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APPLICATION BROCHURE

Chillers and Heat Pumps


Hydraulics Manual

Suggestions for the hydraulic integration of


chillers and heat pumps
Table of Contents

From practical experience, for your practical needs ................................. 3

1 Chiller/heat pump with


single-circuit buffer tank and one consumer ............................................ 4

2 Chiller/heat pump with plate heat exchanger for system separation,


single-circuit buffer tank and one consumer ............................................ 9

3 Chiller/heat pump with dual circuit-buffer tank and extensive


system hydraulics .................................................................................. 14

4 Chilled/warm water generator with plate heat exchanger for the system
separation, dual circuit buffer tank and extensive system hydraulics ...... 19

5 Chiller/heat pump with single-circuit buffer tank and several different


consumers ............................................................................................ 24

6 Chiller/heat pump with single-circuit buffer tank and several consumers


of the same power rating ...................................................................... 29

7 Production of chilled/warm water with plate heat exchanger for system


separation and secondary-sided inverter pump ..................................... 34

8 Sequence control gear of chiller/heat pump with dual circuit buffer tank
and extensive system hydraulics ............................................................ 39

9 Chiller, water-cooled plant, integration of a heat-rejection system ........ 44

10 Chiller, water-cooled plant, integration in the heat-rejection system


with cold weather start control for all-year operation ............................ 47

11 Chiller, water-cooled plant, with heat-rejection system and free cooling


function ................................................................................................ 51

12 Chiller, air-cooled, integration of desuperheater for heat recovery ........ 57

13 Chiller, water-cooled plant, with heat recovery and heat-rejection


system .................................................................................................. 61

14 Cold/warm water generator with variable-speed pump, single-circuit


buffer tank and 2-way valves (VPS A-Control) ....................................... 66

15 Cold-/warm water generators with variable speed pumps in primarily


and secondary circuits (VPS D-Control) .................................................. 72

16 Cold/warm water generator with variable-speed pump and single-circuit


buffer tank with 3-way valves (VPS A-Control) ...................................... 78

Legend .................................................................................................. 83

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_0

From practical experience, for your practical needs

This is the basic idea behind the creation of this manual. Engineers and technicians
should be optimally supported in their work when it concerns system integration of
chillers or heat pumps.
The following pages outline and explain the most common hydraulic circuits for inte-
grating these units in various application areas. This document presents recommen-
dations and useful notices, which however do not replace individual system planning
and configuration of hydraulic components.

COPYRIGHT NOTE The reproduction, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the com-
munication of its contents to others without express authorization is prohibited.
Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved in the
event of the grant of a patent, utility model or design.

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01
Chiller/heat pump with
single-circuit buffer tank and one consumer

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
The deployment of a single-circuit buffer tank system is a simple consumer network
condition, which however requires the satisfaction of important prerequisites.

Unit Buffer tank Consumers

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The
chilled/warm water now flows to the consumer and is then warmed up or chilled
down again there.
The 3-way valve in the position A – AB is fully opened at maximum capacity reduc-
tion. The bypass line B is closed. If the load reduction of the consumer drops, then
the bypass line B is opened. This ensures a constant water/volume flow across the
unit, regardless of the load reduction. The unit requires a constant water/volume
flow for trouble-free operation. Therefore variable speed pumps must not be used.
If the bypass line B is completely opened because of the lack of load reduction, water
no longer circulates to the consumer. The water temperature approaches the unit
setpoint and the compressors gradually switch off. The water pump continuously
remains in operation in order to record the current water temperatures in the system.
If the load reduction increases again, the unit switches on the individual compressors
again depending on how far the temperature deviates from the setpoint.
It is important for the regulation of the unit that a constant water quantity is trans-
ported over the evaporator / condenser at all times. Variable water quantities lead to
discontinuous heat transfers and thus to undefined fluctuating ratings of the heat ex-
changer. This can lead to operational malfunctions, which are recorded with the unit
controller.

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01
The possible fault signals are:
• Insufficient evaporating pressure
• Low pressure
• Frost protection
• Flow switch
• Low water flow in the plant
For this reason, no 2-way valves can be employed for the depicted hydraulic system!

Important hydraulic components

Single circuit buffer tank: The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 5


01
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor switches
off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the temperature
change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant can per-
form readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

6 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


01
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 7


01

Consumers
Buffer tank
Unit

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02
Chiller/heat pump with plate heat exchanger for system
separation, single-circuit buffer tank and one consumer

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
By using a single-circuit buffer tank system and a plate heat exchanger for system
separation, a simple consumer network is conditioned, where however important
prerequisites must be satisfied.

Plate heat
Unit Buffer tank Consumers
exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

Functional principle of the hydraulics

A plate heat exchanger creates a system separation in this hydraulic scheme in order
to ensure freeze resistance for low outside temperatures without requiring the entire
plant to be filled with a water-glycol mixture. The buffer tank is fitted in the second-
ary circuit of the plate heat exchanger in order to reduce the quantity of glycol
required and thereby to reduce costs. In order to be able to make use of the entire
system content, primary and secondary side, it is mandatory to always operate both
pumps together.
The entire plant can thereby be employed to guarantee the minimum system con-
tents, especially because the buffet tank is in the secondary circuit. The minimum sys-
tem content is required to guarantee the minimum runtime of the compressors.
For the released unit, the medium flows to the secondary side of the buffer tank
through the water pump in the secondary side of the plate heat exchanger of the
system separation, which provides the primary side of the unit with the chilled/
heated water-glycol mixture. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required
load reduction. The chilled/warm water now flows to the consumer and is once
again warmed up or cooled down.
The 3-way valve in the position A – AB is fully opened at maximum capacity reduc-
tion. The bypass line B is closed. If the load reduction of the consumer drops, then
the bypass line B is opened. This ensures that, independent of the load reduction, a

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 9


02
constant water volume flow over the plate heat exchanger is present. Abrupt tem-
perature variations on the primary part of the plate heat exchanger are thereby
avoided.
The unit requires a constant water/volume flow for trouble-free operation. There-
fore, pumps that are speed-regulated during operation must not be used. If the
bypass line B is completely opened because of the lack of load reduction, water no
longer circulates to the consumer. The water temperature approaches the unit set-
point and the compressors gradually switch off. Both water pumps remain continu-
ously in operation in order to record the current water temperatures in the system.
If the load reduction increases again, the unit switches on the individual compressors
again depending on how far the temperature deviates from the setpoint.
It is important for the regulation of the unit that a constant water quantity is trans-
ported in the unit over the evaporator / condenser at all times. Variable water quan-
tities lead to discontinuous heat transfers and thus to undefined fluctuating ratings
of the heat exchanger. This can lead to operational malfunctions, which are recorded
with the unit controller.
The possible fault signals are:
• Insufficient evaporating pressure
• Low pressure
• Frost protection
• Flow switch
• Low water flow in the plant
For this reason, no 2-way valves can be employed for the depicted hydraulic system!

Important hydraulic components

Single circuit buffer tank: The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,

10 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


02
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Plate Heat Exchangers: The plate heat exchanger is used in a hydraulic plant as system separation. Reasons
for the use of a plate heat exchanger could be:
• Separation between water-glycol circuit and water circuit
• Different temperature ranges and protection of a circuit against too high or too
low temperatures
• Different pressure ranges and protection of a circuit against too high pressure
• Functioning as hydraulic switch

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 11


02
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option. Both the water pump in the primary as well as in the sec-
ondary circuit must be operated with the enabling contact. Both pumps must always
be simultaneously in operation.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30 % ethylene glycol.
All components installed outdoors are, in this case, protected from freezing with a
water-glycol mixture. Since a plate heat exchanger was employed as a system sepa-
ration, filling the entire plant with anti-freeze is not required.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

12 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Plate heat
Unit exchanger Buffer tank Consumers

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Primary page Secondary side

13
02
03
Chiller/heat pump with dual circuit-buffer tank and
extensive system hydraulics

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
The consumer network can take on complex forms with the deployment of a dual
circuit buffer tank system, where however important prerequisites must be satisfied.
Consumers

Buffer tank
Unit

Plant circuit Consumer circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The
chilled/warm water now once again flows into the buffer tank. In case there are no
requirements on chilled/warm water, the buffer tank guarantees the minimum run-
time of the compressors. A constant water volume flow through the unit is guaran-
teed with the dual circuit buffer tank.
The consumer circuit can be designed in any number of complex forms.
This includes e.g.:
• Employment of speed-regulated pumps
• Employment of 2-way or 3-way valves
• Consumer circuits in different temperature ranges.
• Consumer circuits with various power capacities and water/volume flows
No influence on the plant circuit can arise and a constant water quantity to the unit
is guaranteed at all times.

14 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


03
Important hydraulic components

Dual circuit buffer tank The dual circuit buffer tank fulfills the following functions:
• Assurance of the entire minimum system contents.
The minimum runtimes of the compressors are observed and unnecessarily fre-
quent compressor switch on and off is prevented.
• Hydraulic switch for the separation of plant and consumer circuits
• Guarantee of a thermal stratification within the container
Standing buffer tanks must be used for this purpose. The chilled water supply in
the plant circuit and the chilled water inlet in the consumer circuit must be at-
tached at the lower connections of the buffer tank.
In order to determine the minimum system content of the unit, only the volume of
the buffer tank and the volume of the piping between device and buffer tank may
be used. However, the volume of the consumer circuit is not taken into account.
Dual circuit buffer tanks for chillers are characterized by their special design whose
structure favors chilled-water stratification. Perforated perfusion pipes or perforated
separation plates are used in the upper and lower area of the tank.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 15


03
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

16 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


03
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 17


03 Consumers

Consumer circuit
Buffer tank

Plant circuit
Unit

18 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


04
Chilled/warm water generator with plate heat exchanger for the
system separation, dual circuit buffer tank and extensive system
hydraulics

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
Chilled/warm water generator with plate heat exchanger for the system separation,
dual circuit buffer tank and extensive system hydraulics

Consumers

Unit Plate heat Buffer tank


exchanger

Primary page Secondary side Plant circuit Consumer circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

A plate heat exchanger creates a system separation in this hydraulic scheme in order
to ensure freeze resistance for low outside temperatures without requiring the entire
plant to be filled with a water-glycol mixture. The buffer tank is fitted in the second-
ary circuit of the plate heat exchanger in order to reduce the quantity of glycol
required and thereby to reduce costs. In order to be able to employ the buffer tank
correctly, it is absolutely required that the pumps on the primary and secondary side
of the plate heat exchanger are always operated together.
The dual circuit buffer tank can thereby be employed to guarantee the minimum sys-
tem contents, especially because these are in the secondary circuit.
The minimum system content is required to guarantee the minimum runtime of the
compressors.
For a released unit, the medium of the buffer tank flows through the water pump to
the secondary side of the plate heat exchanger of the system separation, which pro-
vides the primary side of the unit with chilled/heated water glycol mixture. The
medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The chilled/warm
water now once again flows into the buffer tank. In case there are no requirements
on chilled/warm water, the buffer tank guarantees the minimum runtime of the com-
pressors.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 19


04
A constant water volume flow in the unit is guaranteed because of the plate heat
exchanger for the system separation. The minimum system content is guaranteed by
the parallel operation of the primary and secondary pump as well as the dual circuit
buffer tank.
The consumer circuit can be designed in any number of complex forms.
This includes e.g.:
• Employment of speed-regulated pumps
• Employment of 2-way or 3-way valves
• Consumer circuits in different temperature ranges.
• Consumer circuits with various power capacities and water/volume flows
No influence on the generator circuit can arise and a constant water quantity to the
unit is guaranteed at all times.

Important hydraulic components

Dual circuit buffer tank The dual circuit buffer tank fulfills the following functions:
• Assurance of the entire minimum system contents.
The minimum runtimes of the compressors are observed and unnecessarily fre-
quent compressor switch on and off is prevented.
• Hydraulic switch for the separation of plant and consumer circuits
• Guarantee of a thermal stratification within the container
Standing buffer tanks must be used for this purpose. The chilled water supply in
the plant circuit and the chilled water inlet in the consumer circuit must be at-
tached at the lower connections of the buffer tank.
In order to determine the minimum system content of the unit, in this case only the
volume of the buffer tank, the plate heat exchanger, and the piping on the primary
and secondary side may be employed. However, the volume of the consumer circuit
is not taken into account.
Dual circuit buffer tanks for chillers are characterized by their special design whose
structure favors chilled-water stratification. Perforated perfusion pipes or perforated
separation plates are used in the upper and lower area of the tank.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-

20 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


04
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Plate Heat Exchangers: The plate heat exchanger is used in a hydraulic plant as system separation. Reasons
for the use of a plate heat exchanger could be:
• Separation between water-glycol circuit and water circuit
• Different temperature ranges and protection of a circuit against too high or too
low temperatures
• Different pressure ranges and protection of a circuit against too high pressure
• Functioning as hydraulic switch

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option. Both the water pump in the primary as well as in the sec-
ondary circuit must be operated with the enabling contact. Both pumps must always
be simultaneously in operation.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 21


04
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
All components installed outdoors are, in this case, protected from freezing with a
water-glycol mixture. Since a plate heat exchanger was employed as a system sepa-
ration, filling the entire plant with anti-freeze is not required.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (Data & Facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

22 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Consumers

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Plate heat
Unit exchanger Buffer tank

Primary page Secondary side Plant circuit Consumer circuit

23
04
05
Chiller/heat pump with single-circuit buffer tank and
several different consumers

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
The deployment of a single-circuit buffer tank system is a simple consumer network
condition, which however requires the satisfaction of important prerequisites.

Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko®

Unit Buffer tank

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The
chilled/warm water now flows through the consumer and is once again warmed up
or cooled down.
In this case, it can be about consumers of the same or unequal power consumption
at identical water temperatures. The required water quantity must be adjusted indi-
vidually for every consumer with balancing valves.
The use of 3-way valves regulates the consumer's capacity and ensures a constant
volume flow through the unit. For maximum capacity reduction, the 3-way valve is
fully opened to the position A – AB. The bypass line B is closed. If the load reduction
of the consumer drops, then the bypass line B is opened. This ensures a constant
water/volume flow across the unit, regardless of the load reduction. The unit requires
a constant water/volume flow for trouble-free operation. Therefore variable speed
pumps must not be used. If the bypass line B is completely opened because of the
lack of load reduction, water no longer circulates to the consumer. The water tem-
perature approaches the unit setpoint and the compressors gradually switch off. The
water pump continuously remains in operation in order to record the current water
temperatures in the system. If the load reduction increases again, the unit switches

24 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


05
on the individual compressors again depending on how far the temperature deviates
from the setpoint.
Since a constant water volume flow is required for the fault-free operation of the
unit, no variable-speed pumps may be used.
It is important for the regulation of the unit that a constant water quantity is trans-
ported over the evaporator / condenser at all times. Variable water quantities lead to
discontinuous heat transfers and thus to undefined fluctuating ratings of the heat ex-
changer. This can lead to operational malfunctions, which are recorded with the unit
controller.
The possible fault signals are:
• Insufficient evaporating pressure
• Low pressure
• Frost protection
• Flow switch
• Low water flow in the plant
For this reason, no 2-way valves can be employed for the depicted hydraulic system!

Important hydraulic components

Single circuit buffer tank: The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 25


05
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

26 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


05
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (Data & Facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 27


05
Geko®
Geko®

Buffer tank
Geko®
Geko®
Geko®
Geko®

Unit
Geko®

28 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


06
Chiller/heat pump with single-circuit buffer tank and
several consumers of the same power rating

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
The deployment of a single-circuit buffer tank system is a simple consumer network
condition, which however requires the satisfaction of important prerequisites.

Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko®

Unit Buffer tank

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The
chilled/warm water now flows through the consumer and is once again warmed up
or cooled down.
This applies for consumers with the same power rating, who in this case are con-
nected according to the Tichelmann principle to ensure an almost equal water quan-
tity at full load via every individual consumer. Balancing valves are not needed for this
reason.
The use of 3-way valves regulates the consumer's capacity and ensures a constant
volume flow through the unit.
Since a constant water volume flow is required for the fault-free operation of the
unit, no variable-speed pumps may be used. For maximum capacity reduction, the 3-
way valve is fully opened to the position A – AB. The bypass line B is closed. If the
load reduction of the consumer drops, then the bypass line B is opened. This ensures
a constant water/volume flow across the unit, regardless of the load reduction. The
unit requires a constant water/volume flow for trouble-free operation. Therefore
variable speed pumps must not be used. If the bypass line B is completely opened
because of the lack of load reduction, water no longer circulates to the consumer.
The water temperature approaches the unit setpoint and the compressors gradually

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 29


06
switch off. The water pump continuously remains in operation in order to record the
current water temperatures in the system. If the load reduction increases again, the
unit switches on the individual compressors again depending on how far the tem-
perature deviates from the setpoint.
It is important for the regulation of the unit that a constant water quantity is trans-
ported over the evaporator / condenser at all times. Variable water quantities lead to
discontinuous heat transfers and thus to undefined fluctuating ratings of the heat ex-
changer. This can lead to operational malfunctions, which are recorded with the unit
controller.
The possible fault signals are:
• Insufficient evaporating pressure
• Low pressure
• Frost protection
• Flow switch
• Low water flow in the plant
For this reason, no 2-way valves can be employed for the depicted hydraulic system!

Important hydraulic components

Single circuit buffer tank: The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.

30 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


06
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 31


06
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

32 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


06

Geko®
Geko®

Buffer tank
Geko®
Geko®
Geko®
Geko®

Unit
Geko®

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 33


07
Production of chilled/warm water with plate heat
exchanger for system separation and secondary-sided
inverter pump

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process
applications.
The consumers are primarily equipped with straight-way valves for regulation. The
secondary-sided consumer network therefore has a variable plant characteristics
curve. To optimize energy consumption and flow pattern, a speed-regulated pump
is used as a secondary pump.

Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko®

Unit Buffer tank Plate Heat Exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

Functional principle of the hydraulics

The secondary side is equipped with a speed-regulated pump. The unit requires a
constant water flow-rate for trouble-free operation, therefore a system separation is
created using a plate heat exchanger. Thus, the primary circuit has a constant water
flow and the secondary circuit has a variable water flow. Due to the variable water
flow in the secondary circuit, the necessary buffer tank must be arranged in the pri-
mary circuit to guarantee the minimum system contents. To ensure freeze resistance,
the primary circuit is operated with a water-glycol mixture.
For the released unit, pump P1 is in operation and provides the unit with a constant
water-glycol mass flow. Via the plate heat exchanger, a heat exchange with the sec-
ondary-sided consumer network takes place, depending on the operation of the sec-
ondary-sided speed-regulated pump.
The secondary-sided consumer network can be freely designed. By using a speed-
regulated pump, straight-way regulating valves can be used. The secondary pump
can adjust the pump characteristics of a variable plant characteristics curve within the
variable pump characteristics range and can set an optimal operating point.

34 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


07
Important hydraulic components

Single circuit buffer tank: The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch. The flow switch is a
prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 35


07
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Plate Heat Exchanger The plate heat exchanger is used in a hydraulic plant as system separation. Reasons
for the use of a plate heat exchanger could be:
• Separation between water-glycol circuit and water circuit
• Different temperature ranges and protection of a circuit against too high or too
low temperatures
• Different pressure ranges and protection of a circuit against too high pressure
• Functioning as hydraulic switch

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump on and checks the current with
an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the
extent of the deviation, the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill
or heat the water to the setpoint. After reaching the setpoint, the first compressor
switches off. Additional compressors are switched off or on depending on the tem-
perature change. The water pumps remain in continuous operation so that the plant
can perform readings of the current water temperature in the system.
After switching the unit off with the remote ON/OFF contact, the compressors are
driven down and then switched off. The pump is switched off after the expiration of
a programmed delay period.
Pump release: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option. Both the water pump in the primary as well as in the sec-
ondary circuit can be operated with the enabling contact. Both pumps do not have
to be in operation simultaneously.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is employed, the unit can embed the pumps in
the internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.
Error messaging: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

36 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


07
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
All components installed outdoors are, in this case, protected from freezing with a
water-glycol mixture. Since a plate heat exchanger is employed as a system separa-
tion, filling the entire plant with anti-freeze is not required.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 37


38
07
Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko® Geko®

Unit Buffer tank Plate Heat Exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


08
Sequence control gear of chiller/heat pump with dual circuit
buffer tank and extensive system hydraulics

Area of application

Generation of cold or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.
The consumer network and the plant network can take on complex forms with the
deployment of a dual circuit buffer tank system, where however important prerequi-
sites must be satisfied.
Sequencer
Unit n
Consumers

Unit 2

Unit 1 Buffer tank

Plant circuit Consumer circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

In this case, several units are switched in sequence in order to render the required
total performance or to build a redundant system. The units can have various differ-
ent power ratings. Every unit must have its own pump.
For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The
chilled/warm water now once again flows into the buffer tank. In case there are no
requirements on chilled/warm water, the buffer tank guarantees the minimum run-
time of the compressors. A constant water volume flow through the unit is guaran-
teed with the dual circuit buffer tank.
The consumer circuit can be designed in any number of complex forms.
This includes e.g.:
• Employment of speed-regulated pumps
• Employment of 2-way or 3-way valves
• Consumer circuits in different temperature ranges.
• Consumer circuits with various power capacities and water/volume flows
No influence on the plant circuit can arise and a constant water quantity to the unit
is guaranteed at all times.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 39


08
Important hydraulic components

Dual circuit buffer tank The dual circuit buffer tank fulfills the following functions:
• Assurance of the entire minimum system contents.
The minimum runtimes of the compressors are observed and unnecessarily fre-
quent compressor switch on and off is prevented.
• Hydraulic switch for the separation of plant and consumer circuits
• Guarantee of a thermal stratification within the container
Standing buffer tanks must be used for this purpose. The chilled water supply in
the plant circuit and the chilled water inlet in the consumer circuit must be at-
tached at the lower connections of the buffer tank.
In order to determine the minimum system content of the unit, only the volume of
the buffer tank and the volume of the piping between device and buffer tank may
be used. However, the volume of the consumer circuit is not taken into account.
Dual circuit buffer tanks for chillers are characterized by their special design whose
structure favors chilled-water stratification. Perforated perfusion pipes or perforated
separation plates are used in the upper and lower area of the tank.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.

40 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


08
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Non-return valves: The deployment of several pumps may require the use of non-return valves in order
to guarantee the correct flow direction of the heat transfer medium. This is the only
way to guarantee the faultless functioning of the hydraulic system in all operating
states.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

Sequential switching: In order to ensure an optimal management of the units relatively easily, a sequence
control unit (sequencer) is available for such applications. Up to five units can be
operated with this unit. The water inlet and water outlet temperature serves as the
controlled variable that is measured in the common collecting pipe line of all units.
In order for the sequencer to communicate with the units, every unit must be fur-
nished with a Modbus interface. Now only the sequencer is accessed for all addi-
tional management activities. It is not necessary to control every unit individually.
External enabling of the unit: The unit must be enabled with the external floating contact of the sequencer. After
being enabled with the remote ON/OFF contact of the sequencer, a data exchange
with the connected units takes place with a bus signal. The unit with the fewest oper-
ating hours is given priority. As soon as a unit receives a command from the
sequencer, the unit switches on the water pump assigned to it. After the expiration
of the pump lead time, the first compressor of the unit goes into operation.
Depending on the requirements and the associated setpoint deviation from the pre-
set water temperature, additional compressors of the same unit or of the next unit
go into operation, depending on the settings in the sequencer. If the compressor of
the next unit is requested, it also switches its pump on beforehand.
When the water temperature drops, the compressor and the pumps successively
switch off. Only the pump of the last still running unit continues to operate in order
to continually provide the temperature sensor of the sequencer with the current
water temperature.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 41


08
Alarm signal: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

42 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Sequencer

Unit n
Consumers

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Unit 2

Buffer tank
Unit 1

Plant circuit Consumer circuit

43
08
09
Chiller, water-cooled plant, integration of a heat-rejection
system

Area of application

Heat-rejection circuits for water-cooled units that are exclusively employed in the
warm season for generating chilled water for comfort air conditioning or for process
applications.

Heat-rejection system

Unit

Chilled-water circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

When the unit is enabled, the medium flows to the water pump into the unit. At the
required load reduction, the medium takes up the waste heat and flows on to the
heat-rejection system where the heat is returned to the ambient air.

Important hydraulic components

Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Expansion vessel: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.

44 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


09
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

For water-cooled units, it is necessary to remove non-required heat from the cooling
process and conduct it to the outdoor air. The operating limits must be observed for
the reliable operation of the unit. The corresponding operating limits are provided in
the technical documentation of the unit.
It is necessary to regulate the power of the dry cooler in order to observe the oper-
ating limits of the unit. It is recommended to regulate the speed of the fan motor
depending on the dry cooler water discharge temperatures from the dry cooler. This
ensures optimal heat-rejection water temperatures and constant operating condi-
tions throughout the year. In order to achieve an optimal energy efficiency of the
unit, the cooling water temperature must be kept as low as possible within the oper-
ating limits.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as the
pump switch-off when turning off the compressors, is taken into consideration by
the internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.

Frost protection

In order to protect the heat-rejection circuit from frost, the employment of a water/
glycol mixture is definitely required. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30%
ethylene glycol.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 45


09

Chilled Water Circuit


Heat-rejection system

Unit

46 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


10
Chiller, water-cooled plant, integration in the heat-rejection
system with cold weather start control for all-year operation

Area of application

Heat-rejection circuit for water-cooled units that is employed throughout the year for
the generation of chilled water for comfort air conditioning or for process applica-
tions.

Heat-rejection system

Unit

Chilled-water circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

When the unit is enabled, the medium flows to the water pump into the unit. At the
required load reduction, the medium takes up the waste heat and flows on to the
heat-rejection system where the heat is returned to the ambient air. When the con-
densation pressure is too low, the 3-way valve conducts the medium once again into
the condenser to increase the condensation pressure. Operation within the permis-
sible condensation pressure is thereby guaranteed throughout the year.

Important hydraulic components

Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Expansion vessel: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 47


10
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

For water-cooled units, it is necessary to remove non-required heat from the cooling
process and conduct it to the outdoor air. The operating limits must be observed for
the reliable operation of the unit. The corresponding operating limits are provided in
the technical documentation of the unit.
The pump P2 is activated in parallel for requested compressor operation. As soon as
the setpoint temperature is achieved and all compressors are disabled, the pump P2
is also switched off. All-year operating mode is required for this version. For this rea-
son, the heat-rejection circuit is furnished with a cold-weather start control in the
form of a 3-way valve (MV1). The 3-way valve is actuated by a 0-10 V signal directly
from the unit, depending on the condensation pressure. This method ensures the
observance of the minimum water temperature also at very low outdoor air tempera-
tures. When the condensation pressure is too low, connection B of the 3-way valve
(MV1) opens. The temperature of the inlet medium thereby increases in the con-
denser of the unit and the condensation pressure rises. The unit works within the
range of application. As soon as the condensation pressure of the unit has reached
the upper limit value, the connection B of the 3-way valve is once again slowly
closed. When the heat-rejection circuit has achieved a required high temperature, as
a rule the system is regulated only via the fan control of the heat-rejection system.
The power of the heat-rejection system is additionally controlled by the speed of the
fan motor, depending on the cooling water discharge temperatures from the dry
cooler. This ensures optimal heat-rejection water temperatures and constant operat-
ing conditions throughout the year. In order to achieve an optimal energy efficiency
of the unit, the cooling water temperature must be kept as low as possible within
the operating limits.
Pump enabling: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is used, the unit can embed the pumps into the
internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as the
pump switch-off when turning off the compressors, is taken into consideration by
the internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.

48 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


10
Frost protection

In order to protect the heat-rejection circuit from frost, the employment of a water/
glycol mixture is definitely required. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30%
ethylene glycol.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 49


10

Chilled Water Circuit


Heat-rejection system

Unit

50 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


11
Chiller, water-cooled plant, with heat-rejection system and
free cooling function

Area of application

Generation of chilled water for comfort air conditioning or process applications.


In this case, the chilling unit is water-cooled and must be set up within a building. A
heat-rejection system is employed for heat dissipation to achieve a free cooling func-
tion at low outside temperatures. This provides an energy-saving operation for year-
round cooling demands.

Heat-rejection

Plate heat exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

Unit

Heat-rejection circuit

Producer Consumer
circuit circuit

Functional principle of the hydraulics

The following operating modes are possible for this plant system:
• Unit operation (as water-cooled chiller)
• Free cooling operation

Unit operation in connection with the pumps P1 and P2


When the unit is enabled, the pump P1 supplies the medium from the buffer tank in
the unit. The medium is cooled down in the evaporator and then once again flows
back into the buffer tank.
If there is no chilled water requirement from the consumer, the buffer tank ensures
a minimum runtime of the compressors. The dual circuit buffer tank maintains a con-
stant water volume flow into the unit.
The consumer circuit can be designed in any number of complex forms.
This includes e.g.:
• Employment of speed-regulated pumps
• Employment of 2-way or 3-way valves
• Consumer circuits in different temperature ranges.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 51


11
• Consumer circuits with various power capacities and water/volume flows
The plant circuit is not influenced and the water quantity through the unit is constant
at all times.
A water-glycol mixture must be employed as the medium in the heat-rejection cir-
cuit. When enabled, pump P2 supplies the medium through the condenser of the
unit where the waste heat is taken up. At sufficiently high condensation pressure,
the medium continues to be transported to the heat-rejection system in order for the
waste heat to be conducted into the ambient air.
The 3-way valve MV1 ensures the observance of the operating limits of the unit in
the heat-rejection circuit. When the condensation pressure is too low, the 3-way
valve MV1 conducts the medium via a bypass once again into the condenser. The
temperature of the medium thereby continues to rise, which in turn also continues
to increase the condensation pressure. Operation within the permissible condensa-
tion pressure is thereby guaranteed throughout the year.
The 3-way valve MV1 is likewise necessary for the switchover from free cooling oper-
ation to unit operation, because the medium temperature lies below the application
range of the unit. Without a 3-way valve, the unit would break down.

Free cooling operation with a heat-rejection system in connection with the


pumps P3 and P4
For free cooling operation, the pump P3 supplies the medium from the buffer tank
through the secondary side of the plate heat exchanger. The medium is cooled down
there and then once again flows back in the buffer tank.
The pump P4 supplies the medium through the primary side of the plate heat
exchanger where the heat is taken up from the cooling process. The heated medium
continues to flow to the heat-rejection system in order to deliver the waste heat into
the ambient air.

Important hydraulic components

Dual circuit buffer tank The dual circuit buffer tank fulfills the following functions:
• Assurance of the entire minimum system contents.
The minimum runtimes of the compressors are observed and unnecessarily fre-
quent compressor switch on and off is prevented.
• Hydraulic switch for the separation of plant and consumer circuits
• Guarantee of a thermal stratification within the container
Standing buffer tanks must be used for this purpose. The chilled water supply in
the plant circuit and the chilled water inlet in the consumer circuit must be at-
tached at the lower connections of the buffer tank.
In order to determine the minimum system content of the unit, only the volume of
the buffer tank and the volume of the piping between device and buffer tank may
be used. However, the volume of the consumer circuit is not taken into account.
Dual circuit buffer tanks for chillers are characterized by their special design whose
structure favors chilled-water stratification. Perforated perfusion pipes or perforated
separation plates are used in the upper and lower area of the tank.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.

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11
Paddle-type flow switch: The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch.
The flow switch is a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. The unit control system processes the falling system
pressure, stops the unit and the pump and prevents expensive plant failures.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Non-return valves: The deployment of several pumps may require the use of non-return valves in order
to guarantee the correct flow direction of the heat transfer medium. This is the only
way to guarantee the faultless functioning of the hydraulic system in all operating
states.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Plate Heat Exchangers: The plate heat exchanger is used in a hydraulic plant as system separation. Reasons
for the use of a plate heat exchanger could be:
• Separation between water-glycol circuit and water circuit
• Different temperature ranges and protection of a circuit against too high or too
low temperatures
• Different pressure ranges and protection of a circuit against too high pressure
• Functioning as hydraulic switch

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11
Control and regulation

Unit operation in connection with the pumps P1 and P2


The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The
enabling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity
of the unit and the associated water temperature may only be controlled with the
internal unit controls. Otherwise the consequence is a cycle operation of the com-
pressors with too short runtimes as well as a considerably worsened energy effi-
ciency of the overall system.
After successful release, the unit switches the pump P1 on and checks the current
with an internal differential pressure switch and additionally with a paddle-type flow
switch mounted on-site. As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water tem-
perature is measured and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on setpoint
deviation, the individual compressors are switched on or off.
The pump P2 is activated in parallel for requested compressor operation. As soon as
the setpoint temperature is achieved and all compressors are disabled, the pump P2
is also switched off. On continued active unit release, the water pump P1 continu-
ously remains in operation to record the water temperatures in the system. The
pumps P3 and P4 for the free cooling operation remain OFF.
The heat removed from the cooling process in the heat-rejection circuit is conducted
off into the outdoor air. The operating limits must be observed for the reliable oper-
ation of the unit. These are provided in the technical documentation of the unit.
The heat-rejection circuit is furnished with a cold weather start control, in the form
of a 3-way valve (MV1). The 3-way valve is actuated by a 0-10 V signal directly from
the unit, depending on the condensation pressure. The water temperature in the
heat-rejection circuit can thereby be ensured even after switchover between free
cooling operation and unit operation.
When the condensation pressure is too low, connection B of the 3-way valve (MV1)
opens. The temperature of the inlet medium thereby increases in the condenser of
the unit and the condensation pressure rises. The unit works within the range of
application. As soon as the condensation pressure of the unit has reached the upper
limit value, the connection B of the 3-way valve is once again slowly closed. When
the heat-rejection circuit has achieved a required high temperature, as a rule the sys-
tem is regulated only via the fan control of the heat-rejection system.
The power of the heat-rejection system is additionally controlled by the speed of the
fan motor, depending on the cooling water discharge temperatures from the heat-
rejection unit. This ensures optimal heat-rejection water temperatures and constant
operating conditions throughout the year.
In order to achieve an optimal energy efficiency of the unit, the cooling water tem-
perature must be kept as low as possible within the operating limits.
After unit switch-off or switchover to the free cooling operation, the compressor is
driven down and switched off. The pumps are switched off after the expiration of a
programmed delay period.
Pump release: The on-site pump must be enabled with the pump ON/OFF contacts on the unit. In
case the unit is not standardly supplied with pump ON/OFF contacts, then these can
be provided as an option.
If the internal pump ON/OFF contact is employed, the unit can embed the pumps in
the internal control system. The required pump leading and overrun times, as well as
pump switch-off when the unit is turned off, are taken into consideration by the
internal regulation. Furthermore, additional energy-saving functions can be used.
If the unit does not have an integrated water pump, no voltage supply is available at
the unit for the water pumps installed on-site. The on-site pumps must therefore be
provided with voltage.

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11
Free cooling operation with a heat-rejection system in connection with the
pumps P3 and P4
An external control with the following requirements is needed for the management
of free-cooling operation:
• Switch-off of unit operation
• Actuation of the pumps P3 and P4
• Actuation of the fans of the heat-rejection unit with a changed setpoint
• Actuation of the 3-way valve MV2
The change-over point between free cooling operation and unit operation must be
precisely determined on the basis of the system configuration, in order to guarantee
the required cooling needs in free cooling operation. Frequently switching between
unit operation and free cooling operation should be especially avoided in seasons
with strongly fluctuating daily temperatures. The switching hysteresis must be set
accordingly high.
The delay period of the pump P1 must be taken into consideration for the switchover
from unit operation to free cooling operation.
After release of the pumps P3 and P4, the fans of the heat-rejection system must be
controlled depending on the medium outlet temperature of the heat-rejection unit.
Make sure that the chilled water temperature is controlled for free cooling operation,
for instance between +4 to +10 °C, whereas for unit operation the heat-rejection
water temperature must be regulated between +25 to +30 °C.
In order to avoid frost damages at very low outside temperatures on the secondary
side of the plate heat exchanger, the 3-way valve MV2 must be installed. The control
must ensure that the primary side inlet temperatures in the plate heat exchanger do
not fall below +2°C.

Frost protection

In order to protect the heat-rejection circuit from frost, the employment of a water-
glycol mixture is definitely required. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30%
ethylene glycol.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (Data & Facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

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56
11
Heat-rejection

Plate heat exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

Buffer tank
Unit

Heat-rejection circuit

Producer Consumer
circuit circuit

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12
Chiller, air-cooled, integration of desuperheater for heat
recovery

Area of application

If emphasis is also put on heat recovery in addition to the generation of chilled water,
a unit with integrated desuperheater is a good opportunity to reduce operating costs
for the production of warm water.

Unit

Chilled-water circuit

Fresh water outlet

Auxiliary heating

E heating
Desuperheater circuit
Fresh water inlet
Combi storage
tank

Functional principle of the hydraulics

As soon as at least one compressor of the unit is running for the generation of chilled
water, warm water can be produced for comfort or process applications via the de-
superheater which is integrated in the unit. Consequently, the pump P1 should only
be enabled with an activated compressor to avoid causing unnecessary energy costs.
For the released pump P1, the medium flows through the water pump to the desu-
perheater of the unit. If the compressor is running, the medium is heated and can be
made available for a heating process. For the desuperheater there are operating lim-
its which must be maintained. The medium discharge temperature from the desuper-
heater must not fall below 30 °C. In order to ensure this, a 3-way valve must be used.

Important hydraulic components

Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 57


12
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof of the building and thereby at the
highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet pressure is the reason for the pres-
sure fall on the highest point of the plant, where the water pumps is often mounted,
this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the pump. If cavitation is not noticed
in time, water pumps and other plant components can be damaged.
Regulating valves: In order to ensure correct operating conditions for the entire plant, the pump and
plant characteristics curve have to be matched with one another. If a pump with a
variable pump characteristics curve is not available, regulating valves must be used.
These valves are used for rebalancing the water pumps and consumers with each
other. In plants with only one consumer, the water flow rate can be adjusted.
Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers for regulating differ-
ent volume flows or compensating different pressure drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Combi storage tank: The combi storage tank is a drinking water heater for which different heat sources
can be used to heat up drinking water. Since the maximum attainable discharge tem-
perature from the desuperheater does not exceed 60 °, only combi storage tanks
with a large internal heat exchanger should be used to operate the system as effi-
ciently as possible. To ensure drinking water hygiene, the relevant basic standards
and national supplementary standards must be considered and strictly adhered to.
Therefore, it must also be possible to thermally disinfect the combi storage tank
through corresponding heating.
For this purpose the following components can be used:
• Additional heat exchanger, heater supported
• Electric heating rod

Control and regulation

As soon as one of the compressors is running, the desuperheater can be used for
heat recovery. The enabling of pump P1 should be performed via the operating sta-
tus contact of the compressors and via an enabling contact of the heating request
on-site.
To ensure an operation within the operating limits, a 3-way valve is used which
ensures a minimum discharge temperature of 30 °C from the desuperheater.
As alternative, an inverter controlled pump can be used which regulates the medium
volume flow via the desuperheater in such a way that this requirement is observed.

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12
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

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60
12

Unit

Chilled-water circuit

Fresh water inlet

Auxiliary heating

E heating
Desuperheater circuit
Fresh water outlet
Combi storage tank

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13
Chiller, water-cooled plant, with heat recovery and heat-
rejection system

Area of application

Heat-rejection circuit with heat recovery for water-cooled units which are used for
generating chilled or warm water for comfort air conditioning or for process appli-
cations.

Heat-rejection system

Unit

Chilled-water circuit

Buffer tank
Plate Heat Exchanger

Primary page Secondary side

Functional principle of the hydraulics

If a compressor is operating and produces waste heat, the pump P1 is also operating
and transports the water-glycol mixture through the condenser of the unit where the
waste heat is taken in. The heated water-glycol mixture is directed through the pri-
mary side of a plate heat exchanger. If necessary, the heat is transferred to a second-
ary sided water circuit and stored in a buffer tank.
When the temperature of the water-glycol mixture is too low, the 3-way valve MV1
conducts the water-glycol mixture back into the condenser which causes another
rise in temperature.
If the allowable temperature of the water-glycol mixture is reached, the 3-way valve
MV1 opens, adds chilled water-glycol mixture from the heat-rejection system and
achieves an operation within the allowable operating limits.

Important hydraulic components

Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 61


13
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.
Buffer tank of heat recovery In the field of heat recovery it is recommended to use a buffer tank. Thus, transition
periods in which heat is required during inactive heat recovery are well compensated.
Plate Heat Exchangers: The plate heat exchanger is used in a hydraulic plant as system separation. Reasons
for the use of a plate heat exchanger could be:
• Separation between water-glycol circuit and water circuit
• Different temperature ranges and protection of a circuit against too high or too
low temperatures
• Different pressure ranges and protection of a circuit against too high pressure
• Functioning as hydraulic switch

Control and regulation

For water-cooled units, it is necessary to remove heat from the cooling process. The
heat coming from the condenser of the unit can be used for other processes or can
be given off to the outside air.
The operating limits must be observed for the reliable operation of the unit. The cor-
responding operating limits are provided in the technical documentation of the unit.
In this case, heat recovery is possible and therefore a distinction is made between:
• Cooling operation without heat recovery
• Cooling operation with heat recovery

Cooling operation without heat recovery


In this operating mode, heat recovery is not required. The unit is to be operated as
efficiently as possible. In order to achieve this, the 3-way valve MV1 is to be regulated
so that the lowest possible cooling water inlet temperature T1 is ensured in the con-
denser, within the operating limit.
The pump P1 is activated in parallel for requested compressor operation. The
3-way valve MV1 controls the minimum medium inlet temperature T1 in the con-
denser, depending on the water volume flow. Thus, the minimum medium discharge
temperature from the condenser can be ensured and optimal conditions for an eco-
nomic compressor operation are created.
If the medium inlet temperature T1 exceeds the minimum allowable temperature,
the 3-way valve MV1 opens the connection A and uses the heat-rejection system to
dissipate excessive heat.

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13
The power of the heat-rejection system is controlled by the speed of the fan motor,
depending on the medium discharge temperature T4 from the heat-rejection unit.
This ensures optimal heat-rejection water temperatures and constant operating con-
ditions within the operating limits of the unit. The setpoint of the medium discharge
temperature T4 corresponds to the minimum medium discharge temperature in the
condenser, considering the water volume flow.

Cooling operation with heat recovery


In this operating mode, the heat recovery is required and the transmission of heat via
the plate heat exchanger should be as efficient as possible. In order to achieve this,
the 3-way valve MV1 is to be regulated so that the highest possible cooling water
inlet temperature T1 is ensured in the condenser, within the operating limit.
The pump P1 is activated in parallel for requested compressor operation. The
3-way valve MV1 controls the maximum medium inlet temperature T1 in the con-
denser, depending on the water volume flow. Therefore, optimal conditions for the
heat recovery are created.
If the water temperature T3, measured in the buffer tank, is lower than the medium
temperature T2 coming from the condenser, pump P2 is activated and heat recovery
takes place. The pump P2 is deactivated as soon as the water temperature T3 in the
buffer tank exceeds the water/glycol temperature T2 coming from the condenser.
This can be the case if the load request of the unit decreases.
If the medium inlet temperature T1 exceeds the maximum allowable temperature,
since the heat demand of the heat recovery is reduced, the 3-way valve MV1 opens
the connection A and ensures a release of the non-required heat via the heat-rejec-
tion system.
The power of the heat-rejection system is controlled by the speed of the fan motor,
depending on the medium discharge temperature T4 from the heat-rejection unit.
This ensures optimal heat-rejection water temperatures for heat recovery and con-
stant operating conditions within the operating limits of the unit. The setpoint of the
medium discharge temperature T4 corresponds in this operating mode with heat
recovery to the maximum medium discharge temperature in the condenser, consid-
ering the water volume flow.

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13
Frost protection

In order to protect the heat-rejection circuit from frost, the employment of a water/
glycol mixture is definitely required. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30%
ethylene glycol.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

64 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Heat-rejection system

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


Chilled-water circuit

Unit
Plate Heat Exchanger Buffer tank

Primary page Secondary side

65
13
14
Cold/warm water generator with variable-speed pump, single-
circuit buffer tank and 2-way valves (VPS A-Control)

Area of application

Generation of cold or hot water for comfort air conditioning or for process applica-
tions. The consumer network is easily formed and the consumers are equipped with
2-way valves.
By the use of a variable-speed pump, the hydraulic system can be planned securely
and in an energy saving way.

DP2
p

Unit Buffer tank


P P P P

DP1 V1
p P
FL T

Advantages of a variable-speed pump

By the deployment of variable-speed pumps with the correct hydraulic integration of


the device, many crucial advantages result compared to pumps without speed con-
trol:
• The maximum rotational speed of the pump is set after pressure loss in the hydrau-
lic network. The oversizing of a pump with fixed rotational speed and the associ-
ated high power consumption is precluded. Es is important to create an exact
computation of the piping in order to adapt the speed-controlled pump to the
plant characteristic curve and to ensure a correct control system.
• Costly and energy-destroying control valves can be done without.
• Constant control of the water outlet temperature in stationary operation
• High energy-saving potential at full and partial load operation as well as also in
stand-by operation
• Longer pump lifetime
• Lower noise emission

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In full-load operation, an energy savings potential results, since the pump adapts the
rotational speed to the actual demand and the pressure loss in the system. For pumps
without speed control, the superfluous energy must be compensated by control
valves.
In partial-load mode, the reduced rotational speed lowers the air flow, since the max-
imum air flow is not required in partial-load mode. Depending on application case,
the partial-load mode of the device with up to 97% of the time once again reflects
the largest portion the operating time
The water-air flow is reduced to 50% of the maximum volume of water. The system
temperatures are still recorded reliably and energy saving. For systems without speed
control, the pump also works during stand-by operation at maximum rotational
speed and power consumption.
The theoretical pump characteristics at speed change as follows:
• The pump feed rate behaves proportional to the change in pump speed. A reduc-
tion the rotational speed by 50% therefore leads to a halving of the pump feed
rate.
• The pump lift behaves proportional to the square of the change of the pump
speed. Therefore leads a reduction the rotational speed by 50% to a reduction of
the pump lift by 25%.
• The power demand the pump behaves proportional to the third potential of the
change of the pump speed. Therefore a reduction the rotational speed by 50%
leads to a reduction the power consumption to 12.5%.
The energy savings potential decisively depends on the following factors:
• Design and pressure losses of the hydraulic network
• Load acceptance of the consumer
• Operating and stand-by time of the device
• Design of the device for the required demand

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The cold/
hot water now flows over the consumers and is warmed or cooled down once again.
In this case, it can be about consumers of the same or unequal power consumption
at identical water temperatures. The required volume of water must be individually
adjusted for every consumer with control valves, only so can the respective perfor-
mance be ensured at full load. The power control of every consumer takes place by
2-way valves. At partial load, the changing pressure losses is compensated by the
speed-controlled pump.
For fault-free operation of the device, a minimum water-air flow through the heat
exchanger of the device is required. To ensure this, the bypass valve V1 is employed.
Is the minimum water flow over the heat exchanger not achieved, the bypass valve
V1 opens and thereby ensures fault-free operation.

Important hydraulic components

One cycle buffer tank The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.

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Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch. The flow switch is a
prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site. The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof
of the building and thereby at the highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet
pressure is the reason for the pressure fall on the highest point of the plant, where
the water pumps is often mounted, this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the
pump. If cavitation is not noticed in time, water pumps and other plant components
can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. A falling system pressure is processed in the control sys-
tem of the device, then at of this malfunction stops both the unit as well as also the
pump and prevents cost intensive plant breakdowns.
Regulating valves: Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers of different power
ratings for regulating different volume flows or compensating different pressure
drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The en-
abling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity con-
trol of the device and the associated control system of the water temperature may
only take place with the internal control of the device. Otherwise the consequence
is a cycle operation of the compressors with too short runtimes as well as a consid-
erably worsened energy efficiency of the overall system.

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Pump release: After completed release, the unit the speed-controlled pump P1 switches with a
specified start rotational speed, examines the air flow with the internal differential
pressure switch and additionally with the on-site mounted paddle-type flow switch.
As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water outlet temperature is recorded
and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the extent of the deviation,
the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill or heat the water to the
setpoint.
In addition, the controller of the device continually records the differential pressure
over the most unfavorable consumers (pressure transducer DP2) and also the differ-
ential pressure over the heat exchanger of the device (pressure transducer DP1), in
order to regulate the rotational speed of the pump or to control the bypass valve V1.
The position of the most unfavorable consumer should be determined by the com-
putation of piping.
Differential pressure over consumers As control variable for the speed control of the pump, the differential pressure of the
(pressure sensor DP2): consumer lying farthest removed and in the most unfavorable pipe section is used.
Which pipe section and consumers it is thereby about, must be taken from the piping
computation.
The differential pressure of the consumer network minimum and maximum limit val-
ues must be entered in the controller of the device. Within these limit values, the
rotational speed of the pump remains unchanged.
If the differential pressure increases above the maximum limit value because individ-
ual consumers close their valves, the rotational speed of the pump is reduced so that
the differential pressure is once again within the limit values.
If the differential pressure decreases below the minimum limit value because individ-
ual consumers open their valves, the rotational speed of the pump is increases so that
the differential pressure is once again within the limit values.
Differential pressure over the heat ex- Since the plant characteristics is variable in certain limits by the 2-way valves to the
changer of the device consumers and by the speed-controlled pump, the differential pressure over the heat
(pressure sensor DP1): exchanger of the device is monitored by the pressure differential sensor DP1. In order
to avoid operational breakdowns of the device, it is important to always promote a
minimum water flow over the heat exchanger.
As soon as the limit value for the minimum water flow is undershot, the rotational
speed the pump increases and a bypass valve is opened in order to increase the dif-
ferential pressure and thereby the water flow over the exchanger of the device.
If the differential pressure over the heat exchanger is once again within of the
required limit value, the rotational speed of the pump is reduced. The bypass valve is
slowly closed.
Bypass valve V1: The bypass valve serves the assurance of a minimum water volumetric flow over the
heat exchanger of the device when there is only little or no load and a large number
of 2-valves are closed. In order to make a correct adjustment of the bypass line, it is
important to only use the bypass valve in connection with a regulating valve. This is
the only possibility of regulating the bypass air flow for an energy-saving operating
mode.
Error messaging: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 69


14
Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

70 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


14

V1
Buffer tank
P
P
P
P

T
FL
DP1
p
Unit
DP2
p

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 71


15
Cold-/warm water generators with variable speed pumps
in primarily and secondary circuits (VPS D-Control)

Area of application

Generation of cold or hot water for comfort air conditioning or for process applica-
tions. The consumer network can be made arbitrarily complex. Both on the primarily
as well as also on the secondary side, speed-controlled pumps are employed.
With the use of variable speed pumps, primarily and secondary circuits can be
planned securely and in an energy saving manner.

Consumers

T T T

T T T P P P

P P P

P2-P4

AB
B

A
T2

Unit Buffer tank


P P P P T1
T

DT P
P1
FL T

Advantages of a variable-speed pump

By the deployment of variable-speed pumps with the correct hydraulic integration of


the device, many crucial advantages result compared to pumps without speed con-
trol:
• The maximum rotational speed of the pump is set after pressure loss in the hydrau-
lic network. The oversizing of a pump with fixed rotational speed and the associ-
ated high power consumption is precluded. It is important to create an exact
computation of the piping in order to adapt the speed-controlled pump to the
plant characteristic curve and to ensure a correct control system.
• Costly and energy-destroying control valves can be done without.
• Constant control of the water outlet temperature in stationary operation
• High energy-saving potential at full and partial load operation as well as also in
stand-by operation
• Longer pump lifetime
• Lower noise emission

72 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


15
In full-load operation, an energy savings potential results, since the pump adapts the
rotational speed to the actual demand and the pressure loss in the system. For pumps
without speed control, the superfluous energy must be compensated by control
valves.
In partial-load mode, the reduced rotational speed lowers the air flow, since the max-
imum air flow is not required in partial-load mode. Depending on application case,
the partial-load mode of the device with up to 97% of the time once again reflects
the largest portion the operating time
During of the stand-by-facility, if the system temperature is achieved, the pump con-
trols down to the minimum possible rotational speed. The water-air flow is reduced
to 50% of the maximum volume of water. The system temperatures are still recorded
reliably and energy saving. For systems without speed control, the pump also works
during stand-by operation at maximum rotational speed and power consumption.
The theoretical pump characteristics at speed change as follows:
• The pump feed rate behaves proportional to the change in pump speed. A reduc-
tion the rotational speed by 50% therefore leads to a halving of the pump feed
rate.
• The pump lift behaves proportional to the square of the change of the pump
speed. Therefore leads a reduction the rotational speed by 50% to a reduction of
the pump lift by 25%.
• The power demand the pump behaves proportional to the third potential of the
change of the pump speed. Therefore a reduction the rotational speed by 50%
leads to a reduction the power consumption to 12.5%.
The energy savings potential decisively depends on the following factors:
• Design and pressure losses of the hydraulic network
• Load acceptance of the consumer
• Operating and stand-by time of the device
• Design of the device for the required demand

Functional principle of the hydraulics

By the use of a bypass line in the secondary side consumer circuits, this hydraulic sys-
tem is separated from the primary side generator circuit. Since the unit is in the posi-
tion to demand-dependently regulate the rotational speed of the primary pump P1,
speed-controlled pumps can also be employed for the on-site secondary pumps.
For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. On required load acceptance, the medium is refrigerated or warmed and there-
fore available to the secondary network with the pumps P2 to P4. If there is only a
small or no cooling/heating requirement and the volume of water was thereby
reduced over the secondary side consumers, the water is with a bypass line between
supply line and return flow distributer once again supplied to the primary circuit. A
minimum volume of water is thereby ensured with the unit.
The consumer circuit can be designed in any number of complex forms. Among these
are e.g.
• Employment of speed-regulated pumps
• Employment of 2-way or 3-way valves
• Consumer circuits in different temperature ranges.
• Consumer circuits with various power capacities and water/volume flows
The volume of water of the primarily circuit must always be greater than the volume
of water of the secondary circuit over the consumers.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 73


15
Important hydraulic components

One cycle buffer tank The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch. The flow switch is a
prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site. The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof
of the building and thereby at the highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet
pressure is the reason for the pressure fall on the highest point of the plant, where
the water pumps is often mounted, this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the
pump. If cavitation is not noticed in time, water pumps and other plant components
can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. A falling system pressure is processed in the control sys-
tem of the device, then at of this malfunction stops both the unit as well as also the
pump and prevents cost intensive plant breakdowns.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

As already mentioned as the functional principle the hydraulic system, the control of
the secondary circuit separated from the primary circuit must be observed. Since the
unit does not perform the actuation and control of the secondary pumps P2-P4, this
must be regulated on-site with the load.
The control system of the primary circuit is taken over by the unit with the pump P1.

74 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


15
External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The en-
abling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity con-
trol of the device and the associated control system of the water temperature may
only take place with the internal control of the device. Otherwise the consequence
is a cycle operation of the compressors with too short runtimes as well as a consid-
erably worsened energy efficiency of the overall system.
Pump release: After completed release, the unit the speed-controlled pump P1 switches with a
specified start rotational speed, examines the air flow with an internal differential
pressure switch and additionally with the on-site mounted paddle-type flow switch.
As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water outlet temperature is recorded
and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the extent of the deviation,
the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill or heat the water to the
setpoint. In addition, the controller of the device continually records the values the
temperature sensor T1 and T2 and also the temperature difference with the heat
exchanger of the device. The rotational speed the primary pump is determined with
the values of this parameter.
Temperature sensor T1 and T2: The sensor T1 must be assembled on-site in the water outlet line and the sensor T2
in the bypass line between the supply and return flow distributer. The rotational
speed the pump P1 is corrected by analysis of this temperature sensor so that the
volume of water of the primary circuit is never less than the volume of water of the
secondary circuit. The presupposes that the on-site secondary pumps are designed
or limited for this purpose.
The speed of the primary pump P1 is regulated according to the following criteria:
T1=T2 The rotational speed of the primary pump remains constant and is not
corrected
T1<T2 This means that the secondary volume of water is greater than the pri-
marily volume of water. The rotational speed of the primary pump is slowly increased
until T1 and T2 have the same values. For units in heat pump operation, the logic is
vice versa (T1 > T2)
Temperature difference over the heat The actual speed control the pump P1 takes place with the water-side temperature
exchanger of the unit (DT): difference over the heat exchanger of the device. The temperature difference ΔT over
the evaporator is compared at regular intervals with a reference value. The rotational
speed of the primary pump P1 is regulated according to the following criteria: the
rotational speed of the primary pump P1 is regulated according to the following cri-
teria:
DT HEATEXCHANGER > reference value speed of pump P1 is slowly increased
DT HEATEXCHANGER > reference value speed of pump P1 is slowly decreased
Especially in the partial load mode of the device, the performance of pump P1 can
be adapted and energy saved.
Error messaging: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 75


15
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

76 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


15

P2-P4
T

P
T

T1
T

P
AB A

B
Consumers

T2
P
T

P
T

P
T

Buffer tank
P
P

P1
P
P

P
T

T
FL
DT
Unit

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 77


16
Cold/warm water generator with variable-speed pump and
single-circuit buffer tank with 3-way valves (VPS A-Control)

Area of application

Generation of cold or hot water for comfort air conditioning or for process applica-
tions. The consumer network is easily formed and the consumers are equipped with
3-way valves.
By the use of a variable speed pump, the hydraulic system can be planned securely
and to save energy.
A

A
B

B
AB

AB

AB

AB

AB

AB

AB

Unit Buffer tank


P P P P

DT P
FL T

Advantages of a variable-speed pump

By the deployment of variable-speed pumps with the correct hydraulic integration of


the device, many crucial advantages result compared to pumps without speed con-
trol:
• The maximum rotational speed of the pump is set after pressure loss in the hydrau-
lic network. The oversizing of a pump with fixed rotational speed and the associ-
ated high power consumption is precluded. It is important to create an exact
computation of the piping in order to adapt the speed-controlled pump to the
plant characteristic curve and to ensure a correct control system.
• Costly and energy-destroying control valves can be done without.
• Constant control of the water outlet temperature in stationary operation
• High energy-saving potential at full and partial load operation as well as also in
stand-by operation
• Longer pump lifetime
• Lower noise emission

78 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


16
In full-load operation, an energy savings potential results, since the pump adapts the
rotational speed to the actual demand and the pressure loss in the system. For pumps
without speed control, the excessive energy must be compensated by regulating
valves.
In partial-load mode, the reduced rotational speed lowers the air flow, since the max-
imum air flow is not required in partial-load mode. Depending on application case,
the partial-load mode of the device with up to 97% of the time once again reflects
the largest portion the operating time
During of the stand-by-facility, if the system temperature is achieved, the pump con-
trols down to the minimum possible rotational speed. The water-air flow is reduced
to 50% of the maximum volume of water. The system temperatures are still recorded
reliably and energy saving. For systems without speed control, the pump also works
during stand-by operation at maximum rotational speed and power consumption.
The theoretical pump characteristics at speed change as follows:
• The pump feed rate behaves proportional to the change in pump speed. A reduc-
tion the rotational speed by 50% therefore leads to a halving of the pump feed
rate.
• The pump lift behaves proportional to the square of the change of the pump
speed. Therefore leads a reduction the rotational speed by 50% to a reduction of
the pump lift by 25%.
• The power demand the pump behaves proportional to the third potential of the
change of the pump speed. Therefore a reduction the rotational speed by 50%
leads to a reduction the power consumption to 12.5%.
The energy savings potential decisively depends on the following factors:
• Design and pressure losses of the hydraulic network
• Load acceptance of the consumer
• Operating and stand-by time of the device
• Design of the device for the required demand

Functional principle of the hydraulics

For released units, the medium flows from the buffer tank to the water pump in the
unit. The medium is chilled or warmed up for the required load reduction. The cold/
hot water now flows over the consumers and is warmed or cooled down once again.
In this case, it can be about consumers of the same or unequal power consumption
at identical water temperatures. The required volume of water must be individually
adjusted for every consumer with control valves, only so can the respective perfor-
mance be ensured at full load. The power control of every consumer takes place by
3-way valves.

Important hydraulic components

One cycle buffer tank The buffer tank primarily serves to increase the water volume in the hydraulic system
in order to ensure a minimum runtime of the compressors and to prevent unneces-
sarily frequent on and off switching of the compressors.
Water filter: Water filters must always be installed before the immediate entry of all water-side
heat exchangers in the system.
The water filter protects the heat exchanger from deposits and soiling of all kinds.
For reliable protection, only use dirt traps with a mesh width of maximum 1 mm.
Water filters are a prerequisite for the reliable and faultless function of the unit.
Paddle-type flow switch The paddle-type flow switch protects the unit evaporator if there is no or inadequate
water volume flow. The flow switch must be installed at the unit outlet and electri-
cally connected to the unit, according to the wiring diagram. The flow switch acts as
a safety device and not as a regular control element of the unit. The unit's remote

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 79


16
ON/OFF may therefore not be switched with the flow switch. The flow switch is a
prerequisite for the reliable and faultless functioning of the unit.
Expansion tank: The expansion tank is mandatory, since this hydraulic system is a closed water circu-
lation system. The expansion tank provides a required hydraulic seal and compen-
sates temperature-related volume changes in the hydraulic system. The entire system
volume must be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the expansion tank.
If the plant configuration unit is used with a pre-integrated hydraulic module, it often
contains pumps, single-circuit buffer tanks, and possibly (apart from other installa-
tions) also expansion tanks. In most cases, however, these expansion tanks are only
dimensioned for the water volume of the unit and no longer suffice for the con-
nected hydraulic circuit. The volume of the required additional expansion tank must
be harmonized with the total water volume in the hydraulic system. The volume of
the expansion tank integrated in the unit usually must be supplemented with an
additional expansion vessel on-site. The unit is very frequently mounted on the roof
of the building and thereby at the highest point of the system. If an incorrect inlet
pressure is the reason for the pressure fall on the highest point of the plant, where
the water pumps is often mounted, this leads to cavitation on the suction side of the
pump. If cavitation is not noticed in time, water pumps and other plant components
can be damaged.
Water system pressure switch: If units and water pumps are mounted on the highest point of the plant, then the
water pressure switch of the plant should be used at all times. All units are usually
equipped with an electrical input that can process the floating contact of the water
pressure switch of the plant. A falling system pressure is processed in the control sys-
tem of the device, then at of this malfunction stops both the unit as well as also the
pump and prevents cost intensive plant breakdowns.
Regulating valves: Hydraulic rebalancing is used in plants with multiple consumers of different power
ratings for regulating different volume flows or compensating different pressure
drops in the pipework.
Ventilation: Vent valves and air collector must be positioned in such a way to ensure correct vent-
ing of the hydraulic plant before the unit is commissioned for use. Air-vent valves are
not considered in the schematic diagram.
Charging and draining: Filling and drain valves must be positioned in such a way that the hydraulic plant can
be correctly filled and drained. Filling and drain valves are not taken into account in
the schematic diagram.

Control and regulation

External enabling device: The unit can be released with an external zero-voltage contact. The release-/change-
over contact can be switched to outside temperature or be time-dependent. The en-
abling contact may not be used to control capacity or temperature. The capacity con-
trol of the device and the associated control system of the water temperature may
only take place with the internal control of the device. Otherwise the consequence
is a cycle operation of the compressors with too short runtimes as well as a consid-
erably worsened energy efficiency of the overall system.
Pump release: After completed release, the unit the speed-controlled pump P1 switches with a
specified start rotational speed, examines the air flow with the internal differential
pressure switch and additionally with the on-site mounted paddle-type flow switch.
As soon as a stable water flow is ensured, the water outlet temperature is recorded
and compared with the preset setpoint. Depending on the extent of the deviation,
the individual compressors are switched on in order to chill or heat the water to the
setpoint.

80 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


16
Temperature difference over the heat The actual speed control the pump P1 takes place with the water-side temperature
exchanger of the unit (DT): difference over the heat exchanger of the device. The temperature difference ΔT over
the evaporator is compared at regular intervals with a reference value. The rotational
speed of the primary pump P1 is regulated according to the following criteria:
DT HEATEXCHANGER > reference value speed of pump P1 is slowly increased
DT HEATEXCHANGER > reference value speed of pump P1 is slowly decreased
Especially in the partial load mode of the device, the performance of pump P1 can
be adapted and energy saved.
Error messaging: A floating contact is available in the unit for monitoring the plant. The contact closes
in case of a service breakdown. Never switch the unit off with the external enabling
signal, since if a break-down is recorded via the floating contact, information on the
cause of the malfunction might no longer be displayed on the unit display. Further-
more, the entire unit is thereby put out of commission, even though possibly only
one of several refrigeration circuits was affected.

Frost protection

If the pipework with circulating water is run in the outdoor area or if the pipework
is not protected against frost within the building, the relevant freeze protection must
be ensured. DencoHappel recommends to use at least 30% ethylene glycol.
Remember: If glycol is not used as an antifreeze agent, note that you must use trace heating for
the pipework and other components like expansion tank and pump that are sub-
jected to outside temperatures below 5°C. For the water-based components in the
unit, suitable options are available and provided by the factory.

Additional notices for planning

Every unit is subject to relevant operating limits.


The following points must be considered:
• minimum and maximum ambient temperatures
• minimum and maximum water temperatures for evaporator and condenser
To ensure a trouble-free operation, it is necessary to maintain the required operating
limits. The technical documentations (data & facts) of each unit include diagrams of
the operating limits which must be taken into account.

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 81


16

A AB

Buffer tank
B

A AB

A AB

P
P

A AB
P
P

B
T

A AB
T
FL

B
DT

A AB
Unit

A AB

82 PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017


_i
Legend

3-way motor valve

Bypass valve / 2-way motor valve

Shut-off valve

Cap valve

Ball valve

Regulating valve

Safety valve (spring-loaded)

Strainer

Non-return damper

Pipeline compensator

Expansion tank

Circulating pump

Circulating pump with speed regulation

FL Paddle-type flow switch

TS
Temperature sensor sequential control

T Thermometer

P Pressure gauge

P Pressure switch

p Differential pressure sensor

DT Measurement of temperature difference


Pipe connection
Electric line

PR-2014-0112-GB • Subject to modifications • R2-02/2017 83


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air conditioning and air filtration.

Our nearest sales and service teams will be glad to discuss ideas and develop creative and effective
solutions with you.

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