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8/16/2016

Balik Tanaw sa IS 1
 Classification is
BIOLOGICAL integral to science.
CLASSIFICATION  Commonalities and
similarities
Exploring Life’s Diversity  Based on
observation

Systematics, Phylogeny, and


Taxonomy
 Systematics is the scientific study of
biological diversity.
 Phylogeny is the science that explores the
evolutionary relationships among organisms
History of Biological and seeks to reconstruct evolutionary history.
Classification  Taxonomy is the science of naming
organisms.

Aristotle Carolus Linnaeus


 Made the first classification  Also known as Carl von
scheme of living things Linne
 Plants and animals (not  Swedish physician and
zombies…) botanist
 Plants (trees, shrubs,  Systema Naturae
herbs)  Devised the basis of
 Animals (with blood, today’s scheme for
bloodless) biological classification
 Animals (crawling, flying,  Father of Taxonomy
walking)

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8/16/2016

What’s the problem with common


Binomial Nomenclature
names?
 Tagalog: patola  Naming system
 English: loofah developed by Carolus
 Cebuano: tabobog Linnaeus
 Ilocano: kabatiti  Two-name system (genus
and species)
 Japanese: tokado hechima
 Latin language (why not
 Chinese: jiao gua Japanese?)
 Indonesian: petola

Common names Luffa acutangula


create confusion.

Examples

Adelfa Ilang-ilang Sampaguita


Nerium indicum Cananga odorata Jasminum sambac

Linnaean System of Classification Robert Whittaker


 Binomial nomenclature  American plant ecologist
 Placement of organisms into  Five-kingdom scheme
meaningful groups  Cell structure and biology
(hierarchical)  Important intellectual
 Scientific name development in biology
 Hierarchy of biological after post-World War II
classification

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Five Kingdom Scheme Are You Sleeping?

Are you sleeping? Are you sleeping?


Brother John? Brother John?
Morning bells are ringing. Morning bells are
ringing.
Ding! Dong! Ding! Ding! Dong! Ding!

Five-Kingdom Song
Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Monera,
Bacteria, bacteria “Nothing in biology makes
Plasmodium, Euglena, Plasmodium, Euglena
sense except in the light of
Are protists, are protists.
evolution.”
Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Fungi,
Are breadmolds and mushrooms, Theodosius Dobzhansky
One of the founders of evolutionary biology
Plantae, Animalia, Plantae, Animalia
Five kingdoms, five kingdoms.

Three-Domain System

Levels of
Biological
 Evolution from the five-kingdom scheme Classification
 Continuous reevaluation of classification schemes
 DNA sequencing and more detailed study of cellular
structures

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For easy recall…

What pieces of evidence were used


to arrive with the accepted scheme
for biological classification?
Distinguished King Philip
came over for good
spaghetti.

Pieces of Evidence Fossil Records


 Remains of previously
existing life
 Radioactive dating
 Placement of organisms in
Comparative anatomy time sequence
Fossil records
 The least accurate among
the pieces of evidence

Comparative embryology Biochemical and molecular


studies

Comparative Anatomy Homologous Structures

 Comparison of organismic structures


 Determined by its genes and developmental processes  Similar structure, different function
 Homology and analogy  Show direct lineage or evolutionary relationship

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Analogous Structures Comparative Embryology

 Similar structure,
different function
 Show direct lineage
or evolutionary
relationship

 Comparison of life cycles, developmental stages


(specifically larval stages)
 Gives clue about evolutionary history (e.g. birds and
reptiles)

Biochemical and molecular


studies

 Detailed analysis of hereditary information (DNA sequences)


 The more identical the sequences, the more related
 Most accurate among the pieces of evidence