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PROBLEMS

1. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Since there are 2π radians per revolution and it

is stated in the problem that there are 100 grads in one-quarter of a circle, we find that the

number of grads in one radian is

(1.00 )

rad = 63.7 grad

2π rad 0.250 rev

2. REASONING The average angular velocity ω has the same direction as θ − θ 0 , because

θ − θ0

ω= according to Equation 8.2. If θ is greater than θ0, then ω is positive. If θ is

t − t0

less than θ0, then ω is negative.

θ − θ0

SOLUTION The average angular velocity is given by Equation 8.2 as ω = , where

t − t0

t – t0 = 2.0 s is the elapsed time:

θ − θ0 0.75 rad − 0.45 rad

(a ) ω= = = +0.15 rad /s

t − t0 2.0 s

(b) ω= = = −0.20 rad /s

t − t0 2.0 s

(c) ω= = = −0.60 rad /s

t − t0 2.0 s

(d ) ω= = = +0.4 rad /s

t − t0 2.0 s

Δθ divided by the elapsed time Δt during which the displacement occurs: ω = Δθ / Δt

(Equation 8.2). This relation can be used to find the average angular velocity of the earth as

it spins on its axis and as it orbits the sun.

394 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

SOLUTION

a. As the earth spins on its axis, it makes 1 revolution (2π rad) in a day. Assuming that the

positive direction for the angular displacement is the same as the direction of the earth’s

rotation, the angular displacement of the earth in one day is ( Δθ )spin = +2π rad . The

average angular velocity is (converting 1 day to seconds):

ω= = = +7.3 × 10−5 rad/s

( Δt )spin 24 h 3600 s

(

1 day )

1 day 1 h

b. As the earth orbits the sun, the earth makes 1 revolution (2π rad) in one year. Taking the

positive direction for the angular displacement to be the direction of the earth’s orbital

motion, the angular displacement in one year is ( Δθ )orbit = +2π rad . The average angular

velocity is (converting 365¼ days to seconds):

ω= = = +2.0 ×10−7 rad/s

( Δt )orbit 24 h 3600 s

( )

365 14 days

1 day

1 h

____________________________________________________________________________________________

(Equation 8.2), where is the angular displacement of the mandible and t is the elapsed

time. In order to calculate the average angular velocity in radians per second, we will first

convert the angular displacement from degrees to radians.

SOLUTION Converting an angular displacement of 90° into radians, we find that the

angular displacement of the mandible is

1 rev 2π rad π

(

Δθ = 90 degrees

360 degrees ) = rad

1 rev 2

π

rad

Δθ

ω= = 2 −4 = 1.2 × 10 4 rad/s (8.2)

Δt 1.3 × 10 s

Chapter 8 Problems 395

5. SSM REASONING The average angular velocity is equal to the angular displacement

divided by the elapsed time (Equation 8.2). Thus, the angular displacement of the baseball

is equal to the product of the average angular velocity and the elapsed time. However, the

problem gives the travel time in seconds and asks for the displacement in radians, while the

angular velocity is given in revolutions per minute. Thus, we will begin by converting the

angular velocity into radians per second.

SOLUTION Since 2π rad = 1 rev and 1 min = 60 s, the average angular velocity ω (in

rad/s) of the baseball is

330 rev 2 π rad 1 min

ω = = 35 rad/s

min 1 rev 60 s

Since the average angular velocity of the baseball is equal to the angular displacement Δθ

divided by the elapsed time Δt, the angular displacement is

6. REASONING The jet is maintaining a distance of r = 18.0 km from the air traffic control

tower by flying in a circle. The angle that the jet’s path subtends while its nose crosses over

the moon is the same as the angular width of the moon. The corresponding distance the jet

travels is the length of arc s subtended by the moon’s diameter. We will use the relation

s = rθ (Equation 8.1) to determine the distance s.

SOLUTION In order to use the relation s = rθ (Equation 8.1), the angle must be

expressed in radians, as it is. The result will have the same units as r. Because s is required

in meters, we first convert r to meters:

1000 m

(

r = 18.0 km )

1 km

4

= 1.8 × 10 m

Therefore, the distance that the jet travels while crossing in front of the moon is

( )( )

s = rθ = 1.80 ×104 m 9.04 ×10−3 rad = 163 m

7. REASONING The average angular acceleration has the same direction as ω − ω0, because

ω − ω0

α= , according to Equation 8.4. If ω is greater than ω0, α is positive. If ω is less

t − t0

than ω0, α is negative.

396 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

ω − ω0

SOLUTION The average angular acceleration is given by Equation 8.4 as α = ,

t − t0

where t – t0 = 4.0 s is the elapsed time.

(a ) α= = = +0.75 rad /s

t − t0 4.0 s

(b) α= = = −0.75 rad /s 2

t − t0 4.0 s

(c) α= = = +1.0 rad /s 2

t − t0 4.0 s

(d ) α= = = −2.0 rad /s 2

t − t0 4.0 s

8. REASONING The relation between the final angular velocity ω, the initial angular velocity

ω0, and the angular acceleration α is given by Equation 8.4 (with t0 = 0 s) as

ω = ω0 + α t

If α has the same sign as ω0, then the angular speed, which is the magnitude of the angular

velocity ω, is increasing. On the other hand, If α and ω0 have opposite signs, then the

angular speed is decreasing.

(

(a) ω = + 12 rad /s + +3.0 rad /s2 ) ( 2.0 s ) = + 18 rad /s . The angular speed is 18 rad/s .

( )

(b) ω = + 12 rad /s + −3.0 rad /s 2 ( 2.0 s ) = + 6.0 rad /s. The angular speed is 6.0 rad/s .

( )

(c) ω = − 12 rad /s + +3.0 rad /s2 ( 2.0 s ) = − 6.0 rad /s. The angular speed is 6.0 rad /s .

(

(d) ω = − 12 rad /s + −3.0 rad /s2 ) ( 2.0 s ) = − 18 rad /s. The angular speed is 18 rad/s .

Chapter 8 Problems 397

9. SSM REASONING Equation 8.4 α = (ω − ω 0 ) / t indicates that the average angular

acceleration is equal to the change in the angular velocity divided by the elapsed time. Since

the wheel starts from rest, its initial angular velocity is ω0 = 0 rad/s. Its final angular velocity

is given as ω = 0.24 rad/s. Since the average angular acceleration is given as

α = 0.030 rad/s 2 , Equation 8.4 can be solved to determine the elapsed time t.

t= = = 8.0 s

α 0.030 rad/s2

10. REASONING AND SOLUTION Using Equation 8.4 and the appropriate conversion

factors, the average angular acceleration of the CD in rad/s2 is

2

Δω 210 rev/ min − 480 rev/ min 2π rad 1 min −3 2

α= = = – 6.4 × 10 rad/s

Δt 74 min 1 rev 60 s

11. REASONING The average angular velocity ω is defined as the angular displacement

Δθ divided by the elapsed time Δt during which the displacement occurs: ω = Δθ / Δt

(Equation 8.2). Solving for the elapsed time gives Δt = Δθ / ω . We are given Δθ and can

calculate ω from the fact that the earth rotates on its axis once every 24.0 hours.

−3

SOLUTION The sun itself subtends an angle of 9.28 × 10 rad. When the sun moves a

−3

distance equal to its diameter, it moves through an angle that is also 9.28 × 10 rad; thus,

−3

Δθ = 9.28 × 10 rad. The average angular velocity ω at which the sun appears to move

across the sky is the same as that of the earth rotating on its axis, ωearth , so ω = ωearth .

Since the earth makes one revolution (2π rad) every 24.0 h, its average angular velocity is

ωearth = = = = 7.27 ×10−5 rad/s

Δtearth 24.0 h 3600 s

( 24.0 h )

1 h

The time it takes for the sun to move a distance equal to its diameter is

Δt = = = 128 s (a little over 2 minutes)

ωearth 7.27 ×10−5 rad/s

398 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

____________________________________________________________________________________________

12. REASONING AND SOLUTION The angular displacements of the astronauts are equal.

For B θ = sB/rB

13. REASONING AND SOLUTION The people meet at time t. At this time the magnitudes

of their angular displacements must total 2π rad.

θ1 + θ2 = 2π rad

Then

ω1t + ω2t = 2π rad

2π rad 2π rad

t= = = 1200 s

ω1 + ω 2 1.7 × 10 rad/s + 3.4 × 10−3 rad/s

−3

14. REASONING It does not matter whether the arrow is aimed closer to or farther away from

the axis. The blade edge sweeps through the open angular space as a rigid unit. This means

that a point closer to the axis has a smaller distance to travel along the circular arc in order

to bridge the angular opening and correspondingly has a smaller tangential speed. A point

farther from the axis has a greater distance to travel along the circular arc but

correspondingly has a greater tangential speed. These speeds have just the right values so

that all points on the blade edge bridge the angular opening in the same time interval.

The rotational speed of the blades must not be so fast that one blade rotates into the open

angular space while part of the arrow is still there. A faster arrow speed means that the

arrow spends less time in the open space. Thus, the blades can rotate more quickly into the

open space without hitting the arrow, so the maximum value of the angular speed ω

increases with increasing arrow speed v.

A longer arrow traveling at a given speed means that some part of the arrow is in the open

space for a longer time. To avoid hitting the arrow, then, the blades must rotate more

slowly. Thus, the maximum value of the angular speed ω decreases with increasing arrow

length L.

Chapter 8 Problems 399

The time during which some part of the arrow remains in the open angular space is tArrow.

The time it takes for the edge of a propeller blade to rotate through the open angular space

between the blades is tBlade. The maximum angular speed is the angular speed such that these

two times are equal.

SOLUTION The time during which some part of the arrow remains in the open angular

space is the time it takes the arrow to travel at a speed v through a distance equal to its own

length L. This time is tArrow = L/v. The time it takes for the edge to rotate at an angular speed

ω through the angle between the blades is tBlade = /ω. The maximum angular speed is the

angular speed such that these two times are equal. Therefore, we have

L θ

=

v

ω

Arrow Blade

In this expression we note that the value of the angular opening is = 60.0º, which is

θ = 16 ( 2π ) rad = 13 π rad . Solving the expression for ω gives

θv πv

ω= =

L 3L

Substituting the given values for v and L into this result, we find that

πv π ( 75.0 m/s )

a. ω= = = 111 rad/s

3L 3 ( 0.71 m )

πv π ( 91.0 m/s )

b. ω= = = 134 rad/s

3L 3 ( 0.71 m )

πv π ( 91.0 m/s )

c. ω= = = 118 rad/s

3L 3 ( 0.81 m )

15. REASONING AND SOLUTION The baton will make four revolutions in a time t given by

θ

t=

ω

Half of this time is required for the baton to reach its highest point. The magnitude of the

initial vertical velocity of the baton is then

400 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

With this initial velocity the baton can reach a height of

h=

2

v0

=

gθ

2

=

(9.80 m/s ) (8π rad )

2 2

= 6.05 m

2g 8ω 2 rev 2π rad

2

8 1.80

s 1 rev

16. REASONING The time required for the bullet to travel the distance d is equal to the time

required for the discs to undergo an angular displacement of 0.240 rad. The time can be

found from Equation 8.2; once the time is known, the speed of the bullet can be found

using Equation 2.2.

Δθ

ω=

Δt

the required time is

Δθ 0.240 rad

Δt = = = 2.53 × 10 −3 s

ω 95.0 rad/s

Note that ω = ω because the angular speed is constant. The (constant) speed of the bullet

can then be determined from the definition of average speed:

Δx d 0.850 m

v= = = = 336 m/s

Δt Δt 2.53 × 10−3 s

a. If the propeller is to appear stationary, each blade must move through an angle of 120° or

2π / 3 rad between flashes. The time required is

θ (2π / 3) rad –2

t= = = 2.00 ×10 s

ω 2π rad

(16.7 rev/s)

1 rev

b. The next shortest time occurs when each blade moves through an angle of 240°, or

4π / 3 rad, between successive flashes. This time is twice the value that we found in part a,

−2

or 4.00 × 10 s.

Chapter 8 Problems 401

The figure at the right shows the r

relevant angles and dimensions for

either one of the celestial bodies s θ

under consideration.

person on earth

celestial body

s moon 3.48 × 10 6 m –3

θ moon = = 8 = 9.04 × 10 rad

rmoon 3.85 × 10 m

θ sun = = = 9.27 × 10 rad

rsun 1.50 × 1011 m

b. Since the sun subtends a slightly larger angle than the moon, as measured by a person

standing on the earth, the sun cannot be completely blocked by the moon. Therefore,

a "total" eclipse of the sun is not really total .

r sun

r moon

R sun R

b

s sun s moon

b θ sun θ moon

person on earth

The apparent circular area of the sun as measured by a person standing on the earth is given

2

by: Asun = π Rsun , where Rsun is the radius of the sun. The apparent circular area of the sun

that is blocked by the moon is Ablocked = π Rb2 , where Rb is shown in the figure above. Also

from the figure above, it follows that

Therefore, the fraction of the apparent circular area of the sun that is blocked by the moon is

402 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

2 2

Ablocked π Rb2 π ( sb / 2)2 sb θ moon rsun

= 2

= 2

= =

Asun π Rsun π ( ssun / 2) ssun θ sun rsun

2 2

θ 9.04 × 10−3 rad

= moon = = 0.951

9.27 × 10−3 rad

θ sun

The moon blocks out 95.1 percent of the apparent circular area of the sun.

19. REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the ball spins at 7.7 rev/s, it makes (7.7 rev/s)t

revolutions while in flight, where t is the time of flight and must be determined. The ball’s

vertical displacement is y = 0 m since the ball returns to its launch point. The vertical

component of the ball’s initial velocity is v0y = (19 m/s) sin 55°, assuming upward to be the

positive direction. The acceleration due to gravity is ay = −9.80 m/s2. With these three

1

pieces of information at hand, we use y = v0 y t + a y t 2 (Equation 3.5b) to determine the

2

time of flight. Noting that y = 0 m, we can solve this expression for t and find that

2v0 y 2 (19 m/s ) sin 55° Number of = 7.7 rev/s 3.2 s = 25 rev

revolutions ( )( )

t=− =− 2

=3.2 s and

ay −9.80 m/s

____________________________________________________________________________________________

20. REASONING The angular displacement is given as = 0.500 rev, while the initial angular

velocity is given as ω0 = 3.00 rev/s and the final angular velocity as ω = 5.00 rev/s. Since

we seek the time t, we can use Equation 8.6 θ = 12 (ω0 + ω ) t from the equations of

rotational kinematics to obtain it.

2θ 2 ( 0.500 rev )

t= = = 0.125 s

ω 0 + ω 3.00 rev/s + 5.00 rev/s

a. From Equation 8.7 we obtain

Chapter 8 Problems 403

22. REASONING We are given the turbine’s angular acceleration α, final angular velocity ω,

and angular displacement . Therefore, we will employ ω 2 = ω02 + 2αθ (Equation 8.8) in

order to determine the turbine’s initial angular velocity ω0 for part a. However, in order to

make the units consistent, we will convert the angular displacement from revolutions to

radians before substituting its value into Equation 8.8. In part b, the elapsed time t is the

only unknown quantity. We can, therefore, choose from among ω = ω0 + α t (Equation 8.4),

θ = 12 (ω0 + ω ) t (Equation 8.6), or θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 (Equation 8.7) to find the elapsed time.

Of the three, Equation 8.4 offers the least algebraic complication, so we will solve it for the

elapsed time t.

SOLUTION

a. One revolution is equivalent to 2π radians, so the angular displacement of the turbine is

2π rad

θ = ( 2870 rev ) 4

= 1.80 ×10 rad

1 rev

Solving ω 2 = ω02 + 2αθ (Equation 8.8) for the square of the initial angular velocity, we

obtain ω02 = ω 2 − 2αθ , or

rad = 117 rad/s

t= = = 140 s

α 0.140 rad/s 2

2 0 2

404 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

24. REASONING The angular displacement is given by Equation 8.6 as the product of the

average angular velocity and the time

θ =ωt = 2(

1 ω +ω

0

) t

Average angular

velocity

This value for the angular displacement is greater than ω0t. When the angular displacement

θ is given by the expression θ = ω0t, it is assumed that the angular velocity remains constant

at its initial (and smallest) value of ω0 for the entire time, which does not, however, account

for the additional angular displacement that occurs because the angular velocity is

increasing.

The angular displacement is also less than ω t. When the angular displacement is given by

the expression θ = ω t, it is assumed that the angular velocity remains constant at its final

(and largest) value of ω for the entire time, which does not account for the fact that the

wheel was rotating at a smaller angular velocity during the time interval.

SOLUTION

a. If the angular velocity is constant and equals the initial angular velocity ω0, then ω = ω0

and the angular displacement is

b. If the angular velocity is constant and equals the final angular velocity ω, then ω = ω and

the angular displacement is

θ= 1

2 (ω0 + ω ) t = 12 ( +220 rad /s + 280 rad /s )(10.0 s ) = +2500 rad (8.6)

25. REASONING

a. The time t for the wheels to come to a halt depends on the initial and final velocities, ω0

1

and ω, and the angular displacement θ : θ = 2 (ω0 + ω ) t (see Equation 8.6). Solving for the

time yields

2θ

t=

ω0 + ω

Chapter 8 Problems 405

b. The angular acceleration α is defined as the change in the angular velocity, ω − ω0,

divided by the time t:

ω − ω0

α= (8.4)

t

SOLUTION

a. Since the wheel comes to a rest, ω = 0 rad/s. Converting 15.92 revolutions to radians

(1 rev = 2π rad), the time for the wheel to come to rest is

2π rad

2 ( +15.92 rev )

t=

2θ

= 1 rev = 10.0 s

ω0 + ω +20.0 rad/s + 0 rad/s

ω − ω0

0 rad/s − 20.0 rad/s

α= = = −2.00 rad/s 2

t 10.0 s

______________________________________________________________________________

26. REASONING Equation 8.8 (ω 2 = ω 02 + 2αθ ) from the equations of rotational kinematics

can be employed to find the final angular velocity ω. The initial angular velocity is

ω0 = 0 rad/s since the top is initially at rest, and the angular acceleration is given as

α = 12 rad/s2. The angle (in radians) through which the pulley rotates is not given, but it

can be obtained from Equation 8.1 ( = s/r), where the arc length s is the 64-cm length of

the string and r is the 2.0-cm radius of the top.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 8.8 for the final angular velocity gives

ω = ± ω02 + 2αθ

We choose the positive root, because the angular acceleration is given as positive and the

top is at rest initially. Substituting = s/r from Equation 8.1 gives

s 2 64 cm

ω = + ω02 + 2α = + ( 0 rad/s ) + 2 (12 rad/s 2 ) = 28 rad/s

r 2.0 cm

27. SSM REASONING The equations of kinematics for rotational motion cannot be used

directly to find the angular displacement, because the final angular velocity (not the initial

angular velocity), the acceleration, and the time are known. We will combine two of the

equations, Equations 8.4 and 8.6 to obtain an expression for the angular displacement that

contains the three known variables.

406 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

SOLUTION The angular displacement of each wheel is equal to the average angular

velocity multiplied by the time

2 ( ω0 + ω ) t

1

θ=

(8.6)

ω

The initial angular velocity ω0 is not known, but it can be found in terms of the angular

acceleration and time, which are known. The angular acceleration is defined as (with t0 = 0 s)

ω − ω0

α= or ω0 = ω − α t (8.4)

t

θ = 12 (ω − α t ) + ω t = ω t − 12 α t 2

ω 0

2 ( +6.70 rad /s ) ( 4.50 s )

2 2

= +267 rad

______________________________________________________________________________

28. REASONING AND SOLUTION The angular acceleration is found for the first

circumstance.

2 2

ω 2 − ω 02 ( 3.14 × 104 rad/s ) − (1.05 × 104 rad/s ) 4 2

α= = = 2.33 × 10 rad/s

2θ 2 (1.88 × 10 rad )

4

t= = 4 2

= 3.37 s

α 2.33 × 10 rad/s

____________________________________________________________________________________________

29. REASONING There are three segments to the propeller’s angular motion, and we will

calculate the angular displacement for each separately. In these calculations we will

remember that the final angular velocity for one segment is the initial velocity for the next

segment. Then, we will add the separate displacements to obtain the total.

Chapter 8 Problems 407

SOLUTION For the first segment the initial angular velocity is ω0 = 0 rad/s, since the

propeller starts from rest. Its acceleration is α = 2.90 × 10−3 rad/s2 for a time t = 2.10 × 103 s.

Therefore, we can obtain the angular displacement 1 from Equation 8.7 of the equations of

rotational kinematics as follows:

[First segment]

2

θ1 = ω 0t + 12 α t 2 = ( 0 rad/s ) ( 2.10 ×103 s ) + 12 ( 2.90 × 10−3 rad/s 2 )( 2.10 × 103 s )

= 6.39 ×103 rad

The initial angular velocity for the second segment is the final velocity for the first segment,

and according to Equation 8.4, we have

Thus, during the second segment, the initial angular velocity is ω0 = 6.09 rad/s and remains

constant at this value for a time of t = 1.40 × 103 s. Since the velocity is constant, the

angular acceleration is zero, and Equation 8.7 gives the angular displacement 2 as

[Second segment]

2

θ 2 = ω 0t + 12 α t 2 = ( 6.09 rad/s ) (1.40 × 103 s ) + 12 ( 0 rad/s2 )(1.40 × 103 s ) = 8.53× 103 rad

During the third segment, the initial angular velocity is ω0 = 6.09 rad/s, the final velocity is

ω = 4.00 rad/s, and the angular acceleration is α = −2.30 × 10−3 rad/s2. When the propeller

picked up speed in segment one, we assigned positive values to the acceleration and

subsequent velocity. Therefore, the deceleration or loss in speed here in segment three

means that the acceleration has a negative value. Equation 8.8 (ω 2 = ω 02 + 2αθ 3 ) can be

used to find the angular displacement 3. Solving this equation for 3 gives

[Third segment]

2 2

ω 2 − ω 02 ( 4.00 rad/s ) − ( 6.09 rad/s )

θ3 = = = 4.58 ×103 rad

2α 2 ( −2.30 ×10 rad/s )

−3 2

θ Total = θ1 + θ 2 + θ 3 = 6.39 ×103 rad + 8.53 × 103 rad + 4.58 × 103 rad = 1.95 × 104 rad

30. REASONING Since the time t and angular acceleration α are known, we will begin by

using Equation 8.7 from the equations of kinematics to determine the angular

displacement θ :

408 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2

However, the initial angular velocity ω0 is not given. We can determine it by resorting to

another equation of kinematics, ω = ω0 + α t (Equation 8.4), which relates ω0 to the final

angular velocity ω, the angular acceleration, and the time, all of which are known.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 8.4 for ω0 gives ω0 = ω − α t . Substituting this result into

θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 gives

θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 = (ω − α t ) t + 12 α t 2 = ω t − 12 α t 2

2

= ( +1.88 rad/s )(10.0 s ) − 12 ( −5.04 rad/s2 ) (10.0 s ) = +2.71× 102 rad

31. REASONING According to Equation 3.5b, the time required for the diver to reach the

water, assuming free-fall conditions, is t = 2 y / a y . If we assume that the "ball" formed

by the diver is rotating at the instant that she begins falling vertically, we can use Equation

8.2 to calculate the number of revolutions made on the way down.

SOLUTION Taking upward as the positive direction, the time required for the diver to

reach the water is

2(–8.3 m)

t= 2 = 1.3 s

–9.80 m/s

32. REASONING In addition to knowing the initial angular velocity ω0 and the acceleration α,

we know that the final angular velocity ω is 0 rev/s, because the wheel comes to a halt.

With values available for these three variables, the unknown angular displacement can be

calculated from Equation 8.8 (ω 2 = ω 02 + 2αθ ) .

When using any of the equations of rotational kinematics, it is not necessary to use radian

measure. Any self-consistent set of units may be used to measure the angular quantities,

such as revolutions for , rev/s for ω0 and ω, and rev/s2 for α.

A greater initial angular velocity does not necessarily mean that the wheel will come to a

halt on an angular section labeled with a greater number. It is certainly true that greater

Chapter 8 Problems 409

initial angular velocities lead to greater angular displacements for a given deceleration.

However, remember that the angular displacement of the wheel in coming to a halt may

consist of a number of complete revolutions plus a fraction of a revolution. In deciding on

which number the wheel comes to a halt, the number of complete revolutions must be

subtracted from the angular displacement, leaving only the fraction of a revolution

remaining.

ω 2 − ω 02

SOLUTION Solving Equation 8.8 for the angular displacement gives θ = .

2α

a. We know that ω0 = +1.20 rev/s, ω = 0 rev/s, and α = −0.200 rev/s2, where ω0 is positive

since the rotation is counterclockwise and, therefore, α is negative because the wheel

decelerates. The value obtained for the displacement is

2 2

ω 2 − ω02 ( 0 rev/s ) − ( +1.20 rev/s )

θ= = = +3.60 rev

2α 2 ( −0.200 rev/s 2 )

To decide where the wheel comes to a halt, we subtract the three complete revolutions from

this result, leaving 0.60 rev. Converting this value into degrees and noting that each angular

section is 30.0º, we find the following number n for the section where the wheel comes to a

halt:

360° 1 angular section

n = ( 0.60 rev ) = 7.2

1 rev 30.0°

A value of n = 7.2 means that the wheel comes to a halt in the section following number 7.

Thus, it comes to a halt in section 8 .

2 2

ω 2 − ω02 ( 0 rev/s ) − ( +1.47 rev/s )

θ= = = +5.40 rev

2α 2 ( −0.200 rev/s 2 )

Subtracting the five complete revolutions from this result leaves 0.40 rev. Converting this

value into degrees and noting that each angular section is 30.0º, we find the following

number n for the section where the wheel comes to a halt:

n = ( 0.40 rev ) = 4.8

1 rev 30.0°

A value of n = 4.8 means that the wheel comes to a halt in the section following number 4.

Thus, it comes to a halt in section 5 .

410 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

33. SSM WWW REASONING The angular displacement of the child when he catches the

horse is, from Equation 8.2, θ c = ω c t . In the same time, the angular displacement of the

horse is, from Equation 8.7 with ω 0 = 0 rad/s, θ h = 12 α t 2 . If the child is to catch the horse

θ c = θ h + (π / 2).

1 αt2 − ωc t + 12 π = 0

2

or

1 (0.0100

2

rad/s 2 )t 2 − ( 0.250 rad/s ) t + 1

2 (π rad ) = 0

The quadratic formula yields t = 7.37 s and 42.6 s; therefore, the shortest time needed to

catch the horse is t = 7.37 s .

according to aT = rα (Equation 8.10). Moreover, it is given that aT = g, where g is the

magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.

SOLUTION Let r be the radial distance of the point from the axis of rotation. Then,

according to Equation 8.10, we have

g = rα

aT

Thus,

2

g 9.80 m /s

r= = 2

= 0.817 m

α 12.0 rad /s

α= = 3

= −1.73 × 10 −3 rad/s 2

t 2.40 × 10 s

Chapter 8 Problems 411

36. REASONING The tangential speed vT of a point on a rigid body rotating at an angular

speed ω is given by vT = rω (Equation 8.9), where r is the radius of the circle described by

the moving point. (In this equation ω must be expressed in rad/s.) Therefore, the angular

speed of the bacterial motor sought in part a is ω = vT r . Since we are considering a point

on the rim, r is the radius of the motor itself. In part b, we seek the elapsed time t for an

angular displacement of one revolution at the constant angular velocity ω found in part a.

We will use θ = ω0 t + 12 α t 2 (Equation 8.7) to calculate the elapsed time.

SOLUTION

a. The angular speed of the bacterial motor is, from ω = vT r (Equation 8.9),

ω= = = 1500 rad/s

r 1.5 × 10 −8 m

acceleration. Substituting α = 0 rad/s2 into θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 (Equation 8.7), and solving for

the elapsed time yields

θ

( )

θ = ω0t + 12 0 rad/s 2 t 2 = ω0t or t=

ω0

The fact that the motor has a constant angular velocity means that its initial and final angular

velocities are equal: ω0 = ω = 1500 rad/s , the value calculated in part a, assuming a

counterclockwise or positive rotation. The angular displacement is one revolution, or 2π

radians, so the elapsed time is

θ 2π rad

t= = = 4.2 × 10 −3 s

ω0 1500 rad/s

37. SSM REASONING The angular speed ω and tangential speed vT are related by

Equation 8.9 (vT = rω), and this equation can be used to determine the radius r. However,

we must remember that this relationship is only valid if we use radian measure. Therefore, it

will be necessary to convert the given angular speed in rev/s into rad/s.

412 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

vT 54 m/s

r= = = 0.18 m

( 47 rev/s )

ω 2π rad

1 rev

Conversion from rev/s into rad/s

where we have used the fact that 1 rev corresponds to 2 rad to convert the given angular

speed from rev/s into rad/s.

38. REASONING The angular speed ω of the reel is related to the tangential speed vT of the

fishing line by vT = rω (Equation 8.9), where r is the radius of the reel. Solving this

equation for ω gives ω = vT / r . The tangential speed of the fishing line is just the distance x

it travels divided by the time t it takes to travel that distance, or vT = x/t.

SOLUTION Substituting vT = x/t into ω = vT / r and noting that 3.0 cm = 3.0 × 10−2 m, we

find that

x 2.6 m

vT t 9.5 s

ω= = = = 9.1 rad/s

r r 3.0 × 10−2 m

______________________________________________________________________________

39. REASONING The angular speed ω of the sprocket can be calculated from the tangential

speed vT and the radius r using Equation 8.9 (vT = rω). The radius is given as

r = 4.0 × 10−2 m. The tangential speed is identical to the linear speed given for a chain link

at point A, so that vT = 5.6 m/s. We need to remember, however, that Equation 8.9 is only

valid if radian measure is used. Thus, the value calculated for ω will be in rad/s, and we

will have to convert to rev/s using the fact that 2 rad equals 1 rev.

vT 5.6 m/s

ω= = = 140 rad/s

r 4.0 ×10−2 m

Using the fact that 2 rad equals 1 rev, we can convert this result as follows:

1 rev

ω = (140 rad/s ) = 22 rev/s

2π rad

Chapter 8 Problems 413

a. A person living in Ecuador makes one revolution (2π rad) every 23.9 hr (8.60 × 104 s).

The angular speed of this person is ω = (2π rad)/(8.60 × 104 s) = 7.31 × 10−5 rad/s.

According to Equation 8.9, the tangential speed of the person is, therefore,

drawing at the right. Since the tangential r

θ

speed is one-third of that of a person

θ

living in Ecuador, we have,

r

vT

= rθ ω θ

3

or

rθ = = = 2.12 × 106 m

3ω (

3 7.31 × 10 −5

rad/s )

The angle θ is, therefore,

rθ −1 2.12 × 10 m

6

θ = cos −1 = cos

6.38 × 106 m = 70.6°

r

a. From Equation 8.9, and the fact that 1 revolution = 2π radians, we obtain

rev 2π rad

vT = r ω = (0.0568 m) 3.50 = 1.25 m/s

s 1 rev

v T1 = v T2 or ω 1 r1 = ω 2 r2

ω 1 r1 (3.50 rev/s)(0.0568 m)

ω2 = = = 7.98 rev/s

r2 0.0249 m

414 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

42. REASONING The linear speed v1 with which the bucket moves down the well is the same

as the linear speed of the rope holding the bucket. The rope, in turn, is wrapped around the

barrel of the hand crank, and unwinds without slipping. This ensures that the rope’s linear

speed is the same as the tangential speed vT = r1ω (Equation 8.9) of a point on the surface of

the barrel, where ω and r1 are the angular speed and radius of the barrel, respectively.

Therefore, we have v1 = r1ω . When applied to the linear speed v2 of the crank handle and the

radius r2 of the circle the handle traverses, Equation 8.9 yields v2 = r2ω . We are justified in

using the same symbol ω to represent the angular speed of the barrel and the angular speed

of the hand crank, since both make the same number of revolutions in any given amount of

time. Lastly, we note that the radii r1 of the crank barrel and r2 of the hand crank’s circular

motion are half of the respective diameters d1 = 0.100 m and d2 = 0.400 m shown in the

drawing provided in the text.

SOLUTION Solving the relations v1 = r1ω and v2 = r2ω for the angular speed ω and the

linear speed v1 of the bucket, we obtain

ω=

v1

=

v2

or v1 =

v2 r1

=

v2 ( d )=v d

1

2 1 2 1

r1 r2 r2 1d d2

2 2

v1 = = 0.300 m/s

( 0.400 m )

43. REASONING AND SOLUTION The figure below shows the initial and final states of the

system.

L L

Chapter 8 Problems 415

E0 = Ef

Initially the system has only gravitational potential energy. If the level of the hinge is

chosen as the zero level for measuring heights, then: E0 = mgh0 = mgL. Just before the

object hits the floor, the system has only kinetic energy.

Therefore

1 2

mgL = mv

2

Solving for v gives

v= 2 gL

From Equation 8.9, vT = rω. Solving for ω gives ω = vT/r. As the object rotates downward,

it travels in a circle of radius L. Its speed just before it strikes the floor is its tangential

speed. Therefore,

2

vT v 2 gL 2g 2(9.80 m/s )

ω= = = = = = 3.61 rad/s

r L L L 1.50 m

aT = rα

Solving for α gives α = aT/r. Just before the object hits the floor, its tangential acceleration

is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus,

2

aT

g 9.80 m/s 2

α= = = = 6.53 rad/s

r L 1.50 m

44. REASONING AND SOLUTION The stone leaves the circular path with a horizontal speed

v0 = vT = rω

so ω = v0/r. We are given that r = x/30 so ω = 30v0/x. Kinematics gives x = v0t. With this

substitution for x the expression for becomes = 30/t. Kinematics also gives for the

1

vertical displacement y that y = v0 y t + a y t 2 (Equation 3.5b). In Equation 3.5b we know

2

1

that v0y = 0 m/s since the stone is launched horizontally, so that y = a y t 2 or t = 2 y / a y .

2

Using this result for t in the expression for and assuming that upward is positive, we find

416 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

ay −9.80 m/s 2

ω = 30 = 30 = 14.8 rad/s

2y 2 ( −20.0 m )

45. SSM REASONING The magnitude ω of each car’s angular speed can be evaluated from

2

ac = rω (Equation 8.11), where r is the radius of the turn and ac is the magnitude of the

centripetal acceleration. We are given that the centripetal acceleration of each car is the

same. In addition, the radius of each car’s turn is known. These facts will enable us to

determine the ratio of the angular speeds.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 8.11 for the angular speed gives ω = ac / r . Applying this

relation to each car yields:

Car A: ωA = ac, A / rA

Car B: ωB = ac, B / rB

Taking the ratio of these two angular speeds, and noting that ac, A = ac, B, gives

ac, A

ωA rA ac, A rB 36 m

= = = = 0.87

ωB ac, B ac, B rA 48 m

rB

46. REASONING Since the car is traveling with a constant speed, its tangential acceleration

must be zero. The radial or centripetal acceleration of the car can be found from Equation

5.2. Since the tangential acceleration is zero, the total acceleration of the car is equal to its

radial acceleration.

SOLUTION

a. Using Equation 5.2, we find that the car’s radial acceleration, and therefore its total

acceleration, is

v 2 (75.0 m/s) 2

a = aR = T = = 9.00 m/s 2

r 625 m

b. The direction of the car’s total acceleration is the same as the direction of its radial

acceleration. That is, the direction is radially inward .

Chapter 8 Problems 417

a. The tangential acceleration of the train is given by Equation 8.10 as

2 −3 2 2

aT = r α = (2.00 × 10 m)(1.50 × 10 rad/s ) = 0.300 m/s

2 2 2 2

ac = r ω = (2.00 × 10 m)(0.0500 rad/s) = 0.500 m/s

The magnitude of the total acceleration is found from the Pythagorean theorem to be

2 2 2

a = aT + ac = 0.583 m/s

b. The total acceleration vector makes an angle relative to the radial acceleration of

a 0.300 m/s 2

θ = tan −1 T =

tan −1 = 31.0°

a 0.500 m/s 2

c

48. REASONING

a. According to Equation 8.2, the average angular speed is equal to the magnitude of the

angular displacement divided by the elapsed time. The magnitude of the angular

displacement is one revolution, or 2π rad. The elapsed time is one year, expressed in

seconds.

b. The tangential speed of the earth in its orbit is equal to the product of its orbital radius

and its orbital angular speed (Equation 8.9).

c. Since the earth is moving on a nearly circular orbit, it has a centripetal acceleration that is

directed toward the center of the orbit. The magnitude ac of the centripetal acceleration is

2

given by Equation 8.11 as ac = rω .

SOLUTION

a. The average angular speed is

Δθ 2π rad

ω= ω= = 7

= 1.99 × 10−7 rad /s (8.2)

Δt 3.16 × 10 s

( 11

)(

vT = r ω = 1.50 × 10 m 1.99 × 10

−7

)

rad/s = 2.98 × 10 m/s

4

(8.9)

418 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

c. The centripetal acceleration of the earth due to its circular motion around the sun is

2

( )(

a c = r ω 2 = 1.50 × 1011 m 1.99 × 10−7 rad /s ) = 5.94 × 10−3 m /s2

(8.11)

The acceleration is directed toward the center of the orbit.

49. REASONING The centripetal acceleration ac at either corner is related to the angular speed

ω of the plate by ac = rω 2 (Equation 8.11), where r is the radial distance of the corner from

the rotation axis of the plate. The angular speed ω is the same for all points on the plate,

including both corners. But the radial distance rA of corner A from the rotation axis of the

plate is different from the radial distance rB of corner B. The fact that the centripetal

acceleration at corner A is n times as great as the centripetal acceleration at corner B yields

the relationship between the radial distances:

rA ω 2 = n rB ω 2

( ) or rA = n rB (1)

Centripetal Centripetal

acceleration acceleration

at corner A at corner B

The radial distance rB at corner B is the length of the short side of the rectangular plate:

rB = L1. The radial distance rA at corner A is the length of a straight line from the rotation

axis to corner A. This line is the diagonal of the plate, so we obtain rA from the Pythagorean

theorem (Equation 1.7): rA = L12 + L22 .

SOLUTION Making the substitutions rA = L12 + L22 and rB = L1 in Equation (1) gives

L2 + L22 = n L1 (2)

1

rA rB

Squaring both sides of Equation (2) and solving for the ratio L1/L2 yields

L1 1

n 2 L12 = L12 + L22 or ( n2 − 1) L12 = L22 or

L2

=

n2 − 1

Thus, when n = 2.00, the ratio of the lengths of the sides of the rectangle is

Chapter 8 Problems 419

L1 1 1

= = = 0.577

L2 22 − 1 3

(Equation 8.11), where ω is the angular speed (in rad/s) of the centrifuge, and r is the radius

of the circular path the trainee follows. Because this radius is the length of the centrifuge

arm, we will solve Equation 8.11 for r. In the second exercise, the trainee’s total

acceleration gains a tangential component aT = rα (Equation 8.10) due to the angular

acceleration α (in rad/s2) of the centrifuge. The angular speed ω and the length r of the

centrifuge arm are both the same as in the first exercise, so the centripetal component of

acceleration ac = rω 2 is unchanged in the second exercise. The two components of the

trainee’s acceleration are perpendicular and, thus, are related to the trainee’s total

acceleration a by the Pythagorean theorem: a 2 = ac2 + aT2 (Equation 1.7). We will solve the

Pythagorean theorem for the trainee’s tangential acceleration aT, and then use aT = rα to

determine the angular acceleration α of the centrifuge.

SOLUTION

a. Solving ac = rω 2 (Equation 8.11) yields the length r of the centrifuge arm:

r=

ac

=

(

3.2 9.80 m/s 2 ) = 5.0 m

2 2

ω ( 2.5 rad/s )

b. Solving a 2 = ac2 + aT2 for the tangential component of the trainee’s total acceleration, we

obtain aT = a 2 − ac2 . Then, using aT = rα (Equation 8.10), we find that the angular

acceleration of the centrifuge is

2 2

( 4.8 ) 9.80 m/s 2 − ( 3.2 ) 9.80 m/s 2

( ) ( )

a a 2 − ac2

α= T = = = 7.0 rad/s 2

r r 5.0 m

a. The tangential speed vT of the sun as it orbits about the center of the Milky Way is related

to the orbital radius r and angular speed by Equation 8.9, vT = r. Before we use this

relation, however, we must first convert r to meters from light-years.

420 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

b. The centripetal force is the net force required to keep an object, such as the sun, moving

on a circular path. According to Newton’s second law of motion, the magnitude Fc of the

centripetal force is equal to the product of the object’s mass m and the magnitude ac of its

centripetal acceleration (see Section 5.3): Fc = mac. The magnitude of the centripetal

2

acceleration is expressed by Equation 8.11 as ac = rω , where r is the radius of the circular

path and ω is the angular speed of the object.

SOLUTION

a. The radius of the sun’s orbit about the center of the Milky Way is

9.5 × 1015 m

( 4

r = 2.3 × 10 light-years ) 20

= 2.2 × 10 m

1 light-year

Fc = mac = m r ω 2

Centripetal

force

2

( )( )(

= 1.99 × 1030 kg 2.2 × 1020 m 1.1 × 10−15 rad /s ) = 5.3 × 1020 N

52. REASONING The tangential acceleration and the centripetal acceleration of a point at a

distance r from the rotation axis are given by Equations 8.10 and 8.11, respectively:

aT = rα and a c = r ω 2 . After the drill has rotated through the angle in question, a c = 2 a T ,

or

r ω 2 = 2rα

This expression can be used to find the angular acceleration α . Once the angular

acceleration is known, Equation 8.8 can be used to find the desired angle.

ω2

α=

2

Chapter 8 Problems 421

Solving Equation 8.8 for θ (with ω0 = 0 rad/s since the drill starts from rest), and using the

expression above for the angular acceleration α gives

ω2 ω2 ω 2 2

θ= = = = 1.00 rad

2α 2(ω 2 / 2) 2 ω 2

Note that since both Equations 8.10 and 8.11 require that the angles be expressed in radians,

the final result for θ is in radians.

53. SSM WWW REASONING AND SOLUTION From Equation 2.4, the linear

acceleration of the motorcycle is

a= = = 2.44 m/s

t 9.00 s

Since the tire rolls without slipping, the linear acceleration equals the tangential acceleration

of a point on the outer edge of the tire: a = aT . Solving Equation 8.13 for α gives

a 2.44m/s 2

α= T = = 8.71 rad/s2

r 0.280 m

54. REASONING AND SOLUTION The bike would travel with the same speed as a point on

the wheel v = rω . It would then travel a distance

60 s

x = v t = r ω t = ( 0.45 m )( 9.1 rad/s )( 35 min ) = 8.6 ×103 m

1 min

____________________________________________________________________________________________

55. REASONING The angular displacement of each wheel is given by Equation 8.7

(θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 ) , which is one of the equations of rotational kinematics. In this expression

ω0 is the initial angular velocity, and α is the angular acceleration, neither of which is given

directly. Instead the initial linear velocity v0 and the linear acceleration a are given.

However, we can relate these linear quantities to their analogous angular counterparts by

means of the assumption that the wheels are rolling and not slipping. Then, according to

Equation 8.12 (v0 = rω0), we know that ω0 = v0/r, where r is the radius of the wheels.

Likewise, according to Equation 8.13 (a = rα), we know that α = a/r. Both Equations 8.12

and 8.13 are only valid if used with radian measure. Therefore, when we substitute the

expressions for ω0 and α into Equation 8.7, the resulting value for the angular displacement

will be in radians.

422 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

SOLUTION Substituting ω0 from Equation 8.12 and α from Equation 8.13 into Equation

8.7, we find that

v a

θ = ω 0t + 12 α t 2 = 0 t + 12 t 2

r r

2

2

= ( 8.00 s ) + 2 ( 8.00 s ) = 693 rad

0.300 m 0.300 m

a. If the wheel does not slip, a point on the rim rotates about the axle with a speed

vT = v = 15.0 m/s

For a point on the rim

ω = vT/r = (15.0 m/s)/(0.330 m) = 45.5 rad/s

57. REASONING

a. The constant angular acceleration α of the wheel is defined by Equation 8.4 as the change

in the angular velocity, ω −ω0, divided by the elapsed time t, or α = (ω − ω0 ) / t . The time is

known. Since the wheel rotates in the positive direction, its angular velocity is the same as

its angular speed. However, the angular speed is related to the linear speed v of a wheel and

its radius r by v = rω (Equation 8.12). Thus, ω = v / r , and we can write for the angular

acceleration that

v v0

ω − ω0 r − r v − v0

α= = =

t t rt

b. The angular displacement θ of each wheel can be obtained from Equation 8.7 of the

equations of kinematics: θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 , where ω0 = v0/r and α can be obtained as

discussed in part (a).

SOLUTION

a. The angular acceleration of each wheel is

α= = = −1.4 rad/s2

rt ( 0.65 m )( 5.0 s )

Chapter 8 Problems 423

v0 1 2

θ = ω0t + 12 α t 2 = t + α t

r 2

6.6 m/s ( 2

5.0 s ) + 2 ( −1.4 rad/s ) ( 5.0 s ) = +33 rad

1 2

=

0.65 m

______________________________________________________________________________

58. REASONING For a wheel that rolls without slipping, the relationship between its linear

speed v and its angular speed ω is given by Equation 8.12 as v = rω, where r is the radius of

a wheel.

For a wheel that rolls without slipping, the relationship between the magnitude a of its linear

acceleration and the magnitude α of the angular acceleration is given by Equation 8.13 as

a = rα, where r is the radius of a wheel. The linear acceleration can be obtained using the

equations of kinematics for linear motion, in particular, Equation 2.9.

SOLUTION

a. From Equation 8.12 we have that

b. The magnitude of the angular acceleration is given by Equation 8.13 as α = a /r. The

linear acceleration a is related to the initial and final linear speeds and the displacement x by

v 2 − v02

Equation 2.9 from the equations of kinematics for linear motion; a = . Thus, the

2x

magnitude of the angular acceleration is

a

α= =

( 2

v − v0 / ( 2 x )

2

)

r r

2 2 2 2

=

v − v0

=

( 92.2 m /s ) − ( 0 m /s )

= 34.6 rad /s

2

2x r 2 ( 384 m )( 0.320 m )

a. If the rope is not slipping on the cylinder, then the tangential speed of the teeth on the

larger gear (gear 1) is 2.50 m/s. The angular speed of gear 1 is then

424 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

b. The gears are in contact and do not slip. This requires that the teeth on both gears move

with the same tangential speed.

vT1 = vT2

or

ω1r1 = ω2r2

So

r 0.300 m

ω 2 = 1 ω1 = ( 8.33 rad/s ) = 14.7 rad/s

r2 0.170 m

60. REASONING The distance d traveled by the axle of a rolling wheel (radius = r) during one

complete revolution is equal to the circumference (2π r) of the wheel: d = 2π r. Therefore,

when the bicycle travels a total distance D in a race, and the wheel makes N revolutions, the

total distance D is N times the circumference of the wheel:

D = Nd = N ( 2π r ) (1)

We will apply Equation (1) first to the smaller bicycle wheel to determine its radius r1.

Equation (1) will then also determine the number of revolutions made by the larger bicycle

wheel, which has a radius of r2 = r1 + 0.012 m.

SOLUTION Because 1 km = 1000 m, the total distance traveled during the race is

D = (4520 km)[(1000 m)/(1 km)] = 4520×103 m. From Equation (1), then, the radius r1 of

the smaller bicycle wheel is

D 4520 × 103 m

r1 = = = 0.330 m

(

2π N1 2π 2.18 × 106 )

The larger wheel, then, has a radius r2 = 0.330 m + 0.012 m = 0.342 m. Over the same

distance D, this wheel would make N2 revolutions, where, by Equation (1),

D 4520 × 103 m

N2 = = = 2.10 × 106

2π r2 2π ( 0.342 m )

Chapter 8 Problems 425

61. REASONING As a penny-farthing moves, both of its wheels roll without slipping. This

means that the axle for each wheel moves through a linear distance (the distance through

which the bicycle moves) that equals the circular arc length measured along the outer edge

of the wheel. Since both axles move through the same linear distance, the circular arc length

measured along the outer edge of the large front wheel must equal the circular arc length

measured along the outer edge of the small rear wheel. In each case the arc length s is equal

to the number n of revolutions times the circumference 2 r of the wheel (r = radius).

SOLUTION Since the circular arc length measured along the outer edge of the large front

wheel must equal the circular arc length measured along the outer edge of the small rear

wheel, we have

nRear 2π rRear = nFront 2π rFront

Arc length for rear Arc length for front

wheel wheel

Solving for nRear gives

nFront rFront 276 (1.20 m )

nRear = = = 974 rev

rRear 0.340 m

62. REASONING While the ball is in the air, its angular speed ω is constant, and thus its

angular displacement is given by θ = ω t (Equation 8.2). The angular speed of the ball is

found by considering its rolling motion on the table top, because its angular speed does not

change after it leaves the table. For rolling motion, the angular speed ω is related to the

linear speed v by ω = v r (Equation 8.12), where r is the radius of the ball. In order to

determine the time t the ball spends in the air, we treat it as a projectile launched

horizontally. The vertical displacement of the ball is then given by y = v0 yt + 12 ayt 2

(Equation 3.5b), which we will use to determine the time t that elapses while the ball is in

the air.

SOLUTION Since the ball is launched horizontally in the projectile motion, its initial

velocity v0 has no vertical component: v0y = 0 m/s. Solving y = v0 yt + 12 ayt 2 (Equation 3.5b)

for the elapsed time t, we obtain

2y

y = ( 0 m/s ) t + 12 a y t 2 = 12 a y t 2 or t= (1)

ay

426 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

v

Substituting Equation (1) and ω = (Equation 8.12) into θ = ω t (Equation 8.2) yields

r

v 2y

θ = (2)

r ay

ω t

We choose the upward direction to be positive. Once the ball leaves the table, it is in free

fall, so the vertical acceleration of the ball is that due to gravity: ay = −9.80 m/s2. Further,

the ball’s vertical displacement is negative as the ball falls to the floor: y = −2.10 m. The

ball’s angular displacement while it is in the air is, from Equation (2),

θ= = = 11.8 rad

r a y 0.200 m/s −9.80 m/s 2

63. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION By inspection, the distance traveled by the

"axle" or the center of the moving quarter is

d = 2 π (2 r) = 4π r

where r is the radius of the quarter. The distance d traveled by the "axle" of the moving

quarter must be equal to the circular arc length s along the outer edge of the quarter. This arc

length is s = rθ , where θ is the angle through which the quarter rotates. Thus,

4 π r = rθ

1 rev

(4π rad) = 2 revolutions

2π rad

According to Equation 8.2, ω = Δθ / Δt . Since the angular speed of the sun is constant,

ω = ω . Solving for Δ t , we have

Δt = = = 1.8 ×108 y

ω 1.1× 10 rad/s 3600 s 24 h 365.25 day

−15

Chapter 8 Problems 427

65. SSM REASONING The tangential acceleration aT of the speedboat can be found by

using Newton's second law, FT = maT , where FT is the net tangential force. Once the

tangential acceleration of the boat is known, Equation 2.4 can be used to find the tangential

speed of the boat 2.0 s into the turn. With the tangential speed and the radius of the turn

known, Equation 5.2 can then be used to find the centripetal acceleration of the boat.

SOLUTION

a. From Newton's second law, we obtain

FT 550 N

aT = = = 2.5 m/s 2

m 220 kg

b. The tangential speed of the boat 2.0 s into the turn is, according to Equation 2.4,

2 1

v T = v 0T + aT t = 5.0 m/s + (2.5 m/s )(2.0 s) = 1.0 × 10 m/s

v 2T

(1.0 × 10 1 m/s) 2

ac = = = 3.1 m/s 2

r 32 m

1

66. REASONING AND SOLUTION From Equation 8.6, θ = (ω 0 + ω ) t . Solving for t gives

2

2θ 2(85.1 rad)

t= = = 5.22 s

ω 0 + ω 18.5 rad/s +14.1 rad/s

67. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the angular speed of the fan decreases, the

sign of the angular acceleration must be opposite to the sign for the angular velocity.

Taking the angular velocity to be positive, the angular acceleration, therefore, must be a

negative quantity. Using Equation 8.4 we obtain

68. REASONING The top of the racket has both tangential and centripetal acceleration

components given by Equations 8.10 and 8.11, respectively: aT = rα and a c = r ω 2 . The

total acceleration of the top of the racket is the resultant of these two components. Since

these acceleration components are mutually perpendicular, their resultant can be found by

using the Pythagorean theorem.

428 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

Therefore,

a = (1.5 m) (160 rad/s2 )2 + (14 rad/s)4 = 380 m/s2

69. REASONING The length of tape that passes around the reel is just the average tangential

speed of the tape times the time t. The average tangential speed vT is given by Equation 8.9

( vT = rω ) as the radius r times the average angular speed ω in rad/s.

SOLUTION The length L of tape that passes around the reel in t = 13 s is L = vT t . Using

Equation 8.9 to express the tangential speed, we find

70. REASONING

a. Since the angular velocity of the fan blade is

changing, there are simultaneously a tangential

acceleration aT and a centripetal acceleration ac that are

aT

oriented at right angles to each other. The drawing a

shows these two accelerations for a point on the tip of φ

one of the blades (for clarity, the blade itself is not

shown). The blade is rotating in the counterclockwise ac

(positive) direction.

a= ac2 + aT2 , according to the Pythagorean theorem.

The magnitude ac of the centripetal acceleration can be evaluated from ac = rω 2

(Equation 8.11), where ω is the final angular velocity. The final angular velocity can be

determined from Equation 8.4 as ω = ω0 + α t . The magnitude aT of the tangential

acceleration follows from aT = rα (Equation 8.10).

b. From the drawing we see that the angle φ can be obtained by using trigonometry,

φ = tan −1 ( aT / ac ) .

Chapter 8 Problems 429

SOLUTION

a. Substituting ac = rω 2 (Equation 8.11) and aT = rα (Equation 8.10) into a = ac2 + aT2

gives

a = ac2 + aT2 = ( rω 2 )2 + ( rα )2 = r ω4 + α 2

The final angular velocity ω is related to the initial angular velocity ω0 by ω = ω0 + α t (see

Equation 8.4). Thus, the magnitude of the total acceleration is

a = r ω4 +α 2 = r (ω0 + α t )4 + α 2

4 2

= ( 0.380 m ) 1.50 rad/s + ( 2.00 rad/s2 ) ( 0.500 s ) + ( 2.00 rad/s 2 ) = 2.49 m/s 2

b. The angle φ between the total acceleration a and the centripetal acceleration ac is (see the

drawing above)

aT −1 r α α

φ = tan −1 = tan 2

= tan −1 2

ac rω (ω0 + α t )

2.00 rad/s2

= tan −1 2

= 17.7°

( 2 )(

1.50 rad/s + 2.00 rad/s 0.500 s

)

where we have used the same substitutions for aT, ac, and ω as in part (a).

______________________________________________________________________________

71. SSM REASONING The tangential speed vT of a point on the “equator” of the baseball is

given by Equation 8.9 as vT = rω, where r is the radius of the baseball and ω is its angular

speed. The radius is given in the statement of the problem. The (constant) angular speed is

related to that angle θ through which the ball rotates by Equation 8.2 as ω = θ /t, where we

have assumed for convenience that θ0 = 0 rad when t0 = 0 s. Thus, the tangential speed of

the ball is

θ

vT = r ω = r

t

The time t that the ball is in the air is equal to the distance x it travels divided by its linear

speed v, t = x/v, so the tangential speed can be written as

430 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

θ θ rθ v

vT = r = r =

t x x

v

−2

vT = = = 4.63 m/s

x 16.5 m

72. REASONING The average angular velocity is defined as the angular displacement divided

by the elapsed time (Equation 8.2). Therefore, the angular displacement is equal to the

product of the average angular velocity and the elapsed time The elapsed time is given, so

we need to determine the average angular velocity. We can do this by using the graph of

angular velocity versus time that accompanies the problem.

related to the average angular velocity ω and

the elapsed time Δt by Equation 8.2, Δθ = ω Δt .

The elapsed time is given as 8.0 s. To obtain the

Angular velocity

graph that accompanies this problem from a

ω

time of 5.0 s to 8.0 s. It can be seen from the +3.0 rad/s

graph that the angular velocity increases by Time (s)

+3.0 rad/s during each second. Therefore, when 0

3.0 s 8.0 s

the time increases from 5.0 to 8.0 s, the angular

velocity increases from +6.0 rad/s to

6 rad/s + 3×(3.0 rad/s) = +15 rad/s. A graph of

the angular velocity from 0 to 8.0 s is shown at –9.0 rad/ s

the right. The average angular velocity during

this time is equal to one half the sum of the initial and final angular velocities:

73. REASONING The time required for the change in the angular velocity to occur can be

found by solving Equation 8.4 for t. In order to use Equation 8.4, however, we must know

the initial angular velocity ω 0 . Equation 8.6 can be used to find the initial angular velocity.

Chapter 8 Problems 431

1

θ = (ω 0 + ω )t

2

Solving for ω0 gives

2θ

ω0 = −ω

t

Since the angular displacement θ is zero, ω0 = –ω. Solving ω = ω0 + α t (Equation 8.4) for

t and using the fact that ω0 = –ω give

2ω 2(−25.0 rad/s)

t= = 2 = 12.5 s

α −4.00rad/s

____________________________________________________________________________________________

the race car as it travels around the circular turn.

Its acceleration a has two perpendicular

components: a centripetal acceleration ac that aT

a

arises because the car is moving on a circular path

and a tangential acceleration aT due to the fact that

the car has an angular acceleration and its angular 35.0°

velocity is increasing. We can determine the ac

magnitude of the centripetal acceleration from Race car

Equation 8.11 as ac = rω2, since both r and ω are

given in the statement of the problem. As the

drawing shows, we can use trigonometry to

determine the magnitude a of the total

acceleration, since the angle (35.0°) between a and ac is given.

SOLUTION Since the vectors ac and a are one side and the hypotenuse of a right triangle,

we have that

ac

a=

cos 35.0°

2

The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is given by Equation 8.11 as ac = rω , so the

magnitude of the total acceleration is

2

ac rω2 ( 23.5 m )( 0.571 rad /s )

a= = = = 9.35 m /s 2

cos 35.0° cos 35.0° cos 35.0°

432 ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS

75. REASONING The golf ball must travel a distance equal to its diameter in a maximum

time equal to the time required for one blade to move into the position of the previous blade.

SOLUTION The time required for the golf ball to pass through the opening between two

blades is given by Δt = Δθ / ω , with ω = 1.25 rad/s and Δθ = (2π rad)/16 = 0.393 rad .

Therefore, the ball must pass between two blades in a maximum time of

0.393 rad

Δt = = 0.314 s

1.25 rad/s

The minimum speed of the ball is

Δx 4.50 × 10 –2 m

v= = = 1.43 × 10–1 m/s

Δt 0.314 s

76. REASONING The wheels on both sides of the car have the same radius r = 0.350 m and

undergo rolling motion, so we will use v = rω (Equation 8.12) to calculate their individual

angular speeds:

vleft vright

ωleft = and ωright = (1)

r r

In Equations (1) the linear speeds vleft and vright at which the wheels on opposite sides of the

car travel around the track differ. This is because the wheels on one side of the car are closer

to the center of the track than are the wheels on the other side. As the car makes one

complete lap of the track, therefore, both sets of wheels follow circular paths of different

radii Rleft and Rright. The linear speed of each wheel is the circumference of its circular path

divided by the elapsed time t, which is the same for both sets of wheels:

2π Rleft 2π Rright

vleft = and vright = (2)

t t

2π Rleft 2π Rright

t 2π Rleft t 2π Rright

ωleft = = and ωright = = (3)

r rt r rt

SOLUTION We will assume that the wheels on the left side of the car are closer to the

center of the track than the wheels on the right side. We do not know the radii of the circular

paths of either set of wheels, but the difference between them is Rright − Rleft = 1.60 m . We

Chapter 8 Problems 433

can now calculate the difference between the angular speeds of the wheels on the left and

right sides of the car by subtracting ωleft from ωright [see Equations (3)]:

ωright − ωleft =

2π Rright

−

2π Rleft

=

(

2π Rright − Rleft )= 2π (1.60 m )

= 1.47 rad/s

rt rt rt ( 0.350 m )(19.5 s )

CHAPTER 9 ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS

ANSWERS TO FOCUS ON CONCEPTS QUESTIONS

___________________________________________________________________________________________

1. (d) A rigid body is in equilibrium if it has zero translational acceleration and zero angular

acceleration. A body, such as a bicycle wheel, can be moving, but the translational and

2 2

angular accelerations must be zero (a = 0 m/s and α = 0 rad/s ).

2. (e) As discussed in Section 9.2, a body is in equilibrium if the sum of the externally applied

forces is zero and the sum of the externally applied torques is zero.

3. (b) The torque τ3 is greater than τ2, because the lever arm for the force F3 is greater than that

for F2. The lines of action for the forces F1 and F4 pass through the axis of rotation.

Therefore, the lever arms for these forces are zero, and the forces produce no torque.

4. (b) Since the counterclockwise direction is the positive direction for torque, the torque

produced by the force F1 is τ1 = −(20.0 N)(0.500 m) and that produced by F2 is

τ2 = +(35.0 N)[(1.10 m)(cos 30.0°)]. The sum of these torques is the net torque.

5. (e) The clockwise torque produced by F2 is balanced by the counterclockwise torque produced

by F. The torque produced by F2 is (remembering that the counterclockwise direction is

positive) τ2 = +F2[(80.0 cm − 20.0 cm)(sin 55.0°)], and the torque produced by F is

τ = −(175 N)(20.0 cm). Setting the sum of these torques equal to zero and solving for F2 gives

the answer.

6. (d) The sum of the forces (F − 2F + F) equals zero. Select an axis that passes through the center

of the puck and is perpendicular to the screen. The sum of the torques [−FR + 2F(0) + FR ]

equals zero, where R is the radius of the puck. Thus, the puck is in equilibrium.

8. (c) The horizontal component of F3 is balanced by F1, and the vertical component of F3 is

balanced by F2. Thus, the net force and, hence, the translational acceleration of the box, is

zero. For an axis of rotation at the center of the box and perpendicular to the screen, the

forces F2 and F3 produce no torque, because their lines of action pass through the axis. The

force F1 does produce a torque about the axis, so the net torque is not zero and the box will

have an angular acceleration.

Chapter 9 Answers to Focus on Concepts Questions 435

10. (b) The moment of inertia of each particle is given by Equation 9.6 as I = mr 2 , where m is its

mass and r is the perpendicular distance of the particle from the axis. Using this equation, the

moment of inertia of each particle is: A: 10m0 r02 , B: 8m0 r02 , C: 9m0 r02 .

2

11. I = 1.7 kg⋅m

2

12. Magnitude α of the angular acceleration = 1.3 rad/s .

13. (a) According to Newton’s second law for rotational motion, Equation 9.7, the angular

acceleration is equal to the torque exerted on the wheel (the product of the force magnitude

and the lever arm) divided by the moment of inertia. Thus, the angular acceleration of the

2

smaller wheel is α = FR/(MR ) = F/(MR), while that of the larger wheel is

F ( 2R )

α= 2

= 12 ( F / MR ) , so the smaller wheel has twice the angular acceleration.

M ( 2R )

2

Mv 2 , where v is the speed of the center of mass of

the wheel. The rotational kinetic energy is 1

2

I ω 2 , where I is the moment of inertia and ω is

2

the angular speed about the axis of rotation. Since I = MR and ω = v/R for rolling motion

2

2 ( MR 2 ) Rv = 12 Mv2 , which

Iω 2 = 1

2

is the same as the translational kinetic energy. Thus, the ratio of the two energies is 1.

16. (c) As each hoop rolls down the incline, the total mechanical energy is conserved. Thus, the

loss in potential energy is equal to the gain in the total kinetic energy (translational plus

rotational). Because the hoops have the same mass and fall through the same vertical

distance, they lose the same amount of potential energy. Moreover, both start from rest.

Therefore, their total kinetic energies at the bottom are the same.

17. (d) As discussed in Section 9.6, the angular momentum a system is conserved (remains

constant) if the net external torque acting on the system is zero.

18. (b) The rotational kinetic energy of a rotating body is KE R = 12 I ω 2 (see Equation 9.9),

where I is the moment of inertia and ω is the angular speed. We also know that her angular

momentum, L = Iω (Equation 9.10), is conserved. Solving the last equation for I and

L

substituting the result into the first equation gives KE R = 12 I ω 2 = 12 ω 2 = 12 Lω . Since L

ω

is constant, the final rotational kinetic energy increases as ω increases.

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