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Mammals muskrat Ondatra zibethica

Common Scientific Name (Linnaeus)

Name otter, river Lutra canadensis
antelope, Antilocapra (Shreber)
prong-horned americana (Ord) prairie dog, Cynomys gunnisoni
badger Taxidea taxus Gunnison's
(Shreber) porcupine Erethizon dorsatum
* Linnaeus
free-tailed Tadarida spp (3) rabbit
mastif Eumops spp (2) cottontail Sylvilagus spp (3)
plain-nosed Myotis spp (9) jack Lepus spp (2)
bear, black Euarctos americanus raccoon Procyon lotor
(Pallas) (Linnaeus)
beaver Castor canadensis rat
Kuhle kangaroo Dipodomys spp (5)
bobcat Lynx rufus (Shreber) pack Neotoma albigula
chipmunk Eutamias spp (4) Hartley
coati (or Nasua narica wood Neotoma spp (4)
coatimundi) (Linnaeus) ringtail Bassariscus astutus
coyote Canis latrans Say (Lichenstein)
deer sheep, bighorn Ovis canadensis Shaw
mule (or Odocoileus hemionus shrew
black-tailed) (Rafinesque) desert Notiosorex crawfordi
white-tailed O. virginianus (Coues)
(or eastern) (Zimmermann) vagrant (and Sorex spp (4)
elk Cervus canadensis others)
(Erxleben) skunk
fox hog-nosed Conepatus
gray Urocyon mesoleucus
cinereoargenteus Lichenstein
(Shreber) hooded Mephitis macroura
Kit Vulpes macrotis (Lichenstein)
Merriam striped M. mephitis (Shreber)
gopher, pocket Thomomys spp (3) spotted Spilogale putorius
javelina Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus)
(Linnaeus) squirrel
mountain lion Felis concolor Abert's Sciurus aberti
Linnaeus Woodhouse
mouse (most Kaibab Sub S. aberti
common) Apache S. apache J.A. Allen
cactus Peromyscus eremicus Arizona gray S. arizonensis (Coues)
red Tamiasciurus
pinyon P. truei (Shufeldt) ** hudsonicus
pocket Perognathus spp (10)
ground Citellus spp (7) Pelican
vole Brown Pelecanus occidentalis
long-tailed Microtus longicaudus Linnaeus
Merriam White P. erythrorhynchos
Mexican M. Mexicanus Gmelin
(Saussure) Pigeon, Band- Columba fasciata Say
montane M. montanus (Peale) tailed
Pipit, Water Anthus spinoletta
(or American) (Linnaeus)
Pheasant Phasianus colchicas
Bobwhite Colinus virginianus
Common Scientific Name
Name Gambel's (or Lophortyx Gambelii
Desert) Gambel
Scaled Callipepla squamata
Mourning Zenaida macroura
Roadrunner Geococcyx
White-winged Z. asiatica (Linnaeus)
californianus (Lesson)
Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
Bald Haliaeetus Yellow- (Linnaeus)
leucocephalus bellied
Golden Aquila chrysaetos
Chipping Spizella passerina
Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
Vesper Pooecetes gramineus
Blue-gray (Linnaeus)
Grosbeak, Guiraea caerulea
Titmouse, Parus inornatus
Blue (Linnaeus)
Plain Gambel
Grouse, Blue Dendragapus obscurus
Turkey, Wild Meleagris gallopavo
(or Dusky) (Say)
Vulture, Carthartes aura
Cooper's Accipiter cooperii Turkey (Linnaeus)
Warbler, Vermivora luciae
Red-tailed (or Buteo jamaicensis Lucy's (Cooper)
Common) (Gmelin)
Jay, Rocky (also Gray or Canada)
Acorn Melanerpes
Mountain Perisoreus canadensis
Kestrel, Falco sparverius
Gila Centurus uropygialis
American Linnaeus
Wren, Cactus Campylorhynchus
Elf Micrathene whitneyi brunneicapillus
(Cooper) (Lafresnaye)
Great-Horned Bubo virginianus
Amphibians and Reptiles coachwhip) flagellum Shaw
Common Scientific Name whipsnake, M. taeniatus
Name striped Hallowell
frog, canyon Hyla arenicolor Cope toad
treefrog Colorado River Bufo alvarius Girard
lizard toad
banded gecko Coleonyx variegatus Great Plains B. cognatus Say
Baird toad
desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus couchi
Baird and Girard Couch's Baird
Gila monster Heloderma spadefoot toad, S. (Spea) hammondi
suspectum Cope western Baird
side-blotched Uta stansburiana tortoise, desert Gopherus agassizi
lizard Baird and Girard Cooper
whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus spp
salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum TERMS
tiger Green absolute zero. The lowest theoretical
snake temperature (0K = -273.16°C) where all
blind snake, Leptotyphlops molecular activity ceases.
western humilis Baird and
acceleration. Rate of change of velocity.
bullsnake (or Pituophis acid. A compound that yields hydrogen ions
gopher snake) melanoleucus Daudin (H+) when in aqueous solution. Acids have
a sour taste and turn blue litmus red.
burrowing Chilomeniscus
snake, banded cinctus Cope activation energy. The energy required to
coral snake, Micruroides initiate a chemical reaction.
Arizona euryxanthus
Kennicott adiabatic system. A system that neither
gains or looses heat.
garter snake, Thamnophis
checkered marcianus Baird and alcohol. Organic compound used in gums,
Girard resins, dyes and perfumes. Fermentation
produces ethanol not alcohol.
glossy snake Arizona elegans
Kennicott alkali. A base that is soluble in water.
leaf-nosed Phyllorhynchus
snake, saddled browni Stejneger allele. Gene variant.
leaf-nosed P. decurtatus Cope allotrope. Element with more than one
snake, spotted natural form.
long-nosed Rhinocheilus lecontei
snake Baird and Girard alloy. A substance formed by the
combination of two or more elements, at
shovel-nosed Chionactis least one of which must be a metal.
snake, Sonora palarostris Kaluber
shovel-nosed C. occipitalis amino acids. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
snake, western Hallowell nitrogen compounds the composition of
which are determined by genes.
whipsnake (or Masticophis
anion. A negative ion. chemical equation. The mathematical
representation of a chemical reaction.
atomic number. The number of protons in
an atom.. chemical (empirical) formula. The ratio of
elements in a substance. For example: the
atomic symbol. The letters representing chemical formula of common salt is NaCl,
each of the elements. sodium and chlorine in a ratio of 1:1.

atomic weight. The average weight of an chemical reaction. The transformation of

atom. substances by the rearrangement of their
atoms. Composite particles of protons,
neutrons and electrons. The smallest part of chromosomes. DNAmolecules that contain
a substance that can take part in a chemical the set of instructions required to build and
reaction. Click here for more information. maintain cells.

baryon. A three quark hadron. The most compound. A substance containing more
common baryons are protons and neutrons. than one element.

base. A compound that yields hydroxide conduction. Heat or electricity transfer

(OH- ) ions when in aqueous solution. through molecular interaction, eg: heat
Bases have a bitter taste, feel greasy and passing along a metal bar.
turn red litmus blue.
convection. Heat transfer through the
biosynthesis. The production of cellular movement of a fluid, eg: warm air rising.
coulomb attraction. Electrostatic attraction
boiling point. The temperature at which a between bodies of opposite charge
liquid turns to a vapour.
covalent bond. A bond formed between
bond. A chemical link between atoms. atoms that share electrons.

capacitance. The ability to store an electric crystal. Solid substance with a regular
charge. geometirc arrangement of atoms.

carbohydrates. The major energy source cytosol. Jelly-like substance within cells.
within plants and animals: sugars, starches
and glucose polymers. density. The mass per unit volume in a
carbon. The basic element in all organic
compounds. diffraction. The deviation in the path of a
wave that encounters the edge of an
catalyst. A substance that reduces the obstacle.
activation energy of a reaction.
diffusion. The random movement of
cation. A positive ion. molecules within a fluid.

cell. The smallest independent part of an DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. Twisted

organism. helical polymer chains. See chromosomes.

chain reaction. Polymerisation initiated by elasticity. The ability of a body to regain its
the bonding of a free radical with a original shape after deformation.
electric current. A flow of electrons through
charge. The amount of unbalanced a conductor, the size of the current is
electricity in a system. Either positive or proportional to the rate of electron flow.
electrons. Negatively charged atomic 4. The characters that improve fitness must
particles. be inherited. Individuals that inherit these
characters will survive at the expense of
electromagnetic waves. Waves with both an those who do not.
electric and magnetic component. They are:
radio, micro, infra-red, visible light, 5. Mutation is essential for evolution: the
ultraviolet, X and gamma rays. inheritance of non-standard genes that
improve fitness.
electrolyte. An ion solution that is an
electrical conductior. Note: Fitness is the ability to survive and
reproduce, not necessarily a measure of
element. A substance composed of atoms physical fitness.
all with the same atomic number. A
substance that cannot be split chemically exothermic reaction. A reaction from which
into smaller substances. heat is lost eg: combustion.

endothermic reaction. A reaction in which fats. Molecules of fatty acids or glycerol.

heat is absorbed ie: melting or boiling. Used as a food store, insulation and for
shock absorption.
energy. The capacity to do work. Work is
done by transferring energy from one form fecundity. The ability to breed.
to another. For example the chemical
energy in a fuel is converted to thermal field. A region in space that is defined by a
energy as it burns. See also Laws of vector function. Common fields are:
Thermodynamics. gravitational, electric and magnetic.

entropy. The state of disorder in a fission. Splitting the nucleus of an atom into
thermodynamic system: the more energy the smaller units.
higher the entropy.
fluid. A liquid or gas.
enzymes. Biological catalysts, proteins that
control specific processes within the body. force. An action (transfer of energy) that
will accelerate a body in the direction of the
equilibrium. A stable situation in which applied force. See Newtons Laws of
products and reactants are balanced. Motion.

evaporation. The change of state of a free radical. A highly reactive molecule

substance from a liquid to a gas below its used to start the production of a polymer
boiling point. chain.

evolution. Natural selection, the survival of frequency. The rate as which periodic
the fittest, is the driving force behind motion repeats itself.
evolution and is measured by a species
viability and fecundity. Governed by friction. The interaction between surfaces: a
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural measure of the resistance felt when sliding
selection: one body over another.

1. The distinguishing features (characters) fundamental particles. Those particles that

of an organism may affect it fitness. are not known to contain any smaller
components: leptons, quarks and gauge
2. The design of an species (its bosons.
morphology) differs within a population and
may improve its fitness. fusion. 1. Change of state of a substance
from a solid to a liquid. 2. The joining
3. An organism may be susceptible to a together of two atomic nuclei.
lack of vital resources, predation and disease
reducing its fitness.
gametes. Sex cells (spermatozoa or ova) isomer. Chemical compounds with the same
that carry the genes donated by each parent. composition but different shapes.

gauge bosons. Particles that mediate the isomeric structure. The shape of a
transfer of energy between other particles: molecule. The isomeric structure is
protons, gravitons, W and Z particles. determined by the order in which the atoms
are bonded together.
gene. A unit of inheritance. A section of
DNA. comprising a sequence of four bases: isotope. An element that has more or less
adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. neutrons than normal. Many isotopes are
genome. The collective noun for a set of
genes. The human genome contains 100 kinetic energy. The energy possessed by a
000 genes. body in motion.

gravity. The attraction that all bodies have latent heat. The amount of energy required
for one another. to change a solid to a liquid or liquid to a
hadrons. Quark composites: mesons and
baryons. Protons and neutrons are the most Laws of Themodynamics.
common hadrons.
1. The amount of energy in the universe is
half-life. The time taken for the level of fixed. It cannot be created or destroyed only
radioactivity in an element to halve. changed from one state to another.

halogen. Highly reactive gases forming 2. Heat cannot pass from a cold to a hot
group 7 of the periodic table. body. The opposite condition where heat
always flows from a hot to a cold body is
heat. The internal energy of a body valid for the whole universe.
lens. Light modifier. Convex lenses focus
hydrocarbon. Compounds containing only and concave lens diffuse light waves.
hydrogen and carbon atoms.
leptons. Fundamental particles that are
ideal gas. One which obeys the ideal gas relatively non-reactive and capable of an
law. At low pressures, real gases behave independent existence: electrons, muons, tau
like ideas gases. particles and neutrinos.

inertia. Tendency of a body to remain at rest light. The visible part of the
or move in straight line. electromagnetic spectrum: red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
inheritance. The features of an organism are White light is a combination of all the above
determined by a set of chromosomes. These colours.
originate in the parents and are passed on to
an offspring during fertilisation. It follows magnet. A body which produces a
then that since chromosomes are inherited, magnetic field. All magnets are di-pole and
all the features of an organism must be follow the rule that like poles repel and
inherited. unlike poles attract.

ion. Atom with an unbalanced electrical mass. The quantity of matter in a body.
charge caused by the loss or gain of one or
more electrons. mesons. Two quarkhadrons, the product of
radioactive decay.
ionic bond. An bond formed by the electro-
magnetic attraction between ions of opposite metals. Elements characterised by their
charge. opacity, malleability and thermal and
electrical conductivity.
mitochondria. Organelles that convert organic compounds. Substances that contain
glucose into energy. Carbon.

molecular formula. The number and types ozone. An isotope of oxygen that blocks
of atom in a molecule. For example the ultra-violet radiation. Normally found in the
molecular formula of methane is CH4, one stratosphere.
atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen.
pH Scale. The strength of acids and bases.
molecule. A group of atoms bonded Pure water has a pH value of 7, acids have a
together. It is the smallest part of a lower value and bases higher.
substance that retains the chemical
properties of the whole. phase changes. Freezing or boiling.

moment. A rotating effect. See torque. photo-synthesis. The conversion of water

and carbon-dioxide by plants into glucose
momentum. The product of mass times and oxygen. Light is used as an energy
velocity. Momentum is conserved in any source.
system of particles.
photons. Fundamental quantum particles. It
monomers. Small molecules that link is the interaction of photons with other
together to form a polymer. particles that drives the universe.

neutralization. A reaction in which the polymerisation. The repetitive bonding of

characteristics of an acid or base disappear. small molecules (monomers) to produce
large molecules (polymers).
neutrons. Particles with zero charge
forming part of an atomic nuclei. 3 polymers. Long chain molecules such as
quarkhadrons. PVC, nylon or DNA produced by the
polymerisation of monomers.
Newtons Laws of Motion. Classical laws
which enable the prediction of the path of potential difference. The voltage difference
any object from a grain of sand to entire between two points. Electricity flows from
galaxies: a high to low level of potential.

1. A body will remain at rest or move with potential energy. Amount of useable energy
a constant velocity unless acted upon by an within a body at rest.
outside force.
power. Amount of work done per second.
2. The acceleration of a body is
proportional to the applied force. This is products. The substances produced in a
expressed by the universal formula: Force chemical reaction.
= mass × acceleration.
proteins. Amino acid polymers with
3. For every action there is an equal and specific biological functions, especially the
opposite reaction. growth, regeneration and repair of cells.

noble gases. Elements with zero valency. protons. Positively charged particles
They form group 0 in the periodic table and forming part of atomic nuclei. 3
are non-reactive. quarkhadrons.

nucleus. 1. Organelle containing the quantum theory. The theory that energy can
chromosomes. 2. That part of an atom only be absorbed or radiated in discrete
containing the protons and neutrons. values or quanta. All particles are subject to
quantum theory. Click here to find out more.
organelles. Specialized organs within cells.
quarks. Fundamental particles, incapable of time slows down, mass increases and
independent existence, that combine to form lengths contract.
particles such as protons and neutrons.
speciation. A group of organisms that are
radiation. 1. Transfer of heat between able to interbreed all belong to the same
bodies without a change in the temperature species. It follows then that organisms that
of the intervening medium. 2. Any release are unable to interbreed belong to separate
of energy from its source. species.

radioactivity. The spontaneous release of specific heat. The heat capacity of a body.
energy from atomic nuclei.
standard model. The organization and
reactants. The substances that take part in a relationships between fundamental particles.
chemical reaction. Click here for more information.

refraction. The deflection of a wave as it strain. The deformation of a body under an

passes from one medium to another, eg applied load.
through a lens.
stress. The measure of the force acting on a
relative atomic mass (RAM). The mass of body.
an atom relative to one atom of carbon.
Carbon has a RAM of 12. temperature. How hot one body is when
compared to another.
relativity. The relative values of time,
motion, mass and energy of a body in torque. The tendency of a body to rotate
motion. Click here for more information under an applied force..

reproduction. Reproduction is the process uncertainty. It is impossible to know exactly

by which a new organism is produced. The where something is and where it is going.
first stage in the production of any organism This is a fundamental law of nature has a
is the fertilisation of an ova by spermatozoa major effect on quantum theory.
(or spores on the case of plants).
Fertilisation produces a single cell called a valency. A measure of the reactivity of an
zygote which contains all the information element.
required to build the adult organism. The
progression (growth) from zygote to adult is vector. A quantity that is determined by its
achieved through cell division. magnitude and direction: forces and fields
(see scalar).
resistance. Opposition to current flow in a
conductor. velocity. The rate of change of distance
with respect to time.
resonance. A state where the natural
frequency of a body equals an applied viability. The ability to survive to
frequency. adulthood.

respiration. The production of energy by the viscosity. The internal friction of a fluid,
oxidisation of glucose. thick fluids have a high viscosity and thin
fluids low.
scalar. A quantity that is defined by its
magnitude only (ie energy, temperature). weight. The gravitational force exerted on a
simple harmonic motion. A repeating
motion about a central equilibrium point work. The amount of energy transferred to a
(pendulum, weighted spring). system.

special relativity. The observable effects on zygote. A fertilised egg, the fusion of a
a body in motion. As velocity increases, male and female gamete.
Word Definition aerolithology study of aerolites; meteorites

acarology study of mites aerology study of the atmosphere

grammar book; science of study of navigation through air

accidence aeronautics
inflections in grammar or space

aceology therapeutics aerophilately collecting of air-mail stamps

acology study of medical remedies science of air pressure; art of


acoustics science of sound

agonistics art and theory of prize-fighting

adenology study of glands

the comparative study of
primitive peoples

aedoeology science of generative organs

study of plant nutrition; soil

aerobiology study of airborne organisms

agrology study of agricultural soils

aerodonetics science or study of gliding

agronomics study of productivity of land

dynamics of gases; science of
aerodynamics movement in a flow of air or
agrostology science or study of grasses
alethiology study of truth anthropology study of human cultures

algedonics science of pleasure and pain aphnology science of wealth

algology study of algae apiology study of bees

anaesthesiology study of anaesthetics arachnology study of spiders

anaglyptics art of carving in bas-relief study of human material


anagraphy art of constructing catalogues

archelogy the study of first principles

study of the structure of the

body science of the origins of

andragogy science of teaching adults

arctophily study of teddy bears

anemology study of winds

areology study of Mars

angelology study of angels

aretaics the science of virtue

study of blood flow and

lymphatic system aristology the science or art of dining

anthropobiology study of human biology arthrology study of joints

astacology the science of crayfish auxology science of growth

study of diseases of weakening the science of electronic devices

astheniology avionics
and aging for aircraft

astrogeology study of extraterrestrial geology the science of the ultimate

nature of values

study of influence of stars on

people bacteriology study of bacteria

study of effect of stars on the science of the therapeutic

astrometeorology balneology
climate use of baths

astronomy study of celestial bodies science of the support and

mechanics of bridges

study of behaviour of
interstellar matter barology study of gravitation

astroseismology study of star oscillations batology the study of brambles

atmology the science of aqueous vapour bibliology study of books

audiology study of hearing study of documents to

determine authenticity

autecology study of ecology of one species

study of interaction of life in the

autology scientific study of oneself

biology study of life study of crabs and other

study of biological
measurement cardiology study of the heart

study of organisms interacting caricology study of sedges

in their environments

carpology study of fruit

botany study of plants

the science of making maps and

bromatology study of food globes

brontology scientific study of thunder the hobby of collecting cigarette


the study of mosses and

liverworts castrametation the art of designing a camp

cacogenics study of racial degeneration science of echoes or reflected


caliology study of bird's nests

catalactics science of commercial exchange

calorifics study of heat

the art of teaching by question
and answer

science of international
cetology study of whales and dolphins

campanology the art of bell ringing


the art of engraving on copper

or brass chronobiology study of biological rhythms

art of taking rubbings from chrysology study of precious metals

ornamental brasses

ciselure the art of chasing metal

the study of chaos or chaos

climatology study of climate

study of development of
study of aging or individual
decline after maturity

study of properties of
codicology study of manuscripts

beautifying the hands; art of

manicure coleopterology study of beetles and weevils

study of handwriting or cometology study of comets


conchology study of shells

chirology study of the hands

coprology study of pornography

chiropody medical science of feet

cosmetology study of cosmetics

science of the geographic
description of anything

cosmology study of the universe

chrematistics the study of wealth; political

picture postcards

craniology study of the skull

demology study of human behaviour

criminology study of crime; criminals

demonology study of demons

study of life under cold

conditions dendrochronology study of tree rings

cryptology study of codes dendrology study of trees

study of animals for whose the theory or study of moral

cryptozoology existence there is no conclusive deontology

the study of skin patterns and

study of the inheritance of dermatoglyphics
ctetology fingerprints
acquired characteristics

dermatology study of skin

cynology scientific study of dogs

desmology study of ligaments

cytology study of living cells

diabology study of devils

dactyliology study of rings

art of making diagrams or

dactylography the study of fingerprints diagraphics

dactylology study of sign language dialectology study of dialects

deltiology the collection and study of dioptrics study of light refraction

science of deciphering ancient Egyptology study of ancient Egypt
writings and texts

ekistics study of human settlement

diplomatology study of diplomats

study of relations between

docimology the art of assaying electricity and chemicals

dosiology the study of doses electrology study of electricity

art of producing and staging electrostatics study of static electricity

dramatic works

embryology study of embryos

dysgenics the study of racial degeneration

emetology study of vomiting

dysteleology study of purposeless organs

emmenology the study of menstruation

ecclesiology study of church affairs

endemiology study of local diseases

eccrinology study of excretion

endocrinology study of glands

ecology study of environment

enigmatology study of enigmas

economics study of material wealth

entomology study of insects

edaphology study of soils
ethnic groups

study of parasites that live

inside larger organisms ethnology study of cultures

enzymology study of enzymes study of everyday


branch of medicine dealing with

adolescence study of comparative musical

epidemiology study of diseases; epidemics

study of natural or biological

epileptology study of epilepsy

study of economic and ethical

principles of a society
epistemology study of grounds of knowledge

the science of causes; especially

eremology study of deserts of disease

study of effects of work on etymology study of origins of words


science concerned with

ergonomics study of people at work euthenics
improving living conditions

study of freeing oneself from exobiology study of extraterrestrial life


the art of cultivating and selling

eschatology study of death; final matters flowers

ethnogeny study of origins of races or fluviology study of watercourses

folkloristics study of folklore and fables geogony study of formation of the earth

futurology study of future study of surface of the earth and

its inhabitants

garbology study of garbage

geology study of earth's crust

gastroenterology study of stomach; intestines

study of the origins of land

gastronomy study of fine dining

geoponics study of agriculture

gemmology study of gems and jewels

study of increasing habitability

of the earth
genealogy study of descent of families

geratology study of decadence and decay

study of reproduction and

gerocomy study of old age

genethlialogy the art of casting horoscopes

gerontology study of the elderly; aging

study of chemistry of the earth's

gigantology study of giants

study of measuring geological

time glaciology study of ice ages and glaciation

science of the formation of the study of language; study of the

geogeny glossology
earth's crust tongue
glyptography the art of engraving on gems study of movement of blood
through blood vessels

glyptology study of gem engravings

hagiology study of saints

the art of measuring time using

sundials halieutics study of fishing

study of knowledge; philosophy hamartiology study of sin

of knowledge

harmonics study of musical acoustics

study of life in germ-free

part of ethics or psychology

dealing with pleasure
graminology study of grasses

helcology study of ulcers

grammatology study of systems of writing

heliology science of the sun

study of systems of representing
speech in writing

study of sun's interior by

helioseismology observing its surface
graphology study of handwriting oscillations

gromatics science of surveying helminthology study of worms

gynaecology study of women’s physiology hematology study of blood

gyrostatics the study of rotating bodies heortology study of religious feasts

hepatology study of liver hoplology the study of weapons

heraldry study of coats of arms art of constructing sundials or


heresiology study of heresies

horology science of time measurement

herpetology study of reptiles and amphibians

horticulture study of gardening

hierology science of sacred matters

hydrobiology study of aquatic organisms

hippiatrics study of diseases of horses

hydrodynamics study of movement in liquids

hippology the study of horses

hydrogeology study of ground water

study of the tissues of

organisms study of investigating bodies of

study of changes in tissue due to

disease hydrokinetics study of motion of fluids

historiography study of writing history hydrology study of water resources

historiology study of history hydrometeorology study of atmospheric moisture

homiletics the art of preaching study of treating diseases with

hyetology science of rainfall archaic practice of medicine in
conjunction with astrology

hygiastics science of health and hygiene

art of drawing ground plans; a
ground plan

hygienics study of sanitation; health

ichnology science of fossilized footprints

hygiology hygienics; study of cleanliness

ichthyology study of fish

hygrology study of humidity

iconography study of drawing symbols

hygrometry science of humidity

iconology study of icons; symbols

hymnography study of writing hymns

ideogeny study of origins of ideas

hymnology study of hymns

science of ideas; system of ideas

used to justify behaviour
study of sleep; study of

idiomology study of idiom, jargon or dialect

hypsography science of measuring heights

idiopsychology psychology of one's own mind

iamatology study of remedies

study of genetic characteristics

of immunity
treatise or text on medical
topics; study of medicine

immunology study of immunity

immunopathology study of immunity to disease study of atmospheric pollutants
and dust

insectology study of insects

science of putting people to

irenology the study of peace

kymatology study of wave motion

study of the iris; diagnosis of

iridology disease based on the iris of the
eye collection and study of beer
bottle labels

kalology study of beauty

larithmics study of population statistics

karyology study of cell nuclei

laryngology study of larynx

kidology study of kidding

lepidopterology study of butterflies and moths

kinematics study of motion

leprology study of leprosy

study of gestural
communication study of words and their

study of human movement and

posture lexigraphy art of definition of words

study of forces producing or lichenology study of lichens

changing motion

limacology study of slugs

limnobiology study of freshwater ecosystems mammalogy study of mammals

limnology study of bodies of fresh water manège the art of horsemanship

linguistics study of language Mariology study of the Virgin Mary

lithology study of rocks martyrology study of martyrs

study of liturgical forms and mastology study of mammals

church rituals

study of magnitude, number,

loimology study of plagues and epidemics and forms

study of sailing along rhumb- mazology mammalogy; study of mammals


study of action of force on

magirics art of cookery bodies

magnanerie art of raising silkworms study of or treatise concerning


magnetics study of magnetism

melittology study of bees

malacology study of molluscs

study of part-whole

malariology study of malaria

mesology ecology
study of the origin and microbiology study of microscopic organisms
distribution of metal deposits

microclimatology study of local climates

study of the structure and
constitution of metals

micrology study or discussion of trivialities

study of alloying and treating

micropalaeontology study of microscopic fossils

study of principles of nature and

thought microphytology study of very small plant life

study of politics in theory or microscopy study of minute objects


mineralogy study of minerals

metapsychology study of nature of the mind

molinology study of mills and milling

meteoritics the study of meteors

momilogy study of mummies

meteorology study of weather

study of forms and the

metrics study of versification development of structures

metrology science of weights and measures muscology the study of mosses

microanatomy study of microscopic tissues museology the study of museums

musicology study of music nephrology study of the kidneys

mycology study of funguses study of anatomy of the nervous


myology study of muscles

neurology study of nervous system

myrmecology study of ants

study of relation between brain
and behaviour

mythology study of myths; fables; tales

neurypnology study of hypnotism

study of church or temple

study of the origin and nature of
philosophical neutralities

nasology study of the nose

nidology study of nests

nautics art of navigation

the science of the laws;

especially of the mind
nematology the study of nematodes

noology science of the intellect

neonatology study of newborn babies

nosology study of diseases

neossology study of nestling birds

nostology study of senility

nephology study of clouds

notaphily collecting of bank-notes and


oncology study of tumours

numerology study of numbers

oneirology study of dreams

numismatics study of coins

onomasiology study of nomenclature

nymphology study of nymphs

onomastics study of proper names

obstetrics study of midwifery

science of pure being; the nature

oceanography study of oceans of things

oceanology study of oceans oology study of eggs

science of the hypothetical ophiology study of snakes

mystical force of od

ophthalmology study of eye diseases

odontology study of teeth

optics study of light

oenology study of wines

optology study of sight

oikology science of housekeeping

optometry science of examining the eyes

olfactology study of the sense of smell

orchidology study of orchids

ombrology study of rain
ornithology study of birds paedology study of children

orology study of mountains paedotrophy art of rearing children

orthoepy study of correct pronunciation study of children's diseases;


orthography study of spelling

palaeoanthropology study of early humans

orthopterology study of cockroaches

study of fossil plants and

oryctology mineralogy or paleontology

palaeoclimatology study of ancient climates

osmics scientific study of smells

palaeolimnology study of ancient fish

study of smells and olfactory

palaeolimnology study of ancient lakes

osphresiology study of the sense of smell

palaeontology study of fossils

osteology study of bones

palaeopedology study of early soils

otology study of the ear

paleobotany study of ancient plants

otorhinolaryngology study of ear, nose and throat

paleo-osteology study of ancient bones
palynology study of pollen penology study of crime and punishment

papyrology study of paper periodontics study of gums

study of unexplained mental peristerophily pigeon-collecting


pestology science of pests

parasitology study of parasites

petrology study of rocks

paroemiology study of proverbs

study of drugs of animal and

parthenology study of virgins plant origin

the science of imaginary pharmacology study of drugs


pharology study of lighthouses

pathology study of disease

pharyngology study of the throat

patrology study of early Christianity

study of organisms as affected

pedagogics study of teaching by climate

pedology study of soils phenomenology study of phenomena

pelology study of mud philately study of postage stamps

philematology the act or study of kissing physiology study of processes of life

phillumeny collecting of matchbox labels phytology study of plants; botany

study of ancient texts; historical piscatology study of fishes


pisteology science or study of faith

science of knowledge or

planetology study of planets

study and correction of speech

political economy; study of

phonology study of speech sounds

pneumatics study of mechanics of gases

study of effects of light on

study and treatment of disorders
of the foot; chiropody

phraseology study of phrases

podology study of the feet

phrenology study of bumps on the head

polemology study of war

phycology study of algae and seaweeds

pomology study of fruit-growing

study of properties of matter

and energy
posology science of quantity or dosage
potamology study of rivers psychobiology study of biology of the mind

study of practical or efficient study of internal or mental

praxeology activity; science of efficient states

study of mentality, personality

primatology study of primates or character

proctology study of rectum psychology study of mind

prosody study of versification psychopathology study of mental illness

protistology study of protists study of link between mental

and physical processes

study of man’s need for

personal space pteridology study of ferns

the art of paper-cutting to make study of distribution of feathers

psalligraphy pterylology
pictures on birds

study of election results and pyretology study of fevers

voting trends

pyrgology study of towers

pseudology art or science of lying

pyroballogy study of artillery

pseudoptics study of optical illusions

pyrography study of woodburning

quinology study of quinine sarcology study of fleshy parts of the body

raciology study of racial differences satanology study of the devil

study of X-rays and their study of excrement or obscene

radiology scatology
medical applications literature

reflexology study of reflexes art of using gesture to express


knowledge or learning
concerning divining rods sciagraphy art of shading

art of calculating using collection of bond and share

rhabdology scripophily
numbering rods certificates

science of the deformation or sedimentology study of sediment

flow of matter

seismology study of earthquakes

rheumatology study of rheumatism

study of the shape and features

rhinology study of the nose of the moon

science of inventory selenology study of the moon

rhochrematics management and the movement
of products

semantics study of meaning

runology study of runes

semantology science of meanings of words

human behaviour

semasiology study of meaning; semantics

sociology study of society

semiology study of signs and signals

science of the properties of

semiotics study of signs and symbols

sophiology science of ideas

serology study of serums

soteriology study of theological salvation

sexology study of sexual behaviour

spectrology study of ghosts

siderography art of engraving on steel

spectroscopy study of spectra

sigillography study of seals

speleology study and exploration of caves

significs science of meaning

spermology study of seeds

silvics study of tree's life

sphagnology study of peat moss

sindonology study of the shroud of Turin

sphragistics study of seals and signets

Sinology study of China

sphygmology study of the pulse

sitology dietetics

splanchnology study of the entrails or viscera

sociobiology study of biological basis of

spongology study of sponges symbology study of symbols

stasiology study of political parties symptomatology study of symptoms of illness

study of bodies and forces in synecology study of ecological communities


synectics study of processes of invention

study of relationships between

syntax study of sentence structure

science of elements of animal

syphilology study of syphilis

stomatology study of the mouth

systematology study of systems

storiology study of folk tales

art of curing and stuffing

study of geological layers or

science of structure of objects,
buildings and landforms

stratography art of leading an army

study and collecting of beer

studying literature by means of
statistical analysis

study of final causes; analysis in

terms of purpose
suicidology study of suicide

telmatology study of swamps

study of monsters, freaks, thermology study of heat
teratology abnormal growths or

therology study of wild mammals

teuthology study of cephalopods

science of breeding domestic

animals and plants
textology study of the production of texts

threpsology science of nutrition

thalassography science of the sea

tidology study of tides

thanatology study of death and its customs

timbrology study of postage stamps

thaumatology study of miracles

tocology obstetrics; midwifery

study of religion; religious

tonetics study of pronunciation

theriatrics veterinary medicine

study of places and their natural

study of animals' reproductive

toponymics study of place-names

study of relation of heat to

toreutics study of artistic work in metal

thermokinematics study of motion of heat

toxicology study of poisons
love of archery; archery; study uranology study of the heavens; astronomy
of archery

urbanology study of cities

study of wounds and their

urenology study of rust molds

study of friction and wear

between surfaces
urology study of urine; urinary tract

trichology study of hair and its disorders

venereology study of venereal disease

trophology study of nutrition

vermeology study of worms

tsiganology study of gypsies

vexillology study of flags

turnery art of turning in a lathe

victimology study of victims

typhlology study of blindness and the blind

scientific study of vines and

typography art of printing or using type

virology study of viruses

typology study of types of things

glassy materials; glassware;

study of glassware
ufology study of alien spacecraft

volcanology study of volcanoes

descriptive astronomy and
vulcanology study of volcanoes zoopathology study of animal diseases

xylography art of engraving on wood zoophysics physics of animal bodies

xylology study of wood zoophysiology study of physiology of animals

zenography study of the planet Jupiter zoophytology study of plant-like animals

zoiatrics veterinary surgery zoosemiotics study of animal communication

study of animal remains of zootaxy science of classifying animals

archaeological sites

zootechnics science of breeding animals

zoochemistry chemistry of animals

zygology science of joining and fastening

study of geographic distribution
of animals

zymology science of fermentation

zoogeology study of fossil animal remains

branch of chemistry dealing

with brewing and distilling
zoology study of animals

zoonomy animal physiology

zoonosology study of animal diseases

Accelerate - to speed up Mean - the sum of the items in a set of data
divided by the number of items in the set; the
Accelerator - a machine which accelerates charged
average (The mean of {1,1,1,2,4,6,6} is 3 since (1
particles to high energies
+ 1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 6) ÷ 7 = 3.)
Antimatter - matter that is exactly the opposite in every
Median - the middle number in a set of ordered
way from its matter counterpart: antiquark/quark;
data (The median of {1,1,1,2,4,6,6} is 2 since 2 is
the middle number when all of the numbers are
Atom - the smallest unit of a chemical element, made up placed in order. If there are an even number of
of a nucleus surrounded by electrons numbers, the median is the mean of the two middle
Beam - a ray of light; a group of particles traveling
together along a well-defined path Meson - particle made of a quark and an antiquark
that is thought to bind protons and neutrons
BEAMS - the acronym for Becoming Enthusiastic About together inside the nucleus of an atom
Math and Science
Microscope - an optical instrument that uses a
CEBAF - former name of Jefferson Lab; stands for combination of lenses to produce magnified
Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility images of very small objects
Celsius - a temperature scale on which water freezes at 0° Mixture - a substance composed of two or more
and boils at 100° components, each of which retain its own
Charge - the amount of electricity carried by a body (A properties (A salad is a mixture of vegetables.)
charge can be negative, like an electron, or positive, like a Mode - the data item that occurs the most often in
proton. Objects with opposite charges attract one another, a set of data (The mode of {1,1,1,2,4,6,6} is 1
while objects with like charges repel one another.) since 1 is the number that appears most often.)
Chemical Change - a change in the chemical composition Molecule - two or more elements that are
of a substance to produce a new material with new chemically joined (Water is a molecule made from
properties (An example of a chemical change is wood two atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen.)
turning to ash and smoke when it burns.)
Negative - having a minus charge (Negative
Chemical Properties - characteristics of a substance that charges are attracted to positive charges and are
determine how it will react with other substances repelled by other negative charges.)
Chemical Reaction - a chemical change in which one or Neutral - having no charge
more substances are changed into one or more new
substances Neutron - a neutral particle made of three quarks
found in the nucleus of an atom
Circuit - a closed path through which an electric current
flows Nitrogen - a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas
which makes up 78% of the air (Nitrogen is a gas
Colloidal Suspension - a material that has properties of at room temperature and becomes a liquid at about
more than one state of matter, such as Jell-o 77 K, -196°C or -321°F.)
Compound - a substance composed of two or more Nuclear Physics - the science of studying the
elements, such as water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), or nucleus of the atom
table sugar (C12H22O11)
Nucleon - a proton or a neutron
Computer - a programmable machine that inputs,
processes and outputs data Nucleus - the central part of an atom, which makes
up 99.9% of the atom's mass
Coordinate - a set of numbers that determines the location
of a point in space Observation - the use of one's senses to learn
something new
Conduction - the transportation of heat or electricity from
one place to another directly through an object (A frying Orbit - the path an object follows as it travels
pan is warmed by a hot stove due to conduction.) around another object
Conductor - a material (like a metal) through which Particle - a very small piece or part; an indivisible
electricity and heat flow easily object
Physical Change - a change that affects the size,
Continuous - steady; uninterrupted shape or color of a substance but does not affect its
Convection - the transportation of heat from one place to
another by the movement of a liquid or gas (A classroom is Physics - the study of matter, energy and force
warmed by a hot air blower due to convection.)
Plasma - a very hot, gas-like state of matter
Cryogenics - the science of very low temperatures, far
Pole - the place on a magnet where the magnetic
below the freezing point of water
field is strongest
Data - a group of measurements, facts or statistics
Positive - having a plus charge (Positive charges
Dependent Variable - the responding variable; the are attracted to negative charges and are repelled
variable that may change as a result of a change in the by other positive charges.)
independent variable
Probe - an object or device used to investigate the
Electric Current - movement of electricity, measured in unknown
charges per second (just as river current is measured in
Property - any characteristic or attribute of an
liters per second)
object or substance
Electromagnet - a wire coil around a metal core (usually
Proton - a positively charged particle found in the
iron) that acts like a magnet when an electric current flows
nucleus of an atom
through it
Prototype - an original type that serves as a model
Electron - a tiny particle with a negative charge which
for later examples
orbits an atom's nucleus
Quadrant - one quarter of the coordinate plane
Element - any substance that cannot be broken up into
(The x- and y-axes divide the coordinate plane into
simpler substances by chemical means (Currently 115
four quadrants.)
elements have been observed and are displayed on the
Periodic Table of Elements. Gold, silver, iodine, oxygen Qualitative - observations that do not involve
and nickel are examples of elements.) measurements and numbers ("My brother is shorter
than my sister," is a qualitative observation.)
Energy - the capacity to do work
Quantitative - observations that involve
Engineer - a person who uses science and math to design,
measurements and numbers ("My brother is 30cm
build or operate equipment, structures and systems (A
shorter than my sister," is a quantitative
person who receives a college degree in engineering might
be an electrical, mechanical, industrial, chemical,
environmental, biochemical or aeronautical engineer.) Quark - one of the two basic building blocks of
matter (Scientists have discovered six different
Experiment - a series of actions carried out to test a
kinds of quarks: Top, Bottom, Up, Down, Strange
theory, demonstrate a fact or find out what happens
and Charm.)
FEL - stands for Free Electron Laser; a tunable laser made
Radiation - the transportation of heat from one
by wiggling a beam of electrons (Jefferson Lab's FEL is
place to another by waves or particles (The Earth is
the most powerful in the world.)
warmed by the Sun due to radiation.)
Fahrenheit - a temperature scale at which water freezes at
Resistance - a measurement of how much a
32° and boils at 212°
material opposes the flow of electricity (Wood has
Force - a push or pull (There are four basic forces: high resistance so it is a poor conductor of
gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak electricity. Copper has low resistance, so it is a
nuclear.) good conductor of electricity.)
Gas - a state of matter with no definite shape or volume, Scatter - to go in many directions
like air
Science - the study of the natural world
Gluons - particles that hold quarks together
Scientific Method - the 'tool' that scientists use to
Graph - information represented in the form of a picture, find the answer to questions (The Scientific
diagram or drawing Method allows scientists to solve complicated
problems by taking a series of smaller steps:
Grid - a pattern of horizontal and vertical lines forming
squares of uniform size on a map or chart identify the problem - a scientific problem to be
Helium - a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas (Helium research - the process of collecting information
and data about a topic being studied
becomes a liquid near absolute zero. Liquid helium is used
to cool Jefferson Lab's accelerator components.) hypothesis - an idea about the solution to a
problem, based on knowledge and research
Hypothesis - an educated guess that can be tested or
experimentation - the process of testing a
hypothesis by collecting data under controlled,
Independent Variable - the manipulated variable; the repeatable conditions
variable that is changed on purpose in an experiment data analysis - organizing and examining the
Injector - the first section of an accelerator, where collected data using narratives, charts, graphs or
electrons are torn away from atoms and accelerated to an tables
energy sufficient for them to be injected into the cavities of conclusion - a summary of the results of the
the accelerator experimentation and a statement of how the
results relate to the hypothesis
Insulator - a material through which electricity or heat
does not flow easily (like many plastics, glasses and Scientist - a person who uses observation,
ceramics) experimentation and theory to learn about a subject
(Biologists, physicists, chemists, geologists and
Interact - act with each other astronomers are all scientists.)
Ion - an atom or molecule that has an electric charge Solid - a state of matter with definite shape and
because it has either gained or lost electrons volume, like ice
Jefferson Lab - a nuclear physics research facility built to Speed - a measurement of distance traveled over
explore quarks in the nucleus of the atom, located in time (example: 100 kilometers per hour)
Newport News, Virginia
Spreadsheet - a computer program used for
Kelvin - a temperature scale that begins at absolute zero, organizing and analyzing data (Spreadsheets are
where there is no molecular movement (Water freezes at arranged in rows and columns. A cell is a box in a
273 K and boils at 373 K.) spreadsheet where a row and column meet. The
Laboratory - a place equipped for scientific research, names of the row and column determine the name
experiments or testing of the cell. For example, in the spreadsheet shown
below, column C and row 2 meet at cell C2, the
Lepton - one of the two basic building blocks of matter shaded box. The value in C2 is 1.23.)
(An electron is a lepton.)
LINAC - an abbreviation for Linear Accelerator
Linear Accelerator - a machine used in physics
experiments that makes particles go faster in a straight line
Liquid - a state of matter with definite volume but no Superconductivity - the flow of electric current
definite shape, like water without any resistance in certain metals at
Magnet - a piece of iron or other material that attracts temperatures near absolute zero (The
other pieces of iron or steel superconductors used at Jefferson Lab are cavities
made of niobium that are cooled to 2 K by liquid
Magnification - the process of making something look Helium.)
SURA - the acronym for Southeastern Universities
Mass - the measure of the amount of matter an object has Research Association (Jefferson Lab is managed
in it; measured in grams or kilograms by SURA.)
Matter - something that has mass which can exist in the Teamwork - joint action by a group to complete a
form of a solid, liquid, gas or plasma given task
Temperature - a measure of heat energy in an
object, body or environment (Temperature can be
measured using Fahrenheit, Celsius or Kelvin
Theory - a general principle that explains or
predicts facts or events
Velocity - an object's speed and direction of
Voltage - electrical force or pressure (measured in
Weight - a measure of the gravitational force
pulling objects to the earth, moon or other celestial
body (The more mass a planet has, the greater the
gravitational pull of that planet will be. An object
weighs more on the earth than it does on the moon
because the earth has more mass than the moon.)

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