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MARCH, 2013.
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A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Architecture, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus in

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Master of Science Degree in




MARCH, 2013.
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Title page


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NNENANYA CHIDI KENNETH. a postgraduate student in the Department of Architecture and

with Reg. No. PG/M.SC./10/54634 has satisfactorily completed the requirement for Course and
Research Work for the degree of Master of Science in Architecture.

The Work embodied in this thesis report is original and has not been submitted in part or in full
for any other diploma or degree of thesis of any other university

Prepared By:


PG /M.Sc. /10/54634

Certified By:


Accepted By:

(Head of Department)

JULY, 2012.
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To the God Almighty my creator and to the wonderful family He gave me.
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First and foremost, my deepest appreciation goes to Jesus Christ my Savior, author and
finisher of all things.

I cannot but be entirely grateful to my father, late Mr I.O. Nnenanya who went to be with
Lord half-way into my program & my mother Mrs.E.C. Nnenanya, for their unmitigated and
solid moral and financial support right from childhood till now.

To my siblings as well, I would like to thank Mr Sunday Nnenanya and his family for
always being there for me whenever I needed them. But my unconditional love and
unequivocal thanks has to go to my brothers Mr Nnenanya Chinedu, Mr Nnenanya Obinna,
Master Nnenanya Uchenna and Master Nnenanya Ogonna for the joy we share whenever we
come together.

I would also like to appreciate at this point the Head, Arc. F. C. Osefoh and the entire staff
of the Department of Architecture, UNEC for making my learning experience in the
department one to always remember. But most especially, I would like to thank my
supervisor Arc. I.G. Chendo for making out time to read through this work. I also thank the
following lecturers for their constant guides and mentoring throughout my stay in the
department: Arc. C. O. Odum, Arc L.C. Chineme, Arc. Sam-Amobi, Arc. Okekeogbu.

To my boss, Engr Chukas Ezike, I have to acknowledge your unyielding concern for my
welfare, inside and outside the office.

Most certainly, my appreciation goes to my friends that mean the most to me; Ndubuisi
Chidi, Okah Theophilus, Eze Arinze, Ejimofor Onyeka, Nwigwe Johnson, Nzelu Tochukwu,
Ibe Amarachukwu and Anayo who typed the document. I thank God so much for bringing
you all into my life.
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Green architecture has become a significant part of the path to a sustainable future and green
buildings in particular. It involves the practice of creating structures using processes that are
environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle.

This study explores and evolves methods and techniques, which ensure the broad application of
green architecture principles in five star hotel designs. It focuses on the identification and
incorporation of green building practices within the tropics which has been chosen as the study

The study is meant to create awareness and enlighten hotel developers and users on the
advantages of green building principle. It will highlight various benefits of applying green
building in hotels and how it can help to minimize energy, improve indoor air qualities and well
being of users at large.

For vivid illustrations, various Principles, Theories, Strategies, and Application Techniques were
evaluated and reviewed. Also, various design considerations on hotels were made so as to ensure
proper integration of the building with the site and the immediate neighbourhood.
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TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………………………………i
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………….vi

TABLE OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………xiii

LIST OF TABLE…………………………………………………………………………………..xx

1.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………..1
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2.4.1 Commercial or Transient hotel 14
2.4.2 Resort Hotels 14
2.4.3 Residential Hotels 15
2.4.4 Motels 15
2.4.5 City Center Hotel 16
2.4.6 Airport Hotels 16
2.5.1 Standards of Hotel Classification17
2.5.2 European Hotel stars Union 18
2.5.3 Hotel Classifications in Britain 18
2.5.4 World Hotel Rating/Classification 19
2.5.5 Six- and seven-star hotels 19
2.5.6 Hotel Stars20
2.5.7 Hotel Stars in Nigeria 23
2.5.8 Benefits of Hotel Classification 26
2.6.1 Historical Background of Green Architecture 27
2.6.2 History of Green Building 34
2.6.3 Relationship Between Green Architecture and Sustainable Building 38
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2.8.1 Low carbon standards and assessment methods for non-domestic buildings 42
2.8.2 CIBSE benchmarks 43
2.8.3 BREEAM 43
2.8.4 LEED 44
2.8.5 Green Star 45
2.11.1 Priorities and Building Culture 52
2.11.2 Environmental Situation in Nigeria 52
2.12.1 Green Building Materials 53
2.12.2 Features of Green Building Materials 55
2.12.3 Energy Efficiency 58
2.12.4 Indoor Environmental Quality 63
2.12.5 Land Usage and Site 64
2.16 Effective Site Design 68

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3.11 SECURITY 81
3.19 GREEN ROOFS 102
3.20.3 DISABLES: 109



4.3.1 Structure and Description: 112
4.3.2 Facilities Available: 112
4.3.3 Appraisal: 122
4.4.1 Brief History: 123
4.4.2 Location: 124
4.4.3 Form Description: 124
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4..4.4 Architecture: 124

4.4.5 Construction and Materials: 125
4.4.6 Spaces and facilities available 125
4.4.7 Appraisal 130
4.5.1 Brief History 132
4.5.2 Form Description: 132
4.5.3 Architecture: 133
4.5.4 Construction and Materials: 137
4.6.1 Project Type 137
4.6.2 Project Data 138
4.6.3 General Description 140
4.6.4 Development, Construction, and Design 142
4.6.5 Green Features 143
4.7.1 Structure and Form: 146
4.7.2 Description: 147
4.8.1 Project Details 151
4.8.2 Location and Climate 153
4.8.3 The Challenge 154
4.8.4 Building Design 155
4.8.5 Design Strategies 156
4.8.6 The Lecture Theatre's energy system 160
4.8.7 Other Environmental Factors 162
4.8.8 Design Lessons 163

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5.2.1 Historical Background of Anambra State 175
5.2.2 Physical Features 176
5.2.3 Climatic conditions 178
5.2.4 Tourism in Anambra State 195
5.3.1 History of Awka 197
5.3.2 Geography 197
5.3.3 Climate 198
5.4.1 Site Selection Criteria 200
5.4.2 Site Location Studies 203
5.4.3 Site Characteristic and Analysis 206

6.2.1 The Carpenter‘s center, Harvard University by Le Corbusier 215
6.2.2 The transworld airline (TW A) terminal building in JFK international airport,
New York by Eirosaarineen. 215
6.2.3 The falling waters by Frank Lloyd Wright 215
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List of figures

Figure 2.1"Five-star superior" rating at Hotel Kempinski Vier Jahreszeiten, Munich, Germany.16

Figure 2.2: Burj Al Arab…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Figure 2.3: Share of Woodfuels in National Energy Consumption………………………………………………..28

Figure 2.4 Share of Traditional Biomass in Residential Energy Consumption, 2000………………….28

Figure 2.5 Energy consumed in the life of a building, estimated at 60 years United Nations
Environment Programme, 2007…………………………………………………………………………………………………………29

Figure 2.6 Major weather-caused catastrophes from 1950 to 2000………………………………………………30

Figure 2.7 Nominal Development of Crude Oil Prices from 1960 onward …………………………………31

Figure 2.8 CO2 Emissions Distribution levels per Capita, World Population, for the year 2004 32

Figure 2.9:The processes of green architecture [BEER ] ………………………………………………………………..33

Figure 2.10: London Crystal Palace……………………………………………………………………………………………..….35

Figure 2.11: Milan‘s Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II Interio …………………………………………………………..35

Figure 2.12: The Building spectrum………………………………………………………………………………………………..35

Figure 2.13: The relationships of the terms integrate environment and building ………………………..40

Figure 2.14:Three Dimensions of sustainable development …………………………………………………………..51

Figure 2.15: Three phase of the building material life cycle…………………………………………………………..54

Figure 2.16 : Ventilation strategies within building …………………………………………………………………………59

Figure 2.17: Thermal responsiveness of HRDC……………………………………………………………………………60

Figure 2.18: Energy efficiency of the building……………………………………………………………………………..61

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Figure 2.19: Renewable energy systems……………………………………………………………………………………….62

Figure 2.20: Water and energy saving measures……………………………………………………………………………..63

Figure 2.21: Interior and exterior interface of HRDC…………………………………………………………………..64

Figure 3.1: North versus south


Figure3.2: View Window, (b) clerestory


Figure3.3: View window and clerestory window


Figure3.4: Exterior light shelves reflecting sunlight onto


Figure3.5: Deeply coffered ceiling helps to diffuse light from four


Figure 3.6 : Horizontal blinds allow control of brightness from lower view

Figure 3.7: Shading for a south


Figure 3.8: Horizontal and vertical shading


Figure 3.9: Effects of internal and external


Figure 3.10: Saw tooth Roof, (b) Roof


Figure 3.11: Skylit wall wash delivers daylight across two-thirds of this

Figure 3.12: Sawtooth monitor with

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Figure 3.13: Distribution of wind pressure around a


Figure 3.14: Cross


Figure 3.15: Stack


Figure 3.16: Wind pressure, suction and wind flow around


Figure 3.17: Wind flow and shadow effect between


Figure 3.18: Effects of vegetation on wind


Figure 3.19: Average internal velocity, percentage of the outside as a factor of the inlet/outlet
ratio and wind

Figure 3.20: Effects of opening location and size in adjacent


Figure 3.21: Effects of clerestory on average internal airflow


Figure 3.22: Photovoltaic Module………………………………………………………………………………………………100

Figure 3.23: Photovoltaics are most cost effective in remote locations that are at a distance from
an electrical grid, but they have zero environmental costs…………………………………………………………..101

Figure3.24: PV Siting, Elevated……………………………………………………………………………………………………..102

Figure3.25: Green Roof System…………………………………………………………………………………………………….103

Figure3.26: Intensive Green Roof (Vancouver Coast Plaza Hotel) ……………………………………………104

Figure 3.27: Extensive Green Roof (Ford assembly plant, Dearborn, MI) ………………………………...105
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Figure 4.1: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Properly Landscaped Dual Carriage Entrance…………….114

Figure 4.2: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Ground Floor Level………………………………………………………..114

Figure 4.3: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Second Ground Floor Level………………………………………….115

Figure 4.4: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Mezzanine Level……………………………………………………………115

Figure 4..5:NICON HILTON ABUJA-Typical Floor Plan…………………………………………………………116

Figure 4.6: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Section……………………………………………………………………….….117

Figure 4.7: NICON HILTON ABUJA- ARIAL VIEW………………………………………………………………118

Figure4.8: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Main Entrance and Drop-Off with External façade……118

Figure4.9: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Service Road and ―Back of House‖……………………………...119

Figure 4.10: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Conference Hall Kicked off the Tower for Structural
Figure 4.11: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Piano Lounge Very Spacious with few column distracted

Figure 4.12: NICON HILTON ABUJA-King Deluxe Suite ventilated only one side……………….120

Figure 4.13: NICON HILTON ABUJA -Capital Bar…………………………………………………………………..121

Figure 4.14: NICON HILTON ABUJA - Leisure Village Promoting Culture.............................121

Figure 4.15: NICON HILTON ABUJA - Leisure Pool Which Helps in Cooling the
Figure 4.16: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Perspective View showing the Balconies…………126

Figure 4.17: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Lobby Bar Lit with Skylight...............................127

Figure 4.18: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Papillon Top Roof Garden.................................127

Figure 4.19: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Classic Room Spacious and Cross Ventilated.128
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Figure 4.20 :SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Obudu Restaurant with enough natural

Figure 4.21:SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Conference Facilities Separated from The main

Figure 4.22: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Water Body/Greenry Within the Courtyard which
brings Cooling Effect on the Environment. ........................................................................................129

Figure 4.23: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Arial View showing Location of facilities. ........130

Figure 4.24: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Perspective View (source: Google Earth)…………………….134

Figure4.25: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – External Façade with good Views from Balconies…..……134

Figure 4.26: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Properly Planned Car Lots and Delivery Bay………………..135

Figure 4.27: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Pool Bar……………………………………………………………………………135

Figure 4.28: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Presidential Suite……………………………………………………………136

Figure 4.29: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Green Belt Properly Integrated within the Landscape….136

Figure 4.30: PROXIMITY HOTEL – View Showing The Facade…………………………………………….140

Figure 4.31: Arial View showing the Location of Facilities………………………………………………………..141

Figure 4.32: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Restaurant...........................................................................141

Figure 4.33: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Suite……………………………………………………………………………….143

Figure 4.34: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Solar Panels…………………………………………………………………….144

Figure 4.35: Arial View showing the Location of Facilities…………………………………………………………148

Figure 4.36: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Street Level…………………………………………………………148

Figure 4.37: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Bay Level…………………………………………………………..149

Figure 4.38: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Atrium Lobby Level…………………………………………….149

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Figure 3.39: Picture showing the perspective view And Atrium naturally lit ……………………………..150

Figure 4.40 : Lecture Theatre of Thurgoona campus………………………………..…………………………………..151

Figure 4.41: School of Environmental and Information Science ………………………………………………….152

Figure 4.42: Site location map……………………………………………………………………………………………………….154

Figure 4.43: Exterior view of School of information and science ……………………………………………….156

Figure 4.44: Cross section of School of Environment and information Sciences showing heating
and cooling systems………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….158

Figure 4.45: School of Environmental Sciences: Interior view showing void ……………………………160

Figure 4.46: Detail showing lecture theatre spray mist cooling system……………………………………….161

Figure 4.47: Wide shot showing landscaping of wetland area………………………………………………………163

Figure 4.48: Exterior view of Lecture Theatre showing rammed earth landscaped roof………….164

Figure 4.49: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Ground Floor Plan…………………………..166

Figure 4.50: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Typical Floor Plan…………………………….167

Figure 4.51: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Section………………………………………………..168

Figure 4.52: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Picture showing central atrium with
galleries naturally lit............................................................................................................................168

Figure 4.53: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Spacious Terrace……………………………….169

Figure 4.54: HILTON STRAND‘S HOTEL FINLAND- Elevation glazed floor to floor...........169

Figure 5.1: Map of Nigeria……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..170

Figure 5.2: Map of Nigeria Showing Climate(Source: Metrological department Port


Figure 5.3: Map of Nigeria showing annual mean Temperature …………………………………………………171

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Figure 5.4: Map of Nigeria Showing Rain Distribution...................................................................172

Figure 5.5: Vegetation map of Nigeria…………………………………………………………………………………………..172

Figure 5.6: map of Nigeria showing Anambra in red…………………………………………………………………..173

Figure 5.7: Map of Anambra state showing the 21 local government areas ………………………………..174

Figure 5.8: Soil Zones……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..177

Figure 5.9: Mean Annual Temperature Distribution…………………………………………………………………….179

Figure 5.10: Dry Season Winds and Rainfall Pattern (November – April)…………………………………181

Figure 5.11: Dry Season Winds and Rainfall Pattern (May – October)……………………………………….182

Figure 5.12: Orientation for more wind than sunlight ………………………………………………………………….183

Figure 5.13: Orientation for more sunlight than wind …………………………………………………………………..184

Figure 5.14: Best orientation for tropical setting for minimum solar radiation, heat transmission
and glare reduction................................................................................................................................184

Figure 5.15: Best orientation for effective and thorough breeze suffers from slanting east west
sun. Sun shading is required but this cuts down the passage of breeze (Source: Author) ………..185

Figure 5.16: The use of plants to reduce glare and Orientation……………………………………………………185

Figure 5.17: Total Annual Rainfall (Source: http://www.nimetng.org) ......................................187

Figure 5.18: Pockets of rain events in the southeast of the country in January 2009. (Source:

Figure 5.19: Trend of minimum temperature in 2005 (Source: http://www.nimetng.org).........188

Figure 5.20: Relative Humidity (January)…………………………………………………………………………………….190

Figure 5.21: Relative Humidity (July)……………………………………………………………………………………………191

Figure 5.22: Example of shading devices……………………………………………………………………………………..195

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Figure 5.23: Awka Map showing the location of the site in red. ..................................................199

Figure 5.24: Picture showing shrubs and grasses that dominated the site. (source: Authur) …..202

Figure 5.25: Awka Capital Territory (Base Map) showing Greenwoods Layout in red ………….203

Figure 5.26: Greenwoods Layout Showing the location of the site in red …………………………………204

Figure 5.27: Awka plan, showing the proposed site in red from google earth map ………………….205

Figure 5.28: showing the proposed site…………………………………………………………………………………………205

Figure 5.29: The proposed site in red lines showing possible access roads and land use. ........206

Figure 5.30: The proposed site showing wind direction and section through A-A.....................207

Figure 5.31: The proposed site showing noise, drainage and sun path. ..........................................208

Figure 5.32: Site location . (Source: Author)…………………………………………………………………………………209

Figure 5.33: Uncompleted private estate South of the proposed site ……………………………………………210

Figure 5.34: Roundabout intersecting Nnamdi Azikiwe Ave. and Awka-Nibo Ring Rd.............211

Figure 5.35: Awka-Nibo Ring Rd. (Source: Author)…………………………………………………………………….211

List of tables

Table 2.1: Minimum lettable rooms that make a star ………………………………………………………………………24

Table 2.2 : Minimum sizes of room that makes a star ……………………………………………………………………24

Table 2.3: Table comparing embodied emergy content of common building materials from
primary and secondary sources. All figures are for MJ/Kg …………………………………………………………….56

Table3.1 Capacities: 1100-1600 kg or 16-


Table 3.2: Total cold storage Per

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Table 3.3: Total cold water storage for various types of


Table3.4: selection criteria for day lighting


Table 5.1: The table below summarizes the high total rainfall amounts and the number of rain
days for the two months (Source: http://www.nimetng.org).......................................................189

Table 5.2: Climate data for Awka…………………………………………………………………………………………………..199

Table 6.1: Space Allowance…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….230

Table 6.2: Diagram showing showing area requirement per hotel room……………………………………233
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The origin of the term ‗hotel‘ appears to be French. It seems to be closely linked with the word
―inn‖ which originally was a stop-over for travelers of the middle class who just wanted a place
to lay the head for the night. Then, these places were not really commercially oriented and
admitted only on goodwill. Later, the inn developed into ―a public place for the lodging and
entertainment of travelers, or any person wishing to use the accommodation. Some of these inns
became large and of more pretentious in nature and were referred to as hotels. (Wikipedia, the
free encyclopedia).

The function of hotel has graduated from the early simple operation of providing guests with
foods and a place to lay their heads to a wide variety of complex services which include
Provision of lodging and comfortable accommodation, provision of assorted types of meals,
provision of halls for conferences and seminars, provision of recreational and leisure facilities,
Provision of laundry and cleaning services, provision of modern amenities like car hire service to
guests, telephone and telex facilities, bank, shops, Provision of adequate parking facilities for
guests‘ automobiles.

Therefore, hotels worldwide have been classified based on the amount of services offered to
users and the scale of facilities provided. The classification of hotel is from one star (*) to five
star (*****).

In Nigeria, this evaluation exercise falls under the jurisdiction of Nigerian Tourism
Development Corporation (NTDC). Hotels are generally starred and the classification standards
adopted in Nigeria stipulate the minimum size of hotel established-measured by the number of
rooms and hotel structure.

This study is centered on the application of green building strategies in a five star hotel. Five star
hotels provide more facilities and services than lower star hotels. They offer the following
services in addition to normal accommodation and meal provision expected of a hotel:
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 The reception should be opened 24 hours with multilingual staff

 Doorman-service or valet parking

 Concierge, page boy

 Spacious reception hall with several seats and beverage services

 Personalized greeting for each guest with fresh flowers or a present in the room

 Mini-bars, restaurants, conference halls with considerable capacity, meeting rooms,

recreational facilities and food and beverage offer via room service for 24 hours

 Internet-PC in the room

 Safe in the room

 Ironing service (return within 1 hour), shoe polish service

Hotels of this kind should have spacious and luxurious accommodation, matching the best
international standards. Interior design should impress with its quality and attention to details,
comfort and elegance. Furnishings should be immaculate. Services should be formal, well
supervised and flawless in addition to guests' needs, without being intrusive. The restaurant will
demonstrate a high level of technical skill, producing dishes to the highest international
standards. Staff will be knowledgeable, helpful, well versed in all aspects of customer care,
combining efficiency with courtesy.

For a five star hotel to maintain its standard and statuesque, it is obvious that it will consume a
lot of energy. Therefore, the whole aim of application of green building strategies in a hotel
design is geared towards cutting down energy consumption and improving the indoor
environmental quality.

Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately
eliminate the impacts of new buildings on the environment and human health. It often
emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar,
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active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain
gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed
gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance

This study is to explore the methods and techniques which ensure the broad application of green
architecture principles in a hotel design especially in the area of indoor environmental quality,
energy consumption, material usage, ecology, land use and site. It emphasizes the use of
environmentally friendly principles in both construction and choice of materials, buildings where
travelers and tourists will fill at home and brought close to nature. It is in this environment that
visitors appreciate notions of architectural master piece, construction, circulation, materials, and
volumes, light and shadow, and link them with used practices in their surroundings.


At the start of the 21st Century human are faced with numerous activities and its attendant
enormous effects on the environment, ecological systems, and even on humans themselves. More
than any other human endeavor; his activities on the environment have direct, complex, and
long-lasting impacts on the biosphere. The impacts of embodied energy of building alone are
enormous on human health.

This study will provide some background on green buildings and a historical perspective on the
international green building movement in general.
Buildings and development as a common concern in green architecture provide countless
benefits to society, but they also have significant environmental impacts (EPA, 2004). These
numerous environmental and social impacts come both in the form of the existing built
environment and the process of adding to it. According to a World Watch paper entitled ‗A
Building Revolution‘, the building industry is responsible for:
 40% of world's total energy,
 30% of consumption of raw materials,
 25% of timber harvest,
 35% of world's Carbon iv oxide (CO2) emissions,
 16% of fresh water withdrawal,
 40% of municipal solid wastes,
 50% of ozone- depleting Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC s) still in use,
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 55% of timber cut for non-fuel uses,

 30% of the residents having sick building syndrome (Achyuthan and Balagopal, 2006)

High performance green buildings are facilities designed, built, operated, renovated, and
disposed of using ecological principles for the purpose of promoting occupant‘s health and
resource efficiency plus minimizing the impacts of the built environment on the natural
High performance green buildings have succeeded in their rapid and exponential penetration of
construction market for three basic reasons.

First, they are the ethical response to both global and local environmental and resource issues. A
typical, code compliant building makes minimal efforts to address energy and water issues and
totally ignores materials waste, impacts on the construction site and any other issue not
specifically covered in the building codes. Green buildings take a far different approach.
Environmental impacts and resource consumption are of primary importance in the design and
construction process. The entire life cycle of the building and its constituent components are
carefully considered. Emphasis is on renewable resources for energy systems; recycling and
reuse of water and materials; integration of native and adapted species for landscaping; passive
heating, cooling, and ventilation; and a wide range of other approaches that minimize
environmental impacts and resource consumption.

Second, green buildings make economic sense, not always on a capital or first cost basis, but
virtually always on a life cycle basis. As energy and water prices rise due to increasing demand
and diminishing supply, the payback period will become much shorter. Life Cycle Costing
(LCC) is an important evaluation technique that provides a consistent framework for evaluating
alternative systems to determine their life cycle performance.

Third, green buildings squarely address the spotty performance of conventional buildings with
respect to human health. There is ample evidence that 40% of all illnesses can be traced to
buildings and homes where people live, work, or attend school, church or sporting events.
(Achyuthan and Balagopal, 2006). Conventional construction, unless forced to by lawsuits,
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generally ignores issues of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) or Building Related Illness (BRI).
Green buildings meet the challenges of building health directly and provide several layers of
consistent approaches that promote occupant health.

The term "green hotels" describes hotels that strive to be more environmentally friendly through
the efficient use of energy, water, and materials while providing quality services. Green hotels
conserve and preserve by saving water, reducing energy use, and reducing solid waste. They
have seen benefits such as reduced costs and liabilities, high return and low-risk investments,
increased profits, and positive cash flows. Identifying these benefits and incentives has allowed
the popularity of green hotels to grow. (Sarah 2002). Becoming a zero-waste hotel does not
necessarily mean the elimination of all by-products. It means using resources efficiently, using
renewable resources, and when generation of byproducts is unavoidable, using those by-products
as the raw material for other processes. The biological by-products of hotel activities should be
able to be safely assimilated into natural systems by bacterial processes in soil or water.


Most hotels around the world and Nigeria in particular seem to be highly synthetic. They depend
so much on artificial means of lighting and ventilation paying less attention to tropical design
principles. This has led to overall increase in the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) and
―sick building syndrome‖ (SBS). Less attention is paid to proper landscaping of the environment
in such a way that users will appreciate nature. They lack natural features like water bodies and
greenery which help to cool the environment naturally.
Also, most hotels are not properly integrated with the environment considering site terrain and
climatic factors. It has increased impacts of building construction on ecological systems and
biodiversity, while decreasing the ecological values of site.


The aim of the study is to explore and evolve the most appropriate strategy towards application
of green building principles in a hotel design.


1. To examine various principles and techniques associated with green building practices.
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2. To investigate the needs, peculiarities and problems of the study environment with
particular reference to hotel design.
3. To study various benefits of applying green building strategies to a tropical hotel design.
4. To investigate the most appropriate materials applicable in green hotel in tropical
5. To discover ways green building principles could help to improve the health, wellbeing
and productivity of hotel users.

It is a pity that a country like Nigeria blessed with abundant human, natural, mineral and
ecological resources has been plagued with a myriad of social, economic and environmental
problems. There is huge need for green societal transformation. Lack of knowledge of green
building has made hotel developers in Nigeria to be more money focused rather than human
comfort. The study is aimed not only at providing a five star hotel at Awka but to device means
of making the hotel environmentally friendly. It is going to provide visitors and tourists with an
urban environment which has a rural setting and natural feelings using proper landscape,
greenery, water bodies and building materials. The Design should be a facility that on its own
can be a source of inspiration as well as a master piece which could act as a forceful propeller in
instilling the ideals of harmony of man and nature that green architecture preaches.


This study is considered important because though there is a great movement in the developed
countries to ideals of green building, there is little study or appreciation of it in Nigeria. Hence
this study aims to help in creating awareness towards promoting the practice of green building
principles in the country.

It can be one of the most potent and effective means to both improve the performance of
buildings and transform market expectations and demand.


The green building movement encompasses a lot but the study will major on, examination of
various principles and techniques associated with green building practices, the benefits of
applying green building strategies to a tropical hotel design and practical illustration of the
application of green building strategies in hotels. It will explore various design and construction
P a g e | 30

principles that minimizes energy consumption, improve indoor environmental quality, material
usage, land use and site in hotels.

The research method used in this project include qualitative and descriptive case study research

Primary data for the study includes information from direct sources such as:

 Direct interviews and enquiries from hotel users and management.

 Carrying out site visits for on the spot observations and direct observation on existing
 Taking photographs of such visited existing facilities and producing diagrams for
illustrative purposes of such.

Secondary data is generated through the following:-

 Use of existing literature from textbooks, publications, magazines, and unpublished
 Use of the internet for further information and data collection.
 Internationally recognized and accepted research encyclopedia
 Policy documents.

As part of a larger green economy, green buildings can contribute significantly to social issues of
inequality and poverty by creating awareness, education and the subsequent empowerment
towards sustainable built environment.

It will stimulate market demand for buildings with improved environmental performance. If the
market is provided with improved information and mechanisms, discerning clients can and will
provide leadership in environmental responsibility and others will follow suit to remain
P a g e | 31




The chambers 20th Century Dictionary edited by E.M. Kirkpatrick defines a hotel as a house for
the accommodation of strangers". The oxford advanced learners dictionary 6 TH edition looks at
hotel as ―a building where people stay for a short time, paying for their rooms and meals‖ .
Commerce and Industry, sees a hotel as "essentially a building for providing service to guest‖
while Manuel Band-Bovy and Fred Lawson in their book Tourism and Recreation Development
say that ―Hotels provide accommodation, meals, refreshments, for irregular periods of time and
not necessarily by pre-arrangement‖

The Time Savers Standards for building types. edited by Joseph De Chiara and John Harcock
Callender opines that ―the primary function of a hotel is to provide bed and board‖ while the
book ―principles of Hotel Design‖ edited by The Architects Journal writes that ―the purpose of
any hotel is to satisfy the particular needs of a selected client group at a suitable price structure‖
adding that ―there are many types of hotels‖.

Therefore, hotels provide accommodation, meals and other services to guests at affordable cost
and at the same time seek the guest‘s satisfaction.


Historically, the development of hotel dates back some twelve thousand years. Then it was based
on people living in isolated communities extending hospitality to occasional travelers in
exchange for news and communication with the rest of the world. Later money became the
factor of exchange, and travelers were expected to pay. Some families became known for these

services and maintained a certain portion of their household for this growing business. In these
times, the inns were rare.

Increased travels gave rise to trade routes, which had shelters for lodging. Later on, with the
appearance of large metropolitan centers of large empires, the search for wealth created an influx
P a g e | 32

of people from other areas. Accommodation in these big cities became difficult and people were
forced to pay for their lodging or suffer the elements of weather. More households began to
devote most of their time and living space to guests who were willing to pay. As the business
became more lucrative, families began to earn their livelihood by devoting all their time to these
paying guests.

Therefore, the earliest hotels were merely small family business which offered ―bed and board‖
devoid of all the present day complexities of the modern hotel. These later, developed into
hostelries, which were bigger and had more pleasant surrounding. During those days, the
hostelries consisted of the front pat of the house which the reception and the public rooms, or the
covered arcades in the caravansaries where the guest gathered to dine and to socialize. The other
half of the house, the back of the house was where food was prepared and where the guests‘
service amenities were taken care of. While the proprietor, the man with a few assistants
welcomed the guest at the front door and greeted him, arrangements were made for his food and
lodging. The proprietor‘s wife with a few helpers used the rear yard to prepare food which was
then cooked in the kitchen.

As these lodging began to gain recognition, state authorities tried to supervise their running. This
did not help much to improve their conditions.

One point in the patronage of these hotels at that period which is no more the situation now is the
nobility and people of the upper class did not have need for these inns. They were usually
recognized and harbored by others of the upper class, or were offered the best hospitality in
religious establishments whose existence was generally supported by them.

With the emergence of the industrial revolution, the business of inn-keeping began to progress.
Better and newer ideas were introduced in and around London. Services were upped and
standards of cleanliness were improved. By the end of the 18th century, English inns gained the
reputation of being the finest in the world, attaining their peak during the middle of the 19 th

About the end of the 18th century, there was a departure from the customary method of housing
guests to providing luxury and catering for ostentation. The term ‗hotel‘ was given to these new
forms of inns in France and later in England.
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The first great development of this new hotel was in Switzerland during the early 19 th century.
Swiss Hoteliers internationalized the hotel industry by importing French cooks. This attempt to
attract visitors by introducing inducement in form of extra or special visitors became the model
for hotels springing up all over Europe.

In America, the development of the industry was much faster, following the trend of innovation
and uninhibited advancement characteristic of Americas in that age. Shortly after the revolution,
American inns became the largest in the world and were set to providing the best services

The railroad companies saw the advantages of the hotel idea. They developed hotels at important
railroad junctions and stations to cater for and further entice their traveling clientele. It became
evident that the United State would assume leadership in the development of the modern first
class hotel, primarily because the average American did considerably more traveling than the
residents of other countries. Secondly, contrary to what is obtained in Europe, anyone who could
afford it, whether from the aristocracy or the populace, could enjoy the services of the hotel.

The city Hotel in the New York was opened in 1894, the first building in America to be erected
specifically for that purpose. New York‘s first sky-scrapper, a six-story building, was the
Adelphi Hotel.

Between 1829 and 1850, the American Hotel industry saw competition and the race to put up
better, more luxurious hotels became hotter. The pioneer of the modern first-class hotel was the
Tremont House in Boston, designed by Isiah Rogers. It featured single and double rooms. The
doors had locks and the staff were hired and trained for better guest treatment. It was followed by
other first class hotels in Chicago, St. Louis and Omaha. Later, the palace was built in San
Francisco. Though a financial loss, it was a triumph in appearance, structure, equipment and

Between 1910 and 1920, the pace slowed down, only to usher in another golden age in the
history of hotel development. In this golden age, there was an all-time peak both in the number
of hotels built and the money thrown in. The Conrad Hilton was opened in 1927. With its 3,000
rooms, it gained the title of ―The World‘s Largest Hotel‖.
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Just before 1940, the hotel industry‘s worst recession set in. Due to the mass movement of
people (who constituted the trained staff) during the World War II, to the war development
projects and areas, and the great loss of the clientele of many hotels, the hotel industry
experienced tremendous change. The Modern commercial hotel was born, and standardization
for future hotel construction made its debut.


Before the advent of the European merchants, missionaries and colonialists, travelers sought
shelter and refuge in homes. The idea of accepting payment for food was alien and unheard of in
the spirit of African hospitality and extended family system. The hosts were only too glad to
provide both food and shelter. Fending for one‘s visitor was assumed to be repaid in multiples by
the gods.

With the coming of the colonialists, rest houses were built to shelter them when they went into
the hinterland on official duties. Most of these early rest houses were non-catering and the
colonialists moved in with their full household compliments. Later, these rest houses became
catering rest house and the doors were thrown open to all who could pay for the services.

While this was happening, the development of commercial centers like Lagos, Kano, Onitsha
and Port-Harcourt brought with them, the type of hotel development which took place in Europe.
Popular stops along well traveled routes e.g. Benin and Asaba, began to flourish with the
development of over-night lodgings for travelers. In the centers themselves, lodging houses
began to spring up, though not as fast. The clientele for these lodging houses in the cities were
usually the lowly. Most people depended on the tradition of being your brother‘s keeper and the
extended family system to scale the accommodation problem. Inns and lodging houses remained
undeveloped. Most were dirty and badly kept, with food which was of lower quality than could
be bought at the wayside. In this period, brothels were associated with these lodgings, and few
proprietors bothered to distinguish between their guests. This period of between 1950 and 1970
witnessed the biggest set-back of the hotel industry in this country.

The Nigeria, hotels suffered ill fate from the general public, from the word go, because they were
seen as places for immoral entertainment, harboring, drunken and idle people of questionable
characters. Since these were against traditional ethics, anyone seen in the immediate vicinity of a
P a g e | 35

hotel was immediately condemned. Such philosophical drawback suppressed the development of
hotels in the country for a long time.

But with the present day Nigeria quest for comfort and the urge to belong (class identification
syndrome), the hotel has come to be a lot more acceptable. Due to the advent of the oil boom
which, (because of the proliferation of million-naira contracts) injected huge sums of money into
the bank account of a large percentage of business men and professionals, the standard of living
has been accentuated and the chronic quest for comfort heightened.

With the growing economic situation in the country more Nigerians had seen the usefulness of
the hotels of international standard. Just before independence, a number of hotels projects were
begun in many of the major cities. These hotels were meant to cater for the upper class and were
pretty well furnished. The fees charged were prohibitive to the ordinary man, who stayed clear of
the clientele of these posh hotels were expatriate staff of government and private establishments.

More recently, large international conventions are being hosted by the country. The FESTAC ‘77
and various continental sporting meeting have made the Federal Government pump a lot of
money into the building of hotels complexes in a number of major cities. State Governments also
have set aside huge sums for the development of luxury hotels in most cities in the country.
Hotels standardization and classification has become a national policy.

The historical account as enumerated earlier, has seen the metamorphosis of the simple
organization and operation of the hotel in times past into the complexities in both organization
and operation of the hotel industry. Many reasons are responsible for this. One is the resultant
competition occasioned by a swell in the number of these hotels. Another reason must be in spirit
of meeting up with the standards of modern day living at home, after all, a hotel is supposed to
be a home away from home. A third reason is yet, the rapid increase in movement of people and
the attendant increased demand for goods and services. All these have culminated in what is now
the modern starred hotels, which from the above modest commencement account, have
incorporated almost every service in its function. At a fee, the guest will get almost everything in
modern day five star hotel.
P a g e | 36


Hotel types are wide and varied. Hotel may be commercial or transient, resort, residential or
motel depending on their main market orientation. Generally speaking, main hotel types and
their characteristics include

2.4.1 Commercial or Transient hotel

This is the most important type of hotel and is built to cater for the salesmen and other traveling
businessmen. When the advent of chain stores reduced the ranks of the commercial traveler,
commercial hotels made up for this drop with other business executives and individuals traveling
for pleasure.

Commercial hotels usually have many but relatively small rooms. This is because most of their
guests travel alone. Many of the rooms are furnished so that they can be used as office for
business transaction. Commercial hotels also have large ―sample rooms‖ where traveling
salesmen can easily display samples of products they sell. They also offer facilities for
conventions, ballrooms for large gatherings, small meeting rooms for communities and groups.
They usually have good dining facilities which include informal, semi-formal and formal dining

The rooms of commercial hotel guest have their own private bath, radio, telephones and
television set, other facility found in commercial hotels include coffee shop, cocktail lounge
which provides the guest with beverage services. A complete night club can also be found in
large metropolitan hotels. Laundry, cleaning, ironing and other valet services, professional
medical and allied services are also available.

There are two recent innovations found in this hotel. They are the studio type guests-room and
the automobile entrance and registration desk. In the studio room, the beds are so designed that
during the day, they are comfortable.

2.4.2 Resort Hotels

A second important hotel type is the resort or seasonal hotel, and it caters chiefly for the
vacationer and recreation minded tourists. Although resort hotels have changed during the years,
greater share of the guests still spend from one week to three months there. These hotels are
P a g e | 37

usually located at some important recreational centers, like body of water (ocean or large lake),
in the mountains, and is usually free from the clamour of the large city. It is however, accessible
by automobile and train.

While in a commercial hotel, the guest seldom sees the manager and looks upon the hotel
primarily as this temporary headquarters in the city, the resort guest expects to be completely
entertained right on the premises, maintaining very personal relationship with the management.
The staff of resort hotels includes a social director, recreation director or entertainment director
and a large resort maintains a complete department in this field.

2.4.3 Residential Hotels

Residential hotels are designed to provide permanent houses for persons who do not want to own
their own houses, but want more complete service than they would find in an apartment. This
type of hotel is principally found in the U.S. essentially, a residential hotel offers maid service,
room service, a dining room and possibly a cocktail lounge. Today, many have banquet facilities
and in addition to a large scale food and beverage business. Residential hotels range from
luxurious, offering suites incorporating a living room, a kitchen or kitchenette, one or more
bedrooms and one or more bathrooms. This type of hotel is usually located away from down
town. Many face parks or civic centers.

2.4.4 Motels

Motels are designed to serve the needs of motorists and must provide facilities for car parking
and easy access from the highway since they stand along highways. They frequently are located
at inter-sections or inconvenient and are on one or two storeyes high with rooms or separate
cabins located around a drive-way or central court. Many of today‘s motels are luxurious, with
wall to wall carpeting, television and telephones. Many motels have swimming pools and play

As motels cater mainly for people on route by car or motoring locally and therefore are sited on
the outskirts of cities where land is cheaper, the sites are therefore fairly large, allowing large car
park and low or medium rise construction. All usually hotel services are generally contained but
on a modest scale.
P a g e | 38

Petrol and garage services even if not connected to the motel, should be available nearby. An
example of a good motel is the Motor hotel Revere Massachusetts, USA by Arc. Salsberg and Le

2.4.5 City Center Hotel

This includes luxury, convention and city tourist hotels. They are characterized by high plot
ratio, high rise construction, frequently large function accommodation and include shops and
offices to improve viability. City centre hotels are patronized a great deal by city folks.

Examples of city centre hotel include Hyatt Regency Hotel Houston Texas, USA by Arc JVIII
Renaissance centre, Detroit, USA by Arc John Portman, Hyatt Hotel Boston USA also by Arc
John Portman, benaventure Hotel Los Angeles USA also by John Portman, Phoenix of Atlanta
Hotel USA by Arc Alan Ladipus.

2.4.6 Airport Hotels

Airport hotels have similar planning principles to motels but the catering is specifically for air
travelers. Therefore all night reception is required and possibly some night catering. It sometimes
has convention services for convenience of international companies.


Figure 2.1"Five-star superior" rating at Hotel Kempinski Vier Jahreszeiten, Munich,

P a g e | 39

The star classification system is a common way of rating hotels. Higher star ratings indicate
more luxury and facilities.

Hotels are independently assessed in traditional systems and rest heavily on the facilities
provided. Some consider this disadvantageous to smaller hotels whose quality of accommodation
could fall into one class but the lack of an item such as an elevator would prevent it from
reaching a higher categorization.

In recent years hotel rating systems have also been criticized by some who argue that the rating
criteria for such systems are overly complex and difficult for lay persons to understand. It has
been suggested that the lack of a unified global system for rating hotels may also undermine the
usability of such schemes.

2.5.1 Standards of Hotel Classification

Food services, entertainment, view, room variations such as sizes and additional amenities,
fitness centers, ease of access and location may be considered in establishing a standard.

The more common classification systems include 'star' rating, letter grading, from 'A' to 'F',
diamond or simply a 'satisfactory' or 'unsatisfactory' footnote to accommodation such as hostels
and motels. Systems using terms such as Deluxe/ Luxury, First Class/ Superior, Tourist Class/
Standard, and Budget Class/ Economy are more widely accepted as hotel types, rather than hotel

Some countries have rating by a single public standard - Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Italy,
Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Hungary have laws defining the hotel rating. In
Germany, Austria and Switzerland the rating is defined by the respective hotel industry
association using a five-star rating system - the German classifications are Tourist (*), Standard
(**), Comfort (***), First Class (****) and Luxury (*****) with the mark Superior to flag extras
beyond the minimum defined in the standard. The Swiss hotel rating was the first non-
government formal hotel classification beginning in 1979 . It did influence the hotel classification
in Austria and Germany. The formal hotel classification of the DEHOGA (German Hotel and
Restaurant Association) started on 1st August 1996 and proved very successful (with 80% of
P a g e | 40

guests citing the hotel stars as the main criteria in hotel selection) which lead to the creation of a
common European Hotel stars rating system that started in 2010. (Wikipedia, the free

In France, the rating is defined by the public tourist board of the department using a four-star
system (plus "L" for Luxus) which has changed to a five-star system from 2009 on. In South
Africa and Namibia, the Tourist Grading Council of South Africa has strict rules for a hotel types
granting up to 5 stars.

2.5.2 European Hotel stars Union

The Hotels, Restaurants & Cafés in Europe (HOTREC) is an umbrella organization for 39
associations from 24 European countries. At a conference in Bergen in 2004, the partners drafted
a hotel classification system in order to harmonize their national standards. In 2007 HOTREC
launched the European Hospitality Quality scheme (EHQ) which has since accredited the
existing national inspection bodies for hotel rating.

Under the patronage of HOTREC, the hotel associations of Austria, Czech Republic, Germany,
Hungary, Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland created the Hotel Stars Union. On 14
September 2009, the Hotel stars Union classification system was established at a conference in
Prague. This system became effective in these countries in January 2010, with the exception of
Hungary, Switzerland and the Netherlands, who have chosen later dates for the change.

The Hotel stars Union classification defines the same levels as the earlier German classification
system with five stars and Superior mark to flag extras. Instead of a strict minimum in room size
and required shower facilities (e.g. a bath tub in a four-star hotel) there is a catalogue of criteria
with 21 qualifications encompassing 270 elements, where some are mandatory for a star and
others optional.

2.5.3 Hotel Classifications in Britain

In Britain, hotels are rated from one-star to five stars, as in many other countries. The only
grading schemes in operation in Britain are those operated by the AA (Automobile Association)
P a g e | 41

and the national tourist boards. The schemes were all 'harmonized' to ensure consistency between
the schemes. This applies to all accommodation types apart from self catering that the AA have
recently (2009) started offering. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

2.5.4 World Hotel Rating/Classification

There is so far no international classification which has been adopted. There have been attempts
at unifying the classification system so that it becomes an internationally recognized and reliable
standard, but they have all failed.

It has been considered that, as it has been the case in other areas (e.g. international accounting
standards), hotel classification standards should result from a private and independent initiative.
This may be the case of the World Hotel Rating (WHR) project, which notably aims to set
international classification standards and rating criteria along the lines of a world star-rating
system. It will also establish an information platform on the hotel industry which will be
multilingual and multicultural. WHR intends to play a key role in the development of quality
hotel services, as well as equitable and sustainable tourism, and the protection of the world's
cultural and natural heritage. In addition, WHR will develop labels to promote hotels
distinguished by specific features, such as a family and child-friendly disposition. A test period
was scheduled for 2010. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

2.5.5 Six- and seven-star hotels

Some members of the hotels have claimed a six or seven-star rating for their operation. As no
organization or formal body awards or recognizes any rating over five-star deluxe, such claims
are meaningless and predominantly used for advertising purposes. The Burj Al Arab hotel in
Dubai is widely described as a "seven-star" property, but the hotel says the label originates from
an unnamed British journalist on a press trip and that they neither encourage its use nor do they
use it in their advertising. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
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Figure 2.2: Burj Al Arab

The Seven Stars Galleria is a hotel located in Milan, Italy. It describes itself for marketing
purposes as the world's first seven-star hotel, citing the private inspection company ―Société
Générale de Surveillance‖, but official star classification in Italy includes no rating higher than
five-star. The hotel is a member of luxury hospitality trade organization, The Leading Hotels of
the World.

2.5.6 Hotel Stars

The European Hotel Stars Union has created a profiling system based on the earlier German
hotel stars system that had widely influenced the hotel classifications in central Europe. The
main criteria are in quality management, wellness and sleeping accommodation. In the catalogue
of criteria each entry is associated with a number of points - each Hotel stars level requires a
minimal sum of points besides some criteria being obligatory for the level. The minimum
requirement for the Superior flag requires the same sum of points as for the next Hotel stars
P a g e | 43

Hotel star: Tourist

 100% of the rooms with shower/WC or bath tub/WC

 Daily room cleaning
 100% of the rooms with colour-TV together with remote control
 Table and chair
 Soap or body wash
 Reception service
 Facsimile at the reception
 Publicly available telephone for guests
 Extended breakfast
 Beverage offer in the hotel
 Deposit possibility

Superior Tourist The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and
accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel Star. The bathroom facilities are
usually at the same level as for two stars hotels but built from cheaper materials. The cost for
regular inspection by independent associations is waived as well.
Standard In addition to the single star (*) hotels:

 Breakfast buffet
 Reading light next to the bed
 Bath essence or shower gel
 Bath towels
 Linen shelves
 Offer of sanitary products (e.g. toothbrush, toothpaste, shaving kit)
 Credit Cards

Superior Standard The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and
accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel Star. The Standard-Superior does
usually offer the same service level as three-star hotels but the interiors of the hotel are smaller
and cheaper so that the three stars were not to be awarded by the inspection body.
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Comfort In addition to the standard star (**) hotels:

 Reception opened 14 hours, accessible by phone 24 hours from inside and outside,
bilingual staff (e.g. German/English)
 Three piece suite at the reception, luggage service
 Beverage offer in the room
 Telephone in the room
 Internet access in the room or in the public area
 Heating facility in the bathroom, hair-dryer, cleansing tissue
 Dressing mirror, place to put the luggage/suitcase
 Sewing kit, shoe polish utensils, laundry and ironing service
 Additional pillow and additional blanket on demand
 Systematic complaint management system

Superior Comfort The Superior flag is provided when the additional service and
accommodation provisions are not sufficient for the next Hotel Star. The accommodation
facilities for a superior hotel need to be on a modern level and fully renovated which is checked

First Class In addition to the comfort star (***) hotels:

 Reception opened 18 hours, accessible by phone 24 hours from inside and outside
 Lobby with seats and beverage service
 Breakfast buffet or breakfast menu card via room service
 Mini-bar or 24 hours beverages via room service
 Upholstered chair/couch with side table
 Bath robe and slippers on demand
 Cosmetic products (e.g. shower cap, nail file, cotton swabs), vanity mirror, tray of a large
scale in the bathroom)
 Internet access and internet terminal
 "À la carte"-restaurant
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First Class Superior The Superior flag is provided when the first class hotel has a
proven high quality not only in the rooms. The superior hotels provide for additional facilities in
the hotel like a sauna or a studio room.

Luxury In addition to the first class (****) hotels:

 Reception opened 24 hours, multilingual staff

 Doorman-service or valet parking
 Concierge, page boy
 Spacious reception hall with several seats and beverage service
 Personalized greeting for each guest with fresh flowers or a present in the room
 Minibar and food and beverage offer via room service during 24 hours
 Personal care products in flacons
 Internet-PC in the room
 Safe in the room
 Ironing service (return within 1 hour), shoe polish service
 Turndown service in the evening

Superior Luxury The Luxury star hotels need to attain high expectations of an
international guest service. The Superior Luxury star is only awarded with a system of intensive
guest care.

2.5.7 Hotel Stars in Nigeria

Hotels worldwide are evaluated according to the scale of hotel investment and facilities. In
Nigeria, this evaluation exercise falls under the jurisdiction of Nigerian Tourism Development
Corporation (NTDC). Hotels are generally starred and the classification standards adopted
stipulate the minimum size of hotel established-measured by the number of rooms:-

5 - star - minimum 100 lettable rooms

4 - star - minimum 50 lettable rooms

3 - star - minimum 25 lettable rooms

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2 - star - minimum 10 lettable rooms

1 - star - minimum 5 lettable rooms

Table 2.1: Minimum lettable rooms that make a star

Also classification standards stipulate the definite hotel structure:

a. In hotels of higher categories, all bedrooms should be provided with the attached
bathroom/sanitary facilities

b. Hotels of higher categories should have definite room structure (availability of

different types of rooms)

By stipulating the minimum room floor area in each hotel category, the regulations are
introducing the basic measure of comfort – the available living space. Depending on hotel
category/class, the following are the standards/requirements concerning the minimum room size:

Double single

5 - star - 18 m2 16m2

4 - star - 14 m2 12m2

3 - star - 12 m2 10m2

2 - star - 10 m2 8m2

1 - star - 10 m2 8m2

Table 2.2 : Minimum sizes of room that makes a star

Other criteria also employed in classifying higher category of hotels. In 5 – star hotels for
instance, at least 70 percent of the staff must be professionally trained and qualified in hotel
catering and management and the hotel must have an on-the-job trainer who for 24 hours daily
will direct the hotel staff. A high standard must be maintained in the public toilets with constant
running water, soap, hot air hand driers and toilets paper.
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Room service should be available for 24 hours daily as well as reception. Postal and telex
services must also be operated on a 24-hours basis. The hotel kitchen must be hygienically
maintained and adequate waste disposal facilities ensured for it to qualify as top rated.

The conference room must have minimum facilities to accommodate 2,000 guests with
simultaneous transition equipment and smaller rooms for seminars, meeting etc. Choice of drinks
must be unrestricted while cuisine must be of excellent standard.

In the rooms, there must be telephones, color television sets, radios and music equipment,
refrigerator, air conditioners, private bathrooms, toilets and mini-bars. The restaurant must be
very sophisticated in terms of furniture, interior decoration and the quality of service while there
should be three kinds of bars, cocktails, public and dispense bars.

Outdoor facilities should include swimming pool, gardens (ground and roof) night club, saunas,
tennis courts and other sporting facilities, gift shops banks, etc.

As the primary function of a hotel is to accommodate its visitors and ideally to offer them the
similar conditions they have at house, the desired layout, décor, furniture and furnishings of the
hotel bedroom should be fundamental sparing nothing in its quest for excellence. And as the
hotel guest normally spends at least one-third of his stay in his room, the cleanliness of the room,
good order of all furniture and facilities and the smooth functioning of the room installations
(TV,air-conditioning etc) should attract top priority attention.

Also there is other conditionality for rating in other hotel classes. For instance, apart from the
general guestroom furniture, there must be one arm chair available in three star hotels and
establishments of higher class, a dressing/writing table to be available in four and five star hotels,
a bed side ray for each guest to be available in two star hotels and establishment of higher class,
a luggage rack to be available in two star hotels and other establishments of higher class. There
must be carpet in the guestroom of four and five star hotels, a mini-bar/refrigerator to be
available in five star hotels

Other degrees of comfort criteria used in rating or classification by the Nigerian tourist board

a. Thermal comfort available in bedrooms.

P a g e | 48

b. Protection against noise

c. Adequate and standards of furniture

d. Conditions of hygiene and cleanliness

e. Communication system

f. Electrical equipment and lighting

g. easy access to information

h. Other aspects of importance.

Each of the above areas is looked at separately and subsequently evaluated with points allotted
which will eventually lead the hotel to a particular class.

2.5.8 Benefits of Hotel Classification

The advantage of adopting a Classification System cannot be overemphasized; it is a worthy

venture in all ramifications. This is because guests expect to find the minimum operational
standards regardless of the location or provider. Hence, when hotels are graded and classified,
government's plan in terms of accommodation is made easier.
Marketing strategy also become easier with guest profiles of different categories available and
investors have benchmarks for improving standards and/or adding a range of facilities.
It also helps public and private organs in their promotions with clearer focus and eliminates bad
properties which impact negatively on the reputation of the destination.


2.6.1 Historical Background of Green Architecture

Problem of resource depletion

Ideas of sustainability have resulted from realizations that Earth‘s available natural resources will
not be able to support current global patterns of consumption indefinitely. According to Kilbert
(1999) the built environment consumes 40 percent of extracted resources in most industrialized
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countries, and 30 to 40 percent of generated energy, which often depends on resources such as
coal, oil, or natural gas.

The building sector is responsible for a large share of the world‘s total energy consumption. The
International Energy Agency (2005) estimates that buildings account for 30-40% of the
worldwide energy use, which is equivalent to 2,500 Mtoe (million tons of energy) every year.
Accordingly, studies carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) (2002, 2003) suggest that residential and commercial building sectors are
responsible for about 30% of primary energy consumed in OECD countries, and for
approximately 30% of the greenhouse gas emissions of these countries. These studies also
indicate that energy consumption by the building sector in OECD countries has continually
increased since the 1960s and will continue to do so in the coming years.

In non-OECD countries the situation is also worrying. On one hand, many middle-income
countries rely on fossil fuels to meet the energy demand in their building stocks. On the other
hand, in the low-income rural areas of Africa, India and China the main energy source for more
than 70% of the population is traditional biomass such as wood, animal dung and crop waste
(Figures 2.1 and 2.2)(UNEP 2007). In addition, kerosene and paraffin are still widely used for
lighting in the rural areas of developing countries. By using wood biomass these practices
contribute to deforestation and desertification processes, decreasing the capacity of existing
carbon sinks to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere.

Figure 2.3: Share of Woodfuels in National Energy Consumption

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Source: IEA 1996. United Nations Environment Programme, 2007

Figure 2.4 Share of Traditional Biomass in Residential Energy Consumption, 2000

Source: IEA 2002. United Nations Environment Programme, 2007

Modern buildings consume energy in a number of ways. As analyzed by Jones (1998), energy
consumption in buildings occurs in five phases (Figure 2.3). The first phase corresponds to the
manufacturing of building materials and components, which are termed embodied energy. The
second and third phases correspond to the energy used to transport materials from production
plants to the building site and the energy used in the actual construction of the building, which
are respectively referred to as grey energy and induced energy. Fourthly, energy is consumed at
the operational phase (operation energy), which corresponds to the running of the building when
it is occupied – usually estimated at 100 years, although this figure varies from country to
country (UNEP 2007). Finally, energy is consumed in the demolition process of buildings as
well as in the recycling of their parts, when this is promoted (demolition recycling energy).
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Figure 2.5 Energy consumed in the life of a building, estimated at 60 years United Nations
Environment Programme, 2007

Source: United Nations Environment Programme, 2007

Many of these resources are not renewable, meaning they will become more costly and difficult
to attain over time until they are ultimately no longer accessible. Thus architecture is significant
to the long-term availability of natural resources.
Each year, some three billion tonnes of raw materials – 40-50% of the total flow in the global
economy – are used in the manufacturing of building products and components worldwide
(Roodman and Lenssen 1995; Anink et al. 1996). Raw materials for the building sector are
extracted, processed, transported, added in the construction phase and finally disposed. All these
stages imply a number of environmental impacts. In particular, the building sector is a heavy
consumer of materials with high embodied energy content, such as aluminium, cement and steel,
whose production usually depends on the use of fossil fuels, resulting in CO2 emission. (UNEP
The problem of the depletion of resources is further complicated by the increasing global
population. It has been estimated that by 2026, the world population will have doubled from the
population in 1986 of 5 billion people. (Kilbert, 1999) The increased demand for resources that
accompanies population growth will hasten the depletion of these resources. Since more
architecture will be needed to accommodate this expanding population, the consumption or
conservation of resources of this architecture could help to determine the future availability of
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Some of the effects of resource depletion are already being borne in the form of the economic
damage caused by climatic change. Due to the rising number of environmental catastrophes,
there was increase of 40% between the years of 1990 to 2000 alone, when compared to economic
damage sustained between 1950 and 1990.(Bauer et al, 2010) Without the implementation of
effective measurements, further damage, which must therefore still be expected, cannot be

Figure 2.6 Major weather-caused catastrophes from 1950 to 2000

Source: Green building for sustainable Architecture 2010

Sustainable buildings that are both environmentally and resource-friendly enjoy an increasingly
higher standing when compared to primarily economically oriented solutions. Aside from social
and economic factors, steadily rising energy costs over recent years facilitate the trend towards
sustainability. Over the past 10 years alone, oil prices have more than doubled, with an annual
increase of 25% between 2004 and 2008. Taking into account both contemporary energy prices
and price increases, energy saving measures have become essential in this day and age. (Bauer et
al, 2010)
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Figure 2.7 Nominal Development of Crude Oil Prices from 1960 onward

Source: Green building for sustainable Architecture 2010

Owing to rising public interest in sustainable and ecological solutions, the last few years have
resulted in the establishment of numerous framework conditions that facilitate the use of energy-
saving technologies, energy sources that are easy on resources and sustainable products for the
property sector.
According to Bauer (2010) the base of a sustainable energy policy can be found in various
national, European and International laws, standards, norms and stipulations that specify
measurable standards of energy efficiency for buildings and facilities. Since February 2005, the
KYOTO protocol has been applied and it is meant to reduce the levels of global greenhouse gas
emissions. The origin of this protocol can be traced back to 1997. It stands for an international
environmental treaty where the 39 participating industrial nations agreed, by 2012, to reduce
their collective emission of environmentally harmful gases, like, for instance, carbon dioxide
(CO2) by a total of 5% when compared to 1990 levels. (Bauer et al 2010)
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Figure 2.8 CO2 Emissions Distribution levels per Capita, World Population, for the year

Source: Green building for sustainable Architecture 2010

This is explicitly permitted in the Emissions Trade Bill as an opt-in rule. The evaluation and
financing of buildings based on their CO2 market value is something that, in the not-too-distant
future, will reach the property sector as well. A possible platform for building- related emissions
trade already exists with the EU directive on overall energy efficiency and with the mandatory
energy passport. Our planet earth only has limited biocapacity in order to regenerate from
harmful substances and consumption of its resources. Since the Nineties, global consumption
levels exceed available biocapacity. In order to reinstate the ecological balance of the earth, the
CO2 footprint needs to be decreased. (Bauer et al, 2010)
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Figure 2.9:The processes of green architecture [BEER ]

Considered together, the problems of resource depletion, population increase, industrialization,

and pollution paint a grim picture for the future. The most obvious effect is economic, in which
an accelerating decrease in supply will eventually be insufficient to meet an exponential increase
in demand. This means that at some point the Earth would no longer be able to support the
human population, which would decrease from that point on as resources continued to decrease.
It is possible that human behavior may make the planet unlivable even before we reach this
economic breaking point. The deteriorating quality of land, air, and water could render any one
of these resources useless before a total economic crisis. The loss of global biodiversity, another
side effect of resource extraction and pollution through which species are becoming extinct,
threatens food chains, genetic diversity, potential resources, and macro and micro ecosystems.
The threats of global warming and depletion of the ozone layer, which provides protection from
the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, may lead to global destruction on their own. Since
architecture plays a role in each of these processes, an effort to prevent one of these dire
outcomes would have to prescribe methods for conserving resources of materials and energy as
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well as reducing waste production and pollution in each phase of a building‘s existence and at
every scale of the design. (Kilbert, 1999)

2.6.2 History of Green Building

Some practices, such as using local and renewable materials or passive solar design, date back
millennia – the Anasazi in the Southwest built entire villages so that all the homes received solar
heat in the winter. The contemporary green building movement arose out of the need and desire
for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly building practices. The oil price increases
of the 1970s spurred significant research and activity to improve energy efficiency and find
renewable energy sources. This, combined with the environmental movement of the 1960s and
1970s, led to the earliest experiments with contemporary green building.

What is green building? The Office of the Federal Environmental Executive defines green building
as ―the practice of 1) increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy,
water, and materials, and 2) reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through
better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal — the complete building life

Although green building, or sustainable design and development, has gained currency in the last decade, it
harkens back more than a century, according to David Gissen, curator of architecture and design at the
National Building Museum, Washington, D.C. As far back as the nineteenth century, Gissen notes,
structures like London‘s Crystal Palace and Milan‘s Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II used passive systems,
such as roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers, to moderate indoor air temperature. In the
early twentieth century, skyscrapers like New York‘s Flatiron Building and the New York Times Building
employed deep-set windows to shade the sun. Still later, Rockefeller Center (1932) utilized both operable
windows and sky gardens. New York‘s Wainwright Building and Chicago‘s Carson Pirie Scott
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Figure 2.10: London Crystal Palace

Figure 2.11: Milan’s Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II Interio

Source :Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
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department store had retractable awnings to block the sun, and other commercial buildings of the period
were outfitted with window shades.

Starting in the 1930s, new building technologies began to transform the urban landscape. The advent of
air conditioning, low-wattage fluorescent lighting, structural steel, and reflective glass made possible
enclosed glass-and-steel structures that could be heated and cooled with massive HVAC systems, thanks
to the availability in the U.S. of cheap fossil fuels. The post-war economic boom accelerated the pace of
this phenomenon, to the point where the International Style ―glass box‖ became the design icon of
America‘s cities and rapidly growing suburbs. In the 1970s, a small group of forward-thinking architects,
environmentalists, and ecologists, inspired by the work of Victor Olgyay (Design with Climate), Ralph
Knowles (Form and Stability), and Rachel Carson (Silent Spring), began to question the advisability of
building in this manner. Their efforts were given impetus by the celebration of the first Earth Day in April
1970, but it was not until the OPEC oil embargo of 1973 that the nascent ―environmental movement‖
captured the attention of the public at large. As gasoline prices spiked upward and lines at gas stations
stretched for blocks, many Americans started to wonder about the wisdom of relying so heavily on fossil
fuels for transportation and buildings. In response to the energy crisis, the American Institute of Architects
formed an energy task force and, later, the AIA Committee on Energy.

According to committee member Dan Williams, the group formed into two camps. One group looked
toward passive systems, such as reflective roofing materials and environmentally beneficial siting of
buildings, to achieve energy savings, while the other concentrated more on technological solutions,
such as the use of triple-glazed windows. Even as the immediate energy crisis began to recede, pioneering
efforts in energy conservation for buildings were beginning to take hold. In England, Norman Foster used
a grass roof, a daylighted atrium, and mirrored windows in the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters
(1977). California commissioned eight energy-sensitive state office buildings, notably the Gregory
Bateson Building (1978), which employed photovoltaics, underfloor rock-store cooling systems, and area
climate-control mechanisms. In 1977, a separate Cabinet department, the Department of Energy, was
created to address energy usage and conservation, the same year the Solar Energy Research Institute (later
renamed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) was established in Golden, Colo., to investigate
energy technologies, such as photovoltaics. The 1980s and early 90s saw further efforts by such
proponents as Robert Berkebile, Randy Croxton, Bruce Fowle, Robert Fox, Vivian Loftness, William
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McDonough, and Sandra Mendler. At the international level, Germany‘s Thomas Herzog, Malaysia‘s
Kenneth Yeang, and England‘s Norman Foster and Richard Rogers were experimenting with prefabricated
energy efficient wall systems, water-reclamation systems, and modular construction units that reduced
construction waste. Scandinavian governments set minimums for access to daylight and operable
windows in workspaces.

Meanwhile, the 1987 UN World Commission on Environment and Development, under Norwegian
prime minister Gro Harlem Bruntland, provided the first definition of the term ―sustainable
development,‖ as that which ―meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.‖ In 1989, Berkebile led the transformation of the
AIA Energy Committee into the more broadly scaled AIA Committee on the Environment
(COTE). The next year, the AIA, through COTE and the AIA Scientific Advisory Committee on the
Environment, obtained funding from the Environmental Protection Agency to undertake the development
of a guide to building products based on life cycle analysis, the first such assessment to be
conducted in the U.S. The individual product evaluations were eventually compiled in the AIA
Environmental Resource Guide, first published in 1992. One of the keystone documents in sustainability,
the ―ERG‖ is credited with encouraging numerous building product manufacturers to make their products
more ecologically sensitive. In June 1992, the newly elected president of the AIA, Susan Maxman,
participated in the UN Conference on Environment and Development, in Rio de Janeiro. The so-called
Earth Summit drew delegations from 172 governments and 2,400 representatives of nongovernmental
organizations. The momentous event saw the passage of Agenda 21, a blueprint for achieving global
sustainability, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and statements on forest principles,
climate change, and biodiversity. Inspired by the Earth Summit, the AIA president- elect chose
sustainability as her theme for the June 1993 UIA/AIA World Congress of Architects. Six thousand
architects from around the world descended upon Chicago for this event, held in conjunction with the
International Union of Architects (UIA). They referred to the U.N.‘s 1985 Bruntland Commission
definition of sustainability and brought the issue center stage with the signing of the Declaration of
Interdependence for a Sustainable Future by AIA president Maxman and UIA president Olufemi
Majekodunmi. Today, the ―Architecture at the Crossroads‖ convention is recognized as a turning point in
the history of the green building movement. With the election of Bill Clinton in November of that year,
the idea began to percolate among proponents of sustainability to use the White House itself as a
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laboratory. On Earth Day, April 21, 1993, President Clinton announced plans to make the Presidential
mansion ―a model for efficiency and waste reduction.‖ The ―Greening of the White House‖ (which
also took in the 600,000 sq. ft. Old Executive Office Building across from the White House) got
underway with an energy audit by the Department of Energy, an environmental audit led by the
Environmental Protection Agency, and a series of design charettes in which nearly a hundred
environmentalists, design professionals, engineers, and government officials were asked to devise energy-
conservation solutions using off the- shelf technologies. Within three years, the numerous improvements
to the nearly 200-year-old residence led to $300,000 in annual energy and water savings, landscaping
expenses, and solid-waste costs, while reducing atmospheric emissions from the White House by 845 tons
of carbon a year.
At about the same time efforts in other countries were emerging and interacting with American
efforts. The British green building rating system, BREEAM (the Building Research
Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) was developed in 1992. Several task groups
within an international construction research networking organization, Conseil International du
Batiment (CIB), headquartered in Rotterdam, formed in 1992, most notably Task Group 8
(Building Assessment) and Task Group 16 (Sustainable Construction).

2.6.3 Relationship Between Green Architecture and Sustainable Building

Sustainable building - On the left end of the building spectrum below is conventional
building and on the right end is sustainable building. Sustainable is the threshold where, over
their lifetime, a building's resource use and waste production are in balance with the earth's
natural services. A sustainable building must also be economically viable and socially
equitable, achieving the "three E's" of sustainability - environment, economy and equity(Greater
Seattle Chamber of Commerce)

Figure 2.12: The Building spectrum

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Green Building - Green building is the path to get from conventional to sustainable building.
This path is represented by "light green" strategies just to the right of conventional building,
"dark green" strategies close to sustainable building on the right side of
the spectrum and "medium green" strategies in between [Greater Seattle Chamber of
From definitions of different terms that integrate environment and building, we can conclude that
there is a misunderstanding in the use of such terms.
Ecological, green architecture and sustainability are terms sometimes used mistakenly to
express the same thing. In fact, they could easily be defined and categorized regarding the
aspects they deal with.
Ecology deals with ecological design including eco-village, eco-city and arcology, which
concerns only natural environment protection.
Green architecture includes green building and green construction, which concerns both natural
environment protection and human being comfort.
Sustainability encompasses more and in addition to natural environment protection and human
being comfort, it concerns economic development.

Figure 2.13: The relationships of the terms integrate environment and building

Different sets of green architecture principles are generated from different points of view.
Listed below is a brief description of each set of principles.
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Set 1 of Green Architecture Principles [Vale, 1991]

 Conserving energy
 Working with climate
 Minimizing new resources
 Respect for users
 Respect for site
 Holism

Set 2 of Green Architecture Principles [Barnett and Browning, 1995]

 Make appropriate use of land
 Use water, energy, lumber, and other resources efficiently
 Enhance human health
 Strengthen local economies and communities
 Conserve plants, animals, endangered species, and natural habitats
 Protect agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources
 Be nice to live in
 Be economical to build and operate
Set 3 of Green Architecture Principles [Environmental Building News, 2002]
 Smaller is better. Optimize use of interior space through careful design so that the overall
building size, resource use in constructing and operating process are kept at a minimum
 Design an energy-efficient building. Use high levels of insulation, high-performance
windows, and tight construction
 Design buildings to use renewable energy. Passive solar heating, day lighting, and
natural cooling can be incorporated cost-effectively into most buildings. Also consider
solar water heating and photovoltaic
 Optimize material use. Minimize waste by designing for standard ceiling heights and
building dimensions. Simplify building geometry
 Design for water-efficient, low-maintenance landscaping. Conventional lawns have a
high impact because of water use, pesticide use, and pollution generated by lawn mowers
 Landscape with drought-resistant native plants and perennial ground covers
 Make it easy for occupants to recycle waste. Make provisions for storage and processing
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of recyclables
 Look into the feasibility of using grey water. Water from sinks, showers, and washing
machines can be recycled for irrigation in some areas
 Design for durability. To spread the environmental impacts of building over as long a
period as possible, the structure must be durable. Durable aesthetics ("timeless
architecture") are also important
 Design for future reuse and adaptability. Make the structure adaptable to other uses, and
choose materials and components that can be reused or recycled
 Avoid potential health hazards: radon, mould, and pesticides
In summation, the above-mentioned principles describe green architecture as equally
concerning both the natural environment and the human well-being. Natural environment
includes conserving plants and animals and using land, water, energy and other resources
efficiently. Human well-being includes enhancing human health indoor and outdoor.


Provided by Ewan Willars: Head of Policy, RIBA

In addition to the mandatory standards enforced through the building regulations and the semi-
regulatory standards of the Code for Sustainable Homes, there are a range of independent
standards, which are set out below. These include standards and assessment methods suitable for
non-domestic buildings:

 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

 CIBSE Benchmarks
 Green Star
 Other Methods
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2.8.1 Low carbon standards and assessment methods for non-domestic buildings

Standards and assessment methods relating to energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from
non-domestic buildings have changed dramatically in recent years. These changes are largely a
result of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD).

Under the legal requirements of the EPBD, all EU member states must:

 Implement national or regional calculation methodologies for assessing the energy

performance of new and existing buildings.
 Establish energy performance standards for new buildings and benchmarks for existing
 Require 'consequential improvements' to the energy efficiency of buildings over 1000m2
undergoing refurbishment.
 Arrange for all buildings to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) available
whenever they are offered for sale or rent. A small number of buildings are exempt (e.g.
some heritage buildings). The EPCs of large buildings to which the public has access
must be displayed.

2.8.2 CIBSE benchmarks

The Chartered Institute of Buildings Services Engineers (CIBSE) publishes comprehensive

guidance on energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings. This guidance includes:

 CIBSE Guide F Energy Efficiency in Buildings , which includes energy performance

benchmarks for new and existing buildings of various types.
 CIBSE Guide L Sustainability recommends broader environmental performance
 The CIBSE Energy Assessment and Reporting Methodology (TM22) provides a
comprehensive procedure for assessing the energy performance of an existing, occupied
building based on metered energy use - this document is available on CD-ROM with an
implementation of the method as computer software.
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 Energy Benchmarks (TM46) offers comprehensive building energy benchmarks,

including what they are, how they were developed and how to use them. As well as the
benchmarks themselves, it provides details of separable energy uses and includes weather
and occupancy adjustments.

2.8.3 BREEAM

The Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) is a

voluntary scheme that aims to quantify and reduce the environmental burden of buildings by
rewarding designs and operational procedures that take positive steps to minimise their
environmental impact.

BREEAM assessments can be undertaken using a number of standardised methods, for different
building types:

 Offices
 Education
 Higher Education (forthcoming)
 Retail
 Industrial
 Prisons
 Courts
 Multi-residential buildings

Projects are assessed using a system of credits. These credits are grouped into the following

 Management
 Health & Wellbeing
 Energy
 Transport
 Water
 Materials
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 Waste
 Land & Ecology
 Pollution

The assessment process results in a report covering the above credit categories. The full
assessment is submitted to BRE for quality assurance, checking and certification. Certificates are
awarded depending on a rating scale and will result in a building being awarded a PASS, GOOD,

2.8.4 LEED

Developed in the USA, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green
Building Rating System is a voluntary standard for sustainable buildings.

LEED was created to:

 Define 'green building' by establishing a standard of measurement.

 Promote integrated, whole-building design practices.
 Recognise environmental leadership in the building industry.
 Stimulate green competition.
 Raise consumer awareness of green building benefits.
 Transform the building market.

LEED provides a framework for assessing building performance and meeting sustainability
goals. It is based on well-founded scientific standards and incorporates sustainable site
development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental
quality. A project achieves a LEED Certified, Silver, Gold, or Platinum rating based on the
number of points achieved in these six environmental categories.

2.8.5 Green Star

-Green Star Australia was based in part on BREEAM and LEED in 2003 by the Green Building
Council Australia. It was developed as a national, voluntary appraisal tool that evaluates the
environmental design construction of buildings. It is used in Australia, New Zealand and South
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While the various individual and collaborative efforts at green architecture have had a shared
sense of purpose, their motivations, solutions, and understandings of the problem of
sustainability have varied widely to reflect its complexity. The resulting theories have tended to
have conflicting goals and practices, yet each may be internally consistent. Simon Guy and
Graham Farmer have identified ―six competing logics of green architecture,‖ based on an
analysis of built projects and literature. (Guy and Farmer, 2001)Their classifications of eco-
technic, eco-centric, eco-aesthetic, eco-cultural, eco-medical, and eco-social describe the
diversity of theories of green architecture. Each is internally consistent, and while none are
mutually exclusive, they conflict with each other in their emphases, goals, and methods (Guy and
Farmer, 2001). They can be understood and compared in terms of their interpretation of the
problem of green architecture, values for green architecture, and similarities to broader
architectural theories.

The eco-technic logic has tended to dominate attitudes towards green building. This logic views
the problem of green architecture in its global context, as it has been presented here, with an
emphasis on the ―techno-rational‖ quantifying of resources and values. Eco-technic architecture
relies on high technologies, energy efficiency, and overall control over building functionality.
Architecture in this vein tends to follow the tenets of Modernism, utilizing regularity for flexible
use of space, attempting to account for and control patterns of habitation, and opting for ―high-
tech‖ materials over those of the regional context. (Guy and Farmer, 2001)

The eco-centric logic contrasts strongly with the eco-technic. In this approach, the Earth is
viewed as a fragile organism, often associated with the notion of ―Gaia‖ put forth by James
Lovelock. According to Lovelock, Gaia is ―a complex entity involving the Earth‘s biosphere,
atmosphere, oceans, and soil,‖ essentially a singular form of life comprised of all of the living
and non-living things on Earth.(Lovelock, 1979) Preserving natural biological and ecological
processes is more important than engineering new methods of control to maintain environmental
equilibrium. Architecture produced within this framework emphasizes ecological preservation,
restoration of nature, minimal development, and self-sufficiency. Its disdain for the objects of
architecture makes it difficult to relate to theoretical precedents, yet the reliance on ―renewable,
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natural materials‖ and harmony with nature is comparable to primitive types of architecture.
(Guy and Farmer, 2001)

The eco-aesthetic logic breaks from the pragmatic sensibilities of the previous logics to promote
―a new language in the building arts.‖ (Guy and Farmer, 2001) This theory applies green
architecture as a metaphor for spiritually connecting man with the natural world, which is viewed
as sensuous, complex, and often chaotic. Eco-aesthetic architecture is individualistic,
encouraging creative interpretations of ecological models as the basis for a new aesthetic. This
approach has traces of postmodernism, with its emphases on complexity and the communicative
potential of architecture. It also suggests motivations for recent trends towards ―blobs‖ and
―folds.‖ (Guy and Farmer, 2001)

The eco-cultural logic incorporates environmental concerns with a focus on maintaining cultural
diversity and traditional values. In this view, green architecture is important not only as a means
of preserving global ecosystems but also as a safeguard against cultural homogenization. Eco-
cultural architecture accentuates the specific qualities of a place, often drawing from vernacular
architecture, to perpetuate cultural values as well as equilibrium with the natural surroundings.
This approach is similar to postmodernism in its emphasis on vernacular structures and
community involvement. Kenneth Frampton‘s theory of critical regionalism proposes many of
the concerns associated with the eco-cultural logic. (Guy and Farmer, 2001)

The eco-medical logic focuses on the quality of the built environment as it relates to individuals,
and specifically to their health and well-being. As such, green architecture relates to the livability
of occupied spaces, including the ―quality of air, water, and urban space.‖ (Guy and Farmer,
2001)This view stresses the importance of individual comfort and control in buildings, as well as
access to natural light and connections to the outside. This logic is a reaction to the sealed off,
artificially conditioned boxes of modernism. However, these values could be incorporated with
almost any style, since they are not necessarily prescriptive of form. (Guy and Farmer, 2001)

The eco-social logic incorporates the social factors that are often considered alongside green
building. It recognizes social orders as a determinant of the ability to achieve sustainability, and
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thus promotes democratic and non-hierarchical organizations. This theory does not translate
directly to architecture, but suggests ―appropriate technologies,‖ which are accessible to
everyone, as well as flexible, non-hierarchical organizations and the incorporation of local
materials. Eco-social thinking, like eco-medical, could be applied with almost any style. Its
implications of community identity and participation suggest similarities to postmodernism as
well as regionalism. (Guy and Farmer, 2001)
The diversity of interests represented in these six approaches to green architecture suggests that
no singular theory may be able to account for all the demands of the environment and culture in
which architecture is created. Instead, an attempt at green building must recognize these
demands as relative, with regards to space, time, and culture. (Guy and Farmer, 2001) It should
draw on a broad understanding of what green architecture can be to take full advantage of
opportunities to preserve or restore environmental quality as well as social and cultural values.
This holistic mindset may allow green architecture to expand from prescriptive theory, as in the
LEED program, to an underlying framework of thought that can guide design decisions. This
could allow for formal and functional flexibility, enabling integration with other design theories.
Green building challenges current paradigms of architectural practice, but architects who choose
to pursue it may be able to create architecture with lasting significance to local culture as well as
to the global environment.


From green architecture principles and rating systems, 15 categories of green

architecture are generated. Each category includes some theoretical green architecture
design strategies. Green architecture categories are listed as follows:

Sustainable Site Planning

The sustainable sites performance category encourages site selection, planning, landscaping and
design strategies that use land more effectively and minimize construction and operational
impacts. Some effective site planning may minimize storm water run-off, encourage car-pooling
and bicycling, increase urban density and green space and avoid major alterations to sensitive
topography, vegetation, and wildlife habitat.
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Water Efficiency

The water efficiency category encourages strategies that reduce the amount of potable water used
for landscape irrigation and building operations. It also emphasizes strategies that reduce
municipal infrastructure for the supply of potable water and removal of sanitary waste by
reducing water use, which may be done by deploying on-site rainwater harvesting and
wastewater technologies.
Storm Water

The built environment disturbs storm water runoff from land, causing a range of negative
environmental effects including degradation of waterways, loss of aquatic life, flooding, and loss
of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, storm water management at a municipal level creates
significant infrastructure costs.
Sewage Outfall

Excessive sewage volume may lead to overloading of existing sewage infrastructure (either on-
site, in the community or at a municipal level). This requires the replacement of existing sewage
systems, placing limitations on the degree of sewage treatment that can be afforded or leading to
the spillage of raw sewage directly into the environment.
Energy Efficiency

The energy and atmosphere category emphasizes reducing the depletion of non-renewable
energy resources and related environmental impacts, particularly emissions of local, regional and
global air pollutants. Renewable energy sources with low environmental impacts are encouraged.
Also, reducing building energy consumption, using renewable energy, and eliminating ozone
depletion are promoted as well.

Addressing pollution levels in the design means ensuring that no ozone depleting substances are
present and low NO2 emitting substances are used in the construction of the building. A
reduction of peak surface rates of storm water runoff should be considered as well, where storm
water carries a wide range of pollutants into rivers, lakes and the sea.
Materials Conservation

Material conservation hopes to encourage the design strategies that reduce and reuse material
resources and reduce construction waste. Moreover, it encourages the selection of building
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materials, which are environmentally preferable. It is also to minimize construction also can take
place by using renewable construction materials, design, and construct buildings that are more
Resources Conservation

Resources include building materials, water and natural resources have to be protected by reuse,
reduction and recycling.
Improving Indoor Air Quality

Poor indoor air quality affects occupant health. Generally, it influences feelings of well-being.
Since the home is where the majority of people spend the majority of their time, it is important
that it offer a healthy environment. Indoor air quality should include an appropriate minimal
level of volatile organic compounds, inspirable dust, airborne microbiological factors, dust,
mites, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide.

Occupant Satisfaction

A home that fails to provide satisfaction to its residents has ultimately failed its basic task of
providing acceptable shelter. In practice, buildings that are uncomfortable to use are less
environmentally efficient, because an unpleasant house may ultimately be demolished and be
redeveloped prematurely if comfort issues such as thermal, visual, noise and health are not

Innovation substantially exceeds the different rating systems performance credit such as energy
performance or water efficiency. It involves strategies or measures that are not covered by
different rating systems such as acoustic performance, education of occupants, community
development or lifecycle analysis of material choices.

Waste is generated throughout the life of a building. Some waste examples are brick, metals,
wood, cardboard and other waste that are generated during building demolition, renovation, and
construction. Land filling construction and demolition waste, if not recycled, is a loss of material
resource. During building operations, waste such as paper, aluminum cans, and glass is also
generated. It is also a burden on our landfills and a loss of our natural resources.
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Toxic Materials

Toxic materials may have to be used during the building process; however, it is important to
minimize their impact through appropriate procedures for their storage, use, application and final
disposal. If toxic materials are kept out of the waste stream, there is less of a chance of pollution.

The way in which buildings are designed can affect the amount of automobile traffic generated
by new development. The associated negative environmental impacts include air pollution,
gasoline consumption, and traffic congestion. Buildings that are designed with pedestrian and
transit access consideration and which minimize the number of parking spaces may reduce the
amount of traffic. Buildings can also be designed to include parking spaces specifically
designated for carpools and car sharing that encourage occupants to use alternative modes of
Environmentally Friendly Homeowner

An environmentally friendly homeowner is pledged to limit his use of toxic chemicals and
dangerous herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers. This includes limiting his/her level of yard
watering, practicing new and improved methods of lawn care such as using a mulching mower,
or "grass cycling," a process of which means leaving his grass clippings on the lawn after cutting
to help naturally fertilize your garden.


The International Council of Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB)
mentioned in its Agenda 21 for sustainable construction in developing countries that the
creation of sustainable human settlements through sustainable building is one of the integral
processes of sustainable development and should demonstrate the three aspects or dimensions of
sustainable development. These three aspects are the economical, environmental and social
dimension (see figure 2.14) [Plessis, 2001].
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Figure 2.14:Three Dimensions of sustainable development

2.11.1 Priorities and Building Culture

The choice of other priorities or values other than climate comfort and environment protection
in the building construction affects the degree of adaptation to climate and environment
[Rapoport , 1986].

2.11.2 Environmental Situation in Nigeria

Nigeria as a nation has been experiencing an accelerated shift of her populations from rural to
urban areas. This rapid rate of urbanization has engendered several challenges and problems
similar to situations in other parts of the world. The problems identified in Agenda 21are
prevalent in Nigeria. Today‘s Nigerian city, according to Mabogunje (2002) is typified by
substandard and inadequate housing, slums, and lack of infrastructure, transportation problems,
low productivity, poverty, crime and juvenile delinquency. Urbanization, according to him is the
root cause of the high rates of environmental degradation, pollution and social delinquency.
Nigeria ranks 151st on the Human Development Index of 177countries worldwide (HDR, 2004).
(Lawanson 2006)
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In order to address the problem of poverty and promote sustainable development, the United
Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000, committing countries both rich
and poor to do all they can to eradicate poverty, promote human dignity and equality and achieve
peace, democracy and environmental stability. The goals include those dedicated to eradicating
poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child
mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases,
ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development.
Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has a responsibility to implement the
goals. (Lawanson 2006)
Various scholars have studied the challenges of sustainability and urban development in Nigeria.
Some of them include Falade (1999) whose study focused on the challenges of a sustainable
Nigeria, Abumere (2002) whose research centered on urban governance and the challenges of
urban poverty, Odeyemi (2002) who did a study on gender and urbanization and Olanrewaju
(2003) who focused on sustainability and urban poverty.


For a hotel to be green, it must have made important environmental improvements to its structure
in order to minimize its impact on the environment. Green hotels should be environmentally-
responsible and follow the practices of green living. These hotels have to be certified green by
an independent third-party or by the state they are located in.
From the scope of this study, major concentration will be on the following green building
 Material of construction
 Energy consumption
 Indoor environmental quality
 Land usage and site

2.12.1 Green Building Materials

Careful selection of environmentally sustainable building materials is the easiest way for
architects to begin incorporating sustainable design principles in hotel buildings.
Life Cycle Design
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A ―cradle-to-grave‖ analysis of building products, from the gathering of raw materials to their
ultimate disposal, provides a better understanding of the long-term costs of materials. These
costs are paid not only by the client, but also by the owner, the occupants, and the environment.
The principles of Life Cycle Design provide important guidelines for the selection of building
materials. Each step of the manufacturing process, from gathering raw materials, manufacturing,
distribution, and installation, to ultimate reuse or disposal, is examined for its environmental
A material‘s life cycle can be organized into three phases: Pre-Building; Building; and Post-
Building. These stages parallel the life cycle phases of the building. The evaluation of building
materials‘ environmental impact at each stage allows for a cost-benefit analysis over the lifetime
of a building, rather than simply an accounting of initial construction costs.
Three Phases of Building Materials

These three life-cycle phases relate to the flow of materials through the life of the building (see
figure 2.15).

Figure 2.15: Three phase of the building material life cycle

Source: Quality uses of Sustainable materials (1998)

Pre-Building Phase

The Pre-Building Phase describes the production and delivery process of a material up to, but not
including, the point of installation. This includes discovering raw materials in nature as well as
extracting, manufacturing, packaging, and transportation to a building site. This phase has the
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most potential for causing environmental damage. Understanding the environmental impacts in
the pre-building phase will lead to the wise selection of building materials. Raw material
procurement methods, the manufacturing process itself, and the distance from the manufacturing
location to the building site all have environmental consequences.
Building Phase

The Building Phase refers to a building material‘s useful life. This phase begins at the point of
the material‘s assembly into a structure, includes the maintenance and repair of the material, and
extends throughout the life of the material within or as part of the building.
Post-Building Phase

The Post-Building Phase refers to the building materials when their usefulness in a building has
expired. At this point, a material may be reused in its entirety, have its components recycled back
into other products, or be discarded.

2.12.2 Features of Green Building Materials

We identified three groups of criteria, based on the material life cycle that can be used in
evaluating the environmental sustainability of building materials. The presence of one or more of
these features in building materials make it environmentally sustainable.
Pollution Prevention Measures

Pollution prevention measures taken during the manufacturing process can contribute
significantly to environmental sustainability. Identical building materials may be produced by
several manufacturers using various processes.
By becoming aware of which manufacturers use environmentally sustainable manufacturing
methods, specifying their products, and avoiding goods produced through highly polluting
methods, architects can encourage the marketing of sustainable building materials. In hotel
design, architects should be very careful in material specification. Materials that are not eco-
friendly should be avoided especially in the interior spaces.
Waste Reduction Measures

The waste reduction feature indicates that the manufacturer has taken steps to make the
production process more efficient, by reducing the amount of scrap material that results. This
scrap may come from the various molding, trimming, and finishing processes, or from defective
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and damaged products. Products with this feature may incorporate scrap materials or remove
them for recycling elsewhere.
Also, hotel designers should make use of modular system (good grids) and standardization
during design phase.
Recycled Content

A product featuring recycled content has been partially or entirely produced from post-industrial
or post-consumer waste. The incorporation of waste materials from industrial processes or
households into usable building products reduces the waste stream and the demand on virgin
natural resources. By recycling materials, the embodied energy they contain is preserved. The
energy used in the recycling process for most materials is far less than the energy used in the
original manufacturing. Aluminum, for example, can be recycled for 10–20% of the energy
required to transform raw ore into finished goods. Key building materials that have potential for
recycling include glass, plastics, metals, concrete or brick, and wood. These generally make up
the bulk of a building‘s fabric. The manufacturing process for all of these materials can easily
incorporate waste products
Embodied Energy Reduction

The embodied energy of a material refers to the total energy required to produce that material,
including the collection of raw materials (see table 2.3).

Table 2.3: Table comparing embodied energy content of common building materials from
primary and secondary sources. All figures are for MJ/Kg

Values are from J. L. Sullivan and J. Hu, ―Life Cycle Energy Analysis for Automobiles,‖
This includes the energy of the fuel used to power the harvesting or mining equipment, the
processing equipment, and the transportation devices that move raw material to a processing
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facility. This energy typically comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which are a limited, non-
renewable resource. The combustion of fossil fuels also has severe environmental consequences,
from localized smog to acid rain. The greater a material‘s embodied energy, the greater the
amount of energy required to produce it, implying more severe ecological consequences. For
example, the processing of wood (harvested in a sustainable fashion) involves far less energy and
releases less pollution than the processing of iron, which must be extracted from mined ores.

Reusability is a function of the age and durability of a material. Very durable materials may have
many useful years of service left when the building in which they are installed is
decommissioned, and may be easily extracted and reinstalled in a new site. Windows and doors,
plumbing fixtures, and even brick can be successfully reused.


Recyclability measures a material‘s capacity to be used as a resource in the creation of new

products. Steel is the most commonly recycled building material, in large part because it can be
easily separated from construction debris by magnets.
Many building materials that cannot be reused in their entirety can be broken down into
recyclable components. Often, it is the difficulty of separating rubble from demolition that
prevents more materials from being recycled. Once separated, glass is very easy to recycle: post-
consumer glass is commonly used as a raw material in making window glass, ceramic tile, and
brick. Concrete, unlike steel and glass, cannot be re-formed once set, but it can be ground up and
used as aggregate in new concrete or as road bedding. Currently, very little concrete and glass
from site demolition is recycled because of the difficulty in separating these materials from
construction debris. Plastics alone are easy to recycle but are often integrated into other
components which make separation difficult or impossible. Plastic laminates are generally
adhered to plywood or particleboard, making these wood products also hard to recycle. Some
foam insulation can be reformed, but the majority cannot. Foam insulation can, like glass, be
used as filler in concrete and roadbeds.
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The biodegradability of a material refers to its potential to naturally decompose when discarded.
Organic materials can return to the earth rapidly, while others, like steel, take a long time. An
important consideration is whether the material in question will produce hazardous materials as it
decomposes, either alone or in combination with other substances.
Use of Natural Materials

Natural materials are generally lower in embodied energy and toxicity than man-made materials.
They require less processing and are less damaging to the environment. Many, like wood, are
theoretically renewable. When natural materials are incorporated into building products, the
products become more sustainable.
Reduction of Construction Waste

Minimal construction waste during installation reduces the need for landfill space and also
provides cost savings. Concrete, for example, has traditionally been pre-mixed with water and
delivered to the site. An excess of material is often ordered, to prevent pouring delays should a
new shipment be needed. This excess is usually disposed of in a landfill or on-site. In contrast,
concrete mixed on-site, as needed, eliminates waste, and offers better quality control.

2.12.3 Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency is an important feature in making a building material environmentally

sustainable. The ultimate goal in using energy-efficient materials is to reduce the amount of
generated energy that must be brought to a building site. The long-term energy costs of operating
a building are heavily dependent on the materials used in its construction.
Depending on type, the energy-efficiency of building materials can be measured using factors
such as R-value, shading coefficient, luminous efficiency, or fuel efficiency.
Local Materials

Using locally produced building materials shortens transport distances, thus reducing air
pollution produced by vehicles. Often, local materials are better suited to climatic conditions, and
these purchases support area economies. It is not always possible to use locally available
materials, but if materials must be imported they should be used selectively and in as small a
volume as possible. For instance, the decorative use of marble quarried halfway around the world
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is not a sustainable choice. Steel, when required for structural strength and durability, is a
justifiable use of a material that is generally manufactured some distance from the building site.
Energy consumption

The primary climatic concern in tropics is heat and high humidity. Air-conditioning (for cooling)
is now the norm in conventional hotels. The design thus aimed to create a cool building by using
passive solar principles, although comfort during raining season should also be considered.
Appropriate orientation
The main forms are elongated along the east-west axis and shortened on the north-south.
Buildings and main openings are north- (equator-) facing, with the office wing angled 25 ° east
of north to allow early morning sun to warm interiors. Openings on the east and west facades are
restricted to narrow shaded vertical slits, but these walls are predominantly solid.
Natural ventilation

Cross-ventilation will be provided by placing openings directly across each other. Head rooms
should be very high to allow a higher internal volume, so that the layers of rising hot air would
accumulate above head height. Clerestory window should be installed at the central apex to
allow the escape of rising hot air, which is encouraged by the upward slope of the ceilings.

Figure 2.16 : Ventilation strategies within building

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

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Thermal capacity

Wall-fabric should be solid enough, punctured with individual windows rather than ribbon
fenestration. Walling materials are generally of high thermal capacity, such as compressed soil-
cement bricks, stone, etc. Floors are floated, polished concrete surface beds, uncovered to cool
occupants through the radiation effect. Service areas form mass thermal buffers to east and west,
reducing the need for openings on these sides.

Figure 2.17: Thermal responsiveness of HRDC

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

Passive methods should be employed in providing thermal comfort:

o Lighting
 Window openings maximize day lighting and the side windows and central clerestory
distributes daylight equally. Lights only need to be switched on at night or on the about
ten overcast days a year.
 Curtains in a translucent white calico limit glare on without needing artificial lighting
when drawn.
 Arched windows with straight curtain-rod below create a ―fake‖ light-shelf to allow more
distribution of light to the interior.
 Artificial lighting is task-orientated and individual switching is provided to reduce
consumption after hours when only one or two people are working.
 All light fittings should be are low-energy fittings (fluorescent or compact fluorescent).
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Figure 2.18: Energy efficiency of the building

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

Renewable Energy Systems

Building sites are surrounded by natural energy in the forms of wind, solar radiation, and
geothermal heat. Renewable energy systems can be used to supplement or eliminate traditional
heating, cooling, and electrical systems through the utilization of this natural energy.
Components that encourage daylighting, passive and active solar heating, and on-site power
generation are included in this category. Solar power can be utilized in many forms, both for
heating and production of electricity. In many parts of the country, wind power is a feasible way
to generate electricity and pump water. Active solar or geothermal heat requires outside
electricity for pumps but still saves energy in comparison to the operation costs of traditional
mechanical systems.
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Figure 2.19: Renewable energy systems

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

Water Treatment/Conservation

Products with the water treatment/conservation feature either increase the quality of water or
reduce the amount of water used on a site. Generally, this involves reducing the amount of water
that must be treated by municipal septic systems, with the accompanying chemical and energy
costs. This can be accomplished in two ways: by physically restricting the amount of water that
can pass through a fixture (showerhead, toilet) or by recycling water that has already entered the
site. For instance, gray water from cooking or hand washing may be channeled to flush toilets;
captured rainwater may be used for irrigation.
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Figure 2.20: Water and energy saving measures

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

2.12.4 Indoor Environmental Quality

Use of Non-Toxic or Less-Toxic Materials

Non- or less-toxic materials are less hazardous to construction workers and a building‘s
occupants. Many materials adversely affect indoor air quality and expose occupants to health
hazards. Some building materials, such as adhesives, emit dangerous fumes for only a short time
during and after installation; others can contribute to air quality problems throughout a building‘s
Material toxicity is of increasing concern with the growing number of building products
containing petroleum distillates. These chemicals, known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
can continue to be emitted into the air long after the materials containing them are installed. The
severity of this process, called ―outgassing,‖ is dependent on the chemicals involved, rate of
emission, concentration in the air, and length of exposure. Many adhesives, paints, sealants,
cleaners, and other common products contain VOCs. Often, the substances are only exposed for
a short time during and after installation; the outgassing diminishes drastically or completely
once the offending materials have cured or been covered by other building materials. Therefore,
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higher air cycling rates are recommended during installation of these materials and for several
months following building occupation.
Interior-exterior interface

In tropical design, walls are shaded by large roof overhangs, angled to allow in winter sun but
exclude summer sun. Overhangs include extensions of thin timber laths to provide a latticed
shade effect. Courtyard spaces are planted and exterior indigenous vegetation retained to create
cooling through evapo-transpiration, very effective in the dry climate.

Figure 2.21: Interior and exterior interface of HRDC

Source: Sustainable Building Africa (2004)

2.12.5 Land Usage and Site

Rainwater collection

Roof-water is collected and stored in stacked rainwater tanks to serve cooling systems as well as
irrigate gardens. As rainfall is restricted to a short season and tanks very expensive, supply
capacity for the yearly demand was not possible, but there was a compromise with a domestic
water connection for back-up. The standard plastic water-tanks are elevated in towers to create
pressure and are shaded by timber pole screens to reduce the effect of the strong local sunlight on
the material.
Landscaping and irrigation
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Indigenous vegetation was retained and additional landscaping use locally indigenous plants well
adapted to the soil and climate, needing irrigation in the first year of establishment only. The
landscaping is irrigated from the Windhoek Municipal semipurified system as well as the
overflow from air-cooling and rainwater collection.



Cork flooring is renewable, since it comes from material

removed from living trees every nine years.

Flooring is good place to start when trying to make greener building choices.
Some woods are less renewable than others, and carpet often contains VOCs
(volatile organic compounds) that have a negative effect on indoor air quality.
Bamboo has become a popular choice for flooring, since it replenishes very
quickly. Cork, which is removed from the outside of a living tree at intervals, is
attractive, natural, very renewable and gentle on the human body. Other green
flooring options include sisal, eucalyptus, recycled carpet tiles, recycled rubber,
wool carpeting, linoleum and reclaimed wood.

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On driveways and walkways, specially engineered cement that is porous and

allows water to sink in rather than run off and pollute waterways is
environmentally friendly. Also, using light-colored concrete, especially in urban
areas, helps reduce temperature.


Insulation is very important in green construction because it helps conserve

energy. In the past, asbestos was used for insulation, but it has since been banned
or restricted in many countries because of health hazards. Good sustainable
choices for insulation are those made from recycled newspaper and wood pulp,
soy, cotton, recycled plastic or cork.


A green roof is covered in vegetation that minimizes


An important feature of green roofing is its durability; sustainability can often be

as simple as avoiding or limiting waste. Composite cedar shingles resist moisture,
mildew and insects, which extends their life. Metal roofing materials that have
solar reflective qualities also have advantages, especially in hot climates. Living
roofs, which are covered in hearty plant life, reduce the "heat island effect" that is
caused by a lack of evapotranspiration in areas that have a lot of concrete and
asphalt surfaces.


Breakthroughs in technology have made glass a popular green building material.

Windows constructed of layered panes separated by sealed, gas-filled
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compartments provide insulation that conserves energy. Additionally, windows

and doors can also be covered in special low-emissivity coatings that use or block
natural solar rays to help regulate indoor temperatures.


Hotel buildings in hot-humid climates need to be different from those in hot-dry climates. In

Awka, climate alternates between dry and wet seasons, heavy buildings are comfortable in the

dry season, but during the rainy season are damaged by mold growth caused by high humidity.

Buildings in humid climates are also subject to more intense attack by insects, and materials rust

and decay much more quickly than in temperate region.

Hot-humid areas of the world have high humidity and temperatures that rise and fall slightly

every day. In the warm and humid zone of central Africa, southern Asia, and northern South

America temperatures go from 75- 908F, and the humidity may be frequently between 90 and

100%. Breezes in high humidity allow people to feel cooler because of evaporation from their

skin. Breezes also replace indoor air with fresh air, keeping humidity levels from building up as

people exhale both moisture and heat. But when the temperature of air is higher than skin

temperature, the ―cooling effect by evaporation is not possible even though the relative humidity

is less than 100%‖ (Koch-Nielsen & Holger, 2002)

Hotels that rely on natural qualities for comfort need to be thoughtfully planned. Their location,

orientation, and plants nearby matters. They also need to be shaped to avoid direct sunlight and

catch breezes. (Koch-Nielsen et al, 2001)


Evaluate the site to determine how best to conserve and restore ecological habitats and support

building energy and resource efficiency

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Map sun and shade patterns associated with new construction. Design landscaping features to

take advantage of sun/shade for plants.

 Examine opportunities to minimize disruption to existing hydrological features such as

creeks, streams, ponds, lakes and/or wetlands.

 Test soil and groundwater to determine pollution levels, depth to water table, soil-bearing

capacity and what types of soil amendments may be required for planting.

 Examine opportunities to restore the surface-cover of impacted areas.

 Design building, parking and roadways to complement existing site contours by limiting

cut and infill.

 Prioritize the site's natural attributes for protection, conservation or restoration.

2.16 Effective Site Design

 Create building and site synergies.

 Complement the building with site features that minimize negative environmental

impacts and restore natural systems.

 Organize building mass, orientation and outdoor spaces to provide efficient access and


 Use earth forms, plantings, drainage, water detention systems and soils to support the

functions of the building and site (e.g., screening, windbreaks, etc.)

 Coordinate landscape design with building envelope. Orient building, windows and

outdoor spaces to take advantage of light, airflows and interesting views.

 Use deciduous shade trees and exterior structures such as arbors and trellises, louvers,

overhangs and light shelves to reduce heating of the building.

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 Provide creative parking solutions to reduce pollution and land development impact from

automobile use.

 Minimize parking lot size. Excess parking spaces encourage increased automobile use

and can increase pollution from storm water runoff.

 Minimize the area of development footprint in order to reduce site disturbance. Conserve

existing natural areas to provide habitat and promote diversity.

 Design the building with a minimal footprint to minimize site disruption. Strategies

include stacking the building program.

 Preserve open space area adjacent to the building.

 Cluster underground utilities running in conduits, such as telephone, cable, electric, water

and wastewater.

 Locate underground utilities in fire lanes and drives, as appropriate, to minimize site

disturbance. (Separate sewer/water and high-temperature piping as required.)

 Reduce or eliminate storm water runoff to limit disruption of natural water flows.

 Maintain natural storm water flows by designing the project site to promote infiltration.

 Specify pervious paving to minimize impervious surfaces. Pervious paving includes such

materials as gravel, sand, "Grasscrete" and "geo-block."

 Reuse storm water for non-potable uses such as landscape irrigation and exterior site

washing. Establish with the appropriate regulatory body that no adverse health effects

would be associated with this water reuse. Use underground cistern storage, if possible.

 Prevent non-point source pollution by planting watershed buffers, allowing infiltration

via porous surfaces, and minimizing paved parking areas.

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 Using permeable (or porous) pavement systems in lieu of impervious asphalt or concrete.


 Porous asphalt, paver blocks, or large aggregate concrete for parking and high use bicycle

and pedestrian areas.

 Lattice blocks that permit grass growth for fire lanes and overflow parking.

 Crushed stone or brick for lightly used pedestrian paths.

 Minimizing the amount of paving by designing for multiple uses. Uses can include

access, parking, pathways, meeting places, and game courts.

 Retaining or substituting vegetation in lieu of hard surfaces.

 Designing to distribute runoff from impervious surfaces over large vegetated areas prior

to reaching a stormwater conveyance system. This reduces the flow velocity, removes

pollutants, and promotes groundwater infiltration.

 Installing a vegetated roof.

 Using natural or constructed wetlands to provide on-site retention and treatment of


 Treat storm water on site. Limit contamination of natural water flows by

 eliminating contaminants and increasing on-site filtration.

 Provide on-site storm water treatment systems to remove suspended solids and

phosphorus and other contaminants.

 Consider natural treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, vegetated filter strips

and bioswales to promote infiltration and "bio-remediate" the site's storm water flows.

 Provide grading and drainage via vegetated buffers to reduce the need for artificially

constructed drainage channels and storm water piping.

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 Use sustainable landscape practices to promote the conservation and restoration of

existing biological and water resources.

 Emphasize plant diversity. Select plants native or adapted to the region and microclimate.

Consider those that grow together naturally and are self-sustaining (i.e., can reseed and

spread without much maintenance). Avoid invasive plant species and those that threaten

local native ecosystems.

 Reduce the use of plant species that require frequent maintenance.

 Avoid plants that require chemical treatment, especially pesticides. Use plant

combinations and maintenance methods that do not require chemicals.

 Avoid allergy-causing plantings adjacent to building openings such as air intakes, entries

or operable windows.

 Reduce water use for plant irrigation.

 Use plants that do not require irrigation or that have water requirements that can be

provided by natural precipitation patterns.

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The design principles and considerations discussed here are organized to highlight green building
strategies to be applied in the tropics in a hotel design. For the purpose of this study, the
challenges of hot humid climate should be seriously considered. With that in mind, alongside
with the typical green building strategies, the ones considered to be of greater importance are
those concerning thermal comfort, natural ventilation and daylighting. Applying these guidelines
will result in a hotel that is healthy, comfortable, resource efficient, water efficient, safe, and


Arrangements for vertical circulation (stairs, elevators,and engineering services) often

determines the floor plans of multi-story hotels. Some rules and regulations guide the provision
and installation of circulation and communication services in hotels. Shafts and stair-wells
extending through the building for instance, must be enclosed and protected to avoid the risk of
fire spreading from floor to floor. This is most economically and advantageously done by
grouping vertical circulation and services together within the structural core.

Fire safety requirements influence the positions of circulation and services cores and also limit
the travel distance from any guest room or apartment to this protected exit. Maximum travel
distance depend on many factors, amongst which are height of building and combustibility of its
frame or panels, the availability of alternative routes of escape and the installation of automatic
water sprinklers.

Apart from short end corridors, it is necessary to provide at least alternative stair cases and
secondary stairs for housekeeping and room service circulation.

Provision of elevators is necessary for all hotels over three storeys. These elevators are necessary
and fundamentally put in same area with main staircase for the following reasons:-

 More efficient elevator service, interchange and control

 The staircase provides an obvious alternative in emergency
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 Structural design, equipment installation and maintenance are simplified.

 The circulation/service core can be used as a structural support or stiffening for the

Typical installations and speeds for lifts

Typical installation of hotels Speeds

4-8 storeys 1.25m/s

8-12 storeys 1.75m/s

12-16 storeys 2.40m/s

Table 3.1 Capacities: 1100 – 1600kg 0r 16-22 persons.

Source : Fred Lawson (1976, p.131)

For circulation around the site, vehicular path should be well separated from pedestrian path. The
road pattern should be cohesive.

According to Richard and Robert (1997) refining the roadway involves three activities

 Shortening each road to reduce its impact on individual units and clusters, and to
reduce costs.

 Organizing parking to relate most directly to each unit without compromising

environmental quality.

 Designing the road to assure buffering and integration with the other plan


Soil water sewage from the various soil and waste pipes shall be disposed in sewer which run
along the natural slope of the site. These are channeled into a psychobiological central plant
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where the sludge is further treated before final disposal to main sewer. Drainage provision
include both storm and foul water disposal, which are kept separate to facilitate drainage design
and treatment of sewage.

The design criteria for storm and surface water drainage are based on the areas covered by
buildings, roads, car parks and other surfaces, their various degrees of permeability, topography
of the hotel premises and the peak intensity of rainfall for the locality. Storm water drainage may
be used beneficially as a source of water for recreational lakes, streams and ornamental gardens.

Sewage and soil water is expected from waste and soil installations in bedrooms, kitchens and
cloak areas of public spaces.


Large quantities of water are required in a hotel for personal use, food preparation, cleaning and
general domestic purposes, and possibly also for cooling and softening plants, boilers and air
conditioning. Sufficient water must therefore be stored to ensure continuity of supply. In either a
high level storage cistern, or pressurized vessels which may be at any height. In all cases, storage
containers are duplicated to allow for cleaning and maintenance without interruption.

Separate provision is made for drinking water supply either by direct services from main or from
a cistern used only for this purpose. Frequently, water softening plant must be installed to
provide treated water for the boilers and heating system. If the supply is very hard, softened
water may be provided for general cleaning (including laundry) and domestic use.

At least 100% of the daily water requirement must be stored to ensure continuity of supply. In
tall hotel buildings, it is necessary to boost the internal supply pressure by pneumatic or
mechanical pumping and to distribute the water within pressure zone of about 10 storeys (30m)
in order to limit the pressure on pipes and fittings. Pipe networks in a hotel include:

 Cold water supply for drinking (may be chilled)

 Cold and hot water distribution to bathroom fittings
 Supplies to water closet flushing valves
 Hot and cold distribution to bidets
 Cutlet circulation for local cooling and air conditioning
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 Cold and hot water distribution to kitchen, dish-washing and laundry areas etc.
In the bedroom, hot and cold water supplies are usually incorporated in vertical ducts between or
adjoining the bathroom. Short branch pipes extend to the various appliances at each floor level.
Provision for primary and secondary circulation is necessary in the main domestic hot water
pipes to keep water constantly hot.

Where hot water and cold pipes occupy the same duct, both must be insulated. Provision must
also be made for service access to all enclosed pipework and for the isolation and drainage of
any section. Consideration is also given to access for eventual dismantling and replacement of
boilers, calorifiers, pumps and other plants.

Occupants Litres per head per day

Hotel guests 100

Non-residential staff 50

Residential staff 140

Restaurant diners 7.5 per mea

Table 3.2: Total cold water storage per Head

Fitting Storage (litre)

Shower 450 – 9900

Slipper bath 900

WC 180

Wash basin 90

Sink 90

Urinal 180
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Yard tap 180

Table 3.3: Total cold water storage for various Types of fittings
Source : Fred Lawson (1976, p.197)


Refuse includes waste paper, dust, remains of food, tins, jars, bottles, boxes, ashes and other
trade rubbish from workshops. Refuse truck will normally use a service route entry and it is
essential to isolate and protect the refuse storage area from excessive heat, wind, rain, insect and
rodent infestation and scavenging. The refuse storage area may include a range of equipment to
facilitate storage or handling. Thus the following may be provided:-

 Compaction machines for compressing bulky packaging and similar materials into
bales. Separate machines may be used for paper, for plastics and for metals intended
for recycling. Crushing machines for glass bottles and containers are necessary.
 Separate refuse bins for food waste intended for processing into animal feeds.
 Returnable containers and other items which are to be removed for further use and
which must be kept clean and separated.
 Refrigerated storage for food waste to minimize off-pensiveness and insect,
particularly here in the tropics.
 Materials intended for incineration, which will normally be taken directly to the
Refuse storage must allow adequate space for separation (in storage and removal) of the
salvageable items, for control, for washing down the area and containers and for the
maneuverings of refuse vehicles. The amount of refuse generated and the frequency of collection
will determine the sizes of the storage. The type of refuse will inform the method of storage.
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The following communications systems are necessary in hotel buildings:


Telephones are indispensable means of modern communication. Public pay phones are usually
located in

 Main lobby,
 Bathroom or function room foyer
 Recreational areas used by the services
 Employee rest room and/or cafeteria services
Group reservation phones are sited at the main reception desk convenient for public use. Other
public telephones are individually screened by booth enclosures or acoustic hoods, grouped
together and located in a relatively quiet position to one side of the main circulation.

Local phone facilities are provided for emergency and maintenance use, and are located at
elevators, escalators, elevator motor house, engineering plant rooms.

Telephone in guest rooms most often pass through a switchboard.

Guest room telephones often include intercom wirings for room services, wake up system, alarm
and emergency communications, house keeper/maids communications and messenger calls.


A master antennae television system is normally installed with specific channel antenna, signal
amplification in stages and coaxial cable distribution to outlets in guest rooms, lounges, bars and
staff restroom. Close circuit television distribution may be provided to the same outlets through a
very high frequency (VHF) Channel.
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Sound system include facilities for selection, amplification and distribution of music from radio,
record player, tape deck or lesser system to multiple speakers located in various areas of the
hotel. Microphone circuits are usually connected from message and public announcement
transmissions in selected areas.

Other Considerations:

In view of developments in electronic equipment, it is important that provision is made for future
installation, extension and replacement of equipment, without major building alterations.
Ductwork, trunking, conduits and raceways, must be planned and constructed to facilitate future
changes in wiring.


The nature of hotels makes it imperative that electricity and electrical fittings have to be given
special attention. Particular consideration must be given to the effects achieved with lighting in
bedrooms, function rooms, kitchens and cloaks of particular importance is the positioning of

There should be at least one socket outlets by each bed. Possibly incorporated with the lighting
control panel, so that guests may use any portable appliances they may bring. Other sockets are
desirable for cleaning and for portable lamps. In the bathrooms, razor sockets are necessary and
in the corridors, a reasonable number is needed for cleaning.

Socket outlets are also essential in kitchens and function rooms. These are provided with an aim
of making it possible for use of any electrical appliances as might be needed in these places.

In addition to the public power supply, provision is to be made for a standby power generating
machine, as the public power supply in Nigeria is not reliable.


There are four basic elements about which decision need to be taken in the design of a central
thermal installation. First the basic energy supply, second, the central plant which converts the
energy into positive or negative heat, third, the heat transfer medium and distribution system
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which conveys this potential heat to the individual spaces within the building fourth, it is
transformed useful heat and supplied at the correct rate for the particular room or space by
terminal units.

Basic energy supply is usually oil, though electricity, gas or solid fuel may be employed,
depending on the nature of the plant. Guests are supposed to also have some degree of individual
control over the micro-climatic conditions in their rooms.


We do not have much problem in the heating of interiors here in the tropics. Therefore heating in
hotels here refers to the space and location for boilers and hot water storage. Attention is given to
the noise and heat from boiler rooms, relation to fuel storage, accessibility for maintenance,


The transmission of noise from one area to another within a hotel and the high levels of noise
which can be generated and reverberated within large lobbies and public rooms and in work
areas such as kitchens, are problems associated with utilitarian design and economics of
construction. External noise is also a potential source of annoyance, not only in hotel rooms
facing the high speed or concentrated traffic noise of highways and streets, but also from
adjacent parking areas. Difficulties arising from the entry of external noise and penetration of
noise produced within the building can usually be minimized by careful planning, installation
and operation. For example:-

 Arrangement of buildings on site and use of feature of construction to provide

 Zoning of different areas within the hotel according to level of noise produced and
degree of annoyance likely to be caused to occupants, including car park area.
 Careful location and isolation of mechanical and electrical equipment
 Creating noise ―shadows‖ using balconies, recessed or angled windows, projections
from the building or stepped back elevations.
Construction details must provide high standards of noise insulation and sound alternation. The
degree of insulation required will depend on the level of infusion noise which can be tolerated,
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having regard to the normal background level of noise to be expected in each area of the hotel. In
air conditioned hotels and those which are well insulated against external noise, the ambient
noise levels may be extremely low.

Various techniques may be adopted to reduce risk of noise entering bedrooms. These include the
use of

 double glazing (with a minimum air gap of 100mm)

 thick heavy construction
 cavity walls (using flexible ties)
There is an economic limit to the thickness of walls between bedrooms and between bedroom
and corridors but further noise reduction can be achieved by careful planning and arrangement of

Reduction of noise from engineering sources can be achieved by:-

 Grouping bathrooms back to back connected to a central vertical service duct

 Location of plant rooms and roof mounted equipment away from noise-sensitive
 Isolation of noise generated from machinery by confinement, separation and
 Correct size analysis, design, support and positioning of pipe work, ducting and
 Sealing of voids and silencing of air passages
 Reduction of impact from vibration or movement by providing a layer of resilient
materials, such as rubber, carpeting, to absorb the energy of impact between the
contacting surfaces.
Of particular importance in acoustics treatment, are the function rooms. The auditorium and
conference halls must be sound proof and the interior treated to reduce echoes and paths in these
interiors are to be carefully studied for maximum result.

The cinema halls, banquet halls, lobbies and discotheques will generate a lot of impact noise.
These facilities are normally in the basement for the absorption of the noise it generates.
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Security is a vital factor that has continued to be neglected by hotel designers in this part of the
world. The result is that most of the hotels here lack adequate security system, a vital ingredient
of guest comfort. This has led to many affluent and highly placed members of the society
avoiding hotel accommodations if they can help it, preferring to spend their nights in private
guest houses and in the houses of friends and relatives, when they are away from home.

A hotel of international standards must be able to guarantee the safety of life and property
especially now Nigeria is having security challenges. The should monitor effectively, the
movement of people not only in and out of the hotel premises, but also in and out of the various
departments of the hotel. Here vigilance at the guest room is of utmost importance and this could
be monitored effectively by strict watching of the very vital areas.


Fire precautions are controlled by the local authority. Government recommendations are
standards. Necessary escape routes, staircases, lobbies and fire doors are basic to hotel planning.
The lengths of a bedroom wing is limited by maximum distance guest must travel to reach a
staircase in the event of fire. Lifts and staircases are normally placed together, but staircases and
landings are separated from bedroom corridors by self closing doors to locate smoke. Every part
of the building occupied by guest and staff should have two independent escape routes in case of

Reports of fire incidences in hotels in Britain in 1992 indicate that some 23% of hotel fires
started in kitchens, 18% in bedrooms, 12% in stores areas, 9% in halls, corridors and elevators,
4% in bars and 4% in lounges or living rooms. The most common causes of fire ware cooking
appliances 17.8%, smoking materials 17.4%, electrical appliances and wiring 11.2% etc.

An important aspect of fire protection is therefore the planning of the building to separate areas
of high risk from other parts in which fire is liable to cause part-hazards. Escape routes should
enable all occupants to reach safety when their lives are threatened by fire. Long, low building,
up to three storey‘s high, presents few escape problems as most communal spaces open direct to
open air and sleeping accommodation may be distributed along axial corridors, with fire check
doors, which provides direct escape routes.
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Cubical buildings, which may be eight or more storeys high, require a high standard of
emergency lighting as the occupants would be presented with special problems of direction
finding. Escape signs should have unmistakably clear direction signs. These range from simple
green arrow on opaque white background, to self illuminating directional sign (usually installed
as part of the emergency lighting system).

Most hotels have a definite main entrance; it is to help guests and a necessity for the fire brigade
for an annotated map of the building to be fixed in the main entrance. Duplicate parts of the map
can be installed in the corridors if the hotel is particularly complex. The use of constructional
barriers to compartment cubical buildings is obviously an essential safety fixture.

In tall building, a major problem is the height, people may overcome fatigue before they reach
the foot of a staircase and the total evacuation time may be excessively long. Normally, tall
buildings are constructed with floors of non-combustible construction, and these may be
considered on fire barriers making each floor a fire compartment. Directional signs and complex
escape paths also apply to tall buildings.

Recently, automatic systems, comprising a sensory device to detect temperature rise, carbon
monoxide, smoke or fames the impulse and resound equipment has been introduced in hotels.
The equipment activated electromagnetic release catches for smoke doors, exhaust and relief
ventilation and dampers to isolate other ventilation ducts and alarms. Automatic relay to the local
fire station say also be provided. Alarm system may range from a simple warning bell to
message relay through individual telephones or central sound transmission system for public
area, the latter being useful in reducing panic.


A vital aspect of guest comfort in hotel rooms is the control of solar rays. The function rooms
and other public areas are also to be effectively shaded from harsh solar conditions. Some control
is given a special study due to the peculiar situation of the project site in relation to the
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The site alignment is such that the buildings long elevations shall lie in East-West orientation
since the front shall face the expressway. This orientation is desirable to achieve thermal

Daylighting is the practice of bringing light into a building interior and distributing it in a way
that provides more desirable and better-quality illumination than artificial light sources. (SBTM,
1996) According to the Passive Design Best Practices (2008), it maximizes the use and
distribution of natural diffused daylight throughout a building‘s interior to reduce the need for
artificial electric lighting. Careful design is required to avoid overheating and to minimize glare,
and to complement passive heating and cooling strategies such as shading. In order to maximize
energy savings, advanced electrical control systems like sensors should be integrated.

To fully daylight most spaces, there are various approaches one could utilize on internal and
external walls. These could be combined with each other or repeated as a pattern across the
space. For example, Wall Wash Toplighting on an interior wall could be combined with High
Clerestory Sidelighting and View Windows on an exterior wall to fully daylight a space. Since
daylight is additive, the total amount of daylight in the space is the sum of the daylight available
from each individual pattern. Each guideline represents a daylight delivery system with inherent
advantages and disadvantages, which are summarized below in the Table below.

Design Criteria View High Wall Wash Central & Linear

Windows Sidelight Toplighting Patterned Toplighting
w/Light Toplighting
Uniform Light  /   
Low Glare     
Reduced     
Energy Costs
Cost     
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Safety/Security  /   
Low     
Table 0.4 Selection Criteria for Daylighting Strategies

Source: National Best Practices Manual for Building

Extremely ood
g application Good application Poor application Extremely
poor application Depends on space layout and number and distribution of daylight apertures
/Mixed benefits
To achieve natural daylighting in buildings, the following guidelines are necessary:

 Optimize use of daylight

o Configure the fenestration system to achieve a high daylight factor.
o Consider glare-protection strategies that minimize the time when interior-
shading devices must be drawn.
o Orient windows for regularly occupied spaces to create views and to
visually connect indoors and outdoors.

 Orient building to optimize daylight.

o Create an elongated massing allowing for daylighting using north-facing
and south-facing glass. An east-west elongated building with an
appropriate overhang will permit effective daylighting while increasing
winter solar gain through south glass and reducing the direct penetration
of summer sun.
o Avoid exposed, east-facing and west-facing glass because of the large
variation in light levels throughout the day and greater solar gains in the
warmer months, resulting in increased cooling requirements. Eastern
exposures are less problematic than the western ones in terms of heating
and cooling costs.
o Consider north-facing glazing for occupants requiring more uniform levels
of diffuse daylight.
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Figure 3.1: North versus south windows: South windows are shaded from direct sun-but
receive daylight reflected off concrete walk and white painted overhangs. North windows
are large and unshaded.

 Form to guide daylight.

o Incorporate daylight-enhancing techniques to bring light into interior
o Evaluate such design elements to ensure that they do not add to building
heating and cooling loads.
o Place and size glazing apertures appropriately. Maximize daylight through
location and size of windows, roof monitors and skylights and through use
of glazing systems and shading devices appropriate to building orientation
and space use.
o Design to avoid glare by using top lighting such as monitors in the roof or
ceiling plane that allow a greater quantity and more even distribution of
daylight within spaces. Flat, bubble and low-slope skylights have a
negative heat balance, but provide glare-free light with light-deflecting
devices installed underneath them.
o Consider high clerestory windows (often preferable to skylights) to
provide deep daylight penetration, especially for spaces needing useable
wall space.
o Consider the use of interior and/or exterior light shelves, especially on
south-facing windows and appropriate east or west facades, for deeper
daylight penetration.
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o Provide exterior shading devices (overhangs, fins, projecting light shelves,

etc.) where solar gain and direct light are undesirable.

a.) b.)

Figure 3.2: View window, b.) Clerestory window

Figure 3.3: View windows and clerestory window combination provide a more uniform
distribution of daylight across the space

Figure 3.4: Exterior lightshelves reflecting sunlight onto ceilings.

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Figure 3.5: Deeply coffered ceiling helps to diffuse light from four skylights. There are no
electric lights on in this photo

 Provide daylighting controls.

o Design appropriate daylight harvesting controls. Review alternatives for
reducing electric lighting use through daylight harvesting. Continuous
daylight dimming has broad occupant acceptance, especially if, in
individual spaces, it is coupled with a manual dimmer that allows for
adjustment for maximum intensity of the artificial light from lamps.
On/off or three-stage controls are appropriate for spaces with transitory
occupancy (e.g., corridors) and where the glazed areas are large so that the
change from one light level to another rarely occurs.
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Figure 3.6: Horizontal blinds allow control of brightness from lower view windows. Note
that high clerestory windows have no blinds so that daylight can reach deep into spaces.

Figure 3.7: Shading angles for a south elevation

Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory Sustainable Design Guide
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Figure 3.8 : Horizontal and vertical shading ratios. This figure lists the appropriate x/y
ratios for completely shading a south-facing window for various months at two different
time ranges. Use the lower portion of this figure to determine the appropriate azimuth
angle for shading an east- or west-facing window at various dates and times
Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory Sustainable Design Guide

Figure 3.9: Effects of internal and external shading

Source: Passive Design Guide Best Practices
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a.) b.)

Figure 3.10: Sawtooth Roof, b.) Roof Monitor

Source: Sustainable Building Technical Manual

Figure 3.11: Skylit wall wash delivers daylight across two-thirds of this classroom.
Source: National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

Figure 3.12 : Sawtooth monitor with baffers.

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Passive or natural ventilation strategies use naturally occurring air flow patterns around and in a
building to introduce outdoor air into the space. Passive ventilation must be considered during
the design process because many architectural features affect air flows through a building,
including the building shape, layout of interior walls, floors and even furniture. Design features
must strike a balance between privacy/noise attenuation needs and the desired path of least
resistance for air distribution. Hence the following design measures should be considered ideal:

o Consider natural ventilation strategies in design of exterior window and

wall openings to reduce reliance on mechanical ventilation at least during
swing seasons.
o Consider low and high pressure zones to drive natural ventilation across
buildings. Ventilation rates will also be affected by prevailing wind

Figure 3.13: Distribution of wind pressure around a building

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o Design for cross ventilation.

Figure 3.14 : Cross ventilation

Source: Passive design toolkit

o Use stack effect for cooling through high vent reliefs on stairwells and
other high outlets where smoke evacuation will not be compromised.

Figure3.15: Stack ventilation

Source: Passive design toolkit

o Consider pressure and suction across the building envelope in achieving

natural ventilation and infiltration
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Figure3.16: Wind pressure, suction and wind flow around buildings

Source: Busato 2003

o Consider the shape and orientation of the building relative to the direction
of the wind which are both directly related to the way in which the airfow
behaves around volumes
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Figure3.17: Wind flow and shadow effect between buildings

Source: Busato 2003

o Consider the effect positive effects of effective vegetation on wind


Figure3.18: Effects of vegetation on wind pattern

Source: Busato 2003

o Consider the shape and configuration of the opening which also have an
effect on the internal wind speeds.
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Figure3.19: Average internal velocity, percentage of the outside as a factor of the

inlet/outlet ratio and wind direction
Source: Busato 2003

o Consider the use of intermediate openings. The internal air distribution is

mostly determined by the total area of the openings in the walls with the
smallest area of openings. This may be an important consideration in the
planning of multi zone spaces such as auditoriums

Figure3.20: Effects of opening location and size in adjacent walls

Source: Busato 2003

o Plan the introduction of ventilation openings which can also be placed in

the roof or above in the form of clerestory windows, ridge projections or
wind catchers. The best position for clerestory openings acting as inlets is
in the upwind section of the roof and in the downwind for exhausts.
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Figure3.21: Effects of clerestory on average internal airflow rates

Source: Busato 2003

o Carefully balance the deficits of operable windows, which may

compromise the efficiency and maintenance of central systems, with the
psychological benefits of operable windows, e.g., operable windows in
offices but not labs.
o Consider fan-powered night ventilation in lieu of operable windows. Night
ventilation must be enthalpy-controlled to avoid introducing excessive
humidity in the building.
o Design for maximum benefit from economizer cooling in mechanical


The building envelope, or ―skin,‖ consists of structural materials and finishes that enclose space,
separating inside from outside. This includes walls, windows, doors, roofs, and floor surfaces.
The envelope must balance requirements for ventilation and daylight while providing thermal
and moisture protection appropriate to the climatic conditions of the site. Envelope design is a
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major factor in determining the amount of energy a building will use in its operation. Also, the
overall environmental life-cycle impacts and energy costs associated with the production and
transportation of different envelope materials vary greatly. (SBTM, 1996)

Design considerations for the building envelope include:

 Optimize window frame performance.

o Consider security issues and water intrusion in glazing and design details.
o Provide high-performance, durable weather stripping to minimize
o Consider wood window frames that provide a natural thermal break where
appropriate in new construction (e.g. residential) and in window
replacement on historic buildings.

 Select glazing for optimal performance.

o Select appropriate high-performance energy characteristics. Consider U-
value, solar heat gain coefficient and visible light transmittance.
o Optimize glazing by orientation using energy modeling. Glass on south,
east and west facades should be highly protective against solar heat gain,
except glazing that is protected by shading devices or south-facing glazing
being used for passive solar heating.
o Consider specifying glazing with high visible light transmittance and high
shading coefficients on north walls where glare is much less of a problem.
Glass on north facades can be clear or lightly tinted.
o Consider fritted and spectrally selective glazing, tuned to use and
orientation on south, east or west elevations.

 Provide effective insulation to minimize heating, cooling and energy-use

o Optimally insulate the building shell (walls, roof, basements/foundation).
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o Avoid irregular exterior building shapes or soffits, which increase surface

area, resulting in unwanted heat loss. Compensate for extra surface area
with additional insulation.

 Control air and moisture in the building envelope.

o Detail the building envelope to minimize infiltration and to prevent
moisture build-up within the walls due to condensation.
o Ensure that all internal sources of humidity are properly ventilated.


Indoor environmental quality and occupant comfort can be achieved with improved air quality.
Occupants typically experience a greater sense of well-being if they have greater control over
their immediate environment as well as access to windows that provide daylight and a visual
connection to the outdoors.

Air Quality

Attempts could be used to reduce air quality problems at the source using the following

o Reduce potential water problems. Design surface grades and drainage

systems to prevent accumulation of water under, in or near buildings.
o Control unwanted moisture. Prevent condensation of water vapor inside
the building envelope by proper use of air retarders, vapor retarders,
proper location and amount of thermal insulation; control of indoor-to-
outdoor pressure differences; and control of moisture-generating activities
at the source.
o Specify non-offgassing materials. Specify construction materials with low
volatile organic compounds and low odor emissions.
o Isolate exhaust and plumbing systems in rooms with contaminants.
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o Install permanent architectural entryway systems such as grills or grates to

prevent occupant-borne contaminants from entering the building.
o Segregate chemical use areas. Where chemical use occurs (including
housekeeping areas, laboratories, workshops, floor cleaning machine
recharging area and copying/printing rooms), provide segregated areas and
separate outside exhaust. Provide heat recovery or other efficiency
strategy where cost-effective.
o Consider interior material color and reflectance. Choose light-colored
flooring (a trade-off, as it requires greater cleaning and maintenance) to
enhance lighting levels. Ceilings should be white for high reflectance.
Walls adjacent to windows should be light in color. Avoid saturated colors
except as accents or special effects in corridors.
o Provide lamps with high color rendering index.


The materials used in the construction of buildings have life cycles that include harvesting,
extraction, refining, manufacturing, transportation, use and eventual disposal. At every step of
the way, energy is used and there are environmental impacts that include resource depletion, air
and water pollution, disruption to wildlife and damage to the land, forests and ecosystems. Most
materials are being used globally at an exponential rate that is not sustainable. Green design
emphasizes strategies to increase the efficiency of materials use so that less material is required.

Environmentally friendly materials are those that are reused; recycled; low in embodied energy;
renewable; sustainably harvested; non-toxic in production, use and disposal; and local (to reduce
transportation impacts). Carefully selected materials can significantly reduce the environmental
impact of new construction. In addition, planning recycling collection spaces and strategies for
building occupants in the original design can reduce material waste over the life cycle of the
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Photovoltaics (PV) convert radiant energy from the sun into direct current electricity, without
any environmental costs (greenhouse or acid gas emissions) associated with other methods of
electricity generation. It produces electricity from an abundant, reliable, and clean source. In fact,
the amount of solar energy striking the earth is greater than the worldwide energy demand each
Photovoltaics are almost maintenance-free and seem to have a long life span. The photoelectric
conversion process produces no pollution and can make use of free solar energy. Overall, the
longevity, simplicity, and minimal resources used to produce electricity via PV systems make
this a highly sustainable technology.

Figure 3.22: Photovoltaic Module

Source: National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools
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Figure 3.23: Photovoltaics are most cost effective in remote locations that are at a distance
from an electrical grid, but they have zero environmental costs
Source: National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

The following should be considered when utilizing photovoltaics:

o The most important aspect of installing PVs is siting. Shading can

significantly reduce the output of solar cells. Mount PV arrays at an
elevation or on roof tops. Consider sun paths and ensure that trees,
neighboring buildings, or other obstructions do not shade any portion of
the array between 10:00 AM and 3:00 PM.
o Mount the system for maximum southern exposure. The exact mounting
angle will differ from site to site.
o Flat, grassy sites work better than steep, rocky sites.
o Use arrays as building components to economize building materials and
for unobtrusive design solutions
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Figure3.24: PV Siting, Elevated

Source: Renewable Energy Project Analysis Software


A Green Roof, also known as a vegetated or eco-roof is an engineered roofing system that allows
for the propagation of rooftop vegetation while protecting the integrity of the underlying roof
(Earth Pledge 2005). While conventional roof gardens rely on heavy pots and planters, Green
Roof systems allow for much more extensive cultivation of plant life across wide expanses of a
given rooftop, thus replacing the vegetated footprint that was destroyed when the building was
constructed. Throughout history there have always been Green Roofs of various types. Until
recently, they had been forgotten or had sunk into obscurity, only to be "rediscovered" and
further developed.
A Green Roof system consists of 5 layers, each with a specific design purpose.
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Figure3.25: Green Roof System

Source: Water Sensitive Urban Design (2005)

Green Roof Techniques

Modern Green Roofs can be categorized as ‗intensive‘ or ‗extensive‘ systems depending on the
plant material and planned usage for the roof area.

Intensive Green Roofs

Intensive Green Roofs are accessible gardens used for recreational and leisure purposes. The
landscape variations are practically limitless as it is feasible to create an environment at roof
level similar to that of any designed garden. An intensive garden requires maintenance and
management throughout the year to ensure the upkeep of the garden and vegetation
(Greenroofs.com 2005). The more intensive the landscaping, the greater the diversity options for
design. There is little to restrict scope for design other than the overall weight of the system and
its effect on the cost of the supporting construction.
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Figure3.26: Intensive Green Roof (Vancouver Coast Plaza Hotel)

Source: Water Sensitive Urban Design (2005)

Intensive Green Roofs have the following pros and cons:

 Greater diversity of plants can be used
 Good insulation properties
 Accessible recreation area
 Retains more storm water runoff
 More favorable conditions for plants
 Greater weight loading on the roof (up to 1000mm of soil)
 Need for irrigation and drainage systems
 Higher cost
 Complex system requires expertise
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Extensive Green Roofs

Extensive Green Roofs are lower in weight, cost, and maintenance than intensive systems. Plants
for extensive Green Roofs tend to require 100mm or less soil and little additional irrigation or
care (Greenroofs.com 2005). Typically, they include sedums, grasses, and wildflowers. It is
important to note that extensive roofs are often unable to accommodate regular human traffic.

Figure 3.27: Extensive Green Roof (Ford assembly plant, Dearborn, MI)
Source: Water Sensitive Urban Design (2005)

The pros and cons of Extensive Green Roofs include:

 Lightweight construction
 Suitable for any size area
 Suitable for angled roofs
 Low maintenance
 Little technical expertise required
 Relatively inexpensive
 No need for irrigation and drainage systems
 Limited choice of plants
 No recreation access
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 Plants can get stressed during drought

The following are considered when utilizing green roofs:

o Slope - The slope of roof is a major factor when considering a green roof.
Roofs with pitches greater than 7:12 (30 degrees) do not do well as green
roofs. They suffer from slippage and slumping of materials as well as
swift release of runoff water. However, flat roofs are not always the best
for green roofs either. Actually, it is possible to have a roof that is too flat.
On flat surfaces, poor drainage can lead to roof damage, root rot and
damage to plants. The ideal slope is about 1:12 (4.7 degrees). Although,
in special cases it can be as flat as ½‖:12‖ (2 degrees) and as steep as
7.5‖:12‖ (32 degrees). Drought-resistant plants need very good drainage or
else they can drown in puddles. The steeper the slope the more care should
be taken to make ensure the plants near the top are the most drought-
tolerant because they will get less water.
o Climate - Local climatic factors like wind, sunlight, shade and
temperature, need to be taken into consideration before building a green
roof. Plants can struggle in extreme climates or in windy areas and green
roofs have not been overly successful in sub-tropical or tropical
environments. Tropical conditions support plant growth immediately and
on any type of substrate, therefore weeds become a big problem.


The principles of anthropometrics inform us on the body and reach characteristics of people,
which have direct influence on design. The average dimensions of men and women are applied
and these become determining factors in

- Arranging seating in public spaces, examples in the bar, restaurant, auditorium etc.
- Door dimensions for an anticipated number of persons or volume of traffic.
- Floor-ceiling heights especially around stairs, mezzanine floors and their minimum
height clearances
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- Internal circulation, with regard to volume of traffic, width of corridor etc

- Designing for the disabled
For a design such as hotel which is directed towards maximum comfort for the guests, who are of
different tastes, this is particularly important. In fact one of the most important components of a
hotel‘s success is the comfort it affords the guests.


Almost every activity within the hotel is dependent on engineering services which are becoming
more and more elaborate with increasing demands for higher standards. Facilities such as air-
conditioning, high speed lifts, television and telephone are now regarded as normal requirements
for a guest in a modern high class hotel.


Recreational and leisure activities constitute an important aspect of guest comfort in modern
hotels. City hotels also experience a large amount of patronage of these facilities from city guest
and they are important revenue yielding machinery of hotels when well designed and managed.
Activities in these areas for instance are screened and separated in such a way that conflicting
interests (the noisy excitement of team games and the quite concentration for individual skills
and pursuits etc) do not mar their enjoyment.

Recreational and leisure facilities can be divided into two basic types, the indoor hall and game
activities and the outdoor sporting/leisure areas. Indoor hall activities include:-


This is designed to allow for alternative uses, such as for concerts, play and conventions.
Acoustic and lighting treatment here is very vital.

Multi-purpose hall:

This is for a variety of concerts, modern and classical music, social meetings, local entertainment
and folklore and conventions. The design here is flexible for a multitude of uses.

Library/Reading Rooms:
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This is found in large hotels and stock a wide variety of titles and may include a book lending
service. It may also provide facilities for lectures, music recitals and local information, a
museum and art gallery.

Night Clubs and dance Halls:

This is found in different varieties in different hotels and may include facilities for discotheques,
pop groups and ballroom.

Swimming pool:

This is indispensable in all hotels of high class, and is often combined with sauna, message and
fitness rooms. Areas of pools vary from 500m2 to 2500m2 or even more. A separate shallow pool
is often provided for children. The swimming pool is not merely a sports facility. It is a focus for
many activities, for relaxation, sun bathing and entertainment background for dining terraces and

Special areas require particular attention in the design of swimming pools. These include the
provision of changing rooms, access and control, water purification plant, pre-cleanse areas,
diving areas, starting platforms, internal finishes of the floors etc. The changing rooms for
instance should be accessible from the hall, separated by sex and should not be inside the pool
area. Internal floor finishes are to be easy grip and slip resistant finish. All fixing and fitting are
made ideally from corrosive resistant metals.

First aid rooms, equipment stores, toilet facilities and services areas for relaxation stands of pool
area are vital.

Other indoor games facilities include cardrooms, billards and snooker hall, board games rooms
and table tennis.

In the area of outdoor sports facilities or grounds, among the factors to be considered are the
types of clienteles involved, their origins and interests and the crowd pulling capability of such.
The play ground and lawns for adults and children are planned in close relation. They include,
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Tennis Courts:

Tennis courts are very necessary because of the popularity of the sport worldwide and the degree
of patronage it has been found to enjoy amongst hotel guests. In some hotels, they are so
elaborately planned that they host serious competitions and tournaments. A number of these
courts are normally provided for various categories of people.

It is essential that the surfaces of the courts are exceptionally smooth, hard and pervious to rain.
It must attract very little dust and be dazzle free. Most common materials are grass, cinders,

 Restriction of the use of in appropriation or plush carpeting since they are

impediments to wheel chairs, crutches and other disables mobility side.
 Labeling with symbols and use of other architectural signing for the deaf, illustrate
and people of limited reading ability.

3.20.3 DISABLES:

In recognition of the fact that the disabled are bonafide members of the society and as such are
entitled to the use of the facilities of this hotel complex, special provision shall be made for
them, among which shall includes:

 Provision of lifts that are wide enough to accommodate wheel chairs and attendants,
and ramps are not too steep for the use of wheel chairs.
 Provision of public facilities big enough to accommodate wheel chairs conveniently
 Provision of separate changing rooms (where applicable) for the disables.
 Provision of disabled parking, and locating some close enough to the main entrance.
 Elimination of spherical door knobs that are difficult to operate by the disabled.


Landscaping and environment of any hotel can make or mar the hotel. The environment of a
hotel should have an attention catching potential to passersby, a magnetic appeal to a casual
visitor and character to the guest. A tourist or a vacationer staying in a hotel will probably spend
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a larger portion of his time savoring the outdoor environment of the hotel, retiring indoors only
to sleep. In view of this fact, the landscape and environment of a hotel deserve special attention.

Sporting arenas and facilities are an integral part of the outdoor space in a hotel project. This is
because sports form an important part of the recreational activities of the hotel guest. It stands
without dispute therefore, that the provision of sporting facilities in the hotel should be

Proper landscaping of a hotel environment therefore, includes the provision of good exterior
spaces for sports, leisure and relaxation. This is normally a difficult task especially if the terrain
on which the hotel is situated is uneven.

Connected with the outdoor environment of a hotel is the provision of enough parking facilities
and the adequate provision of other necessary infrastructures. Pedestrian and automobile routes
are properly designed and separated to eliminate conflict. Public areas and service area are also

Generally, exterior and landscape shall be carefully considered together. Colour, surface, texture,
weather resistance, maintenance cost among other factors shall be of primary considerations.
Colour are to be bright and interesting without producing glare. Environmental finishes are
carefully done to discourage reflectance.

Landscaping is done in concrete where slope stabilization is necessary. In other outdoor spaces,
grass cover shall be retained. The concrete paved areas shall be made of special concrete:- the
one that absorbs heat and maintains low heat radiation to avoid transmission of heat into adjacent
interior spaces. Other landscaping materials like pervious bricks and special concrete tiles could
stabilize in paving.
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Hotel design is actually a delicate, intricate but exciting undertaking. It is therefore a very

expedient undertaking requiring a thorough study and research on already

existing five star hotels determining the extent to which green building strategies

have been applied. The aim of these case studies is to acquire an understanding of

the standards and quality of services and other ancil1ary facilities, how they

should operate and relate, hence gaining adequate experience on the basic

principles of a five star Hotel design.


1. Nicon Hilton (Transcorp) Hotel, Abuja – Nigeria.

2. Hyatt Regency (Sheraton) Hotel, Abuja – Nigeria.

3. Eko Hotel, Victoria Irland Lagos-Nigeria.

4. Proximity Hotel Greensboro, North Carolina USA.

5. Hyatt Regency Hotel, San Francisco USA.

6. School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Thurgoona Campus, Charles

Sturt University, Australia.

7. The Hilton Helsinki Strand Hotel, Finland.

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All cases studied are hotels in the top cadre of 4 or 5 star rating and some with green building
rating. One of the case studies is not a hotel building but selected because of its green building
attributes. Popularity and wide acceptability of the hotels have also been considered in selecting
cases for study. This is necessary in order to find out what makes those hotels successful and
what people find particularly appealing in them.


Source of Information: Visit to the hotel, internet, interviews, photographs taken and sketches.

Client: The hotel was a joint venture, whose principal partners are the National Insurance
Corporation of Nigeria (NICON), the Hilton International and some other corporate bodies but
has being acquired by Transcorp PIc.

Architect: A Gaillard, D. Hamou, and H.J. Stampfli with J. Metzger and P. Aklin Management
Firm: The Hilton International

Site: The site is located in the central area of the Federal Capital Territory precisely the Wuse
district. It is estimated to be less than one kilometer from the ministry and embassy sites. The site
is slightly sloppy and it is threatened by erosion menace.

Completion: The project's implementation started in 1982 and was

accomplished in 1986, but was formally opened in April, 1987.

Local attractions : Gurara Falls, Usuma Dam and Zuma Rock

4.3.1 Structure and Description:The structure composition is a combination of concrete and

steel frames with the horizontal and vertical members of reinforced concrete made with props.
The hotel is a 10 storey (Y-Plan) ultra-modem structure. It is of international standard with
guest suites richly and lavishly furnished.
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The landscape of the hotel environment creates this feeling of being at home with nature. The
beautiful landscape gives a warm reception to guests and takes them from the entrance gate
through the congress hall to the porte-cochere behind.

4.3.2 Facilities Available:

The available spaces and facilities in Abuja Transcorp Hotel are as follows: 797 Rooms

337 Standard Twins Car Rental

60 Alcove Twins DHL Courier Services

16 Studios 2 Banks

60 Junior Suites 19 Meeting Rooms

80 Royal Rooms (bridal Suites) Business Centre

30. Presidential Suites A Conference Centre

8 Executive Suites Laundry and Valet Services

20 Presidential Suites B Safety Deposit Boxes

3 Restaurants Mail and Postage Facilities

Zuma Grill Swimming Pools - Adult and Children's

Bukka Restaurant
Oriental Restaurant
Fitness Centre and Gymnasium
3 bars
Squash Centre
Grill Bar
Tennis Courts
Cocktail Bar
Pool Snack Bar
Facsimile, Telex, Telephone, etc
Gift Shops
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Night Club Basket Ball

Volley Ball Mint Golf

W&floor=2&tab=) 3rd September, 2011.

Figure 4.1: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Properly Landscaped Dual Carriage Entrance
(Source : Author)
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Figure 4.2: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Ground Floor Level

W&floor=2&tab=) 3rd September, 2011.

Figure 4.3: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Second Ground Floor Level

W&floor=2&tab=) 3rd September, 2011.

Figure 4.4: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Mezzanine Level

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W&floor=2&tab=) 3rd September, 2011.

Figure 4..5:NICON HILTON ABUJA-Typical Floor Plan

(Source : Author‘s Sketch)
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Figure 4.6: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Section

(Source : Author‘s Sketch)
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(Source : Modified from google earth)

Figure4.8: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Main Entrance and Drop-Off with External façade
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Figure4.9: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Service Road and “Back of House”

Figure 4.10: NICON HILTON ABUJA- Conference Hall Kicked off the Tower for
Structural Purposes.
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Figure 4.11: NICON HILTON ABUJA-Piano Lounge Very Spacious with few column
distracted view.

Figure 4.12: NICON HILTON ABUJA-King Deluxe Suite ventilated only one side
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Figure 4.13: NICON HILTON ABUJA -Capital Bar

Figure 4.14: NICON HILTON ABUJA - Leisure Village Promoting Culture.

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Figure 4.15: NICON HILTON ABUJA - Leisure Pool Which Helps in Cooling the
4.3.3 Appraisal:


- The Architectural statement of the hotel is direct; the form has been handled to give the
building its own special character and appeal.
- The combination of steel frames with concrete gives the building a strong and impressive
- The hotel site is properly landscaped with guest relaxation and recreational facilities and
extensive parking spaces properly zoned.
- The interior is lavishly furnished to the highest taste and is indeed welcoming and classy.
- The hotel scale justifies the choice of form in keeping with the 12 storey height limit of
- Disabled guests were considered by providing prominent ramps and specially designed
rooms for them.
- The guest rooms are tastefully furnished.
- The hotel has three restaurants; hence the guest may choose to dine in relaxed informality
(Bukka restaurants), continental especially (oriental restaurant) or elegant luxury (Zuma
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- The site of the hotel is too brisk and inhumane for the casual guest and does not allow for
people on vacation and tourists to enjoy their stay.
- The hotel rooms have no balcony, thus making it impossible for the guest to have a semi-
physical contact with the immediate landscape and environment.
- There is no direct link between the administration and the service areas. There is no direct
link between the service areas and the public areas without going through the kitchen.
- The fire escapes in the guest room wings are not adequate.
- Guest rooms have long double loaded corridors which are not cross ventilated.
- The hotel depends so much on mechanical system of lighting and ventilation (it is too
synthetic), therefore its green building rating is not commendable.

Conclusion: The Transcorp Hilton Hotel, Abuja can truly compete effectively with other top-
echelon hotels of the world as an international class hotel.

The combination of the steel frame with concrete gives an impressive facade. Architecturally, it
speaks of Strength and Stability.


Sources of Infor1viation:

This includes visit to the hotel, internet, interviews and reference to materials and documents.

Architects: Lanre Towry Coker Associates, Lagos.

4.4.1 Brief History:

This hotel was initially the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Abuja and was managed by Hyatt Hotel
Managers International for the owners, capital Hotels. As a result of disagreement between both
parties, the hotel manager had to quit, then, Sheraton hotel managers were invited to manage the
hotel, thereby changing the name to Abuja Sheraton. However, the hotel was constructed
between 1985 and 1989. It was used in May, I989, for the African Development Bank

(ABD) Conferences in Abuja but was officially opened on the 15 th of January, 1990.
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4.4.2 Location:

The Abuja Sharon Hotel is situated on Ladi Kwadi Way, approximately 39 kilometers (24 miles)
from Abuja International Airport. This implies that it was located on the heart of the newly
growing Federal Capital Territory.

4.4.3 Form Description:

The first impression of Abuja Sheraton is that of a truncated pyramidal frustum. However, it
would be more appropriate to interpret the structure as an Egyptian Mastaba punctured by holes.
This system also attempts to redefine the tower podium concept by encapsulating the podium in
the lower part of the Mastaba. The location of the conference hall, kitchen and Luigi restaurant is
in the podium extending further from the main tower. As result of the shape of the tower, the
rooms were staggered vertically on top of each other to get equal room and corridor spaces.

Moreover, this irregularity factor in the floor areas allowed only for single loaded corridors with
empty spaces in between them which form a court yard round the whole hotel. The courtyard is
housed by the building in a manner that it forms an atrium. More also, the courtyard is divided
into two parts by an 8- story bridge which houses the shaft. The sloping sides of the towers are
punctured by holes used for the balconies. This creates a feeling of array or voids and adds
texture to the form of building.

4..4.4 Architecture:

The Abuja Sheraton's design is based on a regular square grid. The structural elements of the
hotel were also based on square grid which forms a structural unit. These structural units form
rooms, and the size of these rooms depends on the number of units used. They range from one
unit for the standard bedroom to six for the presidential suites. The walls slant upwards in
elevation and are supported by concrete beams and columns

The design or the hotel considers a humane approach to architecture whereby lighting effects
were used in the entrance lobby to excite and wet the user‘s appetite. Acrylic skylight was used
to infuse light into these areas. The courtyard attempts to subdue the brutal atmosphere of most
hotel accommodation tower by trying to bring the guest into the natural and humane perspective.
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4.4.5 Construction and Materials:

The on-site construction technique was predominantly adopted in the Abuja Sheraton Hotel
building. This was due to the building's form, which did not allow for pre-fabrication of most
parts of the building. Consequently, concrete was used extensively as a construction material.

The exterior finishes of the building is mainly beige, polka doted 2.5cm main finish and ceramic
tiles. These tiles were extensively used in the accommodation tower of the hotel and in the lower
parts of the hotel building. Internally, numerous materials were used: matt water-proof wall
paper, wood finish, marble tiles, internal railed vermiculite ceiling finishes, carpet finishes etc.
Also lighting used in the internal design of the hotel ranged from hollow submerged lighting
fixture in the entrance lobby to bed side lamps in the guest rooms.

4.4.6 Spaces and facilities available Elephant Bar

671 Rooms:

4 Presidential Suites Lobby Bar

2 Ambassadorial Suites Gin Shops

16 Deluxe Suites Car Rental

32 Executive Suites Bank

613 Standard Rooms Courier Services

3 Restaurants Night Club

Luigi's Restaurant Casino

Papillion Restaurant Hairsty list

Mirabelle Restaurant Laundry

8 Meeting Rooms (150 persons each)

2 Bars Conference Center (2500 person's capacity)

Business Center
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Health fitness Center Stream Rooms

Gymnasium Tennis Courts

Saunas Juice Bar

Figure 4.16: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Perspective View showing the Balconies
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Figure 4.17: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Lobby Bar Lit with Skylight.

Figure 4.18: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Papillon Top Roof Garden.

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Figure 4.19: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Classic Room Spacious and Cross

Figure 4.20 :SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Obudu Restaurant with enough natural
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Figure 4.21:SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Conference Facilities Separated from The

main Tower.

Figure 4.22: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Water Body/Greenry Within the Courtyard
which brings Cooling Effect on the Environment.
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Figure 4.23: SHERATON HOTEL ABUJA – Arial View showing Location of facilities.
(Source: Modified from Google earth)

4.4.7 Appraisal


The location of the hotel in serene valleys of Abuja presents interesting and exciting vista.

The hotel posits a humane approach to the architecture by the use of well-lit spacious flowing

The form of the hotel is so interesting that it charms many guests to the hotel. It allows for cross
ventilation and natural lighting.

What is splendid about the architecture of this hotel is the spatial transition from the lobby to the

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The rooms all have balconies which allow the guests to get in touch with the natural

The interiors or the hotel arc made natural by the introduction of natural plants, fish ponds and
lighting effect.

The landscaping of the courtyard has a touch of traditional effects with use of indigenous
building materials like thatches. The north facing guest rooms are also ideal in order to keep out
the intense tropical heat of the area.

The number of rooms and restaurant facilities offers guests a wide range of options and

The hotel also offers several recreational facilities to the guest, and more importantly satisfies
tourists and vacationists.


As a result of the use of skylight in parts of the entrance lobby, parts of these areas that are not
affected by this gesture appears dark and dull.

The hotel design is too spread out for the comfort of the guest. This is depicted especially in the
juxtaposition of restaurant spaces and conference spaces (Large Foot Print)

The atrium is not enclosed, hence, the spaces immediately around and in the courtyard are
affected by weather factors.
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Source of Information:

Visit to the hotel, interviews , photographs taken, actual observation and site sketches.


OLuwole OLumuyiwa Associates, Lagos in partnership with Walter Burns Toan Lunde
Associates, New York.

4.5.1 Brief History

The hotel was proposed by the Federal Government. After a competition was conducted, the
architects, Oluwole, Olumuyiwa were given the go-ahead to design the hotel. The hotel was
completed in March 5th, 1977, and was managed by Holiday Inn corporation, thus called Eko
Holiday Inn, until 1988 when it was taken over by Meridien and became Eko Meridien Hotel but
presently, the hotel is known as Eko Hotel.


It occupies a site at Victoria Island, Lagos on the bay of Kuramo River. It is ideally located in
the privacy of this bay and is in walking distance of the bar beach.

Its location is about ten minutes drive to the city centre and forty minutes drive to the Murtala
Mohammed International Airport, lkeja.

The Eko Hotels And Suites is located

 600 yards from Bar Beach

 12 miles from Lagos, Nigeria (LOS-Murtala Muhammed Intl.)
 1.3 miles from Ikoyi Golf Club
 1.4 miles from Silverbird Galleria
 1.6 miles from Palms Shopping Mall
 2.2 miles from Nigerian National Museum

4.5.2 Form Description:

The hotel is based on the tower atop a podium. The tower is a modified rectangular box with 45°
trapezoidal extension on each side. That is, two staggered parallel diagonal shafts joined together
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by a central rectangular one. The elevators are lit by large curtain walls that span through the
whole floors. These curtain walls allow for vistas of the densely built areas of Victoria Island.
There are four fire escapes, one fire escape in each diagonal shaft and two in the central shaft.

The rectangular shaft remained the same throughout the entire floors that is in terms of room
design. However, the diagonal shafts, especially the lower shaft: and the junction to the
rectangular shaft were changed on different floor levels to form different room types.

The pent house restaurant (Shangri-la) is atop the tower, and could be reached by the elevators.
The restaurant has two terraces, one overlooking Kuramo waters and the swimming pool, while
the other overlooks the office building in Victoria Island. This restaurant houses the water tanks.
On the ground floor, are the lobby and a central courtyard. The lobby is not defined by walls but
by columns and it has a small man-made waterfall.

The staggered floor level in the basement, as a result of the slope of the land towards the
Kuramo bay, houses most of the (back of house) activities.

4.5.3 Architecture:

The building is based on a square grid which applies to most of the tower. However, this grid is
used in conjunction with a 450 to the horizontal plane immediately one alights in the car-port
(Porte cochere), one enters a lobby that is not really defined and is informal to the core. The only
hint that this might be a lobby is the presence of reception desk and cashier's booth. This space
flows to the elevator lobby and retail shop from which there is a vertical movement to the more
formal areas in the accommodation tower. More also, below, the lobby flows towards the
restaurants and bar areas. The conference facilities are located behind. Descending down the
staircase, one sees the swimming pool area with the cocktail bar and the Kuramo cafe restaurant.
The cocktail bat Haws to the pool deck which includes the barbecue and pool terrace seating.
The architecture of the Eko Hotel tries to incorporate informality and freedom of space in the
public areas and strict formality in the private areas.
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Figure 4.24: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Perspective View (source: Google Earth)

Figure4.25: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – External Façade with good Views from Balconies
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Figure 4.26: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Properly Planned Car Lots and Delivery Bay

Figure 4.27: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Pool Bar

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Figure 4.28: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Presidential Suite

Figure 4.29: EKO HOTEL LAGOS – Green Belt Properly Integrated within the
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4.5.4 Construction and Materials:

The construction used is in- situ construction. No major part of the buildings structure was pre-
fabricated. The major construction materials are concrete and sand Crete blocks.

The exterior finish materials is sandtex coating with a very rough finish. The predominant colour
is white, while the constrasting colour to white used, is dark brown which is the colour of the
bronze anodized aluminium handrails used in the balconies. The glass fixtures are tinted
translucent brown and also have bronze anodized frames.

Several diverse finishes were used in the public areas, hard materials such as marble tile and
terrazzo finishes were used. On the walls, a rough finished wall was coated with paint and
vermiculite ceiling boards were used in the ceilings in the private areas; the floor finish was rug
carpeting, wood finish, white concrete walls, and vermiculite on the ceilings. Planting and
lighting fixtures were also introduced to create the feeling of a natural environment.


4.6.1 Project Type

Located in Greensboro, North Carolina, the sustainably designed Proximity Hotel features 147

guest rooms and suites, a full-service restaurant, and 5,000 square feet (465 sq m) of meeting and

event space. The first hotel in the nation to be LEED Platinum certified by the U.S. Green

Building Council (USGBC), it uses a wide array of energy-efficient materials, systems, and

construction techniques to reduce energy consumption by 36.5 percent and water usage by 30

percent as compared to a conventional hotel. Room rates at the Proximity Hotel average $155 per

night—the highest rate for non resort hotels in the Greensboro area—and the hotel has become

an event destination for environmentally focused organizations.

Location: Inner Suburban 704 Green Valley Road Greensboro, North Carolina

Site Size: 5.24 acres/2.12 hectares

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Land Uses: Luxury Hotel, Restaurant, Event Facility

Keywords/special features

• Sustainable Development • Green Building

Web Site: www.proximityhotel.com

Developer: Quaintance-Weaver Restaurants & Hotels Greensboro, North Carolina

Architect: Centrepoint Architecture, LLP Raleigh, North Carolina

Landscape Architect: Callaway & Associates Greensboro, North Carolina

4.6.2 Project Data

Land Use Information

Site area (acres/hectares): 5.24/2.12

Net building area (square feet/square meters): 118,000/10,963

Floors above grade: 7

Number of parking spaces: 182

Building Use Information

Use Net Area (Square Feet/Square Meters)

Lobby/reception area 7,000/650

Retail 1,000/93

Guest rooms 63,000/5,853

Restaurants/lounges 8,500/790

Health/fitness 4,000/372

Administrative offices 1,500/139

Back-of-house (services) 8,000/743

Circulation 8,000/743
P a g e | 160

Public areas 12,000/1,115

Other (hotel event space) 5,000/465

Total 118,000/10,963

Guest Room Information

Number of rooms: 147

Standard room size (square feet/square meters): 400/37

Executive/hospitality suite size (square feet/square meters): 950/88

Occupancy rate (percentage): 70

Average room rate per night (as of October 2008): $155

Development Schedule

Site purchased: January 2006

Construction started: January 2006

Project completed: October 2007

Driving Directions

From Piedmont Triad International Airport: Turn right onto Bryan Boulevard as you exit the

airport. Go nine miles

(14.5 km); Bryan Boulevard will become Benjamin Parkway after eight miles (12.9 km). Turn

left onto Green

Valley Road (at a stoplight). The Proximity Hotel will be ahead, approximately 600 feet (183 m)

on the right.

Driving time: 20 minutes in nonpeak traffic.

P a g e | 161
Figure 4.30: PROXIMITY HOTEL – View Showing The Facade
4.6.3 General Description

The Proximity Hotel, a 147-room hotel that includes a restaurant—the Print Works Bistro—and

5,000 square feet (465 sq m) of conference, meeting, and event facilities, was developed by

Greensboro-based Quaintance-Weaver Restaurants & Hotels (QWRH). Incorporating numerous

energy-efficient features, the hotel has become a hospitality market leader with respect to green

building, obtaining Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum

certification from the USGBC—the first such designation for a hotel in the United States.

The developer‘s intention was to build an environmentally friendly hotel while being sincere yet

practical with regard to sustainability. Dennis Quaintance, the founder of QWRH, likes to say he

―went deep,‖ investing additional time to research appropriate sustainable concepts and materials

while maintaining the integrity, feel, and look of a luxury hotel. He also likes to say that ―it isn‘t

sustainable to go broke,‖ emphasizing that the development team adopted sustainable practices

only if they made sense to the bottom line in the long term.
Figure 4.31: Arial View showing the Location of Facilities

Figure 4.32: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Restaurant.

4.6.4 Development, Construction, and Design

The Proximity Hotel consists of two structures: the eight-story hotel and an adjacent, two-level

edifice that contains the aforementioned restaurant and event space. Although both buildings are

newly constructed, the design of the hotel—with high ceilings, floor-to-ceiling windows, and a

concrete, industrial exterior—is reminiscent of an old warehouse or factory, whereas the smaller,

brick restaurant evokes the form of a shipping/receiving building.

The main entry to the hotel is on the east side and includes a covered motor entrance that is

staffed by bellhops. The main parking lot lies on this side of the building, although a portion

wraps around the structure‘s south side. Inside are the main lobby and reception desk, which

overlooks an expansive lounge. Due to the grade of the site, the front of the hotel is 14 feet (4.2

m) higher than the back side; therefore, both the main entrance and the lower-level lounge are at

ground level. The second building—on grade with the lounge— stands directly behind the hotel.

Between the lounge and restaurant is a landscaped outdoor patio that can be used for receptions.

The main lobby level also has direct access to the second story of the restaurant building, and the

event and meeting space is spread out on this level through both structures. The lower level of

the hotel includes a fitness center and an outdoor pool, and floors two through eight contain the

147 guest rooms and suites. A majority of the guest rooms (90) are standard king suites, which

average approximately 400 square feet (37 sqm). They include a king-sized bed, sofa, table,

desk, flat-screen television, CD player with MP3 player plug-in, and spacious bathroom. The

remainder of the rooms have two beds, are larger—up to 950 square feet (88 sq m)—orfeature

luxury amenities.

The Print Works Bistro, the restaurant located on the ground floor of the second building, has a

separate entrance from the parking lot on the south side of the complex. It was important for the
developer to incorporate a high quality dining establishment that stood out as a destination

unique to the hotel. The eatery includes both a bar and dining room, and has an expansive, wrap-

around terrace that overlooks the restored creek. Parking is provided in a surface lot that wraps

around the east and south sides of the complex, and serves the main entrance on the east and the

Print Works Bistro entrance on the south. The parking area contains 138 spaces, but another lot

immediately to the east of the site comprises an additional 44 spaces. The developer also has a

permanent cross-party agreement with the adjacent office building to use its parking lot, if


Figure 4.33: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Suite

4.6.5 Green Features

The Proximity Hotel uses 41 percent less energy than ASHRAE 90.1 standards—an industry

standard that sets an efficiency baseline for heating, cooling, water, and electrical systems in

buildings—and 36.5 percent less energy and 30 percent less water than a traditional hotel. The

developer points out that besides solar panels on the roof, it is not obvious that the project is

green. It was important, first and foremost, that the Proximity Hotel had the appearance of, and

was managed like, a luxury hotel. All members of the development team—including the

developer, the architect, the contractor, the landscape architect, and other consultants—worked
in concert to maximize efficiencies throughout the hotel. This multidisciplinary, collaborative

approach, known as integrated design, addresses the building as a whole rather than treating each

element separately. For example, at the Proximity Hotel, the practice of integrated design

reduced air-conditioning needs by 35 percent, which in turn has cut total energy demand at the

project by 11 percent. Approximately 100 solar panels cover the 4,000 square feet (372 sq m) of

rooftop, providing 60 percent of the hotel‘s and restaurant‘s hot water needs. Water is cycled

through the solar panels and heated, then stored in tanks, enabling, for example, a guest to

shower with hot water heated by the sun on the previous day.

Figure 4.34: PROXIMITY HOTEL – Solar Panels

Reducing water use is perhaps the biggest challenge facing the hotel and lodging industry. The

Proximity Hotel uses low-flow shower heads (2.0 gallons [7.6 liters] per minute versus the

standard of 2.5 gallons [9.5 liters]), low-flush toilets (1.28 gallons [4.84 liters] per flush), and

low-flow sink faucets.

According to the developer, the implementation of water conservation measures has

reduced demand by over 30 percent compared to water usage at other luxury hotels, and the

Proximity has saved 2 million gallons (7.57 million liters) of water in its first year—a $13,000

annual savings, compared to the $7,000 one-time cost for water-efficient fixtures.

The two main guest elevators at the Proximity Hotel utilize regenerative drives, which create

energy when braking during descent. The energy captured is then applied to the ascent, and as a

result, the elevators can regenerate 30 percent of their total electricity demand. The greater

energy efficiency of these lifts allows them ultimately to generate 50 percent energy savings

compared with conventional elevators. Many of the building‘s materials—including mattresses,

furniture, artwork, and others—were manufactured locally.

The developer estimates that 40 percent of the total is sourced from local suppliers, whereas that

figure typically is 5 percent for conventional buildings. Also, over 75 percent of construction

waste was recycled, diverting it from landfills.

Roughly 20 percent of the cost of the building went toward recycled materials, including 700,000

pounds (317,520 kg) of fly ash incorporated into the concrete. Carpeting and paints have low

levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the bathroom tiles are composed of 42 percent

recycled material. The core of most of the woodwork contains wheat straw. For all aspects of

development, the development team considered whether materials could be obtained from local

sources or recycled, or if a particular material was even needed. One example of this is the

exposed interior concrete walls, which have a bronze or sepia look that makes them appear

decoratively aged. This was achieved by using paint mixed with water and covered with a clear

coat. The result was good enough that most rooms in the hotel contain a portion of exposed

concrete wall, which reduced the need for other finishing materials, including Sheetrock. One

instance where the developer opted not to use what might be commonly considered a green
product was the flooring in the main lobby and lower-level lounge. The developer reasoned that

limestone would last a long time, whereas the extra cost for an unproven material was not

deemed worth the risk. The rationalization for this decision is what is commonly called a ―life-

cycle assessment.‖ The commercial kitchen in the Print Works Bistro utilizes a geothermal

cooling system, which reduces airconditioning needs by 20 percent. The developer is also testing

plots for a green roof on the second building, which would reduce the heat island effect and

insulate the structure from extreme conditions.

In the fall of 2008, the Proximity Hotel was granted a LEED Platinum rating from the USGBC.

Despite achieving this rating, the developer claims that it was not chasing LEED points. The

development team‘s goal was to ensure that the building and materials met the budget and were

durable, attractive, and, if possible, sustainable.


Completion: The hotel is one of the five buildings in Embarcadero Centre completed in 1966.

Client: David Rockfeller and Associates Trammel Crow.

Architects: John Portman and Associates.

Site: The hotel is sited on an area for recreational-cultural uses in Embarcadero center,

adjacent to a newly created plaza near the landmark Ferry Building at the foot of the city's main


4.7.1 Structure and Form:

The building is largely on a triangular base conforming to the boundaries of an irregular site. An

irregular massing whose 450 angle recedes upwards in an attempt to lean away from the 4th and

tallest office building in the centre and this serve as a kind of buttress for the tremendous vertical

thrust beside it.

4.7.2 Description:

The 450 slope each guestroom a balcony each on the roof of the room just below. At the north

(water side) and south (town side) ends, the facades are striated with balcony parapets of

concrete, their lines picking up and carrying ground ward those of the concrete sunshields around

a revolving roof-top restaurant called ―equinox‖. Overall, the slope reads out to the open space

below with a closs-grained texture derived from the inter-play of the horizontal banks of quest

room balconies, their railings and the soaring struts of the modified A-frames which support the

sloped section in hovering fashion above the two distinct facets outside (and in) born of the

obtuse-angle roof line running the slope's upper reaches. This line runs straight out from the

drum street section to just below the extremity of the roof-top restaurant. Because this part of the

town is land fill, the crustancean was floated on a concrete mat supported by prestressed, pin like

piles, thus distributing the weight and distributing possible tremors.

Facilities: With these facilities, the hotel paints a dramatic picture. The 17-storey high lobby

of the hotel is dazzling. The hotel also contains

* Banquet and meeting rooms

* Five restaurants

* Revolving roof-top circular restaurant called ―Equinox‖

* Ponte 'ore

* Night club-the happenstance

* Elevators, guestroom (840 in number), etc.

Figure 4.35: Arial View showing the Location of Facilities

Figure 4.36: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Street Level

Figure 4.37: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Bay Level

Figure 4.38: HYATT REGENCY HOTEL – Atrium Lobby Level




Figure 3.39: Picture showing the perspective view And Atrium naturally lit


Figure 4.40 : Lecture Theatre of Thurgoona campus

Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

4.8.1 Project Details

The campus has been built in stages, beginning with earthworks and water management system
and completed in 1996. To date it comprises eleven buildings serving functions of teaching,
research, administration and student accommodation. Further buildings are under construction
and being planned.

Address: Thurgoona Campus, off Sydney Road, Albury NSW 2640

Owner: Charles Sturt University

Buildings: Student pavilion / cafeteria

School of Environmental and Information Sciences: staff offices and specialist research facilities
(Herbarium, GIS Research & Mapping Lab, Information Technology Hub)

Teaching Complex: 200 seat lecture, five teaching spaces (1 X 100 places, 2 X 60 places, 2 X
30 places)

Student Residences: 6 cottages (by early 2001) to accommodate 46 students

This case study will mainly centre on the School of Environmental and Information Sciences
which comprise 2969 square metres of office accommodation for staff & postgraduate students,
specialist teaching space and research facilities including a herbarium.

Figure 4.41: School of Environmental and Information Science

Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

This will be broken down to consider the office accommodation wing.

1. Completed February 1999

2. Building area: GFA 2, 100m2
3. Number of occupants: 100
4. Nature of occupancy: 8 hours a day, 250 days a year.
5. Number of storeys: 2
6. Building cost: $3.2 million

4.8.2 Location and Climate

The Thurgoona campus of Charles Sturt University is an 87 hectare site 10 kilometres north east
of Albury on the NSW-Victoria border, bounded by a creek and three roads.

Albury's climate is characterised by hot dry summers (Jan-Feb average maximum temperature is
30 degrees celsius, but can go over 40) and cold wet winters (average minimum temperatures
from June-August are around 3 degrees celsius, and 3pm temperatures between 11 and 16
degrees celsius). Designing to provide sufficient heat in winter and adequate cool in summer
without air conditioning was a challenge. Annual rainfall is 784mm with most of this falling in
winter and spring, meaning that irrigation is required in the summer.

Mains power and town water were supplied to the AWDC building, but would require expansion
to serve a new campus. There were no connections to town sewerage or storm water mains. This
minimal infrastructure was taken as an opportunity to create a quasi-autonomous campus. This
was a significant decision leading to the design of an extensive water management system, which
incorporates capture, cleaning, storage and re-use. It meant that storm water connections were
not needed, the town water supply did not have to be amplified, while the use of dry composting
toilets has avoided the need for mains sewerage connection or an onsite sewage treatment plant.
Figure 4.42: Site location map

Source: www.googleearth.com

4.8.3 The Challenge

The designers of Thurgoona set out to create a university campus that would function as
autonomously as possible, drawing minimally on external services, using material resources
sparingly and generating significantly less waste. The campus, which was to be the home of the
School of Environmental and Information Sciences, with other schools coming later, was to
provide a healthy, low impact work environment which could be a model for more sustainable
ways of living and working.

This has been achieved by integrating a range of unconventional approaches: a site designed to
absolutely prioritize water conservation, buildings of rammed earth construction, natural
ventilation combined with hydronic heating and cooling, renewable energy technologies,
composting toilets as standard fittings, extensive use of recycled materials and components,
paints and finishes chosen according to exacting environmental criteria. Many other projects
have received extensive praise for taking just a few of these initiatives. It is rare for them to all
come together in the one project.

4.8.4 Building Design

Site Planning

The requirements of water harvesting, cleansing and storage dominate the design of the site,
which is marked by wetlands and retention basins towards the north boundary and storage dams
on the highest central point.

Existing drainage patterns and the requirements of the water management system were used to
define the placement of buildings, with roads, paths and services following site contours.
Precincts have been planned on a pedestrianized scale to avoid the need for car use.

Building Form

The environmental program has largely determined the form and appearance of the buildings.
The rammed earth walls ranging in thickness from 300-600mm (chosen for their high thermal
mass) give the buildings a solid, heavy appearance. Thermal chimneys, which double as
skylights are also visually prominent.

Water self-sufficiency is declared visually by the incorporation of rainwater tanks into the
building structures - 43 in all across the campus. Continuing the water theme, the heating and
cooling of the buildings is by a hydronic system that circulates hot or cold water through floor
and ceiling slabs, a spray mist cooling system is used in the in the Student Pavilion courtyard,
while a small waterfall creates spray mist to pre-cool the air entering the Lecture Theatre.

Looking more closely at the the offices of the School of Environmental and Information
Sciences, it is clear that early design decisions favoured a passive approach to heating, cooling,
ventilation and lighting. The idea was to make the building fabric do a good deal of the work of
providing thermal (and visual) comfort, which involved:

o building orientation (long north-south aspect)

o construction materials (rammed earth walls, concrete floors and ceilings)
o windows (predominantly on north and south facades)
o floorplates (narrow, to maximise light penetration)

Figure 4.43: Exterior view of School of information and science

Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

4.8.5 Design Strategies

Heating, Cooling and Ventilation

For heating and cooling a mixed mode system which favours passive techniques has been taken.
The passive elements of the School of Environmental and Information Sciences Building are:

- building orientation (long north-south aspect)

- high thermal mass materials (rammed earth and concrete)
- window placement (predominantly on north and south facades)
- sun shading
- natural ventilation
- automated night purging
- wool insulation in ceiling cavity

The rammed earth walls are unreinforced, forming the structural walls and columns throughout
the building, and thus defining the spaces even down to the individual offices, going against the
standard practice of lightweight internal walls such as plasterboard. Floors and ceiling slabs are
concrete, with ribbed profile ceilings to increase surface area. This means the building has a
great deal of thermal mass, which acts to stabilise indoor temperatures. Wall thicknesses have
been calculated for an optimal 12 hour lag.

The stack effect is used to assist cross ventilation and summer cooling, the key element being
thermal chimneys. Night purging, through automatically operating low and high level louvre
vents flushes the internal spaces of hot air, expelling it through thermal chimneys, lowering the
temperature of the thermal mass.

The main active element is the hydronic system which circulates water through floor and ceiling
slabs for supplementary heating and cooling. It is controlled by a BMS (building management
system) and triggered by in-slab temperature sensors. Concrete tanks located in the in ceiling of
each building store hot or cold water for use in a closed loop system via thermal exchange. In
winter, roof mounted solar collectors heat the water, with back-up from a gas boiler when
required. In summer the system works in reverse, dissipating heat through the solar collectors at
night with further cooling by thermal exchange with water pumped up from the reservoirs to the
top supply dams (pump is wind-driven with photo-voltaic back-up).

Additional thermal comfort is provided by ceiling fans in the offices.

Figure 4.44: Cross section of School of Environment and information Sciences showing
heating and cooling systems

Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

Daylighting, Sun Control and Artificial Lighting

The strategy has been to reduce demand for artificial lighting through high levels of daylight and
individual control. Effective daylighting has been achieved by the narrow floor plate (all work
areas are less than 6m from windows), by fanlights above office doors and via thermal chimneys
which double as skylights allowing daylight to penetrate the central interior spaces. Window
sizes, roof overhangs and shade devices were calculated to allow maximum natural daylighting
without glare and without compromising thermal performance.

Artificial light is really only needed on overcast days. It is provided by energy efficient
fluorescent lamps (from 11 to 36 watts) with further efficiencies gained by only specifying 360
lux level at desktops, with other area lighting at 180 lux. Lights are manually operated, except
for those in store rooms and sanitary areas which are on timers and / or activated by photocell
movement detectors.
Energy Sources and Renewables

Mains electricity is used to supply lighting and general power needs. Extensive arrays of roof
mounted solar collectors power the heating and cooling system (with gas back-up), while
domestic hot water is supplied by separate roof mounted solar hot water systems (electric
boosted). Both solar systems use gas boosting. Road and car park lighting is powered by stand
alone photovoltaics, as is the back-up for the windmill-driven pump that moves water from the
reservoirs to the top supply dams. The budget didn't stretch to photovoltaics for general power
needs, but the roofs have been correctly angled and have sufficient space for later addition of
photovoltaic panels.

Sustainable Materials and Labour

Rigorous selection criteria were employed for materials selection, which favoured:

1. Low embodied energy

2. 2. A high percentage of reused or recycled components and materials
3. Using low or nil off-gassing materials for a healthy indoor environment
4. Avoiding materials with high upstream impacts

This resulted in the following selections:

- Recycled timber for windows, joinery and interior linings (MDF avoided because of
manufacturing impacts and off-gassing).
- Plantation softwood roof trusses and composite plywood beams (instead of native forest
- Steel mesh rather than chemical treatment for subfloor termite protection
- Paints and oils with low or nil volatile organic compounds (some of the paints were
custom mixed, such as a non-titanium based white)
- Linoleum floor coverings (lower manufacturing impacts than vinyl)
- Wool ceiling insulation (less hazard risk in installation and removal than mineral fibre)
- Polyethylene and terracotta pipes for drainage system (avoiding PVC because of its high
manufacturing impacts)
Figure 4.45: School of Environmental Sciences: Interior view showing void

Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

These choices have contributed significantly to the character of the building. The variety of
recycled timbers and different styles of joinery add richness and complexity throughout the
school building.

The policy of favouring local tradespeople is an important aspect of the project's commitment to
sustainability. This is more complex than just local employment creation, as it involved
inducting local labour into sustainable trades as well as providing experienced tradespeople with
opportunities to innovate.

4.8.6 The Lecture Theatre's energy system

The lecture theatre presented the challenge of having to cater for large numbers of people in a
confined space and having to respond more quickly to meet cooling requirements. Its
construction is an earth covered concrete barrel vault, which acts to moderate heat losses and
gains from extreme external air temperatures. It is naturally ventilated using the stack effect, with
hot air from people, light and equipment being exhausted through louvres in a thermal chimney
above the stage.
As in the School Building there is automated night purging to rid the building of unwanted heat
and to induct external cool air. Fresh air enters through a plenum (which, in this case is a thermal
labyrinth of staggered concrete blade walls supporting the seating tiers) and is distributed
through vents along the tiers. A waterfall is located directly above the air intake louvres to the
plenum which creates rainfall sized drops and spray mist for evaporative pre-cooling. The water
is sourced from the rainwater tanks in the School and the Teaching Complex. Additional cooling
is also provided by a geothermal exchange system of polyethylene pipes laid one metre under the

Figure 4.46: Detail showing lecture theatre spray mist cooling system
Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

4.8.7 Other Environmental Factors

Water Management System

The idea that water is a precious resource has informed the entire design of the Thurgoona
campus. It is expressed visually, with rainwater tanks being structurally incorporated into the
buildings, and even the cooling systems of the buildings are "plugged into" the elaborate, whole-
of-site system that collects, cleanses, stores and re-uses water. Thus the energy and water
systems are interdependent, an example of the relational thinking that has informed much of the
design process.

Looking specifically at the water system: waterways and contour banks collect rainwater and
direct it via grass swales down to wetlands for cleansing. This occurs through biological cleaning
by plants and bacteria, clarification via sedimentation and further cleaning by aeration in which
the water flows over rocks into in-stream treatment wetlands, then to three interconnected
retention basins. From here it is pumped via windmill and solar pump to storage dams at the top
of the hill and released as required for irrigation and to maintain the system. Movement of the
water and the presence of frogs keep mosquito breeding grounds to a minimum.

Grey water from sinks, showers and laundries is collected and treated in separate wetlands. Its
three stage treatment through gravel and reed bed wetlands traps nutrients and treats pathogens,
resulting in water that is actually of drinking quality. However, as regulations do not allow
treated grey water for potable uses, sub-surface irrigation pipes to a landscaped mound for
evapotranspiration distribute it.

Roof water is collected and stored in the 43 building-integrated rainwater tanks. This water
supplies the laundries in the student residences and the spray-mist cooling system for the student
pavilion and lecture theatre. Even after water has been used for spray mist cooling, it is not
wasted, but collected and cleansed in a small wetland for reuse in the system.

This careful use of water is further enhanced by reducing demand for its uptake, this most
effectively through the use of dry composting toilets.


As the site was degraded, it required extensive revegetation with plants selected for low water
uptake. The planting program, other regenerative measures such as creek restoration, as well as a
range of environmental monitoring activities are all closely linked into the School of
Environmental Science's teaching program.
Figure 4.47: Wide shot showing landscaping of wetland area
Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

4.8.8 Design Lessons

Despite the Thurgoona campus being well in front of any other environmentally informed
building project of comparable scale in Australia, there are some shortcomings and unresolved
problems from which lessons can be learnt.

There is a major design life differential between the rammed earth walls and the galvanised steel
rainwater tanks which are integrated into these walls. The tanks are likely to deteriorate and
require replacing long before the rammed earth walls; therefore design detailing has allowed for
their future removal and replacement. But this will be a more intrusive operation than if the tanks
had been free-standing.

There was a deliberate design decision to favour 'maintainability' over 'low maintenance' and
most elements have been detailed so they can be accessed for repair. Some items will require
periodic maintenance, such as the timber window frames, but if they are maintained by the
application of organic oil (the original coating) rather than petrochemical derived coatings
(conventional paints and varnishes), this is a cost rather than an environmental issue. As yet, no
formal mechanism has been put into place (such as a building use manual) to ensure that
maintenance practices continue to be environmentally low impact.
Figure 4.48: Exterior view of Lecture Theatre showing rammed earth landscaped roof
Source: http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/thurgoona/thurgoona.htm

While in its totality Thurgoona is not replicable, lessons can be learnt. It cannot be taken as a
template to apply to other situations because so much of its design has been driven by creative
responses to a local context - the nature of the site, its climate, available materials, trade skills
and environmental expertise


The character of the hotel was determined by its situation downtown in the historical centre

of Helsinki. Its interplay with the urban surroundings has to a large degree influenced its

architechure. The Strand Hotel‘s main feature is the central atrium, joining all floors into

one entity and on the lower floors taking up the entire corner area. It is here, in its most

prominent part that the building opens up to the surrounding city.

Building Layout

The layout is very clearly recognisable in the architectural features:

The first floor as a public area, with the second floor as a mezzanine, running into the

foyer-ballroom to the east and the other function rooms to the south.

The 5 guestroom floors, with the separate suites in the corner of the building the top floor,

set back in order to leave space for the roof terraces.

The top floor also features the prestigious Presidential Suite with its own sauna and

spectacular views over the sea inlet and Helsinki‘s old town and cathedral.

Design and construction 1984-1988

Client Oy Wartsila Ab

Total built area 18250 m²

Total number of room 200

Figure 4.49: HILTON STRAND’S HOTEL FINLAND- Ground Floor Plan

Figure 4.50: HILTON STRAND’S HOTEL FINLAND- Typical Floor Plan

Figure 4.52: HILTON STRAND’S HOTEL FINLAND- Picture showing central atrium
with galleries naturally lit.
Figure 4.53: HILTON STRAND’S HOTEL FINLAND- Spacious Terrace

Figure 4.54: HILTON STRAND’S HOTEL FINLAND- Elevation glazed floor to floor.



The Federal Republic of Nigeria extends between latitudes 4°16'N and 14°N and between
longitudes 2°49'E and 14°37'E. It is surrounded by French speaking West African countries but
for the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) in the south. The greatest distance from east to west is
about 1300 kilometers and its distance from north to south is about 1100 kilometers. Nigeria has
36 states. Anambra is one of them and like Enugu, Imo, Abia, Rivers, Cross-River, and Akwa-
Ibom, was carved out of the former Eastern Region.

Figure 5.1: Map of Nigeria

(Source: www.ananigeria.com/branches)
Figure 5.2: Map of Nigeria Showing Climate(Source: Metrological department Port

Figure 5.3: Map of Nigeria showing annual mean Temperature

Figure 5.4: Map of Nigeria Showing Rain Distribution.

(Source: Metrological department Port Harcourt)

Figure 5.5: Vegetation map of Nigeria

(Source: http: //www. Map of Nigeria.html)


Anambra state is bounded by Delta and Edo States to the west, Imo and Rivers States to the
south, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the north . Anambra State derives its name from
Anambra River that traverses the state Anambra is a state in south- central Nigeria. The city
centre, marked by the junction of the old Enugu-Onitsha Road and Achalla Road is located on
Latitude 6°12'25" North and Longitude 7°4' 12" East. Anambra State has an area of 4,844kmsq.

Figure 5.6: map of Nigeria showing Anambra in red

(Source: www.rnw.nl/.../NigeriaAnambra-wikipedia_0.png)

The 21 Local Government Areas of Anambra State are: Aguata, Awka North, Awka South,
Anambra East, Anambra West, Anaocha, Ayamelum, Dunukofia, Ekwusigo, Idemili North,
Idemili South, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi North, Nnewi South, Ogbaru, Onitsha North, Onitsha
South, Orumba North, Orumba South and Oyi. Below is a map showing the 21 local government
area in figure 7 below.

Figure 5.7: Map of Anambra state showing the 21 local government areas (Source:

 Capital: Awka

 Area: 4,844 km2

 Population: 7,821,858 (2005 est.)

 ISO 3166-2: NG-AN

 Date Created: 27 August 1991

 Population Rank: Ranked N/A

5.2.1 Historical Background of Anambra State

Anambra State was created on the 3rd of February, 1977. It was one of the two states carved out
of the former East Central State. On August 27, 1991, Enugu State was created out of Anambra
State and its capital was moved to Awka. The state derives its name from the Anambra River
which runs north to south through the state.

Anambra state has a lot to do to improve their brand image which has been negatively
undermined by the activities of indigenous youths lacking employment. The current governor,
Mr Peter Obi with his private sector background and experience appears to be the right man for
the job, but his slow start has continued to attract the criticisms of Anambra state indigenes
whose patience are running out. With all the materials and human resources that abound in the
state, including the extra advantage of being the home state of some famous Nigerians such as
Rt. Hon. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chinua Achebe, Philip Emeagwali, Arthur Ekwensi, Prof.
Charles Soludo, Emeka Anyaoku, Prof. (Mrs) Oby Ezekwesili, Prof. Dora Akunyili e.t.c, It is
about time that Anambra, a potential economic and regional tiger wakes up and starts to harness
her true potentials for the benefits of her indigenes

Known to be the state where prominent sportsmen hail from, and where skills for local crafts
such as blacksmithing abound, the state government has a lot to do in ensuring these talents are
harnessed by providing for its unemployed youths a befitting youth centre for the acquisition of
the right physical, vocational and social skills and mental attitude.


Anambra State has a population of 7, 821,858 (2005 estimate). It has one of the highest
population densities in Africa. This has posed other serious problems from undue pressure on the
state's resources, fragile infrastructure, environmental sanitation and social services e.t.c. this
pressure is especially evident in its huge commercial nerve centre Onitsha.

Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil, bauxite, ceramics and almost 100 percent arable soil.
Most of its natural resources remain largely untapped.

The people are very industrious, and most of the industrial base of the state is private sector
driven, spanning from agro-allied, automobile and manufacturing situated mostly in the Nnewi
industrial belt. Onitsha market is reputed to be the biggest in West Africa.

5.2.2 Physical Features

Geology and mineral resources

Anambra State lies in the Anambra Basin, the first region where intensive oil exploration was
carried out in Nigeria. The Anambra basin has about 6,000m of sedimentary rocks. The
sedimentary rocks comprise ancient crustaceous deltas, somewhat similar to the Niger Delta~
with the Nkporo Shale, the Mamu Formation, the Ajalli sandstone and the Nsukka Formation as
the main deposits. On the surface, the dominant sedimentary rocks are the Imo Shale a sequence
of grey shales, occasional clay iron stones and Sandstone beds.

Vegetation and Soils

The climatic conditions namely, the constantly high temperatures, and the annual rainfall total of
above 1450mm concentrated mainly in 8 months of the year with 4 months of relative draught,
support a climax vegetation of high forest. In Nigeria as a whole, two broad belts of vegetation
can be identified, the forest and savannah. Within each group, it is possible to distinguish three
sub types namely saltwater, freshwater, and high forest in the forest type of vegetation, and in the
savannah, the Sudan, savannah, and guinea savannah.

Consequently, the natural vegetation in the greater part of Anambra State is tropical dry or
deciduous forest, which, in its original form comprised tall trees with thick undergrowth and
numerous climbers. The typical trees (silk cotton, Iroko, and Oil bean) are deciduous, shedding
their leaves in the dry season. Only in the southern parts of the state, where the annual rainfall is
higher and the dry season shorter, is the natural vegetation marginally the tropical rainforest type.
Because of the high population density in the state, most of the forests have been cleared for set
element and cultivation. What exists now is secondary re- growth, or a forest savannah mosaic,
where the oil palm is predominant, together with selectively preserved economic trees. Relics of
the original may, however be found in some "juju" shrines or some inaccessible areas. Three soil
types can be recognized in Anambra State, they are

- alluvial soil

- hydromorphic soils and

- ferallitic soils

Figure 5.8: Soil Zones

(Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

Ecological Hazards

The main ecological hazards in the state are accelerated gully erosion and flooding. Extensive
forest clearing, often by bush burning, and continuous cropping with little or no replenishment of
soil nutrients, resulted in the disruption of the ecological equilibrium of the natural forest
ecosystem. Such a situation in a region of loosely consolidated foriage soils is prone to erosion,
giving rise to extensive gully formation. In Agulu, Nanka and Oko areas, the gullies have
attained spectacular and alarming proportions, turning the area into real "bad lands". Many of the
gullies are the head streams of the rivers that flow down the cuestas. The head streams carve
their valleys deep into the deeply weathered red earth, developing dendritic patterns of gullies.
Such gullies are also found in Nnobi, Alor and Ideani, along the course of Idemili River. Besides,
the greater part of the state is prone to severe sheet erosion. In the low plains of the Niger and
Mamu Rivers, heavy rains often result in excessive flooding, such that the undulations occupied
by settlements are marooned for some months. The people resort in the use of canoes for
movement and transportation. Orba Ofemili and Ugbenu on the plains of the Mamu River are
sometimes in the rainy season, cut off from others as their roads remain flooded for many weeks.
The floods also cause serious damage to crops. (OnlineNigeria.com, 1998- 2008)

Topography and Landforms

Anambra state is predominantly a low-lying region (fairly flat) with tropical vegetation on the
western plain of the Mamu River, with all parts of it well below 333 meters (or 1,000 ft) above
mean sea level.

The escarpment, at its highest points has a local relief of about 100 meters. About 6 kilometers
eastwards of this, is a lower and smaller fiesta which rises to just above 150 metres as the IfIte-
Awka bill and to above 160 meters above mean sea level at Umuawulu. Its escarpment has
generally a local relief of about 80 meters. Its dip slope forms the settlement of Awka, Amawbia,
Umuokpu, Nibo, Mbaukwu, and Umuawulu communities.

5.2.3 Climatic conditions


Associated with tropical climate is very high temperature. Mean monthly maximum temperatures
range from 28.30C to 24.50c. The early months of the year and later parts of the year are hotter
than the middle months. In other words, the long dry season months are generally hotter than the
rest of the seasons. Due to the temperature, ventilation will be given a lot of consideration in the
design. The main thrust of this consideration will be cross ventilation or natural ventilation. The
public areas like the suites, bars and halls are to be dependent on mostly natural ventilation.
Provision however will be made for artificial ventilation during extremes of temperature or
during peak periods of usage.

Next in efforts to control the micro climate in the interiors of the hotel will be the choice of
construction methods and building materials. Air vents will be provided in between ceiling and
roofing materials to reduce temperature. Building materials with low rate of heat conduction will
be employed especially on the roof.

Doors and windows are to be recessed to reduce the rate of penetration of heat from the sun.
Fenestrations on the east and the west of the design are to be minimized as much as possible,
while the orientation is to be done in such a way as to avoid placing the longer sides facing the
east and West directions, while at the same time placing the design in such a way that the
fenestrations, especially the windows and vents will let in the prevailing wind.

Figure 5.9: Mean Annual Temperature Distribution

(Source: http://www.nimetng.org)
Design Implication

1) Ventilation should be adequate to quicken the removal of pockets of hot air.

2) Thermal insulators will be used to minimize the application of mechanical cooling aids.

3) Enough trees will be planted to provide shade for out-door relaxation.

4) There should be reduction of paved areas.

Prevailing Wind

During the period of November to February, the prevalent rains in Anambra state are the North-
East trade winds often referred to as harmattan winds. Its source is the Sahara and Arabian
deserts, and they are characteristically cold, dry and dusty. In the months of March to October, a
period of 8 months, the south-west winds associated with warm, moist, tropical maritime air
mass whose source of region is the Atlantic Ocean.

The wind is warm and moisture-laden and so bring rainfall to the territory at the beginning and
towards the end of the rainy season, violent easterly rains sometimes referred to as line squalls
occur. The squalls bring short-spell torrential rainfall accompanied by violent rains, lightning and

Two dominant air masses prevail. They are the Tropical Continental Air Mass (TCAM) and the
Tropical Maritime Air Mass (TMAM). The TCAM is developed over the hot dry sahara desert
and is locally referred to as North-East Trade Wind. It blows in the opposite direction of the
TMAM and cause dry season where dominant. The wind is dry, dust-laden, reduces visibility,
and causes dryness of skin, cracking of walls and wood works. The TMAN is locally called
South-West Trade Wind because of the fact that it originates from Atlantic and blows in the
North-East direction. It is warm and moisture -laden and brings rainfall where it prevails.
Figure 5.10: Dry Season Winds and Rainfall Pattern (November – April)

(Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

These two air masses bring rain and harmattan and thus drag seasons along. The duration of
influence of any of them marks a season which could be either rainy or dry- the two known
seasons in Nigeria. The elevated portion of the Awka capital territory running through Abagana,
Enugu-Ukwu, and Agulu, more usually experiences devastating effects of the wind and
Figure 5.11: Dry Season Winds and Rainfall Pattern (May – October)

(Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

Design Implications:-

1) The length of the building should be oriented in a direction perpendicular to SW/NE

direction for maximum ventilation. The critical rooms should face south-west façade for
good ventilation.

2) Location and size of openings is important. The size of openings, the type and angle of
louvre blades can affect the wind flow and speed.

3) Planting of trees should be such that will not obstruct south-west Trade Wind.
Figure 5.12: Orientation for more wind than sunlight

Source: Author
Figure 5.13: Orientation for more sunlight than wind

Source: Author

Figure 5.14: Best orientation for tropical setting for minimum solar radiation, heat
transmission and glare reduction.

Source: Author
Figure 5.15: Best orientation for effective and thorough breeze suffers from slanting east
west sun. Sun shading is required but this cuts down the passage of breeze (Source:

Figure 5.16: The use of plants to reduce glare and Orientation


One of the main features of a tropical climate is torrential rainfall, accompanied by thunderstorm
and lightening. The rainfall which is usually seasonal, is high and fall at an angle. This makes is
imperative that windows and openings that are on external walls have projections on top to keep
out rain water. Sloping roof is also desirable and a roof gutter appropriately channeled to a good
drainage network will be designed.

Four seasons exist in southern Nigeria, which includes the town of Awka. They are The long wet
seasons, which starts in mid-March and lasts till July. This season is characterized by heavy
rainfall, humidity and can make navigation cumbersome. This is followed by The short dry
season normally starting from July and lasting to august, a one month duration. The short wet
season follows from September to October. During this period, rainfall is not as heavy as during
the first wet seasons and the total amount is also less. The last of the seasons is the Long dry or
harmattan season. This lasts from November to mid March.

Annual rainfall figures range from 150 to 300 cm, with and average of between 169 to 182 cm.
This undoubtedly is a large figure that should attract special architectural treatment of the
building in the area. Because of a large quantity of run-off water expected, surface drainage will
be given special consideration in the site. The slopes or drops of the drains will be designed in
such a way as to cater for the large quantity of the run off water.
Figure 5.17: Total Annual Rainfall (Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

Reading off from the rainfall chart, 1985 -1987, the highest monthly rainfall for Awka is
293.7mm in September. The least monthly rainfall of 0.1mm was recorded in January. The mean
annual rainfall was 129.8mm.

Figure 5.18: Pockets of rain events in the southeast of the country in January 2009.
(Source: http://www.nimetng.org)
Figure 5.19: Trend of minimum temperature in 2005 (Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

Month Station Rainfall (mm) Rain days

January Eket 124.4 10

Awka 112.2 4

Phc 61.1 5

February Benin 108.6 6

Ibadan 101.9 6

Warri 83.6 6

Phc 66.6 6

Eket 66.2 11

Table 5.1: The table below summarizes the high total rainfall amounts and the number of rain
days for the two months (Source: http://www.nimetng.org)

The highest 1day rainfall in January occurred in Awka on the 20th, 75.3mm; while in February,
it was 55.4mm in Uyo on the 24th.

Design Implications: -

1) There should be covered walk-ways so that one can move from one section of the
complex to another without being beaten by the rain.

2) There should be an adequate provision of drainage to avoid flooding.

3) Building structure especially the roof should be strong enough to avoid damage by strong

4) The roof should be constructed in such a way that would ensure effective discharge of

5) Openings on external walls should be protected from driving rains by the use of eaves
and other rain-shading devices such as concrete-hood.

Relative Humidity

Another characteristic of tropic climate is high humidity. Humidity being the amount of water
vapour in the atmosphere is generally higher later in the evenings and early mornings, reducing
considerably in the afternoon. On the whole, there is more water in the air during the rainy
seasons than during the dry seasons. This is because the prevailing wind during the rainy seasons
comes from the south-west direction, bringing with it water vapour from the Atlantic ocean. This
makes the atmosphere muggy and we are generally uncomfortable.

During the dry seasons, the prevailing wind comes from across the Sahara desert in the north-
eastern direction. This wind is dry and dust laden. The air is generally dry at this time of the year,
causing our skins to crack and dehydrating plants.

It means in the design, much use is to be made of natural ventilation during the rainy season
while the arid and uncomfortable air of the dry season is to be kept out of the interiors by the use
of artificial ventilation.

In Awka, during the dry season relative humidity falls in the afternoon to as low as 20%. This
low relative humidity coupled with high effects of dry season. In the rainy season, the relative
humidity is much higher, sometimes it is as, high as 90% though the temperature is lower the
effect is to create a heat-trap. When this occurs the general environment is uncomfortable hot. In
1987, the highest recorded figure for relative humidity is 86% in September and the lowest is
43% in December.
Figure 5.20: Relative Humidity (January)

Figure 5.21: Relative Humidity (July)

Design Implications:-
1) There should be adequate ventilation to ensure the removal of stagnant moist air and the
avoidance of condensation.


The sun is the source of all heat, all energy. The intensity and duration of the sun‘s rays varies
considerably from time to time in the tropical climate. During the day for instance, the sun rises
from the east and the rays are at a very low angle, penetrating deep into the interiors through the
fenestrations. As the day goes, the sun moves up and the angle of the rays increases, becoming
less penetrating but certainly getting hotter. At noon, the sun is almost directly overhead and the
rays fall directly, being more intense and penetrating less. The effect can be a heat burn of the
skin is over-exposed at this time. From after-noon, the angle of the rays reduces while the sun is
setting in the west. Again, while the intensity is getting less, the penetrating effect is becoming
more and can hardly be shaded by shading devices.

It follows from the above therefore that the windows of the design complex must be protected by
adjustable shading devices from the varying degrees of penetration ability of the sun‘s rays at
different times of the day. Adjustable louvers and fins will be used to achieve this.
Horizontal overhangs are most
efficient towards south or
southern orientation. Their
characteristic masts are

Louvres parallel to wall have the

advantage permiting air
circulation near the elevation
Slanted louvers will have the
same characteristics as solid
overhange and can be made

When protection is needed for

low sun angles louvers hung from
solid horizontal overhange are

A solid of perforated screen strip

parallel to wall cuts out the lower
rays of the sun.

Vertical fins serve well towards

the near east and near west
orientation. Their masts are radial

Vertical fins oblique to the wall

will result in asymmetrical mast.
Separation from wall prevents
heat transmission.
Mobile fins will shade the whole
wall or open up in different
directions according to the sun’s

Egg crate types are a

combination of horizontal and
vertical types and their masts are
superimposed diagram of two
Solid eggerate will slanting
vertical fins results in
asymmetrical masts

Figure 5.22: Example of shading devices

At some times of the year also, the duration of the sunshine is longer than at other times, giving
rise to longer days and shorter nights. At other times the reverse is the case.

A sun path diagram is to be drawn to establish the depth and length of the sun barriers and the
amount and type of openings to be provided. This is because unlike in the temperate areas where
sun is desired a lot for health, efforts are made here in the tropics to admit only a certain amount
of sunlight into the interior, especially during the morning.

5.2.4 Tourism in Anambra State

Major Tourist attractions

Anambra State holds a lot of tourist potentials. Infact, the warm sociable and receptive nature of
the people makes Anambra a tourist attraction. During the festive period of New Yam festivals,
Igu aro festivals, Christmas and New Year celebrations, from Nkpor down to Awka or from
Nnobi encircling Neni, Agulu down to Nimo the list is endless of the beautiful attraction the
zone holds for its visitors.
The valley communities of Alor, Abatete, Oraukwu, Nkpor and so holds a warm attraction for
any visitor with its great culinary varieties and a rich supply of the traditional palm wine drink.

In all the people, their culture, the food, their strengths and their eagerness to enjoy the fruits of
their harvest is what makes the difference in Anambra central.

Tourism potentials for investment and development abound in Anambra Central Zone. These
provide viable opportunities for hotel business, filming and trade in souvenirs. These sites
include; Agulu lake in Agulu, the Ogbunike cave in Ogbunike, where the state government plans
to develop 5 star Resort Hotels around them to attract tourists.

Others include; Amamputu lake in Uli, , the Ogba Cave in Ajalli and the Rojeny tourist centre in
Oba are only some of the tourism potentials of the state. Potentially rich investment harvest also
abounds in the Art Gallery of Nimo in Njikoka Local Government Area. There is the Obu at
Igwe Osita Agwuna's palace of Enugu-Ukwu. The Odinani Museum in Nri in Anaocha Local
Government Area was jointly established by the community and the department of African
studies, University of Ibadan, while the Igbo-ukwu Museum was established by the Anambra
state Government. The Museum serves as repository of archaeological findings and which dates
back to the history of the towns in Orumba North and South Local Government Areas of the
state. Also the Aguleri game reserve, Onitsha located on the eastern bank of the River Niger is
famous for its robust market and commercial activity. The traditional Ofala festivals performed
by royalties in Anambra state are rare pageants of colour and fanfare.


Located on latitude 6°12'25.00"N and longitude 7° 4'4.00"E, Awka is the capital of Anambra
State, Nigeria with an estimated population of 301,657 As of 2006 Nigerian census. The city is
located about 600 miles east of Lagos in the centre of the densely-populated Igbo heartland in
southeastern Nigeria. The West-East Federal highway links Lagos, Benin City, Asaba, Onitsha,
and Enugu to Awka and several local roads link it to other important towns such as Ekwulobia,
Agulu, Enugwu-Ukwu, Abagana and Nnewi. Strategically, Awka is located midway between
two major cities in Northern Igboland, Onitsha and Enugu which has informed its choice as an
administrative center for the colonial authorities and today as a base for the Anambra State
The town lies along roads leading from Owerri, Umuahia, Onitsha, and Enugu. Awka is the
traditional home of the Igbo (Ibo) blacksmiths; early bronze artifacts have been discovered in the
vicinity, and the town‘s artisans are still noted for their metal working and wood carving. In the
19th century, Awka‘s Agballa oracle, which was subservient to the supreme Igbo oracle
(Chukwu) at ... (100 of 218 words).

5.3.1 History of Awka

Awka was famous for metal working and its blacksmiths before the 20th century and were
prized throughout the region for making farming implements, guns and tools. The Awka area
in earlier times was the site of the Nri Civilization that produced the earliest documented bronze
works in Sub-Saharan Africa around 800 AD.

Before the inception of British rule, Awka was governed by titled men known as Ozo and
Ndichie who were accomplished individuals in the community. They held general meetings or
Izu Awka either at the residence of the oldest man (Otochal Awka) or at a place designated by
him. He was the Nne Uzu or master blacksmith, whether he knew the trade or not, for the only
master known to Awka people was the master craftsman, the Nne Uzu.

In modern times, Awka has adapted to the republican system and is currently divided into two
local government areas, Awka North and Awka South with local representatives. However, it
still preserves traditional systems of governance with Ozo titled men often consulted for village
and community issues and a paramount cultural ruler, the Eze Uzu who is elected by all Ozo
titled men by rotation amongst different villages to represent the city at state functions.

The current Eze Uzu of the city selected since 1999 is Gibson Nwosu one of the first recruits for
the Nigerian Air force and a former head of Air Traffic Operations for the Biafra Air Force, the
Lusaka International Airport and the Zambian Air Service Training Institute (ZASTI).

Awka should not be confused with Awka Etiti which is a town in Idemili South local
government area that is often mistaken for the main capital. Today it is the capital of Anambra
state of Nigeria. Slogan: Sires of Smiths
5.3.2 Geography

Awka lies below 300 metres above sea in a valley on the plains of the Mamu River. Two ridges
or cuestas, both lying in a North-South direction, form the major topographical features of the
area. The ridges reach the highest point at Agulu just outside the Capital Territory. About six
kilometers east of this, the minor cuesta peaks about 150 metres above sea level at Ifite –Awka.

Awka is sited in a fertile tropical valley but most of the original Rain forest has been lost due to
clearing for farming and human settlement. A few examples of the original rain forest remains at
places like the Ime Awka shrine. Wooded savannah grassland predominates primarily to the
north and east of the city. South of the town on the slopes of the Awka-Orlu Uplands are some
examples of soil erosion and gullying.

5.3.3 Climate

Awka is in the tropical zone of Nigeria and experiences two distinct seasons brought about by
the two predominant winds that rule the area: the south western monsoon winds from the
Atlantic Ocean and the North eastern dry winds from across the Sahara desert. The Monsoon
winds from the Atlantic creates seven months of heavy tropical rains which occur between April
and October which are then followed by five months of dryness (November - March). The
Harmattan also known as Ugulu in Igbo is a particularly dry and dusty wind which enters Nigeria
in late December or in the early part of January and is characterized by a grey haze limiting
visibility and blocking the sun's rays.

The temperature in Awka is generally a comfortable 27-30 degrees celsius between June and
December but rises to 32-34 degrees between January and April with the last few months of the
dry season marked by intense heat.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average 33 34 33 33 32 30 29 28 29 30 31 31.2
high °C (°F) (91) (93) (91) (91) (90) (86) (84) (82) (84) (86) (88) (88.1)

Average low 24 25 25 25 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 23 23.8

°C (°F) (75) (77) (77) (77) (75) (75) (73) (73) (73) (73) (73) (73 (74.8)

Precipitatio 3 35 17 100 150 78 125 80 50 222 106 966

n mm (0.12 (1.38 (0.67 (3.94 (5.91 (3.07 (4.92 (3.15 (1.97 (8.74 (4.17 (38.03
(inches) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
Avg. rainy
2 2 4 5 5 5 10 7 5 12 6 0 63

Table 5.2: Climate data for Awka

Source: Sunmap.Eu

Figure 5.23: Awka Map showing the location of the site in red.
(Source: modified from http:// uploadwikimedia.org/Wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Awka_map.gif)


5.4.1 Site Selection Criteria

 Central location

 Easy accessibility

 Availability of Enough land

 Serenity and Tranquility

 Nature of Site and Vegetation

 Availability of Space for Parking:

Central Location

Ths site which is at the periphery of the capital territory; Awka, is centrally located within it‘s
expected catchment area the Awka capital territory, but will also be accessible from all parts of
the state. The site is well linked with general infrastructure. These include water, sewer,
drainage, electricity, telephone, institutions. These things will help to reduce the initial overhead
in the establishment of the hotel and will also be an added incentive to the hotel guest, whose
comfort is very vital to the success of any hotel venture.

One of the key factors in hotel establishment is that it must be located where demand for its
services exists or can be created. This particular factor is one of the principal considerations in
the siting of this hotel.

Another consideration is the location of economic activity. It is an established fact that the
location and development of economic, industrial and commercial activities create demand for
hotel accommodation. Awka is an administrative city with commercial and industrial activities.
Industries and commercial activities are springing up on a large scale and fast too. There is an
institution of higher learning (Nnandi Azikiwe University) only about five minutes‘ drive from
the location of this hotel. All these have collectively created an enormous demand for hotel
services and this site is very apt.

Easy Accessibility

Accessibility into a site is an important design criterium and the approach has to be convenient
for the users of the complex. The location of the Hotel is prominent and it is along old Awka-
Onitsha road. It could easily be reached by pedestrians and motorists alike through Awka-Nibo-
Mbaukwu single carriage road (popularly known as ring road).

The main entrance into the site from the ring road should be set back a little bit for easy
vehicular movement and drop-off. The nature of traffic pattern within the complex from the
approach should be vivid and there should be a clear distinction between vehicular and
pedestrian movement. The proximity of the site to the central business district of Awka is

Availability of Enough land

To adequately provide for the various facilities required on the site, the area of land required for
the project must be farly adequate.

Hotels of international standards need a spacious outdour environment for parking, outdoor
sporting , general landscaping and provision of necessary infrastructure facilities that contribute
to the quality of the hotel. In capital cities like Awka, land is very expensive and much of the
land in the central business district of the town is built up. Therefore in order to meet the demand
of serenity in hotel environment the site is chosen on the outskirt of the town, away from the
daily noisy and noisome environment of the city center. In hotel design, such calm and isolated
environment is necessary for the comfort of the guests, whose interest must be put first. The site
has enough land for the immediate needs of the hotel and room for future expansion.


The area is linked to the National grid and the Power Supply is essentially from NEPA.
The roads that service the location are the main routes or the inter-urban and sur-urban transport
system of mainly buses and taxi-cabs. Pedestrian traffic within the project location is easy
because of the numerous paths traversing the area.

Serenity and Tranquility:

This is a major factor which is inevitable for a hotel environment. Because of this, hotels should be best
located away from the daily noisy and hustles of the city center, preferably, to the outskirts. This is to
achieve the maximum comfort and tranquility of the guests. This informs locating the hotel off the
Nature of site

The topography of the site is in such a way that the site has a natural drainage. All rain water
drains towards the north-west part of the site. The sub soil is mainly red lateritic soil, with
barches of sandy soil. It is necessary to maintain some grassed area on the soil to help prevent
soil erosion. The site is located off the city centre where the natural environment and sky scape
can be visualized.


In designing a complex like this, consideration must be given to site features. There is nothing
more pleasant than a few mature trees, provided they are clear of buildings and any other
facility on site. The site contains some trees and shrubs, this will enhance the landscape of the
site, and also act as wind-breakers and dust filters during the harmattan. Therefore, proper
management and organization of the proposed facilities should be properly done.
Figure 5.24: Picture showing shrubs and grasses that dominated the site. (source: Authur)

Availability of Space for Parking:

The land owes the designer a space large enough and suitable for car parking space, considering
the number of lodging guests and guest rooms; convention facilities and other public parking
spaces for visiting guests to the proposed hotel.

5.4.2 Site Location Studies

Located on Lat. 6°12' 5167"N and Long. 7° 5'25.36"E, the site is along Aurthur Eze Ave.,at the
junction leading to Nibo town through ring road. The site is located in the Greenwood layout
(former industrial layout) but now a mixed-used layout in Awka. This Greenwood layout (former
industrial layout) harbours the site, which is at the periphery of Awka, along Enugu-Onitsha old
expressway, accessed along Awka-Nibo ring road. The Greenwoods layout is a mixed-used
layout comprising of commercial, industrial, public-used, residential,special plots and open
spaces. It is surrounded by Umunneoke and Nkwelle communities, and Agu-Awka and Aguaba
layouts. All residential neighbourhoods.

Figure 5.25: Awka Capital Territory (Base Map) showing Greenwoods Layout in red
(Source: Ministry of Lands, Survey and Urban Planning Department Awka)
Figure 5.26: Greenwoods Layout Showing the location of the site in red
(Source: Ministry of Lands, Survey and Urban Planning Department Awka)
Figure 5.27: Awka plan, showing the proposed site in red from google earth map
(Source: modified from www.google earth.com)

Figure 5.28: showing the proposed site

5.4.3 Site Characteristic and Analysis

Figure 5.29: The proposed site in red lines showing possible access roads and land use.
(Source:modified from google earth)
Figure 5.30: The proposed site showing wind direction and section through A-A.

AREA OF SITE=8,411.80m2
Figure 5.31: The proposed site showing noise, drainage and sun path.


The site is easily accessible from Old Enugu-Onitsha Expressway along Awka-Nibo ring road on
the Western side of the site. It can also be accessed from the British Spring College road north-
west of the site. The service road is from the Eastern side of the site, a drive off the old road from
Enugu. The new Enugu-Onitsha Expressway easily joined the site immediately after Nnandi
Azikiwe University.
Figure 5.32: Site location . (Source: Author)
Figure 5.33: Uncompleted private estate South of the proposed site
(Source: Author’s picture)
Figure 5.34: Roundabout intersecting Nnamdi Azikiwe Ave. and Awka-Nibo Ring Rd.
(Source: Author)

Figure 5.35: Awka-Nibo Ring Rd. (Source: Author)

Site topography/drainage

The site gently slopes towards the north-west end. it has quite a number of trees and is heavily
covered by grasses and shrubs.


Major source of noise into the site is mainly from Awka-Nibo ring road and old road which is
not always busy. The noise can be reduced by planting trees, buffering and proper zoning.

Site orientation

To obtain maximum natural ventilation, the orientation of the building is to be in the South East-
North West axis. To avoid sun glare and solar radiation, buildings are better oriented so that the
longer side faces the North- South pole while the shorter facade faces the East- West pole.The
building will be oriented in such a way to maximize both natural ventilation and natural lighting.
The use of sun shading devices will be heavily employed where necessary. However, to support
the passive nature of the proposed energy efficient buildings, the site as it is will aid the use of
solar panels and photovoltaic cells.

Prevailing wind and sunpath

The site experiences two prevailing winds, the north-east trade winds and south-west monsoon
winds. The north-east trade winds blows from the Sahara desert in Northern Africa, and is
characterized by the dryness and dust during the dry season. The north-east trade wind brings
harmattan winds-cool, dry, dusty, haze laden wind. On the other hand, the south-west monsoon
winds blows from the Atlantic Ocean, and is characterized by the wetness during the rainy

The site also experiences sunrays which rises from the east and sets on the west. The intensity of
the solar radiation produced will be controlled and reduced by proper landscaping, good
orientation of the proposed buildings and use of shading elements on the building. Internal
organisation of the functional spaces will not be left out.
Thus, while the north light is good for the workshops, atria and auditorium gallery, hotel rooms
can enjoy the eastern morning sun, the Kitchen, laundary, computer rooms and other heating
generating spaces will be good for the north as well.




John Portman, a renowned hotel architect wrote on the importance of design philosophy by
saying that "A design philosophy is the rudder for the boat, it makes possible a continuing course
in a meaningful direction." In other words, for a building to meet the needs of all the people, the
architect must look for some common grounds and experiences. Portman, (January 1979, p.133)

To conclusively achieve the specific objectives of this project, the broad-based guiding
principles have to be anchored on a well thought out design philosophy. This philosophy is one
that has to touch on the fundamentals of the hotel vis-à-vis the characteristics of its location and
the peculiarities of its environment.

The philosophy here emphasizes the approach of broad based targets in designing for a diverse
variety of people, providing them with environment in which the mind and the spirit can be
refreshed and the body find relaxation and rest while away from home in pursuit of leisure or
economic interests. A balance is struck in which all the variables are given adequate recognition.


Concepts are ways of integrating ideas, notions, thoughts and observations into one architectonic
expression. These are ideas like daylight, space sequence, integration of structure and form,
sighting within the landscape etc.

In most cases, concepts are implied in the client's program for the project.

Le Corbusier is the architect that revolutionalized architecture by the use of concrete; his
buildings still exist all over the world. He used cast in-situ and precast concrete to produce
different forms, curves, etc.
6.2.1 The Carpenter’s center, Harvard University by Le Corbusier

Carpenter's centre of Visual arts (a building), whose concept was to attract students to enroll. Le
Corbusier used a very accessible site and designed the building to solve the problem of poor
enrollment, this he achieved by planning in such a way that (all) students must pass the faculty
building on their way to lectures. It attracted watching the art works and consequently attracting,
gradually more students for enrolment.

6.2.2 The transworld airline (TW A) terminal building in JFK international airport, New York
by Eirosaarineen.
His concept was to design a building in which the design should express movement and travel.
Thus the design is of the form of a flying bird.

6.2.3 The falling waters by Frank Lloyd Wright

American architect Frank Lloyd Wright designs the country house falling water at Bear Run,
Pennsylvania. The private residence, which will become one of Wright's most esteemed
masterpieces, illustrates his basic principle and concept of "organic architecture". Instead of
invading or transforming the natural landscape, Wright employs strong horizontal forms and
natural materials that blend with and enhance the intrinsic beauty of the site. Perched over a
flowing stream, the new structure elicits drama while maintaining harmony with its

As a super-organizing idea therefore, the concept must be an idea that recurred throughout the
design of the project. It however can allow variations among the parts (various components of
the project) but at the same time must enforce the overall pattern, just as the rain falls.


Notions are not appropriate ideas in design e.g. to design an airport using the shape of a bird.
This is a notion, not a concept.
A concept implies appropriateness. It supports the main intention and goals of a project and
respects each object's unique characteristics and restrictions. The formation of a concept is not an
automatic activity. It is 10% inspiration and 90% hard work.

In conceptualizing the design of this hotel complex, it is firstly recognized as having the potential
to attract a very large number of guests from far and wide across the globe. Due to varying
needs, objectives and appreciations, utmost care is called for in the provision of facilities and
standards to be attained.

The approach from a higher level immediately sinks the structures in an interesting layering and
firings of structures and facilities in concord with the terrain. The organization is such that
visitors are immediately evident and the multiple activity areas and uses easily discernible. The
efficient mix of activities in the hotel complex and the accommodation of these uses in a
unifying design, the functionality achieved and forms of space generated all combine to give the
design a unique character.

The terrain and landscape are of particular interest in this design. The creation of a new and
exciting environment out of a difficult virgin area poses formidable challenges.

The design principally comprise of a delicately balanced composition, with variety of levels well
used to create nice effect, higher areas contrasted with smaller ones, open spaces contrasted with
enclosed area, nature contrasted with man- made features. The maximum effect thus achieved is
a direct consequence of the site potentialities and appropriate usage. The entire group of
structures in the complex visually and functionally therefore relates to the site, with open spaces
uniting, separating or compliments them. The whole composition hence forms an environment in
which visual, functional and physical qualities are arranged to produce the highest level of


The following space units would be provided in the hotel with their various services or contribution to
make up the general form is as follows: -

Main Entrance: - This area is most conspicuous and often subjected to high security control. It must be
clearly defined with a good view of interior leading straight to the reception counter. It is important to
provide a large projecting canopy to protect people from harsh climatic elements such as rain, wind and
sun projecting at least 5.5m wide and 4m high so as to accommodate buses and two cars lying side by

Large proportions of guest usually arrive in the evening and hence, special lighting style will help
people to locate the entrance easily. Lighting should be used to pronounce the entrance, provide greater
security and safety.

The entrance door leading to the complex can come in various designs which may include revolving
door, swinging door, single or double leaves automatic or manual operation or sliding automatic
operated door with emergency swing door, which could pass the guess under security check. Weapon
detectors could be mounted immediately after the door for security checks.

The doors must be wide enough to allow a person carry two bags or a luggage trolley. Entrance must be
in relation to the scale and character of a building in other words pronounced.

Secondary entrances may be provided in areas where necessary such as hotel main restaurants,
conference halls, banquet halls etc.

Reception Hall/Lobby: First impression as it says matters a lot. When a guest enters the reception hall,
he should be over whelmed by the feeling of serenity, enchantment, revulsion and comfort. It should be
the first thing one sees immediately after crossing the entrance complex and heading toward the
reception desk.

The restaurants, bars and other advertisement should be visible and well indicated in this area. The hotel
lobby serves as an assembly point for guest attending functions or using the restaurant. It has a
promotional function and must be attractive from the outside. A waiting area should be within the lobby
which should be adjacent to the reception desk off the main circulation area and within view of the main
entrance and lifts.

Furniture should be comfortable and hard wearing writing desk should be available. Other amenities
which may be provided in the lobby include public telephones, news teleprinter/stand, post box stamp
machines, shops or display cabinets, hair dresser/barbing saloon, information desk, tour airline, toilets.
The ceiling in the lobby and other public area serves multiple purposes. The ceiling void will need to be
deep to house air ducts, pipes, wiring and equipments including fitting bulbs into the ceiling mostly, this
is required for environmental control communications, fire and security and other functional
requirements of the rooms and spaces below the ceiling or to the void. While the ceiling frame-work is
made as light as possible, the strength of hangers or structural members provided must be sufficient to
carry the weight of equipment (including vibration) and clearance must be allowed for maintenance
work and servicing /removal of components

Front Desk: Guest registration, cashiers and information services are provided over desk or counters,
which may be arranged in series along one long counter, which could be described as the front desk or
separated areas. It is important for the counter staff to have direct access to the offices providing back-up
information and services.

The cashiers‘ desk must be planned such that it will meet heavy demand at certain peak time of the day
so as to avoid secondary congestion in other circulation area. Counter must be designed as an integral
part of the reception area and must meet functional requirement; it serves as a local point of attraction
and interest, construction decoration must be carefully chosen to withstand intensive use.

Administrative Areas: - Besides the immediate front desk office some, offices are not compulsorily
placed behind the reception counters, although it is advisable to be easily accessed from the reception by
guests who may have appointments other than lodging. They are part of the daily running of the hotel.
These spaces include the Personnel Manager‘s office, the General Manager‘s office and his Personal
Secretary, Assistant General Manager, accountant offices, computer rooms, etc and other reservation
offices. The open space concept could be adopted in this design with partitions to separate the different
offices where they are needed. To facilitate supervision and attention, the managers‘ office should be
sited near the reception area.

Toilets and Cloak Rooms: Toilets and its accessories allows guest opportunity to ease off,
hence should be located near public and functional rooms (like conference halls, banquet halls);
restaurants etc. number of WCs, urinals, wash hand basins, mirrors, good lighting and separation
of these conveniences to match both male and female sexes should be provided. The entrances to
men‘s and women‘s lavatories should not be adjacent.
The cloak rooms being a space for hanging out coats, or bags for a time from a fellow are very
important in public areas, like the banquet halls, conference halls or multipurpose halls; kitchens,
swimming pool areas in form of cubicles etc. sometimes cloak rooms function as changing and
toilet rooms at a time which presupposes a reasonable increment in the entire space.

Bar lounge

Design of bar will be largely influenced by the number of areas it has to serve, e.g., lounge,
restaurant, coffee shop, banqueting rooms, room service, and the degree to which waiter is
employed. A five star hotel should have not less than three bars. In size it may range from the
intimate to a larger, more utilitarian series of spaces.

There are very important notes to be made in the design of a bar viz.

* Lounge and bars must be accessible to disable people

* When the bar is closed and the lounge is to be used, the area must not appear dead.

Typical space allotment is 0.7 m2/guest room but this is more or less influenced by the amount of
business to be handled comfortably intermediary waiting area between hotel lobby and main

Mini bars provide chief drink service to hotels. This may have external entrance to encourage
non-resident business. Fairly long bars counter supported by bar store with ice making machine
and bottle cooler should be provide. This section may also be used for service of simple meals.

Bars should be on the remote side of the lounge extension so that patrons entering the restaurant
do not need to cross directly along the front of the bar and guests can use the bar without having
to pass through the lounge.

Restaurants and dining rooms

Food and beverage are the two major activities of most hotels. Facilities for dining are created
for hotel guests and visitors and in many hotels, this activity accounts for a large proportion of
employees than the provision of accommodation facilities. Depending on their category, the
volume and type of business, dining facilities may include elegant and formal restaurant or a
simple dining breakfast room.

Entry to a restaurant used for formal or entertainment dining should be through a reception
lounge or foyer. This area will be used as an assembly point before entering or on leaving the
restaurant and as a lounge for cocktails and other drinks.

As dining rooms are usually open to non residents, there should be a convenient entrance from
outside the hotel in addition to direct access for resident guests. Most larger hotels have several
dining rooms which may be on different levels and they include general restaurants, specialty
restaurants and buffet bars. Within each of these, there are innumerable variations in both scale
and type. In every case however, the dining room requires to be positioned adjacent to the
kitchen or servery from which several kitchens are involved, these may be operated as a
collective unit with the bulk of the food preparation and pre-cooking carried out at a central

Advantage of more than one restaurant is that it gives customers choice of menu and price, but
the main aspects which make up the physical environment and atmosphere of the hotel dining
areas are:-

- The shape and size of the room

- The design and décor
- The type and layout of seating and lighting
- Thermal comfort
- Noise level
- Cleanliness and hygiene
- Appearance and efficiency of staff
In formal restaurant, décor is sophisticated and rich, with special emphasis to complement the
food served in the restaurant. In such restaurant, usually personalized seating is created to allow
for formal dining. Control seating arrangement are left flexible enough to accommodate special
arrangements and events of interest. Provision is made for movement of cooking trolleys.
Furniture, fixtures, carpets and upholstery are of very high quality and luxurious linen and
cutlery are provided.
The availability of formal dining area is particularly required in hotels of higher categories.

Bedroom Unit: - Bedroom unit should provide comfort for the guest and should be designed with easy
cleaning and bed making. It should have an efficient storage for the guests‘ loads. Bedroom planning
depends very much on the position of the bed, the size and the relative position of the bedroom;
economy in width is gained by putting the beds often convertible to a settee, it is turned and moved back
to the wall to create a large living space in the center of the room. For this design different types of room
will be provided to accommodate various classes of guest.

Figure 6.1: Diagram showing space configuration of typical hotel room and bathroom
source: Neufert Ernst

Forms of Guest Rooms

- Double-loaded block(A): It can develop into L, U or courtyard plan and requires two
staircases. It is the most economical layout.

- Double-loaded T-shaped block(C): It is capable of being developed into cross form. It is

economical and usually has three staircases.

- Single-loaded block(B): It can be developed into L, U or courtyard plan. It is not

economical but may be desirable where atrium effect is wanted. It is suitable for the

- Y - Plan (D): This requires three staircases and has more complicated

structure than straight blocks. It may cause problems in public areas.

- Tri-arc (D): It is similar to Y-Plan but more space is taken up by circulation. Its concave
shape results in bedroom being wider at bathroom end.. It provides opportunity for larger
bathroom and dressing area.

- Square block (E): It has central core containing all vertical services, mails' room etc. It
gives a very compact and useful design for small sites where tower development may be

– Circular form (F): This requires careful handling to avoid awkward and inward facing
rooms. A major disadvantage is that there is no possibility of extension.

- Circular with central core : It is similar to square block but requires careful handling to
avoid awkward rooms. Convex curves result in bedroom narrower at bedroom narrower
at bathroom end, causing cramped space for bathroom.
Figure 6.2: Diagram showing relationship between functional spaces and service roots
source: Neufert Ernst

Figure 6.3: Diagram showing relationship between services and guest room
source: Neufert Ernst
Structural consideration and variations in room sizes in multi-story hotels of apartment blocks
are made possible why planning the columns. They could be made to accommodate 2 room
widths, usually within a practical limit of 7-6m. For maximum flexibility, the inner rows of
columns are made to coincide with the service ducts. Other measures employed include:-

 Different column spacing on different sides of a double loaded corridor

 Variations in lengths of rooms on each side of a double loaded corridor
 Balconies may be provided on one side only
 Changes in room sizes in different wings of the building. This may however give rise
to structural irregularity occasioning planning difficulties at corner and junction areas.
Room planning depends very much on the positions of the beds and on the size and relative
position of the bathroom. The most common arrangement is one with twin beds at right angles to
one of the party walls. For single bedded rooms, economy in width is gained by putting the bed
parallel to the party walls, whilst in studio room arrangement of one of the beds, often
convertible to a settee is turned and moved back against the wall to create a larger living space in
the centre of the room. Positioned at right angles to party wall, beds including bed heads extend
2.10 m into the room. An additional 800 mm for passage gives a minimum room width of 2,900

By allowing a further 600mm, a closet can be provided in the foyer. This gives a wall to wall
clear width of 3500mm which is a common module for modern medium priced accommodation.
For suites and family rooms, the above figure is increased to a further 150-300mm.

Types of Hotel Rooms

Room planning depends very much on the positions of the beds and on the size and relative
placement of facilities, as has already been noted, but different room types require different
arrangements. There are basically two types of dwelling spaces in a hotel. These are the rooms
and the suites. The basic difference between them is that while a room is just one enclosure with
beds and seating furniture, the suites is more than one enclosure. A suite normally is more than
the ordinary room in its contents also, most of the time comprising living and bedroom spaces
with physical barriers. Both rooms and suites have different forms also.

Single rooms: Normally contains only a bed with some sitting furniture

Double Room: This contains two beds and is normally bigger in size than the single room.
The beds could be separated or joined. This is ideal for couples traveling
together or any two pair of people related.

Family Room: Designed to take family and therefore, very spacious with various ages of
people that comprise a family taken into consideration.

Studio Room: This is designed more of less for working in and therefore the sleeping
area (bed) is de-emphasized or marginalized.


Economy Suites: Economy suites are modestly furnished. They may just contain the basic
necessities for comfort without sophistication and luxury being
emphasized. Normally, a bedroom and a living room is all that is

Presidential Suites:A presidential suite is tastefully furnished. The watchword is wealth and its
attendant luxuries and affluence. A presidential suites will probably
contain bedrooms, living space, bar, kitchen or kitchenette, dining,
consultation rooms, offices etc. This suite is normally very expensive as it
is independent of all the other hotel operations.

Royal Suites: A royal suite is associated with royalties. Royalties are associated with a
large retinue of servants and aides. Therefore, this suites very spacious to
accommodate this royal entourage. Maximally furnished, seats and
facilities display high tasted. Just like the presidential suites, this suite has
everything it needs for its independent existence and in style.
Pent House: A penthouse is normally built on the top of the entire hotel structure.
Therefore, it commands a good view of the entire neighborhood, has its
own lift or elevator and is exclusively owned for a period of time. A pent
house is normally lavished and shows opulence and riches in furnishing.

Terraces and Balcony: Terraces and balconies allows guest to see and feel the natural environment
when they are in their rooms. Balcony may project outside the building façade or be recessed into the
area of the room, it may be angled to increase view of one side of the cooling sea breeze or to provide
better screening from other noisy or unpleasant areas.

Service Areas: This area can be divided into two groups which are

 Food service and catering

 General Service, cleaning/housekeeping and maintenance.
Goods Delivery and Storage: In a small hotel, goods and staff use the same entrance but in large hotel,
there should be a separate entrance. Each must be controlled so as to check persons and goods entering
and leaving the complex.

For a good delivery, provision must be made for

 Protection from weather(covered bay and canopies)

 Screening from view (guest areas, public rooms)
 Security (on goods being delivered and removed)
 Separation (from refuse area and other storage)
On delivery, the goods are taken to the receiving room, where they are checked against invoice and
inspected, weighed and recorded. Storage is an important factor that falls into four main groups:

 Deep freeze (-20oc) for long term storage of forgone items.

 Chilled (2-3oc) for fresh food and made up dishes
 Cooled for vegetable storage and
 Dry –for general stores
In large hotel issuing counter is necessary so that the only store keeper and his assistants can enter the
actual store rooms, the kitchen porters and cooks should collect from the counter. The amount of storage
spaces required varies.

Food Service /Kitchens: From kitchen storage, food goes to the kitchen where to be prepared for final
cooking. The restaurant could be designed to have separate kitchens following the next wall division or
usually separated with a food pantry or food serving area. In modern hotels center, the food storage and
preparation is centralized in a kitchen which offer many advantages from the large scale of operations
and more cost effective and quality control. Equipment can be more effectively used; work schedules
could be planned and allows a normal day shift.

Prepared food passes through from the main cooking area through a service space before getting to
through dining area. These service spaces or rooms however are for prepared food to be dished and
served to the restaurant. It is economical to locate this serving area in-between the restaurant and the

Kitchen could be designed with an open arrangement for with separate rooms, or bays for different types
of preparation (e.g. bakery, meat and fish and vegetable sections). The arrangement of the different
departments in the kitchen unit should be planned to avoid cross traffic as much as possible. The area
required for entire kitchen unit should be proper for preparation of cooking and service areas (like the
staff kitchen and staff dining areas), also exclusively store rooms, locker and toilet rooms for the staff
located at a close proximity.

Linen /Laundry Room: The principal items in a laundry are the washers, extractors, dryers, sorting
rooms and folding areas. There must also be line and uniform storage of a serving area, a dry cleaning
and spot cleaning area. The house keep area is usually located in this area and should be situated so as to
maintain visual control. The laundry should be well ventilated with large quantities of steam (tumble
dry, rotary irons) and dry cleaning equipment should be separately exhausted. Wall and ceiling should
be smooth or plaster painted to facilitate cleaning and reduce fire risk

Dirty linen is collected from guest rooms, restaurants etc. and taken by the trolley to service area. The
corridor should be free from steps, but where there are levels it should be ramped and protected from
damage especially service doors for vertical transit, linen lift or service lift may be used but must be
suitably positional relative to the laundry. .Linen receive in a laundry is sorted, weighed and placed into
hampers or carts for transport to the washers or to the dispatch area for collection.

Store and Workshops: Storage will be required for furniture under repair facilities changes in
use or layout at a room. Additional items which may be reserved for future placements. Furniture
storage should be as near as possible to the operational areas concerned. One or more spacious
workshops are necessary for running repairs works, engineering work, electricians, glazing,
joiners, upholst


Lifts are the most important form of access to the bedroom floors and should be sited in a
convenient position in relation to the lobby. At least two lifts are provided to allow for
breakdowns and maintenance.

Separate lifts are ideal for luggage and other freight, making these of sufficient size for the
transport of bulky articles designed in groups so that only one motor room may be provided.

It is important to allow for a waiting area outside the lift that is not part of the general circulation.
In addition to passenger and service lifts, other lifts or hotels are often provided in the kitchen
and laundry areas.

Stair cases

Stair cases in hotels are planned in accordance with fire regulations. There may be a main
carpeted stair case from the reception/lobby to the first or basement level but for other floors, the
stair case and an escape stair case.

erers, mattress repairers and printing work etc.

Function Rooms

Large rooms are usually designed to be multifunctional since costs involved in providing these
space are high and may be justified only by frequent use. These spaces may be therefore, be used
as a ballroom, banquet hall, conference or exhibition all be substituting different furniture and
floor covering or by other means. In more elaborate arrangements, moving screen may be fitted
to divide the space into smaller areas when required. Difficulties in providing effective
soundproofing are usually experienced with this arrangement. Points worthy of note in the design
of function rooms are:-

 Considerable storage space is needed for furniture, carpets and other equipment
which must be sited conveniently near. Area of space here is 0.5m2/seat.
 To facilitated public use of the hall, an entrance is provided directly from the hotel
foyer so that the need not pass through the main reception area.
 Emergency escape are necessary and there are at least two independent exits.
 Car parking space in addition to normal provision is necessary.
 Particular attention is paid to the acoustic properties of the hall and to sound
insulation of noise liable to enter or be emitted to bedrooms and other areas.
 A high standard of environmental services is necessary.
 Audio-visual equipment is necessary
 Provision of ante-room, preferably about one third of the area of function room, with
dispense bar
 Cloakrooms and toilets, urinals and ladies makes up rooms are all necessary.
Function type Space per person m2

Banquet style seating 1.1-1.3

Meeting: table groups 0.9 – 1.1

Meetings: theatre style seating .5 – 0.6

Dancing 0.93 – 1.45

Kitchen or pantry 20% of banquet area.

Table 6.1: Space Allowance

Apart from the above considerations, other important notes in the design of function rooms
include the provision of an entrance foyer. This serves many purposes:-As a gathering and
waiting area for cocktail and bar service for coffee and light refreshments as a social annex.
Service doors should lead from service lobbies and corridors communicating with the kitchen or
pantry and provided with noise and light baffling.

On engineering equipment and fitting, separate booths for slide and cinema projection must be
provided for larger convention halls. A permanent stage with associated dressing/preparing
rooms may require to have screening from the public areas. Other storage space is required for
audio-visual aids equipment, furniture and the tableware and serving utensils required for
banquets or functions in this area.

Other Recreational Areas: - Other facilities include the indoor games areas; gymnasium (for fitness);
outdoor games; the swimming pool areas (could be indoor and/or outdoor pools) and their adjoining
rooms for servicing and inspection etc. The outdoor pools are designed to accommodate outdoor bars
with music band stand, and in rare cases snack bar/pastry to assure guests a lively swimming
environment. This could be achieved further by creating pool gardens, quite lawns with beautiful
flowers to promise guests a panoramic view and promising environment for relaxation. In the swimming
areas, besides the first aid doctor‘s office, mustering points are advisable to be designed to help guest
who could be involved in pool accidents especially for evacuation purpose if need arises in critical

Outdoor spaces vary tremendously depending on their demands by the lodging and the visiting guests.

Concession and sub-rental spaces

A number of companies and establishments normally take up some rented spaces adjacent to the
reception area of hotel for their business. These may include shops, banks, beauty salons, travel
agents, air line and car hire services, general consultancy services, etc. These are all guest-paid
hotel services and might also be run by the management.


Other lobby inclusions are house telephone, public telephone, television security monitors,
clocks and calendars, news teleprinters, guest secretarial services, etc.
FIG 6.4: Diagram showing interrelationship between rooms on hotel ground floor

source: Neufert Ernst

FIG 6.5: Diagram showing relationship of back of house circulation

source: Neufert Ernst


The project will be designed to cater for 250 guest rooms including other supportive facilities.
The figures will however be used for preliminary sketches and estimates only and may be
revised during detailed design stages

Table 6.2: Diagram showing showing area requirement per hotel room
source: Neufert Ernst

The spaces below are only estimates which could change during design.


- Porte-cochere - 24.0m2

- Main Lobby/Reception - 1m2 per guest room 250.0m2

- Lounge - 0.8m2 per room 200.0m2

- Luggage room - 20.0m2

- Elevators (Public and Services) - 1.44m2/lift

- Stair case - 15.0m2

- Porters and Messengers room - 0.lm2 / guest room 20.0m2

- Shops (7) - 15.0m2

- Public toilet (male) - 0.4m2 per guest 10.0m2

-Public toilet (female) - 0.4m2per guest 10.0m2

- Casino (50) - 0.7m per guest 35.0m2

- Discotheque (60) - 0.9m2/guest 54.0m2


- General Manager's Office 13.0m2

- Secretary to Gen. Manager 10.0m2

- Assistant General Manager 12.0m2

- Secretary to Asst. Gen. Manager 10.0m2

- Front Office Manager 10.0m2

- Banqueting Manager 10.0m2

- Convention Manager 10.0m2

- Food and Beverage Manager 10.0m2

- Personnel Manager 10.0m2

- Personnel Office 14.0m2

- Accounting Office 12.0m2

Record and file 9.0m2

- Computer room 13.0m2

- Mail room 9.0m2

- Other offices 36.0m2

- Staff W.C 12.0m2

- Chief Accountant 12.0m2

- Duty manager 12.0m2

- Head storekeeper 10.0m2


- bar lounge (120) 1.2m2 per seat 144.0m2

- Main Lounge (200) 1.2m2 per seat 240.0m2

- Store 18.0m2

- Africana bar (100) 1.2m2 per seat 120.0m2

- Main restaurant (200) 1.3m2 per seat 260.0m2

- Convention - restaurant (100) 1.3m2 per seat 130.0m2

- Banquet (320) 1.3m per seat 416.0m2

- Staff canteen (50) 0.7m per seat 35.0m2

- Kitchens to Banquet rooms (320) 20% of banquet area 64.0m2

- Banquet storage 10% of banquet hall 32.0m2

- Main kitchen 65% of banquet rest. area 228.0m2

- Loading bay 25.0m2

- Chief Steward 10.0m2

- Receiving room (250) 0.lm2 per guest 25.0m2

- Storage for food and drinks - 165.0m2

- Service yard - 100.0m2

- Toilet for male and female staff 0.lm2 per staff 60.0m2

Cloak/changing room




- Single room with 12

toilet and bathroom 3.8

- Double room with 15 4.0

toilet and bathroom

- Economy Suite 24

toilet and bathroom 3.8

- Royal Suite 45

toilet and bathroom 4.0

- Presidential Suite 75

toilet and bathroom 4.2

- Penthouse Suite 36

toilet and bathroom 3.8

- Housekeeper

- Maids room




- Function 800 0.8m2/room 640.0m2

(conference hall)

- Projection room - - 12.0m2

- Transcriber's room - - 16.0m2

- Meeting room 60 0.8m2/room 144.0m2

- Ballroom 40 0.8m2/room 96.0m2


- Travel agency 50 1. 1m2 per guest 55.0m2

- Bookshop 40 2.8m2 per guest 112.0m2

- Fashion 50 2.8m2 per guest 140.0m2

- Pharmacy 60 2.8m2 per guest 168.0m2

- Beauty salon 30 1.9m2 per guest 57.0m2

- Bank agency 60 2.8m2 per guest 168.0m2

Car hiring service 40 1.2m2 per guest 36.0m2


- Laundry 250 0.3m2 per guest room 75.0m2

- Valet shop - 0.09m2 per guest room 49.5m2

- Maintenance - - 600.0m2

and services

- Furniture storage 250 0.23m2 per guest room 57.5m2

- Clinic - - 60.0m2

- Staff locker room 100 36m2 per staff 100.0m2


- One car park 125 12.5m2 per car 1562.5m2 per 2 guest

- Badminton = (16.5 x 8.5) m2 = 140.25m2

- Swimming pool (2) = (25 x 12.5) m2 = 625.0m2

- Lawn tennis (4) = (36.57 x 18.29) m2 = 2675.44m2


- Squash (2) = (9.75 x 6.40) m2 = 121.0m2

- Table Tennis = (11.0 x 5.50) m2 = 42.0m2

- Billiards and Snooker = (7.0 x 6.0) m2 = 60.0m2

- Gymnastics = 30.0m2

- Sauna bath = 30.0m2

- Message room = 40.0m2

- Games room


1) Durability: longevity of materials forms the basis for material selection in the design and
construction of hotels. The essence here is that materials lasting longer will ultimately be selected over
materials with shorter life span this is why aluminum for example will be selected over galvanized iron

2) Fire Resistance: Resistivity of materials gives clue to materials to be selected in terms of

material selection. Since fire forms one of the major design considerations in hotel designing for the
safety of the inmates to be guaranteed.
3) Environmental Implications: Materials to be selected has to be environmentally friendly they
have to be checked for adverse environmental effects as well as health on the users.

4) Aesthetic Value: The nature of the design needs much on aesthetic appreciation. Hotel standard
of rating depends so much on the quality of the finishing. For this reason materials will have to be
checked for their aesthetic value.

5) Flexibility: this is considered as it aids in achieving special effects and giving opportunity to
achieve so many possibilities in construction techniques using the material. The choice of any material
especially in terms of wall components.


Floor Finishes

Vitrified tiles will be used as floor finishes in areas like the entrance and reception. However rugs will
be used as floor finishes in the board rooms; function rooms like banquet and the conference halls to
help in unwanted sound reduction.

Wall and Ceiling

1. Resin-bonded chip-board: used in joinery but can be used as a lining or as partitioning; made of wood
chips bonded with synthetic resin and highly compressed. It is very rigid and can be used for large
panels in partitioning without intermediate support. The surface is usually slightly rough but one kind
has a smooth paper finish.

2. Compressed strawboard: A very light, rigid board easily cut. Useful for partitioning: aluminum
channel and H-Sections are available for a rapid demountable partition system. It is structurally as a
light roof decking to take roofing felt, and for this a quality which is somewhat more resistant to water
(shower-proof) is available.

3. Plaster board: The advantage over other wood pulp boards is that it has a high degree of fire
resistance and is dimensionally stable.
Roof Materials

The roof materials: - roof coverings and the trusses, are to be a combination of steel and parapet roofs.
The analysis here has to be based on portal frame which is ultra span.

Long span portal frame: For structural efficiency, a pitched roof portal frame should have as low a pitch
as practical to minimize spread at the knees of a portal frame. Long span steel portal frames are usually
spaced at from 8.0 to 12.0 apart. The ratio of the pitch height to the length of the portal frame is 1:10.
The study identifies

 Organizing building mass, orientation and outdoor spaces to provide efficient access and


 The use of non-toxic materials in building interiors and habitable spaces.

 The use of thermal responsive materials especially in walls and roofs that are more
exposed to solar radiation.

 The use of balconies, verandas, and shade devices like horizontal overhang and vertical
fin walls.

 Use of permeable (or porous) pavement systems in lieu of impervious asphalt or concrete.

 The use and development of green roofs in tropical design.

 Select plants native or adapted to the region and microclimate. Consider those that grow
together naturally and are self-sustaining to reduce water wastage.

 Reduce or eliminate storm water runoff to limit disruption of natural water flows in the


 Preserve open space area adjacent to the building. These spaces should be filled with
greenery and water bodies to cool the environment and save energy.

 Design the building with a minimal footprint to minimize site disruption. This will help
to reduce site disturbance and conserve existing natural areas. Strategies include stacking
the building program.

 Complement the building with site features that minimize negative environmental
impacts and restore natural systems.

 The use of renewable and recyclable materials.

All the features above that were analysed in this study if adopted will reduce the energy use for
cooling in hotels, improve indoor environmental qualities, and make efficient use of materials
and proper site management. The study shows that applying green building strategies in hotel
design will go a long way in reducing over dependency on mechanical means of lighting and
ventilation. It will help to improve indoor environmental quality and thereby reduce the
percentage of ―Sick Building Syndrome‖

To ensure implementation of green building strategies in hotel design, concerted effort is needed
by all. Both Nigerian government and the public should be well enlightened.

Government should institute laws that will guide hotel development in Nigeria. Environmentally
conscious hotels should be encouraged. Minimum standards that incooperate green building
strategies should be established below which nobody should be licensed to operate. Also,
seminars and talks on green building should be organised and aired for professionals in the
building industry especially the architects.

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