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# E104: NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

CRUZ, Jefferson G.
12jheff@gmail.com / 2013110564 / CEM-3
PHY10L-B2 Group 5

## PROGRAM OUTCOME A. Ability to apply knowledge

of mathematics, science and engineering

effectively

Tables (10)

## PROGRAM OUTCOME B. Ability to design and

conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and
interpret data
Results and Discussion (15)

## PROGRAM OUTCOME K. Ability to use the

techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools
necessary for engineering practice
Application (10)

Performance

TOTAL

## November 22, 2017

E104: Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Jefferson G. Cruz
(School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering, Mapúa Institute of Technology, Philippines)

Introduction
Newton’s second law of motion states that a net force is required for a body to have acceleration. If a net
force is applied on a body, the body will accelerate in the direction of the net force. The acceleration if the body is
also directly proportional to its mass. In this experiment, we verified the relationships between a body’s acceleration
and net force, and between acceleration and mass.

## Results and Discussion

The experiment was divided into two divisions, the first one was with constant mass and a changing
net force, and the other one is with changing mass and constant net force.
The first one the group did was with constant mass and a changing net force. It was started by placing the
dynamics track flat on the table then attaching a string on the dynamics cart to the weight hanger. Having the
photogates at 30 cm and 70 cm marks. 20 g was added to the weight hanger for the first trial, recording the time
travelled by the cart, the first trial was done. Each trial, the weight added to the hanger increases by 20 g.
The next part was with changing mass but constant net force. In this part, the weight was being added to cart
itself, instead of the hanger. The hanger has a weight of 100 g added. With the same positions of photogates,
100 g was added to the cart and time was computed for trial 1. 100 g was added to the weight of the track each
trial.

## Figure 1. Part A of the experiment Figure 2. Part B of the experiment

1.2
1
1
0.8
Acceleration

0.8

Acceleration
0.6
0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2
0
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Net Force
Mass of cart + Mass added

## Figure 3. Graph for part A Figure 4. Graph for part B

Conclusions

In conclusion, if the net force applied to an object increases, the acceleration of the object also
increases. Hence, the acceleration of an object is directionally proportional to the net force it experiences
when the mass is constant. As the mass of an object increases, the acceleration decreases. Therefore, the
mass of the object is inversely proportional to its acceleration when the force acting on it is constant. This
means that objects which are less massive are expected to move much faster when experiencing net force.
Also, the acceleration follows the direction of the net force. The same thing can be applied to any moving
object. Say you have a friend who is several pounds smaller than you, but they walk exerting the same
amount of force as you. Your friend will be faster than you because their acceleration would undoubtedly be
higher. One of the main reasons why people constantly try to reduce the mass of objects is to be able to
increase its speed and acceleration. As mentioned before, all of the factors have an effect on each other. If
something has much more mass, then exerting more force will make it move faster. It’s the reason why a
small child won’t be able to throw a football the same distance as a professional, since the child would be
unable to exert the same amount of force that the football player would.

References
Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion

Walter Lewin (20 September 1999). Newton's First, Second, and Third Laws. MIT Course 8.01: Classical
Mechanics, Lecture 6 ). Cambridge, MA USA: MIT OCW. Event occurs at 0:00–6:53. Retrieved 23
December 2010.