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CHAPTER 1.

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FUNDAMENTALS OF DATABASE DFC 2083
Database Design
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)
A set of software programs that allows users to create, edit and
update data in database files, and store and retrieve data from
those database files.
Data in a database can be added, deleted, changed, sorted or
searched all using a DBMS.
Example usage of Database System:
 Membership and subscription mailing lists
 Accounting and bookkeeping information
 The data obtained from scientific research
 Customer information and Inventory information
 Personal records
 Library information

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A VARIOUS COMMON OF DBMS

Server DBMS
 Oracle
 SQL Server
 DB2
 MySQL, Firebird, PostgreSQL (Significant open source DBMSs)

Desktop DBMS
 Microsoft Access
 FoxPro, Paradox, Approach, FileMaker Pro

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ADVANTAGES USING DBMS
Control redundancy in data storage and in development
of effort.
Restricting unauthorized of data.
Providing persistent storage for program objects.
Providing backup and recovery services.
Providing multiple interfaces to different classes of users.
And many more…

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TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO
INFORMATION PROCESSING
The traditional approach usually consisted of custom built
data processes and computer information systems tailored
for a specific function.
These separate systems were very simple to set up as they
mostly mirrored the process that departments had been
doing for years but allowed them to do things faster with less
work.
However, once the systems were in use for so long, they
became very difficult for individual departments to manage
and rely on their data because there was no reliable system
in place to enforce data standards or management.
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TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO
INFORMATION PROCESSING
E.g.: An accounting department would have their own
information system tailored to their needs, where the sales
department would have an entirely separate system for
their needs.
 Pros : simple and low costs.

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
1. Data security
2. Data redundancy
3. Data isolation
4. Program/data dependency
5. Lack of flexibility
6. Concurrent access anomalies

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Data security
- The security of data is low in file based system
because, the data is maintained in the flat file(s) is
easily accessible.
- For Example: Consider the Banking System. The
Customer Transaction file has details about the total
available balance of all customers. A Customer wants
information about his account balance. In a file system
it is difficult to give the Customer access to only his
data in the· file.
- Thus enforcing security constraints for the entire file or
for certain data items are difficult.

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Data Redundancy
- Multiple instances of the same data appeared
throughout various files, systems, and databases
- Information updated in one place was not
replicated to the other locations

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Data Isolation
- all the related data is not available in one file.
- Usually the data is scattered in various files having
different formats.
- Hence writing new application programs to retrieve the
appropriate data is difficult.

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Program / data dependency
- In traditional file approach, application programs are closely
dependent on the files in which data is stored.
- If we make any changes in the physical format of the file(s), like
addition of a data field , etc., all application programs needs to
be changed accordingly.
- Consequently, for each of the application programs that a
programmer writes or maintains, the programmer must be
concerned with data management.
- There is no centralized execution of the data management
functions. Data management is scattered among all the application
programs.
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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Lack of flexibility
- The traditional systems are able to retrieve information
for predetermined requests for data.
- If we need unanticipated data, huge programming effort
is needed to make the information available, provided the
information is there in the files. By the time the information
is made available, it may no longer be required or useful.

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DISADVANTAGES OF TRADITIONAL APPROACH
TO INFORMATION PROCESSING
Concurrent access anomalies
- Many traditional systems allow multiple users to access
and update the same piece of data simultaneously.
However this concurrent updates may result in inconsistent
data.
- To guard against this possibility, the system must maintain
some form of supervision. But supervision is difficult
because data may be accessed by many different
application programs and these application programs
may not have been coordinated previously.

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GENERAL DATABASE ARCHITECTURE
Centralized
-Centralized database is a database in which data is stored and
maintained in a single location. This is the traditional approach for
storing data in large enterprises.
-Users in remote locations access the data through the Wide Area
Network (WAN) using the application programs provided to access
the data.
-The centralized database (the mainframe or the server) should be
able to satisfy all the requests coming to the system, therefore could
easily become a bottleneck.

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GENERAL DATABASE ARCHITECTURE
Distributed
- Distributed database is a database in which data is stored in
storage devices that are not located in the same physical location but
the database is controlled using a central Database Management
System (DBMS).
- They are not attached to a common CPU but the database is
controlled by a central DBMS. Users access the data in a distributed
database by accessing the WAN. To keep a distributed database up
to date, it uses the replication and duplication processes

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GENERAL DATABASE ARCHITECTURE

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