top uf th e holder cJn

also be round ed ~we r tu giw a
smoo1h finbh. Vilrnlsh in the c;ame
way as the co<1sters (St'l' stage 9)
then. once lhe vMnish is dry, place
the coasters in the h~1ldcr.

he knolwLirk katurt•d in The knot\VL)rk design for the trivet is

this project shows how a made up of two bands. one which
ci rcu lcir pcHlt' rn c.in be IVE'.:\VC'S il. IV<l)I Ji"L)LJnd the design
incorpor.:ited into a without .:rny knots. <ind a second much
design. The (·ircle was important IL) the busier ba nd that h.:is ~11 the work to do.
Celts. not only because it is a solar looping back on itself a!I the way Jround.
symbol. but also because the An ,1 Jt ' rnative way ll) highlight the
unending line is a rc rnind1n of thL' knotwork bc1nds is to paint them in two
continuou s circle L)i lifo. differl'nt CL lour~ with diluted emulsion
Going b.Kk much further in time. it paint before varnishing.
w.:is. th(;' shape adopted for· lhe The feet of tlw trivet cll"C similM to a
construction oi many megalithic sitl's, lion dl· ·or-.1tion from The llooh of Kells .
Stonehenge being pli'rhaps one of the HE' ~L'cnwd sul'h c'I humble and
most famous circles of al! . E..1r!y huts subscrvirnt cr..-atllrc. thought lw
wcrli' round. cis were hill fons. because deserwd a bit of recognition. even
the circle• was !hL)Ught to be prott•ctivc thou~h I h,we put him in a position oi
!.h1 11 d~<"(>f1//io11 l!i /hr style of
both physi.:ally and spiritually. iurthcr suhservicrKl'. l'hl' l\ook of Kells

Tradition.,lly, the lio n represen ts st n~n gt h
and majesty. and in Celtic art it is the
evangdi st sym bol for St M.1rk (.:i lthough
in -U1c 1'00/1 o[ Oimow it was used as a
symbol for St John}. T he lion was
so metimes given wings to emphasise its
divine nature.

U se spray adhesive to stick the trivet
tcmpl.:ite. I 7C. ro the la rger of the two
p ieces of timber L)J' yoll ca n. if you
prefer, trace the design onto the
surfoce using c.:irbon p<.1per between
tlw t~'mplate and timber.

2 Cut th e outside of 1h e
design using a scrollsaw or hand
Photocopies of templutes
iretsaw. If necessary, cut in .:it right
I iA. I 7ll and 17C Lll1 pJgc
angles to the po ints wh ere the
knotv.,1ork \Vi ii wc<.wc , to be sure of
Tlmbel' rnc<.1suri11g .1 pprox. a sharp outli1ie.
100 x 160 x IOmm (6'1, x
6 ;; x ',\\in) (beech) .3 If not already done at step I. peel off
the design and tr,111sfcr it to th e face of 5 Reduce the are,l between t hr.: Inside oi
Timber measuri ng .:ipprox.
the timber as desc rib ed. the knotwork and the coas ter by
200 x 70 x 25mm (8 x 2 Yi
2mrn ('k inl so that the coa sler wi ll be
x Jin) flimc)
4 l~out out the circle to h Id the cork lcvd with the b.:ickground \vhen the
Cork coa ster. 95mm coaster. Make this the depth of the carving is complete.
iJ'/,in) in diameter thickness of the co.:i stc'r. plus 2mm
('h in) to allmv fo r thi::- depth of the 6 Reduce the small tri.'.lnglcs b~·tween
l~i:-posltionable spray
kno two rk l'.'.Hving. You can LIS C the knotwork to a depth of 2 mm
chisds and gouges for thL. if a router l·'.l,zin).) found c1 sharp chip knifo most
Heatproof polyurerhane is not available. suit.lble for this.
varnish (clear)

Emulsion paints (optional) ..... .

Scrolbaw or iretsaw

~out~r (option al)

Chisels and gouges

Chip knife or craft knife

6S Ct 11 ll \Vt>«Ch:~ ... rT
7 ScL1re along the lines rh"1t cross th e work . C.1rvt' the tail inwards to make
kno twork then. 1wrki11g at right it appe.1 r to .:-ome from behin d the
nngles. reduce the timber down legs. Slope 1hc end of the back leg so
towar-ds thC' cut to give tlK• that it tucks in behind th e front paw.
appearance oi 1,ve.wi ng under. Repe<H Round the sides of th e bcick ,ind front
the process ior all the crossing points. legs and p.1ws.

8 Gluc the coaster in place in the centre I <I Reduce !he 1ri.1terial around the b.Jse
rebate. of the tail on the lion 's left side. and
carve a ·v· berv..1een the back leg clnd
9 M.1ke a ca r·d tern plate of the lion chest. curving them inw.1rds. Make
mo tif I 7"\ .:111d use It to draw three the tail appear to wcavc bt•hind the
lion shapes. legs by sloping it inwards. Slope Lhe
end oi the back leg as on rhe left side,
10 Cut out each lion cm a scrollsaw or to tuck it bt'hind the front paw. Round
fretsaw. then cut oLrt the sma ll areas over the legs and paws.
under the chin and lx'hlnd the 1.1il.

11 Transfer the designs onto bo1h sides

of c.:ich lion , either by cop~ting
freehand. or tracing from the template.

I 2 Ornw the following lines on the front

edge oi each lion : down the centre of
the back legs: 8mm P/oin) in from th~
edge of each fronr paw: Smm C1..in) in
from each side of thC' forehead: and
Progm~s ivr singes of car11l11..i: l'!Zch si1h-
Smni l'loin) in frnm each side oi tht• IE of tht Ihm
snout . as shown.

I J Score along these lines, and along the

lines of the design on both sides of
each lion . Reduce the materia l aroun d
the end of the tail on the lion's right
side 10 make it stand ouL, then carw
Olll the waste between !he !ail and !he
ba~' k leg. curving tht' edges as you

TR IVEl 69
15 On 1hc front edge cut a ·v· between trivet will be fastened. Dip the chest in
the back legs along the scored line. below rh e arms .:ind shape the mane
and round over the edges. and iacc. If any sanding is necessary.
S<>nd before finally adding the t'ye.
l 6 Cut out the space bct\vccn the front nose <ind mouth.
p.:iws. t.:Lltting it right back Llntil it
nw~ts tht• ar~a th,11 has previously 19 Glu e the three lions to tht~ under-side of
been ell! under· tht <:hin, in st·eF' 10. the trivet. p l;i ing them ~'qu:il
RLiund L1Vt~r thl' sides of the p.:iws. distcinces ,1pan ( I 2ln. sLi rhat thC'
edge of the trivet is touching the m.rn,'.
I 7 N.1rr<:1w the he<1d from each side up to Place a weight on the trivet Lrntil the
the scored lines .~nd round the edges. glue h<is iirmly set.
k'aving thC' mane full 'vvidth .
20 Varnish the trivet and lions with ti.vu
18 Shapi:- thC' back and shoulders but or three coats of cicM polyureth,im.
le.:iw the top fi<.~t. ,~s this is where the
Phok,Cl\pics uf temrl.ites
IS:\, 18H and 18( on
page~ 11 5-117, enlargcd
by 142'\6

Carbon paper

Timber me,1suring 380 x

360 x 3lJmm (!5 x 14 '/, x
I 't:., in) (sycamore)

4mm plywood. 320 x

320mm (12'.t.x l.2 ~{; in)

Mirror, diameter OSmm

( l 2 in)

CkM varnish
he Cladd.1gh motto is 'In Cladd,1gh, Jll?M ,a lw.:iy in lrel .~ 11d. Here
love. in friendship. let us he set Ll~J his 01vn business making Glazier ·s points l1r t<icks
reign ·. A little the
of ;ewellery. ;md designed the Claddagh
Picture rings and wire
h istL1r>' of the C!,1ddagh r·ing. The rings hec,1me immensely
d1.:• ·ign hc'.1s been r·derrcd ro in the popular and were passed as family
Claddagh l.ovcspoon project (page 20). heirloom~ from mother to d.1ugh1cr_
now I'll cx plc1in morL' <1bout its creJIL1r, The design L f the Clackf,1gh ring
Scrol Js,1w. jigs.:iw cir
Ridiard l<.)ycc. became known ~icmss the 1.vorld as
Richard loyce had b.:en taken captive emigranls left Ireland at the lime the
in the .MC'ditE'rr.:incan by Algerian pirates great famine of I S·'f?-49. Man\' more Router (option,11)
.rnd sold ro a ~·1oori s h goldsmith. 1,1,rho r·ings were ldt ,1s security back in
Rotary m ulti-tool
trained him in mctalWl'rk and set him to Ireland . .ind used 10 raisl~ [ht' fa re to
work . v\lhen William l!I bccJ nw king L)f escapL' the fam lne; poign,1ntly. many
: ngland in I 689 he secured th, relc.1se of were 11eve1· recla imed. Selection of woodc.:irving
.:ill his subil'C ts held captive by tht' 1\foors. One v.;riJ tion th;.1t sometimes .1ppears tools
Rich.:ird roycc·s master tried to pl'rsuadc in the design is the height of thl' crown: a
Chip knife or craft knife
him to stay by offering his d.:\ughter's high-dL1rncd crown \\'L~tdd have been
h,1nd in 111orriage, bur [(1yce rrckrred to WL'rn by J queen ancl a low-domed
rct urn to his n.:i.tivc (ishing village. crown belonged to a king.

In rhi s pr-oject the Cladd.1gh design forms 4 Apply glue to the ct ntre base of the
part of the frame. which i$ remin isce nt Lif tim her. att.ich it firmly to a pieCl:' oi
th e ring shape. t\ n clcrn., I knot \VC'cWC'S scrap wood. then either clamp the
J round the border. base to tlK' worktop. or use a routing
mat 1L1 hold it in place.
Pho1ocopy the three rempl<ites of the 5 Att.ich .i trammel bar to the router
design and cuL along !he dolled lines. Jnd locJte the pin in the centre mark.
Tape them together Lo form the Cut round the circle as far as the cuffs
complete design, making sure that of the Cbddagh design. making
the places where thl' .Ktu.11 design several pusses, each 3-4mm C!i.in)
meets arc firmly joinl'd and taprd. dcq1cr than the last, until the full cut
is made.
2 Cut the design out, including the
small g.1ps between thL' hands, lw.m 6 Reset the router tu cut the inn er circle.
and crown. ,1nd tlwn
trace the aga in cutting as for a · the cuiis oi the
tcmp l,::i tc sh.~1 c L1nto the face 1..1i the Cladci.1gh design.
timbc1·. usin~ carbon p.1per. At this statje, whilst the router is
still set up for lace cutting. the two
.1 Th e mirro r· fr,1111l' can now bl' cut 1..1ut . fine lines on t.'ach side of the
Yuu can do thi s with ,, scro lls.1w, knotwork can be incised. using a
iigsaw or fretsaw but. If you have 2mm (',.;,in) str·aight router bit. lo a
access to .;i router·, a far ri1or·e .:iccur,1te depth llf 2.'.Jm ('.~ in). Routing gives J

part-circle can be m.lck'. If YL1LI wish very even line and make. the
ro Lise a rouk' r. first loc.."Jll' the ccnt1·c knot1vork carving easier. but thi s tep
oi lht circle on yoLll" timhl'I'. The is l1ptional. as the lines c.;in be carved
diagrams below show )ll'LI how tL1 do using a chip-(arving knile and gouge
thi s accu r.1tdy. .11 step l 2.


1-101v to fi11rl ti!" rcn lr1· ot' 11 firdr

/;,- -~
' ' \.
\ \
\\ \
\ i
.I \i
\ ,~,

~1·1 lllf co1111>nss1·s nt just over Ila/(

tl1c S.:11gth of Iii•· lines . Pia«· tile Drnw tr litu bl'lwa11 Ilic two
Dr1lh' two /im·s ()11 /he 1>oi11l nl nth: ,·nil'"'" n1c11L· i11sitlt• MIS of (f0S51'S. TJr,, u11lrr of
im>irle of Ille circfc m< 1111d r•utshl.- t/11· li111·. u.·p,·111 011 111.· tl1e circk is al t/,.. /JtJi11! where
s ltown 01'1cr /iii.· tht>se two li11.:s cross

72 ( I i I IL \\1(1~ 11ICl~.'\I- I
7 cut out the small gaps be l'\M?cn the
hands. heart .:md cwwn and then turn
the work over lso that the back is
uppt'rmostl, in order to rnark th e
posi1io11 fo r tlw mirro r· n~bate.

8 Lay th e mirror on the b.:ick oi the

frame so 1h,1t the ga ps bet ween
h.:inds. he.:irt .111d crow n .1re covcrl'd -
this will leave it ofi-centn.', tow.-irds
the botto m.

l) Dra\.\1 round the m irrnr and 1hen

find th e cen tre of this circle, ,1s
described previously.

Io RoL1l a deep re ba re fo r the mirrnr inside

the li ne, to .1 ckprh of I Smm e1,in). i.e.
half the depth of rlw frame. There is no
need to rou! the centre of the circle.
a. this 1,0.11 11 be removed when tlK
remaining Cl.iddagh design is rnt o ur.

11 Cul out the remaining section of the

fr.:ime. the Llt)dlfagh design. using a
. crollsaw. trl' tsaw or jigsaw.

12 0n the front ol Lhe frame. dr.:iw in the

line IVhL'f'C th e cuffs meel the frame.
Using a str·.1ight chisel. bevel th e
fr.1 me down to abol!l 2-3111 111 (i/'..i n) [4;·.:' ·- -
::~.: .
below the lcwl of the cuii on each
sk1e of th e fra me.

I J Transfer r·he kn~i t work design onto the

frame using .::arbon paper and reduce
the bJckgrOL1nd around the knolwork II
by .3111111 ('A; in). Thi s \viii bl' l'J Sier if
th e t\·VO gL1idi11g b<111ds were 1u1ted at
stage 6. Tlw outside edges of the
knorwork can be removed by cutting
down vcnk·ally w ith a sm.111 chisel or
gouge and then liftin g the vl.1stc out.

I 4 The small .Hcas between rh e light

bends can be rl' moved with the sharp
poi 111 of a knift'. 111 Ill
the same time'. round it over tO[' and
botton1 to gel rid L)f tlie squ.:ired-off
look . Sh.:ipe the hands hy reducing
the dept h and angling the fingers

\ }
1 7 Curve the ski.;-::; oi the heart down to
meet Lhe fingers al the sides. Round
1hr thumbs .:ind make a dip al the base
of the thumb. Use your ov.m hands. or
those of ,1 1villing friend. to see the
.· sh,1pe they mJkc in this position .

18 Curve the edges of the roll JI the wrist

I 5 When all the background h.1s been and round owr the botwm edges of
removed. score all the crossing lines the hand. Shape the top oi the heart.
.rnd lower each !->ide to giw th e effect curving it in bclL1w the bottom edges
of interweaving. of the crown.

16 When ~haping l he Claddagh pa rt 19 Carve the other side of th<.' d<.'sign to

of the design . ii is Jdvisablc to do m~1tch .:md, whe-n it is completely

the b<1sic sh.:i1 ing of one hali first even and b.;1la11ced. sand it smooth.
as a guide. then you can sh.:ipc the Next. dr.iw in thl:' line"> for the
L1the1- side ki m.at.:h it. L.::irvt' the fing er"> .:rnd frills on the cuifs.The
cro1-vn ailcr the h.mds and hean have di1rk rnMk on the fingers in th e ~ hoto
been completed. is from J knot th,11 I thought I 1vould
L~egin by <rngllng the cufi down in just miss - I 1-vas wrong. That's wood
towards the roll at the wrist. and for you. It does, howt'ver. serve .:15 a
matching the slope on th e other side. useful reminder that you should t,~ke
from the hand to thL' n.:11 . Take it down JlL)\l'of knot:> ,1 nd nacks wlwn
quite deep to give good definition. Al choosing timber for a project.

74 CELTIC W L'L11'<. Jl,\11

20 Score iilong the lines. then cut a deep.
steep-sidL'd groove in bctwet'n the
fingers. R<. und over the sides of the
fingc-rs. then shapc the frills of the
cL1ifs In ,, similar 1.vay .•1lthoL1gh the
grooves ,1 r·e not made as ck:q1.

21 To shape the crown. first reduce the

depth by 2-3mm ( .f.in) ovCt"all. so thJt Ell
it docs not appear JS high ..1bovc the
heart. Transfer the design onto the
crown .:ind score along the str<.1ighr
horizontiil linc.

22 Round Lwcr ihe edges of the straight ~-·

section, top ,111d bottom.

2J Score .1long the t\Vo ,m:hcd lines

and tllt:'r1 slope the pa!le-rn down by
.:ibout 2mm ('I.in) to leave !hi::
'pacldt•d Cllshions · un tlw crown
raised Jt thL' botto m.

24 Re-draw th e lines and. at th e top of

the ..uche -. bevL'i tht• cushions
inwards to givt a soft. rounded
appearance. Cut some creases Jr the
bottum of the cushions and round
over the bollom edge,

25 Slope in the bottom of 1hc- t~ardrop minimise any movement lif the
sh.:ipe .1l tlw top or !he ..::1·01vn and wood. co.it thl' fr,1me \Vith al ka st
carvC' ou1 the little shape in thl' middle two coats oi v.1rni$ h. to ensure a
by I mm ('l..inl . really good seal - this will also help
prcvl'nt the mirr-cH king crackt•d by
26 Decorate the arches of th e crown using movem ent in the wood.
a punch. I ,1ctually deco1«1ted mine
using an old posidrive screwdriver. tut 29 Place the mirror in the rebate wilh
a round punch could be used. the 1 lywood b.Kking behind . Fasten
it in place using glazier's points L'I'
27 Cut a backing piece ior the mirror from tacks.
th e 4mm ('1.U nJ ply1.vood . DrJw round
the mirro1· to get the correct size. JO Screw two small picture ring$ into the
b<ick of the fr.:itne. level with each
28 Since lh~' frame is 111,1de from J other 011 ei ther side of the 1·ing. c:ind
singk picct' of timber. the gr..'lin \Viii thrt•ad a piece of pk:t ure wire through
run in .111 di1·cctions m~ind it. To Ill hang tlw mlrTLll·.
GL\ss upl1GbTeR

A ll'i11do 11• of tit<' 11111/rn/a1ory.

St Oswnltl '. Clmrr/1. '"'"''''I
~~~~~ ccasionall}' one CL")mcs in this mcditJm . Unionun.Jtcly. thl:' vcr~'
across .:i hidden :;.11ictuary n"1ttm.' of stJincd gl ~ss means th.it few
in the 111L1st t111expected people hav~ the opportunity to see it in
place. c1S I did wh en I all its spk•ndour tmk~s they .:ire .:iblc to
vislteti J d1urch at Ashton-in-M.;ikcrfield. visit the chun.:hcs, and photogr<lf'hic
1K';i1· Wigan. Lancashin~. to view the l·larry re p1·L~ductio11 is rarely able to ~fo
Clarke stained glass windows. I was justice !o hi s jewel-like colour·s L11H.i
pr~'p.:ircd to be in awe of the windows stunning designs (see leit).
thcmsdvcs. having already seen some oi As a s m,111 tribute to H.Jny Clarke. I
his work, but ! was iakl'll by surprise ro have induckd .~ rainted glJss panel in
find such an oasis L'f c,1!111 jL1st a shc1n this uplightN. The u plighter is dl'sig1K'd
dist.rnce from .:i roaring mown,va\'· to hang L\11 a wall and gives off a soit light
For anyone who is not fomiliar with which rn"1kcs the panel gk.1-..v like:- ,1
th~' n,111w L>i H.:irry Cki rkc. hl' \Vas stained gl,1ss window. The fro11t ls
undoubt edly one L>f the twentieth removabk to allow <Kcess to the light
C<.'ntury·s greatest stained glass .Jrtists. fitting and it hns a carved zoomorphic
w ith a skill and vision rarely encountert•d design a1 rlw b.1sc.
1\RRY CLARKE WAS ,\!though he suffered ill hc.:ilth for
HORN IN DLJ~LIN. most of his short life. he prodLICed .1

IREU\ND lf\.I 1889. THI~ vast ,1mount of wo1·k ior churdws not
SON OF /\N ENGLISH only in Ireland . but also in Engkrnd.
fathL'r and an Irish mother. Scotland, \Vales. AustraliiJ and ~cw
His work Wcl~ strongly i11flt1cncc-d Jersey. USA.
hy the work of 1\L1brey f>eardslcy. as 1lis c:irly wo1·k in stained gl,1ss
can be SCl'll in his !llustrations ior lhc> was CXl:'Cuted entirely by himself
literary \vorks of au!hors such as but. m; demand 111cTl'ascd and his
Edgar i'lll<in PL1~'. Sa111ucl laylor hc.:llth dctC'riL)rated, his stuc.!iD
ColNidgc, W. B. Ye.its. A!ex,11Kkr undertook 111L)rL' of the 1>vurk. but
Pope 0111d l lans Christian Andersen. alw~1 ys under his Sllpcrvision and to
His reputation as J stained glass his high stJndards.
.1rtist w.:is firmly csrablfshed through I l;.1rry C/<1rkc died in Switzerl.rnd in
his first llliljor commission, to design 19JJ, at th.: agl' L•i 41 , 11.Jving
and m.:ike the windows of the l-1L1nan sucn1111hcd to 1he luherculosis 1hat
Chapel in Cork. lrt'land . he h<1d battled with for so IL1ng.
SI Os1v11/d's C/111rdi, 1\s/1fo11-i11 -M11kaf1dd

PhLltocopics of templates
J <JA a nd 191\. on pages
11 B-19. bolh enfarged by
113'~1'. and of J <JC on
rage J 20

1\IDF mC'as u rlng: JOO x 355

.-: 9mm I 11 "1,. x ! 4 x ' . ·:i nJ
- milin front scc1iL)n

28 ~ x 70 x Ymm ( 11 '/ x 2'1. x

' k in) - small front section

IJO x 2i2 x 9mm (5 ·;. x

10 '/ 1, x ' ! · ·i nl - ~ pieces.
for sides

40.'i x 300 x (imm ( 15 ;,,. x

11 " ! x '/tin) - b.Kk

I :2 ·1 x 2~2 x I 2mm (·r/. x

11 / x ,:.in) - h,1,;e

Continued rwr/m/

Sn1m.11 1,11\oS UPLIC.11111< 77

Materials contlnu~d
DMk b lue J nd
Timb1:.'r measuring 210 x 1urguo 1sr m i.wd

:;o x lOmm (8 1, x 2 x '.!,In)

fur carving <lime) Do ts of s1h'cr or
gokt 1m1l;itil'n l<'Jd
o utlincr
ClcJr Jcrylic slK•et
mt.<.:isuri ng 290 x 200mm

3mm self-adhesive
le,1d strip
T 1ryu0i sc•
llf .,1115'' ,rnd - -14·· - i -

Tube of silver i111ira1ic.111 ydkiw rn l>:cd

...._ Pu rpi<' (d,,rk
blue , r1d red
lead liutlin er
C r~i.'11 (bl!Jt'
Glass p.1ints in d.:irk blue. a nd l'e llow
turquoise, red. orange.
yl'lkiw/gold. green

Wood ~lue

2 m.:ignetic catches with
flat mNal pl.:ircs Method for the lighthox 2 Clean the face of the ilcryllc sheet. and
t\egin by making the painted stained then lay strip~ of sdi-Jdhcsive le.JL1
All-purpose glue
gl.1ss panel. as this will be used to get cilong the lines of the design shO\ving
Strip light fitting. ~63mm .:rn .:icn1rate ir,1mc for the front of the through from undc-rneath. pet'ling off
( IU ;,,,in)Jong. with 211 mm uplightcr. T.~ke the cl e.:ir acrylic sheet the le.ad-backing .:is you go. If you arC'
(8 1. .inl. 30w light IUOI..', <rnd tare templa1e I 9/1. underneath using the type of lead that comes in a
mains iining so thl' design shL1ws thmL1gh from double srrip. cut ii .1long the middle
bt.>low. Cut round tht> outside llf the iirst. LI sing uclirniry household scissors.
Acrylic primer
design u~ing a scrolls<1W at slo1N
White paint spcc..•d. or use J frC'tsaw. A slow 3 rollovving the manufacturer· ·s
cutting speed is llt'CCss.iry to avoid instruc tions, use the tool supplied
Metalli.: blue Cl1 .lmc:I p.~int
melting the plastic .1s it is being cul. with the lead strip to press it down on
(or ~(,Jlour of your ~-hoke)
whi ch might jam tht• bbde. th e sheet il nd sea l the edge . m.::ik ing
sure no gap~ .:ire left for the paint to
scc'p through .
Scrulls..'!w. jigs.mi or
4 The sm.:ill lines of the face. scrolls. the
diamond shapes at the ror. etc .•1re
Drill drawn on using the imita tion I 'ad
outliner directly from the tube.
Router (option a I)

Carving tuuls 5 When the o utlin er is dry. fill in rhe

design with the gl.:iss paints. using
this colour chart as a guide.

71! C1-1·11c W1' t>DCRA 1 1

arch !' hapc by mar king off points
60111111 t2 'I.in) away irom the dr,1wn
line all the way round to where it
meets the sidt'S. Join up the various
points. w for-rn the ,irch and cut
around this shape.

10 Drill a pilot hole insidL' tht' previous

line yLiu drew. k)r the ~c:rolls.:1w (or
fret. .1 w) blade to pass through, then
cut out the remplate shape. Offer up
the p.~intcd panel to rhe fr.:ime. to
check rh,1t t ht' opening is ihe correct
6 To m.:ikc the hills look moonlit, paint sizC' bi.:•fon., proceeding. Make <i
in a lint' ufciark blrn." .ii che bottom rebate in the back oi th<' frame - the
whilst the turquoise is still wet Allow s.:irne depth as the acrylic sheet - for
it to blend in. tht stained glass panl'I to fit in. Draw
round thl' panel to gt't the right shape
7 When th~- s~:.:i h<1s been painted. buc for the rcbJc e.
before ii is completely dry. etch out
the lint's of I he 1.vaws using a wooden II Cut tlw two side p,1n~ls using
toothpick. or round end of a small rempl,1tr.:> I CJ[) (on pag~' 11 9).
paintbrush . The linl'S will show
through ,1s a silvery light when lit up. I 2 Cut the sm.:1ller lower front panel to
Do the s.;ime ior the st.1 rs in the sky. the size indicated in the materials list.
and tht-n angle the top cdgt:: d(Will
8 Once thli' glass rain! i. completely tow,1rliS the b;ick to march the anglr.:>
dry. usli' scissors to cut .a\vay the creared by the notch on the twl">
surplus ,1rl'a around !he outer edge of sidepieces. This can bt' done using .1
the template. beyond tl1c outside edge plane or sander.
oi the le.id. Dc1n ·1 worTy if the panel
outline changed when the lead strip lJ i lark thl' b,1ck piece to the size givt.>n
was <ipplicd - it may well end up in thc rna1crials list. use> the front as a
slightly different from tht• original line template to create the s,1me arch
of the template - as it will provide you shape .1t the top, thrn cu1 it ut.
with a wry .Kcurate template to ust'
in the nex1 stage.

9 Cut the rim I er ior the main front

piece (L1 the ize i11dic<1lt'd in the
14 Drill two holes in the back near the top.
which will be used lu hang the light on
the 19,~ll. Use a drill bit l.1 rgl' enough for
a sci-cw hl',]() to pass thr1.x1gh. and then
matc-ri.1ls list. Placc- the rem plate you drill a srnaller hole above it lo create an
have just re-sizl'd on 1he timber, upside down keyhole sh.:ipe th,1t the
pattern side up, positioning it about screw will rest on .
60111111 (2 lk.in) irom c.~ch side and
tor . and zibout JOmm ("1,in) irom I 5 Cut the base 10 size and cut out a
the bottL rn . Draw round thc:- small squJre at the back to allow the
ternrl.:itc, and then nrnke the top light c.1bk to pass do1v11 .
m 16 T his phot..)gr.~ph
compL)ne nt s of
5how. al l the
the light box. except
19 Screw rhe metal plate
n1 agnetic cMch to the inside oi e,1ch
ior rhc

for the hack. which is longer than lhe side, approximJtely 70mm ( 2 'i,in)
front and without the ho le. dow n from the top. Screw the other
part of the ..:.1tch to the inside of th~
I i Paint th e i11 side L)f ,:ill the pieces \>1.-'hi tc, front piece to match up with the
wh ich will help show off the stained metal plate. Thi~ will hold the front
gl.:iss w hen tlw Ji oht i. not on. _ecu rely in pi<Ke. bL1t ena ble i1 10 be
removed , for access to the ligh t.
I 8 When dry. •)sscmblc as follows.
count<:'rsinkin8 ,111 rh c screw head s: 20 Check th .oit all tht' joins arc lightproLlf.
screw· the s1rip light i itting o nlL1 the pa rticul<irly wh ere the main frLint
base. placing it centrally a lo ng thL' piece rest s o n the sloping pa rt oi the
length; glue .:i11cl ~crew the ~m.1ller smJJI, lowct· front piece. (Ii you h.wi.:
fn)J1 1 pit'Cl' to the fro nt of 1h e b.:isc. difficu lt y wi th thi s, you can glue oil

Glue .111d screw the sides 10 the strip o( fell behind the join to stop
base a nd shlirt front piece. Gluc any light t•scaping. after It h.as .111
a nd screw the back to the base and been p,1i ntl:.'d .
sides. ensuring that the light c.1bl1:'
iits down the h le be.tween the b.?isc 21 Paint the box <15 desired . I used four
and the b.:ick. coats o( m etallic blue enamel paint to
give ci deep richnC'ss to the bo x.


. I
22 \Vhen the paint i - dry, glL1e the
painted p.rnel inro pla.cc in thl' tcbott'.
If the re are any gaps showing
bcl\\'een the outer kJd decoration
.:ind the frame, use the i111it<1tion lead
t.:i fill them in so that no str·ay light
wi 11 shmv when it is lit u'p.

Me t h o d for t he ca rv ing
Transkr the template for the carving
(I 9C on page I 20) onto the r·ernaining
piece oi timb~r. Cut out thL' internal
sh.ided areas •rnd then cut ruund the
L1utside. using .:i scml lsaw or fretsaw.

ii S ore the lines oi the deslgn and then

reduce the wuod where the dl'sign
appears to weave under another band. m
iii Round over the sides of the bodies
cind legs. and shape the cl,1ws as for
the eagle plaque <1 n d zoomoi-phk'
lovcspoon (see pages 26 and 61 ).

iv Shape the heads by reducing .1round

the forehead and cheeks. and then
rounding off the edges. Re luct' the
teeth by .:ibout I mm below thC' jmv
and round them over.

v Gluc the dog motif onto the front panl'i.

vi Finally. hook the upllghtcr over two

wall screws .

T/1r ,-m1111/cwl dos: 1110/if

S1 . 11NEll G L~ ss u ruc11 Tr R SI
Mare rials
Photocop.ies of tcm p l.~te~
201\-201. on pagl'S 12!-25.
Enl.1rgc 20F by 111 %

Timber measuring
1'15 x 1100 x 11::\mm
15'!. x 43 x -'A in) (pine)

Timber measuring
]CJO x 240 x 18mm
( 11 ··;., x 9 h x '/. in) (pine)

TimbC'r measuring 800 x

50 x 4mm (JI '·" x 2 x 'kin)
(1\111crican h<1rd m.ipld

Wood glue

10 x wood !'news.

6 x cross-slot chipbo,1rd
screws. countersunk
his final project is in.:idt• up
6 x pl.Jstic screw covers oi lhrcc bathroom fitt ings -
toothbrush holde r, lowcl
I x lOOmm nail (4in)
ring and toilet roll holder -
Sprung toilet- roll holder which are decorated with fish .1nd
inC'rm aid morifs.
Cl.lss or plcis1ic \U mbler.
Fish apptM on Celtic metalwork
approx. 56m m ( 2 '/1in)
s uch as coins .rnd cauldrons . and on
di.1meter at base
many Pictish stone ~·.1rvings.

Wood primer panicularly in the form of a salm on . In

Celt ic mythology the s<1lrm1n
Emulsion or gloss p.;iint in
represents knowkdge and wisdL1m . In
1wo contrasting sh~des
Irish mythology. •1 p.ir!icular Boyne
Clear varnish l~iw r salmon wa:; said tll be
empowered with great wisLfom and
whoever \Vas first to cat !ts fl e.· h would

82 c I I. r I ( \'\I LIL l ll L. ,, r r
gain grt'c'.11 kno1vkdge and havl? th e (till' arms of the towel ring) .:ind 20E
power· tL1 fc..)relell future evt>nts. Whrn (the k)othbrnsh holder) L)n!o lh e
Finnegas the bc1rd caught ii, he gave it l'L'l1Bining I 45mm (S '/dnl wide
to his ''PPl'l' ntice Finn 1VlcCL10I to cook, timber. CLlt out the sh<1 rcs. using J
with strict instnictions nut to t.1st c the scrolls.~w or fretsa1v.
flesh. As 1hc fish W..1.S cooking. Finn
prodded it with his thumb .:ind burnt 2 If yoLJ h.we .:i router, re Lit a dccor<itive
hims elf. Ht• instinctiv~ ly put th' thumb edge on the face L>f the three back
into his mouth ,;rnd unwittingl y became pl.:ites and the arms of the tollet roll
the pussessor oi the gn~.~t kno wle dge. hi..ilder and towel ring hokier. I used a
He went L111 ro become a great leader. 6mm ('.<iinl diameter ovolo hit. If you
and legend has ii that every lime he don 't have access 10 a router, the
faced a difficult decision. or w.rntcd to 1tdgl·S L'.L~n be rounded over using .;
sec into thL' fulurc. he would suck his s,111ding drum anached to a Dremel or
thumb tu ~all llf~Oll hi s magi c rowl'rS. other rotar·y loo!. or by using a
In Celtic mythology. km,,Je dl'ities 1m'dium (I 20) grade s.~ndp..1rer.
were .:issoci.11ed with fresh Weller, and
natural springs and wdls were often 3 MJrk !he position of the rebates on
believed to h<ive healing powe1·s. the iace of the three back plate~ and
The image Llf the nwrm<iid as h.,lf- arms c.if the toilet rnll holder. This can
woman. h ~If-fish appears in Till' Hool< of be do ne either by drawing ar-ound thl' Tools
Kells. ak111~ with ,1 niermc1 n. ThL' 111errn,1id outside guidelines of templates 20G.
Sa0llsaw. or jigs..1\V .ind
in this project is b.3sed on .:i carving on 20H and 201. or by culling the shape
one of th(' tv1cigle Ston es hol1Scd in the out oi the card template and drawing
i\.1eigle lvlltSL'L1m in Angus. SCL1!],1m1. roLmd rh e cutout. Ori II and sncwdriwr
She .-ippt>ars on a small fragment of Rout the rebates to a depth of 4 mm
Router (optional) or
architE'l'lur.:il frieze. betvWL'll two (··1.. Jn). If you do not h,we a router.
..1nimal s. SCOf'L' around the outlinL' with a sharp
With the coming of Christianity. the knife .:md remow the inside waste Carving tools
iish became a symbol of Christ. using a chisel. See the three photos of
1he ,1sscmbleci pans, on page 86.

1\'lake L'L)pies of templates 201\-2L1F.
paste 1hcm onto thin c~1rd and cut
them out.
Take templates 20A fback p!Jte fm
the toikt mil holder l and 20B (the
back pbte for both the IOL1t/lbrush
hL)lder and towel ringJ: draw around
these ontu the I 45mm (5'!.in) wide
timber-. m,1king ti.vu copies of
tempJat C' 2013. 011e ior each item. Cut
the shapes out oi the timber using a
scroll s.1w ur· fretsaw.
Draw around templates 20C (the
arms of Lhe toilet roll hoi<.forl. 20D II

R ·' 111 uth 1t\1 S ~r SJ

4 Cut pil'Cl'S 20C and 2DD in h,1lf down B Cu1 1he lw.1d and point off the nail to
the ccntrt2 line. wherl' m.1rkL'd on the leave it 77m m Din) long. This can be
template s. dune usi ng .1 cut- off disc in a rot ..iry
tool, or a hacks,m'_
5 O n the n:m aini11g pie1.·c of l 8rnm
('/,inl timber. dr.:iw J L'irdc 9 Drill a llL1k Jt the centre of ecich
approximately 222111 111 (8"1iin) in inside face of the towel ring arn1
diamc.'tcr. rhen d1·J1<\ ,111uth N l"in.:I~
1 pieces. t~·111plate 20D . to a ciepth of
I 8mm ('1<in) inside that. Llsl' tc-mpl.:itc 6mm (',,<In ).
20F to give tlw top ·h,1pc.:' l.lf the ring
where inciic"1tcci by the lcmp l.:irc. (If 10 Cut out the five ho les. for the tooth
necessary. erase the do!!l'd line tL1 mug .111c1 toothb rushes, w here shown
avoid confusion whe n ('Ulting out.) L)l1 fe l1l f'l.1te !OE.
Cut the piece l)Li!. using .1 S(Toll s,1w
or fretsa1,v. II' you h,w<;,> .1 r·l1ut~'I'. yuu 11 Using a countersink bit in the drill.
could use it to get an accur·atc sh-1p(' 111.-ike a depression on the inside Lli

for the pdrt-circlc. follo1vin~ the t'ild1 toile t roll hokier arm (templ.:ire
instructions for the Claddagh Mirror 200. Position the depr'ssions 35mm
on page 71 _ ( J ';,in) from the iront of rhe arms.

6 Round over the front and rl'ar iaccs of I 2 Drill pilo1 holes through the back
the ring. using ;,i router if .w.1ilablc. If pl.:lles of the toiler roll holder.
not. the corners can be s,,ndcd o(f. toothbrush holder and towel ring. to
le;,iving the ring in ;:i more.' squared-off allow th em !o bc screwed lo rhe
shape. Keep the two ends Llf the tof1 wall whC'11 finis hed. Position the
extrmsion square. where It will Sil hL1lcs nc<H tlw top. on e ilhe r side of
between the t\VO arms. lh c rebate.

7 Drill a lrnle length wisl:'.' throLigh the 1.1 TcJ make the;• decorative inserts, nit
top of th e piece as shown. m ..1ki11g the <Imm ('61inl thick ti mber rough ly
i t slig htly l.irger· in di ..1rnct<.'r th ..1n to the length of the nwtifs; you 1vill
the n ail_ need l\\IO of tcmpl.:ite 20G. four of
template 2011. '1nd tlrn~e of templat e 18 Cut round the outside ._1f the design
201. Stack the timber tog1.'ther for e,ich and cardully separatc the pieces.
motii using ch.:iuble- sidcd sticky t<ipe . Tr ..rnsfcr Lhe lines onto c..:i<.:h f<ice. and
as described for the Celric l<n twork th en CMVC in the usual way.
Border 011 pag~' JJ.

19 i'vlakc thrl'c CLipies oi templa te 201. in

14 Pl<ice the appropriate motif 011 top of the s.:i m~- wny.
each stack .rnd drill r1ifot holes 10
make the intcrn<1J rnts. Cut out the 20 Seal the Cill'V~ d decor,~tivc pieces with
i ntl' rna l waste .:ircas J11d tht'n cut ..:i cle ..1r v ..1rrfr;;h.
rl1u nd the ou tside li f the m otif.
21 Prime ..111d paint the
b.1ck platL'S oi
15 To make the two fi sh (template the remaining pieces - toilet roll
20G I. carcftil ly SL' parat e the pieces holde r. !001 hbru sh holder .~ nd rowe l
a11d transk1- the lin es of the de sign ring - ,)11d the arm s and !OWl'I ring
onto opposite faces of th e timber, itsdf. usin1~ ,, darker con tr as tin g
5Ll th<.H ea (h fish facl's i11 the colour in th e reb ..~tc d JrcJs. Parnt th e
orposite dircctk n. face L'f the six screw-head covers to
match the back plates. Ii YL'LI prefer
16 S ore along the lines and rl'dtKe th e natural IOL)k oi th e wood, the 5€ l
either side of the cmssing band s. can be v..unished instt'ad, in which
!~educe the dept h L'f the iins on the case us~· a L~ L ntra sting dark VJ rni sh
body and t.:iil. Hound over the sidt>s of for the rdJ a tes.
thc bands and he..:id . and m.'.lrk in the
eye. Us€ a sma ll chisel to Sl'ore linr:s 22 To a. srn1hk the set. screw llw arnis
on thl" iins. of the tL1ilt?t roll hol de r· on tL1 the back
plate from behind. lea v ing a
I 7 ·1<_1 make the four mermaids , first dist.inn' of I 2Jmm (-t 'A in l bL' t\Ve en
make the intt•rn..:il cuts. and us~ a them. Place the sprung holder in
small 2mrri ('ld nl drill hit tomake the bct\\l('en. IL)cating it in lhe
hoks in tlw tight c:urls oi th e lt>gs. COL.lllf('!'St!l1k holi;s_ m,~~------
T~< ,~ ¥
-~ _J,

Tire nsscm!i/cd com/'(111e11/s fw c.nrl•

1mrt a{ llu: sci

Screw the toothbrush holder onto the - f.King forward - on the outside of
back plate from behind . ead1 .:irm of the toilet roll hL1lder. the
Pass the c ut- down nail th roL1gh three fish motifs at the rop oi <?ilch
the top of the towel ring bdorc b<1ck plate, and the four· merm,1ids ,1t
placing an arm 011 each end of the ecich side of tooth mug holder ,, nd
nail. then screw the arms in pl,1cc towel ring.
on the 1·cmaining back pl<1te. Th~'
towel ring shou ld then swing llllt 23 Screw each piece to the b.:irhmom w.1 11
freely on its nlL)lllll. through the pre-drilled holes, using
Glu e all the decorative ~'i 'ccs in the cross-siot screws. l~re · a painted
place. positioning the two fi5h motifs screw cover LWer each screw hea d.

ht.> designs needed tl' make Areas that Me to be cut out inside
.1/1 the proje1.:ts in this book the designs ure shown In diagonal
.ire induded here, and they sh.1ding on the designs. (Noc all the st~p­
·hould be phot<.1coplcd or by-stcp phOLographs show this shading.)
traced off. Llnlcss otherwise st.:i1ed. the Arens that need cl.:iriiying ior
designs are drawn to the corrC'Ct size to .my other reason - for example where
mak<.' lhc rrojccts. \.Vllcrc a template b.-ickgrl)LJnd has to be reduced but not
needs 10 be enlarged \·vhen phl)IOCopying. completely rcmowd - are indicated by
thr size of enlargement is given. vcrtic.-il shading.

Celtic knotwork border s ee page 12

------ -~---------~-----------

Knot\vork overlays see pngc 1;-;



In it i a I 'm em 0 h 0 Ider t:;ce pogc I 8

Tiil~ 1•RPll LT l'l.S .C." .I~ SQ

Initial memo holder See page 18

Initia l memo holder sec pagl' 1s


- --~~-"~~ --- -- --~-~-

Initial memo holder see page 1s

In it i a I m em o ho) de r
see po,(jc 1s

Claddagh lovespoon s.:q111gc 2L1
Dou blc photo frame sei: 11 aw 2J

T 1-11- PRop: CT \;'[SIG~S 95

Eagle wall plaque see r11 rgt· 26
.~ . ~: :~ ;~ -: -
.... \ . ~ .. ' -

Message board See

- page 31

. i

' np I,lt~ nee d<... 1L

lhh- t'J ' b e er J 1
··---·::---·· 1 ,1rged by :".t<·~ <
--·-~------~~·~.. . ...... ... .....

Message boa rd s ee po.gr JI




L·-·-· - - - - - - - - -~- ·~~·

'Tree of _Life ' se ed keeper sec page _H

'Tree Of Life' Seed keeper See page YI

This 1.-mpl.He llL'eds 10 be enlMged by 125 %

100 Cr1.nc WooncRArr

'Tree of Life' seed keeper s.:c page .H


-~~~- ~---·-----·- --·· . . .

Ha nd m i r r 0 r Sec pa.15e J 7

no nol l'lll Olll ~h.Hli!d ML'.JS


---·· . --~-=---------------------~---------------------:

Dragon trinket box s ec page -n


· ------~----------- -- -----···-----·-------------------------------·· -- -- - - -
Knotwork jigsaw boxes sec pngc 44


·------- -·· ~-- · ······---·---.......,.---:---

Knotwork jigsa\v boxes see pr1gc +1
Knotwork jigsaw boxes sc"' page 44

I Ob CHT!c W u0 D ~ "Af ~
Celtic cros s sec paf!e -·18

i L~

Tll ! l '<U ) h- T 111 \ IGN$ 107

Fun photo frame sec pnw s2


1J C

.----'~-::... ~ ... :....... _ ......... ~ ~-- -~- ......::..,_~----·· ---··-~~-

l\!lirrored candle sconce sec page s1 14A Bad

148 Sides

I Ill CELTIC \\I DODCR.-\1·[

Zoomorphic lovespoon ""c pngl' 61


' \

L l 11 r HPI~<. t l'!:~ll·'I' 11 1
Coasters in holder see page 64


Rmpl.:ite for holder


ThL'Sc tl'rnplatcs need h> be en larged by 12.'. %

Coasters in holder sec page 6-J




T11 1 1·ll~'l£cl llCSIG~'~ 11 J

~~-----~---'"' ............

17A 17B
Tc1npl.1 ll' f•'r hon k~-1

11 4 C11r1c WL'wDc1;.ur
Claddagh m I rror see pnge 11

T~mp l ,1 t c~ 1~ 1\ . ll Jnd ( ro b~' (oined


This l<!111plal c lll'l'd s robe enlarged by 142 ~.

TH · 1 - f~:~ JL L T QEs:c ~.1 :-. I l5

Claddagh mirror

This 1er11 p.11e ned '· to bo:' ml

------~ ;irp:d bl'l42 %

~- --~-.: -::

1 16 c unl W o l i [lC- It •\. f ·1

Claddagh mjrror see pngc: 11
Uplighter Sre pnge 76

T••mrl.it~ for <.:,1rvi11g on fronc L'I upllghtcr

Bathroom set Secpn,~c8 2

r -

L_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J


t_ - - -

---·---·---~ -----------·----~------- ..,-·=..,..-----

Tiir. PIW1h" l 1.'I~ . l[,IJ~ 121

Bathroom set St'<! pagea2


Ba th room set si:c 11 ngi: s2

] I 20C

l' I


Bathroom set sc:c 11n.s.:c s2

- -- -


20 F

·-··. ------.,----~- . .................... ·-··-~-~~------~--~-~~~-·

124 Cr1.11c W 00D-.: 1;.-'.FT

Bathroo1n set s\·c page s2




Ancl'Sfor stones i\'1cg.1 Ii I h ic

Fl.1t ptbbles. i11cis<c?d or painted. kiund in ,\ il.:ick ~1f or marked by th e use oi hi~
a c,we in the Fr('nch Pyrenees. which stones.
\Vl're believed to CL1ntain th~ spirits of the
de.id. Phylloinorphic
Design based upon th{' form of lea\'C'S
1\nthropomorph k and plants .
lksigns based upon the ior1111.1f hum,1n s
Book sh1foc The front of a folio .
f\ box made of mL'lal. or wood ,1nd JTIL'Lll,
in w hich a !<PSpcl Lk1ok was :>101-c•d for 1?.epoussc
pl"lltcction. Relid design on metalwork r1 roduced by
hamrn(.'['lng from behind.
c.1rpet page
1\n ornamental p.1ge in .1 gospel boL1k Triskdt'
that consists rurcly oi decor,11io11, with Thrcc-lcggL'd spira l motif.
11Ll text.
Folio The bilck of a folio.
Ont' page of s m,1nuscript book.
Insular Civcn in fuliil ment of a VL)W.

Produce l in Britain or Ireland <IS oppo. eel

to Continental Europe. Zoomorphic
Design based upon th<' forms oi ,1nim.1ls.
La Tcne bird s ,111d reptiles.
Prehistory periL1(.l, naJTIL'd after a S\viss
archaeo logical site.
Can. $27.95
Uplighter seepagc76

Tc•mpl.:ue for st,1incd gl.iss pand

l 9A
LI plighter St'c p11ge 7t•


Th is lt' l11J'l.1tc nt' t'd s to

bt> t'nl.ug.:d by 133•.,

Tr&t- r~L"'ll"" 1 tH !>l\jN S l I CJ

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