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SUCCULENTS

- THE ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY -

Succuient.oJ:, with their huge diversity of forms

and habits, are one of me most fa sdnating - lUI

well as one oflhe lar gest - plant groups (ound

growing wild throughout the world. Many of tho genera - Agave, Hawarlhia, Kolunchoe and

Yucca , for example - include some of the best known and most often cu ltivated houseplanL8.

Other specie 8, howcver, are exotic:: and rore,

some seldom seen in cultivation, others now

rarely seen in the

ild.

Neve r before has there been a single work of reference in which examples of so wide a range

of genera have been described and illustrated in

colour. Succulents: The Illustrated Dictionory.

the companion volume to Cacti: The lIlulltrated Dictinmlry, includes morc than 1,200 photogrnphsofspcciesand varicticsfrom 195 difTerent genera, and t herefore itconstitutcs 8 unique work of reference for succulent enthusiast8 and CQllectors.

For case of use, the dictionary is organh:ed

alphabe~ically by ~pe<:ies. Each cntry indudcs a

full de&<:ription of the ~pecies as well as ~he place

of origin . Commonly used alternative names are

given, and these are also listed separately for oonvenientcross-rcferenoo. In addition, the

introduc~ion summarizcs the charllcteriatica of lhefamiHcH and genera.

A special feature of the text is the indusion of

the CITES (Convention on International Trade

in Endangered Spccics) status for all those

species that are indudcd in the Convention's Appendix I and Appendix II of protected pla nts. There is also a de&<:ription o[ the way in which CITES is organbed to monitor the ~rade in collectnblc spccies, as well as a summaryo[the codeofconductofthelnternationnl Organiza~ion for Succulent Plants Study for

oollect.orfl.

With such a wealth of information, Succulent.s:

The Illustrated Dictionary is assured of a place

among the standard

orks of rc ference of all

succulent growers and ooUectors

TIMBER PRESS

Portland, Oregon

$29.95

ISBN o-aa]''l~'3''1a-~

SUCCULENTS

THE ILLUSTRATED

DICTIO NA RY

Maurizio Sajeva Mariangela Costanzo

'od

limber Press

Port/and, Oregon

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CONTENTS

ACKNOWLErx:;EMENTS

FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

SUCCUlEl\'T Fk\4IL1ES ANDGENEKA

11

ILLUSTRATED A - Z OF SPECIES

CONVENT10;.J ON it-.'TERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANCEREDSPECIES

228

INTERNAT IONAL ORGANIZATION FOR SUCCULENT

PLANT'S STUDY: CODE OF CONDUCT

CI IECKLISTOF ALTERl'JATlVE NAMES

233

FURTHER READING

237

CRFOIl'S

239

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

w~ would like to thank LucOl Magilgnoli for his encouragement and for his h~Jp in (ocOlling interesting plants; Andrea Catlabriga fo r many useful s uggcstions; AnnarOS1l Nicola and P<lsquale Ruocco fo r supplying transparmcies; Sara

for pennissiOll to reprint extracts from the lOS Code of Conduct;

ROSt'mary Anderson of Casse:1i ;md Lydia D.ubyshire for their ilssiSlanCt! in

preparing the manuscript; and all the nun>erymen, private collectors and k<,<,pefS

of public collections who gave pennission for plants in their collecti ons to be

phOlographL'<i. We would a lso like to thlmk Dr GeT va n Vliet, !'lant Officer . C ITES Secretarial, for the chapler un CITES, which unfortuniltcly had to be

shortened for rt'i1sons of spacc.

The plants illustrated are shown in hJ.bitOl\ ;md in the authors' collections.

"Tht-y hil\'c also been photographed in the public oollt!Ctions of thc Botanical Garden of the University of Bologna, the Botanical Garden of the Unin~rsity of Palermo, the Garden of the National Herbarium of Namibia, Windhoek, and the Succuk'l1t Cnllcction of the City of Zurich; the private collections of Andren Callabriga, Vivi,ma Didoni, Annarosa Nicola and Pasqua le Ruocco; and thc n u r.;cries of Luciano Cre"enna, Bergamo, Cactus Centre, Florence, Lalla

Pelliconi, Ra,'enna. and Anna Peyron, Turin .

All the photographs w('re taken by Pierfranco and Daniele Costanzo unless otocrwisc slated on page 240, and without their help the publication of Ihis

diCiion.'\ry would not have bo

possible. Thanks IIlso to Pierfranoo Costanzo for

Oldfit'ld

'Tl

dr,Hv;ng the line iIIustraliofls. Special thanks are due to Marina Di Stefano Saje"ll for her plltie nce nnd support during the preparation of this book.

FOREWOHD

The decision

10 write

this dic tionary was prompted by Cacti: The Illustrated

DicliOl/Qry by

Rod and

Ken Pr cston -Ma fham, which

so successfuUy me l II need

among C"dctus enthusiasts. Succulents other than cacti are described and illustrat- ed in St.>vcrai monographic ~tudi\.'Sdealing with a single genus or a specific goo-

graph ic,,1 ~ion, but there is no single book with a Jarge number of colour

illustrations co~'ering a

wide rllng c of genera. It is hOpl-d that Ims dictionary w ill

go some \V<ly towards filling this gap, helping collectors to iden ti fy their plants

and c l1cou r aging ncwcumc rs to scloo interesting species to study (lnd g row. We would tikI' to e mphasb:c that we do not pretend to have found a solu tion 10 the chaos afflicting the dassifi(alion of succu lent pla n ts - rather, we are cu rn- pletely involved in th.1.t chaos. The classification of both succulcnts and cacti is affecled by several factors thai lcad to frequent change> and 10 the CT{'alion of very small genera and new species. The main problem is probably t~ horticul- tural value o f new species. Nurserymen often offcr unidentified specimens as sp.

11000 to stimulnte the potential (u ll(.'(;tor's interesl. If a plant is described and pub-

lish

Botanical Nomcndature but without the plant's variability in habitat having bcocn verified, a new species could be established, which, although va lid in formaltCTms, has no biological mcaning

It is essential that a group of Clfpcrts attempt toddine a system that will bring

som

generic nnd specific names that a(f1ict~ this group of plants. The International Organization for Succulent !'llmts Stud y (lOS) is a iming to complete a proje<:1 tha t will find a consensus among cactus experts on the naming of the Caclaceae. It is to be hoped that the [OS will be able to carry out a similar proje<:t for succu- Icnts. In this dictiona ry WI' h,wc used Ihe names currently found in private and public collC(;tions. Including available rcvisions would have resultlld in a partial work with no cohcrent criteria that would confuse the average collector. Somc revisions a re noted in the descriptions of th e succulent spt.'Cies and for those readers who <Ire interested in pursuing the subject fu rther thcre arc book.~ lisk>d in Further Reading.

s tability to the naming of succulent p\;mts and will CUI the pk'lhora of

as a new species in nccordnncc with the rok'S of the International Code of

d

INTRODUCTION

Sucrulcnts i1T(' defined ilS plants thai are able to withstand drought bcc.luse of the water stored in some of their orgrms. They constit ute a widespre"d group, ~ing represented in severil! filmilies of flowering plants and, to some extent, in

the Gymnosperms as well. The definition is somewhat problematic OC'CilUse several plants, altho ugh not true succulents, ilTC included among th eir number

for aesthetic reasons. The most

precise scienti fi c definition

is given

in

Lift!

Strategies of SIICCU/ClIls ill Deserts by D.). von Willert, B.M . Eller, M.J.A. Werger, E,

Brinckm.lnn and H.D. Ihlenfeldt:

A succulent (or sUCCQphyte) is a plant po~ing al least one succulent tissue. A succulent tissue is a living tissue that, besides possible other

tasks, serves and guarantees an at least tcmpori'lry storage of utilizable water, which makes the plant temporarily independent of an e)(ternal water supply when soil water conditions have so deteriorated thai the rool is no longer able to provide the ncccsS<lry water from soil. This definition implies that succulence may be present in one or more plant

organs. The specia liza tion of an organ is determined

prCS/iurein the spccics' habital. Leaf succulence occurs in several familil'S, and it is usually associated with e nvironments that do not have a long dry SCilson. When the dry scason is very long the succulent leaves arc highly specinlized. Litho/IS is, perhaps, the best example: the stem is absent and the leaVe!; grow hidden in the soil, thus reducing water loss. Stem succulence, which is seen in the cactus family, is also familiar to succu- lent enthusiasts. Succulen t stems have leaves that are reduct.>d in size or arc caducous when well develo]X>d, ,!lId photosyntht.'Sis is performed by the grCCll s tems. Stem succulents may inhabit more arid environments, but the critical point is their sire: gig.lIllic spcctes need regular water to support growth, and in very dry environments stems are reduced in size. In root succulence the organ of reserve is subterranean, which is thus protect- ed from the stresses of wind and predation. Root succulence is often associated with annual stems, which desiccate during the dry ~ason In addition to thesc visible characteristics, succulents have severa Ilcssevidenl features that give them strong selective advantages in arid habitats. The number and size of the stomata (the holes that allow air to enter leaves and leaves to cilpture carbon dioxide) are usually reduced. Not only docs this reduce water loss but it also reduces the amount of cMbon dioxide taken in. Moreover, the opening of stomat" during the day, in the presence of strong sunlight and dry air, would lead to the evaporation of water without a compens.1tory intake of wilter in the form of rain. A p<1rticular type of photosyn thesis, Cr.,ssulilcean Acid Metabolism (CAM), has evolved in several families. [n CAM the stomata of plants open at night, when the temperature is lower and the humidity of the air is higher. These plants store carbon dioxide, using orgilnic ncids - nilmely malic acid - during the night when the stomata are open. Carbon dioxide is released during the day when Ihe stomata are dosed but light is available for photosyn- thesis to transform the carbon dioxide into sugars. CAM is not only efficient in

by the particular sek>ct ive

the economic use of water but is also highly effective in (apturing (arbon dioxide from the air. CAM phOhJSynthesis evolvoo independently in several families, and it is also present in some ;1qUJtiC plMltS, when thesclective advJntage arises from the effiden(y o f (apluringcarbon dioxide that is not abundant in water. tn arid habitats suc(Ulent phmts may be the only SOUT(e of food for wild animals. Several features have been cvolvt.>d to rope with this predation, the most common being the presen(e of spines, whi(h make the pl,mts less appetiz- ing, and mimicry, which makes them difficult to see against the soil. Another defence against predators is the prcscn(e of toxic or repellent chemicills - on(C Ihe predator hilS tilsled the plilnt il will not try to cat J s imilar specimen The different adaptive characleristi(s are present in various groups of plants Often spt.ocit.'S that Me distant in geographic or phylogeni( terms may look si milar. The most striking example of this is probably the (olumnar or globulilr euphorbia and cac ti. The volume 10 sur fil cc ratio is (Titical from the point of view of storing water, and it is ~ible to identify a trend in s tem shape, from the cylindrical to the illmost spherical, th"t is the ideal for the volume to surf;1(C ratio. These plants mily hilve very si milar sh"pes even though they are native to differen t (onlinents and h.we different ancestors. The resemblan(e is caused by the s.lme selective pn.'ssurc that (auSt.'S (onvergent evolution.

The problems of nillure (OnServation are widely ilpprcciated. Those who are con- si dering growing, collecting and studying succulent plants must be "ware of the impact that they can have on the wild populations of the plants they wish to study. Most succulents grow in habitats that have a fragile coologi(al l'quilibri- um, and the environmenta l conditions often lead to slow r.,tes of growth and low reprodU(tive rates. For example, only 0.1 per cenl of the seeds produced by WI'/wilscil in mimbilis will raise a new specimen, even in favourable conditions. In the plant's habitat. the Namib Desert, filvourable mnditions may not ocrur for several years, "s rain is very rare. If mature plants were to be removed, the reprodu(tion rate of the species would fall below a s ustainable level. Similar oon- ditionsapplytoscveralotherspt.>c!<.'S. In some instances the demand from mllcctors h~s meilnt that the limit in sus- tainable collecting of wild spcdes has been reached. In response to this, in 1973 more than one hundred nations signed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and ROTa (C ITES) . Some mllectors regilTd the CITES convention as a disaste r . It mu st be borne in mind, however, that CITES dOL'S not prohibit the trade in plants and animals; it merely reguliltt.'S and moni- tors international trade in endangerL>d spt.ocies with the aim of preserving them in theirh"bitats. TIlt!re are three Appendi(es in which specit.'S endangered by tr"de are listoo:

• Appendix [ includes species that are threatenlod with extinction. The trade in lmy wild pllmt or animal con taintod in this Appendix is forbiddc lI .

• Appendix !I includes species that are not necessarily threatened with extin(- tion but that may become so unless trade is strictly rL'gulatoo, and the trade in wild plants and animals is, therefore, subject to the issue of an export licence

• Appendix !II includes those species in which the regulation in t rade is within thejurisdiclion of the nation (On(erned

Scver.ll 5ucru]cnts are ruITently included in Appendices I and 11; none is at

included in Append ix Ill. All artificially prop<1gated plants m~y be

prcscnt

SUCCULENTS-Ti l E ILLUS TR ATED DICTIONARY

legally traded, even if they Me lish

to check with local rl1,'Ulations to avoid any problems. A useful reference is nrc

EVIJ/,,/iOlI ajCrrES by W. Wijnstekcrs. It is important to rem ember that even species that arc not listed in CITES m~y

be protco::tcd by local Icgisl~tion. If you are going 10 coiled any wild plant, first check the local regulations and ask for an official permit. Collectors Ciln plilY an important role in conservation. The management of well-documented collections can help in conserving the genetic diversity of endangered species, and propagat ion helps to relieve the pressure on wild plants. Collectors shou ld, however, always be aware of the damage c,lused by

illegal colh

and they should never buy wild-collected plants of endangered

in the Convention. It is necx.'Ssary, however,

od

'"cting.

species, even with the aim of saving the specimen. The aim must always be to s.we Ihe species not the indil·idual.

US I N( ; TI·115 D I CTI ONA It Y

The succulents included in this book are organizt!d in alphabetical order, by genus and by species within each genus. Each dt>scription is laid out as follows·

The family to which thctilXon bclongs

Authur;'r r"Tl'tlcenurnber

Nameorthe~pt'Ci"lj

The author who pobli5hro thc prcscntnamc;whcrcapplic.:Iblcthe name or the ao thor who originally described thisspccies in.:l different genus Or rank isgivcn i n br.lckcts

0350

Aloe hum ilis var. echinata (Willd.) Baker

LILiACEAE

 

A

s m a ll er va ri e ty w ith

fl esh y spines on

upper s urface

of

leaves.

Brief dO'SCription Qf

A loeechil1ata

WiUd .;

A.

tllberCll iata Ha w.

So uth Afri ca

(Cap e Prov i nce)

CIT ES App. ll

Oihernamesinu,;.,todeno\"th"

sameSpt'Cle5

Rangeofdistribution of the specit!S

Status of the species under theClTES

(up :latroas~tMan::hl992):

App.l =spcciesHsled inAppendi~!

App. 11 =spt'C i

slistoo

in Appt'nuix 11

The colour photographs werc t.:lken in a number of public a nd private collections and comrnerdi11 nurseries or in the habitat. The colour and shape of individual plants depend on their geographical position and the type of greenhouse or glasshouse in which they are grown and on the attention they receive from the grower. Plants also vary according 10 the time of year . During resting periods they may shrink, hilve fewcr leaves or aClluire a reddish tinge. Plants grown in sunny positions and plants th at receive little water may also have .1 reddish tinge, while those grown in shndc and th nt receive plenty of waler are greener. For these r(,.:Isons the co100r and fonn of the plants illustrated may vary slightly from the descriptions of the type species.

SUCCULENT FAM ILIE S AN D GENERA

The famili('S and the genera illustrated in this dictionary arc described bricny in this chapter . Some referenre books, must of which nrc monographic studies, thai may be of use to interested readers are includoo in Further Reading. The most com plete work on succulent plants is undoubtedly the three-volume A Hum/ book of Sliccult'Jls Plants by 1'1. Jacobsen, which covers Illust succulents in cul tiviltion, although it does not indud(' the mos t recent discoveries. Several periodicals sp•.,'ci alizc in s u cculen t p l ants, imd they arc the bes t SQur ce of up-to-date informa t io n .

M; ,\ V,\ CE ,.\ E E .,dl. (.\ I Q N O C OT l ' L E IJ OM;)

The Agavaceae family includes Soeveral plants of horticul -

tural interest. It consists of about 18 genera, of which

sc,'cn ;ITC illustrated in this book. The siems of the plants

in this fami ly arc short or even 3bsent. The leaves are

usually arrangLod in rosettes, and theyarelong-1ived,rigid and often hlwe denla te margins. The rOOl5 are fibrous and

stoloniferous. The nowers are arranged on tall inflorb- cenccs. Thc fruit is 11 capsu leora bcrry.

G ene ril lll u s irilled

Agaut1

This genus includes several species of use to humans. The lea" es of Agaut s;salana, for example, are a source of sisal, which is used for milking ropes, S<lcking. insulation and so on. A. SiSlllllllR used to be cultivated ill Sicily untiI 19-W, but it was not l'COnomically viable, and now the remains of ~bandoned si5ll1 orchards may be S<'en. Other species arc nsed in Mexico to produce alcoholic beverages by fer-

menting the central part of the stem. The leaves uf agaves. w hich are very va r iable in size, are arranged in rosettes. The inflorescence is a ta ll spike- 1010 m or more - and usually has thick, modified leaves (bracts). The tubular flowers, which are borne in clusters, have six sepals. The fruit is a capsule wilh bl.1Ck seeds. All ngowes nre monocarpic - i.e., the plant dies after nowering and seeding - but it takes several years for an inflorescence to be produood.

in

DISTI!IHtJT1ON: I\ merica; a few species are natu ralized Mediterranean countries and tropical regions.

Cali/NlIIliS Rose

A mOllotypic genus.

D!STRJ8t.mON:Mexico.

/)QsyliriOlIZ UCC. The re arc approximately 18 species of Si mpl e-s temmed plants with long. lancrolate leaves with spiny margins. The infloresceno.- is branched, and the flow~rs are cam· panulate. DlSTRI8UTJI)N: Mexico and southern USA.

FurcroeaVL'Ilte The 2Q or so species are similar to agaves but have taller stems and longer leaves. The tall inflorescence is branched, and the flowers arc campanulatc. The fruits conlain many black SC«Is. The plant dies after flowering.

~"T 1!1 1;IU11ON: Mexico.

NoJiulI;\olichx. There are ;tbout 20 species of small trees. Each plant has a succulent. swollen caudcx covered w ith thick bllrk. The

fibrous leaves are long imd na rrow. The till1 innorescence

is branched and bcilrs numerous small fl owers. DlSJl(Jlllfl"K»,l: Mexico to Guatemala.

Sallsevit riaThunb. There are approximately 70 species of rhh:omalOus or stolonifcrous plants with fibrous, succulent leaves. The elongated innorcsceno.- is unbranched and is seldom pro- duced in cultivation; the flowers are white or grL'Cnish. Several species are tolerant of shade and may be grown as house-plants.

D I!m< IHlJ110N: tr opica l Africa, Ind ia a nd Madllgascar.

Between 40 and 50 species of smal1 trees bear simple or branched stems. The leaves, which are arranged in rosettes, arc flexible to rigid. The brilnched innoresceno.- bears noctumill flowers. During the day the flowers do nol close fully, gh'ing refuge 10 the moths that pollinate them. The fruit is a dry o r fleshy capsule with black SC«Is. Some species llre hllrdy and can be rn ltivated outside the green· house if the cold season is not too long. DISTRIDlJ110N: Nurth America and West Indies.

M IAnl' U . I J) ,\ CE ,\E J .S t . lli 1.

(MONOCOT \' LE J}ONS)

There are about 70 genera of bulbou s plants, with corms or rhizomes. Only the genus Ammochari5 Herb. is included here.

About 70 g('nCrOl of IR'O.'S or shrubs with resinou$ b.uk <Ire found in IropicOlI and tempcrMe regions of the northern hem isphere. The f,lmily cont,lin$ several species of E'CO- nomic interest, includ ing M(lIISlft'rtI illdim (mango), AnflCflrdiulII OCCidffilfll.: (cashew nul) and Pi~tocia /culiscus (pistachio nut). Only the genera Porllycontms Coville and Op.!rmiycarin H. Perrier are considered ~ucculcnl and arc included in this dictiona ry.

the stilpcliile group pollen grilins adhere togethl'r to form

wilxy pollinia (Fig, 1). The frui l is a follicle con taining

!;everal seeds with a Icrminal luftof hairs. Thegcnera con- laining sucCtlk'1ll plant~ have a complex and confusing taxonomy. The species with ~ucrulenl stems are prone to rotifover·watered. DISl"RJIIUTlO:-.l: lropical and temper.,It! regions

,\ I' OC\'"\'\C I-:. \ E J,,~~. ( Dl eO T' 1.t: IW\S )

The family contains about 215 genera of lactiferous herbs, lianas, shrubs and tTl.'CS. The simplc lca\'cs havc p.uallcl ~·eins. The nowers, whic h may be solitary or borne in d us·

ters,havefivcpctalsanrlfivcscp.l1s;lheblld5art'conlorl.

ed. The frui t is divided inlo two fo!liclt.'S. 5t'veral sJX'Cics are sources of pharmacologi(.ll substil1lCCS - <llkaloirls, gluoosidcs an d so on. The plants belonging to Ihe Ihrl'C gener<1 illust ra ted in this dictionary are very hmder and need a warm position, and Ihey rl'quire plenly of W<ltcr du ring Ihegrowing season.

D1STR1BllTlClI\::widl'Sprcad.

Genera Illustrated

Admil/III Roem. & Schult. Succulent s hru bs or tR'('S with swollen caudiccs and l<1n· Ct'Olate leaves, cruwdlod althe stem apices. DISTRJIIUTJ()N: tropical Africa, Ar"bian Peninsula and South Yemen (Somlra).

Fig. I A dingrrwr of1/rejluWf!ro{"/>lanl irr tlr.:StapdiatgTOllp,

baS<'d 011

Orbea . P<II/t'n grr/i//:! adhert: 1~lrl'r to form waxy

poIli"ul.

Gene ra Illustra ted

l'ac/rypodiumLindl.

Spiny

trees

or

subtl'rranean,

caudidfonn

stems

w ith

caducousleilves.

 

D1STRlUUTION:

Angola,

Madgascilr,

Namibi.,

and

South

Africa.

Bro(hys/f/maR. Br.

Plants have luberullS or fusifonn rool~ with thin, caducous

~Iems. Leaves arc va riable in Sh,1J'C. The flowers, which

may be solitary or borne in clustcrs, have a round corulla and five lobes; Ihelobes may be free or unitl>d at Ihelip;. DlSTRlUUTIO:>I: southern and tropical Africa.

P/umerUl L

shrubortreeswithcylindricalstemsandbrilnchcs,l"ncro- Caraihmur R. Hr .

late, d ark reddish·green leaves and showy, fragrant flowers in variollscolours. DI~"TRIBlfI10.'1: Mcxicoand tropical South America.

Stoloniferous, clllmp. furmin); plants, with four· or five- angk>d Siems bearing reduced, c.lducous leavcs. The flowe rs are very variable in si1.c imd 1ll1ly be campanulatl;' or have an open corolla; the corona h:'5 two whorls; the five outer looc'S may be free or fusL'Ci, and tht! five inner lubes are fuSl.'Ci 10thCI)uler whorl.

DIST"IIllIlJf[or-: Arabian Peninsula, north and eastern Africa,

Yemen

(Socotra).

India,

, \S C: L E I'I , \I MC I·:, \E II . IIr . ( UI C OTVLE IJU [\' S )

The family conlains ovcr 2,800 species of Hanas or low shrubs, some of which arc succ:ulenl. The [ca\'es are simple and caducous in most succulent species. The flowers have five sepals and five petals and a re ofll'Tl malodorous. [n

Mt'diterranean

countrit'S

and

Soulh

Ctrop·'s;aL.

These climbing or erect plants often h.1.ve swollen tuix:rs or

fusiform roots. The calyx has

is

almost spherical at the b.,sc; the tips of the lobes arc uniloo

to fonn a lantefll-like structurc (Fig. 2). DrSTlUIlIJT1ON:ccntral and southern Africa, Canary Isla nds, Mad ei ra .

Indi~i1nd

the five

five Sl'pals, a nd

pcLlls of the corolla arc united to fonn a tube,

hich

Dllvalrallaw. The four- to Six-angled stems have spre.lding teeth. The leaves art! small. The flower.;, w hich appear on younger stems, are solitary or bome in clusters on stalks 1-3 em long.

D1sTR18lJTlO:"II:eastemand

EdudllopSisl lookJ . The stems hilve between 6 and 20 ilnSll'S,lhe ribs being d ivided into hexagonallUbcrcl($. Flowers i1re borne in clusters of two to four; they have no tube, triangular lobes andan inner whorl with fivereflexl>d lobes. DISTRIBIITION: tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Sou th Yemen (Sorotra).

EJillleoII'llN.E.6r.

TIle few species have fiv~.lngled stems to 30 cm high. Large, hemispheriCilI flower.; are borne at the stem apices. DlsTRrBUTIO'l: Kenya, Somalia, South Yemen (SocotT3) and

esternAfrica.

FockeaEndl These c,l udidform

twining branches. The flowers, which Illay be solitilry or

plants hllve tuberou s roots lind thin,

borne in clusters, a re s tarfi sh-l ike DlsTIlIIIUTJO'l: Angola. Nilmibia, South Africa and

Fig.2

A side "ii'll! of lilt'scilcmatie f/oM'rofCeropegia. Tilt'

FrereoDalzell A monotypic genus very similar to Carol/lwlIl but with per- sistent lea\'es to6cm long. DlsTRIIIUTION:lndia.

Hoodia5weet

The miln y-angkod stems, to I m tllll, Me covel"(.od with

conic.11 tubercl es and hard teeth. Flowers, which arc borne

corollalrlls/ifJe/lClals.wlricilarclIlliledl%rmmlllimos/splrL'T- neiIT the apex of stems, have a flat corolla, very small lobes and a fiv~lobt.od corona in two whorls.

D~'IIII11JTIO'l: Angola, Namibi.lll nd South Afric.l.

HoytrR.lk These epiphytic plilnts hilve climbing stems and branch($. The lc.wes are vilriilble in shape and size, and in some

borne in

pendent clusters wi th severill waxy, stilr-like and fragrant

species are thick and sucrul ent. Inflorescences i1re

III/Ilerl/-/rtt strllellm. This type of f/UWfr call ~ ,1OI/iIlMt'd oll/y

icallll""lItll1t'ba54'wllill'llrt7Ii//s(Jfllll'lobt'sll~lmilt'1il/l(Ja

bysptCi/icpoJlilllllors.u'lric/lllrellbleIO~tlclr t/rrpollillillduwn

Iltc/ollglu"".

Cy"mlchllm L Climbing shrubs with fl($hy brilnch($. The enrollil lobes of Ihe small flowers form a pentagon. DlsTRIHUTIO'l: central and southern Africa and Madagascar.

Thl'SC arc epiphytic plants with smil ll, lVilxy leavl'S, solne of which arc modified into large, inflatod pitchers inhabit- ed by ants (see also MyrmmJill under Rubiaceile). The flolVers i1re smaiL DISlRlIll1ll(N: Australia and India.

flowers. DISTRI61IT10N: Asia, Australia and ]'olyul'"!iiil.

Hrr;:nriaR.Br.

The short siems, which branch from the bilse, are four- to

Flowers a rc produced

six-a ng k>d and

from the b., sc of young stems and have a camp.lnulate

corolla.

DlSIl!111l1TlO.-";:

Peninsula and Ethiopia.

Arabian

have large teeth.

sou thern

and

eastern

Africa,

Notechidllll//Sisl

Similar to Echidnopsis bUl leafless al all SIJgt$ of grow th . DtsTRI1K1l'1(»II: lIQulhern Africa.

wr"nos&B1cck

Orbolllaw.

The plants al't.' simi lar 10 Staprlia and are often included in that gen us.

DISTKIIIUTION: south ern Africa.

Orbellllllms L.c. Lc~ch

The stems spread horizontally. The flowers arc very showy a nd h~vea hairy corona. D~I8VT1ON: southe rn Afri ca.

OrbtopslsL.C. Leach Aower.; are borne in cluster.; from Ihe corolla is flat ,md there is no annulus. DISIlUIIIJlIQII>: southern Africa.

baS(' o f s tems; the

Padrycymbillm L.C. Leach Rhiwmatou s s tems. The corolla may be ca mp-lnulate flat. DIS,'IoiIHlJTION:southernAfrica

or

Pummlhus R. Sr. The flowers are s mall; the corolla is flat , a nd tht' lube is absent or campa nulat\'; Ihe lobes are lanct.'Ola te.

DtsTRl1K1l'1(»II:soulht'mAfrica.

PSt'udoiilll('J$ P.R.O. Bally The unbranchlod stems are stone-like. The inflorescence hasm an ysm" Uflowers. D1!>'TKIIIUTlON:Soma lia.

QllaqWl (N.E. Br .) Bnlyns

This genu s is

DISTRIBUTION: sou th ern

related to Cllmllrmm.

Africa.

Ra"iliollacml' Harv.

by

s tems and loose pomn ia.

Dr.muBlJTl()l\,: eastern Africa.

A genus

d istinguished

its

tuberous

roots, cli mbing

RJly/ulOOlUll/Il P.R.O. Bally

The unbranched stems are papillose. Solitary flowers arc

borne 0 11 s h ort sta l ks; the co r o lla ha s s preading

DISTRlBUTlON:easternAfrica.

Sa rroslem mllR.Br.

Thin-stemmcd shrubs with clusters of flowers. with small, projectingrorolla lobes DtsTRJOIJTlO:'<.l:tropicaIAfrica.

lobes.

lbere are about 100 species. The flowers, which are borne on long st,ll les, ha\'e a five-lobed, osuall y fla t, corolla; the

\4

deep lobes arc triangul"r. The corona has two, five-lobed

whorl s, an inner and outer whorl

DlsrRJIIU'IlOI\': tropical and sout hern Africa.

SlaprlilmlhllS Chaux

This genus is closely related to HI/emia.

IJIsnu!:llJTlOI\": Madagascar.

Tat"re5i~Wt:1w.

from the b.1se of

the s te ms.

D 1STRJ1l11110N: centra l and southern Africa

TricJuxQullmN.E. ar.

Cylind rical stems are s imple or branching from the ba se. The small flowers arc borne betWCCl\ the tu bercles toward s

the stem ,lpiccs. The fI"t corolla has acute lobes.

~IIlU1ION: southern Africa. Madagal>Car and Somalia.

TromolricJrt' I law.

A genus th"t is very si milar to SIIIp.'lia and that was, in

fact, fo r merly included in it. DISTRllIlJnON: southern Africa.

A ow ~rs wi th a lo n g coro ll a arc produced

A family of about six genera of rhiwmatous, climbing

plan ts with sim ple. often succulent leaves. The b ra nched

in fl Ore5O!llct" bears small flowers. Only one gen us,

BolIssirlgaliltin H .B. & K., is iIIustra tocl here.

D1STRII!UIION: tropical and subtropical Ame r ica.

BO .\IB ACA n : .\I ·: "'11m" (JH COTYu: nO 'lS )

There are 30 genera of very l<lrge trees with soft wood. The leaves, w hich may be simple or compound, are covered

w ith hairs or hairy scales. The flowers are large. The two genera illustrated havc woolly fruits with numerous seeds ~11IlI1"ION: tropica l Africa and America.

Ge

8ombaxL.

These large trees o ft en have sp iny trunks and palmate leaves. The very large flowers appear before the leavt.'S. DIS'Tl!IOUT101': tropica l regions.

n era Illustra ted

CllOrlsia H.B.&K. The trees have swollen trunks that are usually spiny. T1le large floWl'l'S appear before the p.llm.lte leaves.

Dls

nU BlJIIQN: tropical Ame ri ca.

.

HHI I·: U ,\( : E.\ E

III JII ~~. (MO~O C OTYLEUO .~S)

The family cont<lins <loout 50 genera of terres trial or epi- ph)'lic plants. The bas.11 Ic,1\'es, which m<ly hilvc spiny margins, are oftcn arranged in rosettes. Flowers are borne

in

spik

'S

"'ilh colouwd bracts. The epiphytic genera grow

on

the trunks and stems of trecs.

Dislribution: tropicaJ America.

Gener~ Illu strated

Abmmdlirlla Mez Small, terrestrial rosettes form large clumps. The greenish

petals Me much

flowers

longer than the sepals. OISTRml1J·loN: Argcnlinil and Dolivia.

DeuleroclmiaMez

These short-stemmed plants have rosettes of leaves with

are

usually SOl itary, and

the

spinose margins DJSrRIBUT10N: Sou th America .

Dyckia5chuiLf

The stemless rost ttes

have thick rhizomes. The leaves are

rigidnndh.1Vespinosemargins

OIS1"RJ6llTIO:-/: Sou th America

HedlliaKlot~_o;ch

Stemless or short-stemmed rosettes arc formed from grey

CO .\IMEI.I~J\( ; I ·: M : II . Ur . ( MO~OCOT\,I.E I )O"\~ )

These tropical plants have jointed stems. The flowers nrc usuillly blue, iI colour thnt is seldom seen among succulent plants.

Genera Illus trated

Cal/isiaL.

These plants, which have succulent leaves, are similar to

TmdcSCfwlia

DISTRIIIl1ll0N: Mexico, tropical South America and south- eastern USA.

Cymwli5 D. Don A genus of pl'lllts with tuberous roots and succulent leaves

DISTRlBllTlO.\I: tropical Africa and Asia.

Tmdt'SCauliaL.

These phlllts have fibrous or tuberous roots. jointed stems and leavcs that arc often covered with hairs.

D1STRIt\UTION: North and South America.

CO\ IPOS ITAE Cisf'kl' (1lI COT\' I.EIlO NS)

A very

large fJmily contain in g both annual nnd percnni"l

or

red-brown leilves with spiny margins

plants. ranging from herbaceous plants to tr~ and

DI

STRfBllTIO:-/ : lvlcxi co and

southern USA.

including

epiphytic and aq uatic SpOOL'S. The inflorescence

I'llyaMolinil

The toothed and spinose leaves arc arranged in rosettes,

which may be stemless or lo ng-stemmed, to 10 m tall wheninnower.

OISTRIBllTlO

:

Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.

IlU II S EII ACI ': ,\ E KUUlh ( U1 CO TYLEOO i\S)

A family of about 20 genera of shrubs or large trees. The

trun ks, b.1rk and wood arc resinous. The leaves arc com- pound.

Genera Illus trated

BurseraJacq

These shrubs have caudiciform trunks and compound leaves.

D!STRlBllTlON: Mexico and southern USA.

Commipllom Jacq. Shrubs with a very thick.

tuberous Colude>:; simila r to

Burscm.

DI STWIIIUTION : Namibia.

m.ly bear from one to mnny heilds of clustered, stalkless

flowers, and the calyx has many bristles and scales

(pappus), which remain attach their dispersal by the wind DISTRlIIlITlO\l: widespread.

>d

to the sa>ds and facilitate

Gene ra Illu s trat ed

Oll1ollilaL.

These small shrubs have either entirc or lobed Ic"vcs. They

are winter growing and should be kept dry in summer.

DlsrRIBl1ll0.\l: Namibia and South Africa.

Sl'IIrcio L. This very large genus contain

The genus Klciuia h"s bco:::n included in this genus for the

several succulent species.

,;

purposes of this dictionilry.

DISTRlBllTlO:-/:widespread.

COi\VULVL L M : E ,\E Ju ss. ( 1J I CUTY L E U O:"lS )

Genera Illustrated

This family cont"ins pl.lnts of very diverse habit. including some parasitic spl."(ies. The showy, c"m piU1UIJte nowers are usually whitcorpink DISTR18UTION: widespread.

Genera Illustrated

IpolllrJelll.

A large and variable genus of trees, shrubs and herbaceous

pl,lnts. The species cultivated by succulent enthusiasts have tuberous roots iUld slender s tems. Several

spt'Cies' are being imported. DISfRIBU1l0N: tropical and subtropi cal regions

MenemillDelllUit.

These sm,lll. climbing pl,lnts h,lve lobed or compound leaves. They ilre very simil'lT to Ipomoea, from which they may be distinguished by differences in the pollen struc- ture. DISTII.lIILIllO\J:tropical regions.

C

tl , \S SU I , ,\( : I ': ,\E

DC :. ( I .,. COTYLE D UNS )

The family of Crassulace<"1e contains <"1 large number of widely found mlllual, biennial and perennial species, with more ur It'!;s succulent leaves, which grow in a wide range

of

innorescence usually beJrs sm"n nowcrs (Fig. 3). The

seo

stem

are dust-like. but plants an' easily prop.lgiltcd from and leaf cu ttings,

cl imatic conditions

'(\s

(from

wetlands

tu

d~rts). Th

Fig. 3

Tile f/uwers of members of 01., Cmssulllcene [amily lire

,>erg simpk IImi lire anllllged in inf/oresct'llces. Tire Illlmlx' of

stllmells iseqlllllt()tItCl1umbt.>rofpetIIISI!riS<lmllltipleo{titem.

Adromisc/ms Lcm.

Succulent herb.1CCOllsnr shrubby plants with fit'!;hy, per- sistent leilv<'S. The innorcsccnccs have noweTS at right auglesto thepeduncIes. DISfR1BU1l0N: Namibia and South Africa (Cape Province)

ACU!lillm Webb & Herthel.

Shnlbs with simple or branchl'<l stems and leaves

arranged inrosettesilt the tips of thcbrilnchcs. The chilrac- teristic rosettes die after nowering. DISfRlBL"llOK: north Africa, Canary Islands, Madeira and MediteITane.lnrcgions

Aichryso!!Webb&Bcrthel. Very close to Ai!O!!iullI. DISfRIDU1l0N: Azores, Canary Islands and Madeirn.

CO/Y/I'dOHL. Branching shrubs with opposite waxy leaves. The campan- ulate flowt!TS, which may be red, yellow or or,lIlge, are pol- liniltedbybirds, DISfRIULmON: Arabian Peninsula, Nil mibin nnd South Africa.

CmsslllaL. Ht!rba ceuus plants or shrubs with succulent leaves of various shapes. There are 250-300 tipecies, which are found in habitats ranging from wctlnnd to desert. The southern

African tipt'Cies are widely cultivated. DI<;TRIIIU1l0:-.l: southern and tropical Africa; a few species arewidespreild.

DlldleyaBr.&R.

low -growing plants with leavcs arrangt>d in rust'lles. The branched inflorescences bear star-shaped nowers.

DISTRIBU1l0:-l: Mexico and USA (Arizona, California, Nevildil)

Ec/U!I>eriIlOC.

low-grow ing rosettes bear erect stems uf ccnceswithnumerousbracts. D/STR1BU1l0:-l: (t'ntral America and Mexico

l<"1teral inflort!s-

Crap/opelalllll! Rose

A genus that is closely related to Ecitl'l't'ria, from which it is distinguis hed by its sl.lT-like nowers illld the wd spols on thepetills DISfRIBLIlloN:Mexico.

Grl't'lloviaWebb&Berthel. The rosettes are very similar to those of Srmll("roiullm. The nowers :ITe golden yellow, and the rosette dies after now- ering DISTRIBU1loN:Canary Island s.

/oviborl>aOph:

A very small genus, closely allied 10 5<'ml't'rtJivlmr. The

flowers arc camp.1nulah.'. Dls'ntllllfl'l()fl.: ea~t Europe (H.1Ikans,md ('astern Alps).

KII/;mdwt Adans. A vC'I'y \'ariilbl(' genus con taining hcrb.1(COU~ plants, shrubs and climbers. The leaves in some sp<'Cies produce pl,mtlcts. The lenni"al inflorescence bears showy flowers. DIsnl,lll;Tl!.JN: southern and tropical Africa, AS;il and Madagascar.

M011Ill1lht!< llaw. A genus of small pl,lIlts with fleshy leaves and hairy in- floresomre;. DI51RIIlUTIlN: C.1nary 1~lands and Madf'ir,l.

()ro;;/"chys(OC.) Fbch.

The small T05cttcs die after pmcluring ,1 10111in fl orescence.

LJISTRI!lUT10'i:Asia.

Polc/1Y/1l1ylllm Link, Klot7$ch &. Otto The fleshy-leaved roS('itl'S may be distinguished from [c/U!VI!riu by the pTl'sence of a pilir of scal~ inside each pctJI.

Tacitus Mo r ,ln &. J. Meyr5n

>eGmptopt'lnlulII. 5

Tylccodou T oclken.

Distinguished from COlyi.'I1ol1 by the lion-waxy leaves arranged in spirals and by the presence of bracts on the flowering stems. DlsnU61JTlO:'<1: sou them Afric,l.

Vililulinilaw.

A genus that is dosely related 10 Starlm, from which it

differ.i in hln'ing pct"ls unikod int() a di!>tinct tube.

D,5f1UHU1l()f.;: Mexico 10 Peru.

CU( : Lltlll'!" ,\CE ,\E Ju ~~. ( 1) I COT \ ' I. E I)U I\S j

Th is is a f<lmily of f,1st'growing, climbing plants with ten-

drils. Se\,eril] species produce edib](' (m ils. '1111' species

culli\'al~'<l by succ ul ent colll

TO<Jtstocks(>T s w,,]lc I1 b.ls ,!S. DI!>TJ<IUU1loN: tropicfl ] fin d warm tempe rat e countries.

Genera Illustrated

usually IUlI'e tuberous

:tors

LJ

ISTRlDUTlO'i: M('xi co.

Cel'Jrn/<I)lelltalldraChiuv.

R05uiaria(OC.)Stapf

The pl<lnts in Ihi~ genus <lfC simil a r to

Sedlllll

aod

Srnrpm!iVlmr, but the roscttl'S 141Velateral inflorescences.

DlSI1UIIU1lO'i:

Himal,,},as).

StdumL There <lfC approximat('ly 600 spcde; of hcrb.1CCOUS or shrubby plants, with erccl or dccumbt>nt stems. The star- ~hap'-od f]OWl'fS arc various colours. European and Asiatic spcci('S are hardy and suitable fo r t he rock garden . Dl5T1!lBlJT1O'ol: Asia, Europe, north Africa and I\'orth

America.

and

cast

Europe

and

Asia

(Caucasus

StIllpt'rtJh",lInSlapf TIIest' small plants have leaves arranged in rosettes and white or pink flowers.

DISTRJUlJTIO'l:Asia(]-limllllly,1S).

5<:mpl"rlliVWHL

The lell\'es of these Sio ionifcrous plfl n ts flfC nrrMlged in

flowl'rs arc star-s hapo.'(\. There are about

40 ~p'-'("ies and mnTl~ than 250 cul ti vars, allllf which are

ro*lk~, anu th

A monotypic gellus.

DlsnI,HLIT1OI\: Ethiopia, Kenya and Ug.lnda.

COl1lllOCllrplj5 Welw. ex llook.f.

A genus of ilhout 20 speci('S of pliln ts with climbing or

trailing stems arising from a tuberous root. Very few specics are of intercst tu the succulenl gmwer. DlsnIrHLIT1OI\: Afric.l, India nnd M,ldaga<;car.

Garo,dllllllrusi larv.

A

genus of plants with a tuberous rootstock from which

cl

imbing

stems wil h tendrils are produced.

DISTR18LIT101\:ccnlral,eastcrn,U1d stlulhem Africa.

/wroilil:t! ~.D.Grcelle

The glabrous :.tems arc swollen at the holSt.', and the climb-

DISl'RIIlUTIO/\.: north Mex ico

and sout hwest USA.

KcdrostisMcdik.

Theseclimbing plllnts have swollen, cll udidform bllS(.'5.

LJISTRIBtmOl>l: Africa to trupical Asia.

MeiOlliriaL,

hard y.

A

genus ru nlil ini n); " p p rOximlltcJy 10

Spt

:il'S

of climbing-

DISTRIIlUTlO'l; north Africa, Asia and Europe.

or

trailing-stemmed

plan ts

with

tend rils,

very

f('w

of

Simxrassll/a A. Berger

A :.mall genus, :.imi

DIsTR,6l1I1C)"II: A:.ia (I-l imalaya:.toCh ina).

lar 10 Sed",.,.

whic h <In' of int('r('St 10 th (' s u cculent co llector.

DlsTR181.!11OK: tropical and su btropica l America.

MomordiCllL.

EU I'IIOIIIII ACEA E Ju ~~. ( llt r.O T\'I. E IlO NS )

About 60 species of climbing plants with fleshy rootstocks. The fruit s a re more attractive than thc flowers. DtsrRJ8UTlON: Africa.

Sf'yrigia Kl>r;lUdren

A gCllus contai nin g a fcw species of climbi ng plants, with

s lcndcrorsucC1.l lt'nt , little-branched s tems wi th tendrils. DISTRlBlJTlON: Madagasca r.

Xerosicyosl'[umberl

A gen u s of cl imbin g plants wilh gl~ brous or hniry st('ms

Th(' Euphorbiacca(' family contains about 320 genera and o,",er 8,<XXI species of geographically widespread ph'mts, which range from annual herbs to la rge trees. All Euphorbiaccae have a milky sap that may be hannfu l to

th(' touch. The innorescence has a complicated structure, based on the cyathium, which consists of nn involucre con- taining one roouccd female flowt'r and sevt'ral male nowers. Th('re lire protective bracts and ncctaries. The frui t

is a capsult", which explodes on ",aching maturity.

and thkk,su<xulcnt leaves.

Ge n (' ra Illu s tra te d

DISTICIHlJTlOl<l:Madagascar.

EupllorbiaL.

Zygosicym Ilumbert

Tht'''' art' over 2,txXJ species of very di\'ersc habit, from

Climbing siems with tendrils are produced by tuberous

roo<•.

annual plallts to large trees, and including several succu-

D1STIt18lJ1lCY.'11: Asia and Madagascar.

lent species. All species contain a poisonous, irri tant white

latex. Cyathia are endosed in a five-lobed im'oluCfC J:xoaring nectaril'S and subtendcd by enlMged, colollrro bracts (Fig. 4). Some spcci<'S make sui table house-plants.

1J1IJIEIIE,u; E,\E \)r"k,' ( IH COTYI,EI>O NS)

widespread but the succulen t spt.'Cies Me more common in Africa and Madagascar.

This family, which is related to the Cact.lcc.le, contains :o;crophytic spiny shrubs and sma ll trees.

Gen e ra Illus trated

AllmmdiaDrake

A genus of spiny shrubs with ('rect, spreading branches.

OtSTltHIUl'ION:Madagascar.

Dirlierra&ill.

The stems ha\'e thick, tuixorculate branches, which bear narrow leaves and spines

DISTRl8UTlOl<I:Madagascar

IJ

t OS CO Ht ;, \ C t :, \t : I t.

IIr .

( i\ 1 0~O(: I )T \

'

I

, E Il O~S

The plants in this family have large rhi7.om<'S o r tubers v.ithtwiningshoots.

DISTRllJUTIOl<I: southern Africa America.

and

Sou th

and

Central

Genus Illustrated

DioscorrnL.

The very IMge, sphe r ical caudex is covered wi t h b.1Tk, which cracks into polygonal warts. Scv(,Till species have edibte tubcrs, 3nd some have pharmacoiogicaluses. OtSTlmMJl')()f.;: sou thern Africa, Central and South Am('rica

Fig.4 I" F.ul"lOrbinCfdtIIJl,'itlf!ornce"ctCOlisistsofwmpliCi/l - tdf!ofl>trs/rI/Clrlr6clllltdcya/hia(siIlXlllar,cyathillm). TIII'SI! CO/lS;51 of III! illoo/ucre (n sericsofbrncts), which Cllulllill~oue reiluced felllllir f!mI4'r 111111 St'Vt'r111 ";IIIt' ours. Tile f!Ofl~'rs lire IISI/ally ill(tlllspirliOlIs. l'ol/iuators lire Ilttmc/t~1 by l/ie prolre-

tivebmcls(mOlIi{ielllcaves),wlrichcall/tcvcrysJll1W1j,llIl1lby

lire ~'dum of /Ill' lire/aries. TIle illlls/mliOIl is ba cyatllia of Euphorbia milii.

Ja/ropha !

" genus of trees or shrubs wilh simple, palmately veined

t 011 the

leaves, sometimes coven.<d with hairs. The inflorescence

has many branches and bcarssc.lTlct flowers. DtsrICIKU11OS: tropical and temperate regions.

,\.1o,mdeulllmPilX

These succulent shrubs h(lv~ !>everill spt'(:ies with spirally tuberculate ~tems. In floT\"'SCences nrc borne at the stem

apiCl'5, lind th(' lobes

DlsTRrBUTlOK:tropicaIAfrica.

md glilnds arl' fuS<'<! togl'thcr.

Fig. 5 A tytliclll Monadenium {louII'r.

PcdilllllllwsNcck.

A gl'llus of shrubs with scver,ll br,lnch('S :md smallleavcs.

DtsnW.lUTlQl\: Central Al11l'rica.

PhylllllltilusL. Trees or shrubs that often hnvl' l('nf·likl' stems. The leav('S themselves arc of variable ~izl'l>. The inflorescence> are bome from the ~xils, and the fruit is a capsule containing Iwoseeds.

DIsnuBIJnoI.,;:tropical~ions.

Sy,rmlrniu/ll Boiss.

A genus of shru~ with thick, succulent stems and large,

p<lle gl"C("fl leaves. The lobes <lnd glands are fused together

inloa single uni t. DIsTRlIlUllON: tropical Mrica.

,,

fOllqll;l'rifPH.ll&K. This is the on ly genus of this f.lmily. There are a few species of spiny shnlbs or tr('CS with stems over 10 m tall. The gcnu~ Idrill is considerL'(1 to be a sy nonym. DrsrRIBlTtlO'I: Mexico and southln'Stcm USA.

' OLTQ U I E III , \ CE , \ E DC .

( O I CO'!''' 1 E J) O~S )

GEM \ 1,\ CJ.: ,u ·: Ju u . ( O I CO Tl ' tEI)ONS)

The shrubs or herbs in this family usually have aromatic oils in gl;mdulllr hnirs, jointed stems and spirally ;lITanged leaves. DlsnuBUl1ON: tcmpcrate and lropical regions.

Genera Illustrated

l'ellirgoniumL'Her.

A genus of low-growing shrub species, some with succu-

lenl or swollen stems and roots. The leaves, which may be simple or compound, aT(' oflen aromatic. Some of the com- mooly culth'aled geraniums art' included in Ptlargollium.

DlSTRI6Ul"J()N: temperate and tropical regions.

SarcvCllJllon{DC.)5weet.

The succulent stems of the plnnts within this genus are covered with protective b.uk. The spn-ading branches are spiny and ha\'e small leaves. DISTRIBUTION: temperate and tropical regions; most succu- lent species aT(' common in southern Africa, especially

Namibia

C, E S\, EIII Af.EA E n Ulllurl . ( J)I COT \ ' I.EI H ) NS )

A family of shrubs, herbs or Iianas, rilrely tr('CS,wi thoppo-

site leaves and showy flower.;. Very few spt'cies are of

inteTcst tosucQllent growers. DISTRIUlITION: Widespread.

Genera lIIus lrated

R.et:hstrinrriuc. Kegel

The species within this genus have tuberous roots, vch'ciy

or hairy leaves and flowers borne in short p.lnicles.

DISl'RIBt.'TlON: South America.

SimliJlgiuNecs

The shrubs in this genus are tuberous and have opposite

leaves. The flowers are borne al the axils of the leaves.

DtsnuBl.lT1(lI\: Mexico to Argcntin."l.

If.Af. I,'\i ,\ c' I: ,\ E ' li" T." (1l 1c'OTY I . E n ONS )

The tI"C'CS,shrubs nnd li,lnilsin Ihis family have stems that

may exhibit peculiar growt h for ms. Only one genus, Pyn7lucanllw Wright. which is native to ~astem Africa, is illustraled in thisdictionnry. DISTRIBUTlON: tropical and temperate regions.

LABI AT AE JII~~. ( O If: On ' I . I\ I) O\'S )

The shrubs and herbaceous plants within Ihis f<lmily usunlly contain fragrant oils. The leaves are simple. Several plants are of interest in horticulture, but few of Ihem are succulents.

DlsnuIllJT1ON: w idesp~d.

19

Genera Illustrated

OcillllllllL.

species of a romatic shrubs and heTba- the genus. Many spt.-'cics are importan t

for cooking - O. basilicum COOsi]) is one of the best known

reo us

There

are abou t 35 plan~ w i thin

cu lintlry hcrbs - or for medici"",l purposes. Very f('w

plants,

howt'Vcr. DIST~IHunoN: trnpica l regions.

Plt'Ctrullllms L· J-! er.

A s('nus of shrubs or herbs of which only a few species

species are su itable

for collections of succulent

havesucculenlleavt"Sorslems. DtsTR!8UT!ON: Afri ca, Asia and Au stral ia.

A very larlie family containing over 16,000 spt.'CiL~ with

very dh'el'!iC hnbits. Severn! species arc import,mt as culti-

vated crops. Only one ge nus, Dolklros L this dictionary. DISTIIJ~: widtosprcad.

is induded in

ULlA (: EAE Ju ~~. ( MUl\O(:OT\ U ; I)O M;)

A family of la rgely herbaceous plants but containing a few

trec-likespcdcs. Scveral genern hnvesucculent lenves and

nre adapted to live in dry condit ions.

QlstrriuC.-J . Duval Stemless pla n ts wi th succulent leaves th"t are arranged in roset tes in malure sped mens; younger p lant s have dis- tichous leaves, an arrangement that may persist in mature

specimens.

DlSTRlBtJTKX\: south('rnA frica .

Iluworlhia C .-J. QuVtl ! Planls In dwarf r ose tt es Ihat ]}la y be so l i t ilry or clu~leri l1g.

T

DISTIUBtmON: southern Africa and Madagascar.

h e s u ccu l en t Ic'lv esan~vt'rydil'

rs

s hapt 'S

l'iJtllllil~inUitewaal

A

monotypic genus.

Dtsr~I6U1IO'I:South Africa.

Xii/ilL.

A genus of bulbous plants wilh linear leaves.

J)rSTlUBUTtON: A{rica a nd Europe.

ME SD IIlIt" ,\ NT II EM ,\ CE ,\E Il aili.

(1)ICO 'l'\'tl~J)UNS )

The family of Mt':ot'mbryanthemaceac consists of about 100

gt'llera with apprOXim.l tely 2,000 species, all of which h.1\'e succulent ]('avcs. The species range from sn1.o, 1I s hrubs 10

creeping and

The f]OWl'l'S arc u sua lly s howy and have many peta ls . Th('

fruit is a hygrosropic capsule, which opens when wet, so

releasi ng Ihe seeds, and closes when d ry. nlis adaptation

is a response tu il rid environments; the fru it p rotccls the

extremely specialized stcmll'SS plants.

th

Gene ra Illust rated

seeds until W;lIt'T is ava ilable for germination. The filmily

 

is

widespread

in sou th ern Africa, lind S<'veral

species are

Aluc L.

nillur~li :wd in

Mtoditerranean

region s. The classification o f

A large

spi

woody, Siems.

DlST1lIIIUTION: southern Africa and Madagascar.

Aslro/oW Ui lewaal

species; closely

a

A

are

genus of plants wi th succulent leaves a rranged in

Th('

rarely

ra ls.

plants

stemless or

have short,

g('nus

contain in g

few

related

to

Haworlhin .

DISTRlDVTION: South Africa

BllibitlcL.

A genu s contilining planls wilh sucl'Ulent leaVl;~S and sub-

terran{';lnbulbs.

the genera isb.l scdon the cha ractcristics of t he fnli t, bul il

is

led to the proiift'Tation of

gcll{'Ta and spt rOOucethcirnumbcr.

[n this dictiOl\iuy the names currently in use in pri"a te and public collL'Ctions as well as in trade Cilla logu($ have been followed. More than 50 geneTtl and 296 species are illus tra ted a nd described in th alphabetical St.'Ction.

Genera lllus trilled

their habi t. The great

variablity wi th in thl;' family has

a nd any revision would considerably

possible 10 distinguish some

-'d~,

by

Alllillop;;is Sch "'anl~

 

ArKyrodenml N.E. Br.

AslritfiuDinter&Schwantes

[riospmnum End!.

 

AsptlZOll/tl N . E. Sr.

Sol

itilry or stoloniferous

plilnts

with globose,

tuberous

ikrxcrllJlt/IIl5SCh

mtcs

rools li nd with rl;'duO;'<i, ;,calt>-like !caws ilnd one o r m o re well-<levclopl-'dleaf.

Bii/jaN.E.nr.

GlmlllnlhusSchwantes

D

ISTlUIIl,m ON: sout hern Africil.

 

Ct'l1lmlophylllllllN,E. Sr.

C.·roclmllysN.E.IJr.

ON'iridojl<is~.E.Br.

COI/Oiollylium 5c"hw"ntes

COIlUloI'ylllwl\.E,Br.

CylillrlrujlllyllllwSchw.1ntt'S

Daclyl()P"'i~ N.E. IIr.

Orolos'~""IIN.E.Br.

DmlrrrmllmsSchwJntes Dmm/lilil1/5 Dinter & SchwJ nt('S Drm:DII/JII.'IImmSch",.lnles

E~'llm:ia Schwant~'S

[uargall/iI,·N.E.Br, FllllrariaSchw"ntes FtlJi"!ilmria N.E. Br. GiN"h,,,,, llaw.

GI.>lIiphyll,m, Haw.

HI7.-rrn lJint~r&Schwanks /onllllliillil H. H.1rtmallll, w/lJl'nm/lwsN.E.llr.

wJ!"larIllSchwant~'l>

LrJI>I1IdliaL.BoI.

ulllopsN.E.Br.

Machnmwilyllllml.lk>1.

Mnll·l'horaN.E.Br

M,-sloklfIlIllN.E.Br.

Milrr>I'hyllllmSchw,'nt~'S

MOlJllar;nSchwan l~'S

NlIllIIJllllmlllms l. BoJ.

Nllllld!inDinter&Schwant~'S

NdiaSchwilnles Nrolimlldn L. Bol. o.luIIIOI'hofllsN.E.Br.

OpIJlnlllw/lJ,ylluw D;ntcr& Schwilnles

PlfiOSI'JlosDinter&Sch",,,ntt'l>

I'vlylllllllL.lk>J.

RIIbi,-a 'I.E. Br. IVwmoo/1l'ylllllll Schw"nll'S

RIIsrhlllSchwanlt.~

RJI;;cllimlllm<LBoI.

ScrIl'IIIIIIIN.E.Br.

Schu'IIIIINIllDinter

SmirrosllglllnN.E. Br.

SlomalilllllSchw"ntcs Tflllqllllllll Hartmanu & Lit-de

1·"lIlIopsisSChwantl

Trich()r/illr/rmIlSchw.lnt('S

VOl/iI,·ml,'IIL. Bolo

SUCCULENT rAMI Ll ES AND GENUA

\1U1I \ C I: \1 : Lin k (1I1I :On U : UO\ S)

The MOT.lce,lc f,)mll}, rncludes about 50 geller., ilnd over

1,200 species which ar~'vcr)' dh'erse in habit, ranging from l'lTgc \1\ to !omall hcrb.I Ct.'Ous pl<lnls, usu<llly with milky latex. Flowers <lTeSIlI<llI ~nd. in most gencr~,arc wind pol-

"

linated. (FirJls nowrr's aI"(- polli n<ltl-

:l

by

inSl

'Cts.l

The

nowers <lTC };rouped in innoTl,,<\,~, with thickened

aXI$

forming;)n inv.'gin;)lcd TCCcpl,)cle. The most extreme form

is found in Fiw$: thl' f/uwcrs arl' 1"1C1U<llly insidc the fig.

of hundreds of fruits and

;)nd

the pulp we cat is romposl

""",

1

DISJ"RllIlJTIO"\I: tropic.11 nnd tem""rate Tl'gions.

Ge ner') IIlus tr,)led

OvrsttniaL.

A );enus of l()w-);rt>wing plan\'> with slender stems ;)nd luber-like rhi;~01l1es. Inllol"('SCCI1Ces nrcsolitilTY and may be regarded aSil fig inflOI"('l>«nce that is not enclosed (Fig. 6). DtSTRIBI,.:nO'l: tropiC"ilJ Afrka and Anll'rka.

Fig. 6 TIll" III('mba'; of liJ,' Momml(' fllmi!./f IIIII~'$IImli f/OU'l'rs III 1110<1 g,'lwra fiJ,,,,, arc !I'mli I~JI/mlllrd, alliJ,mgh IhOSt, of lit/'

Ficus IIrt 111$«1/>011111111(11 1111' f/ml\-rs tift SroJlIIt~11II mftorN-

crt/c"". u,jliJ liurk/,lIrd Q.ft'> [vrmill,l( QII illl'tlXillll/,'t1 n'Cfjltoclr.

Tile mo;;l erIn'''',' fimu i~ I<mlllllll Ficu s: lill' f/mwrs arc acllllll-

Iy ill<;dr till" f(r. IIl1d III(' 1'111" JI~'1"111 is formed by Iwudrrd~ of

frJllb IIlId ~I~. III Don.tenin /1/1' illf/UrtSCtllCl' Ifllly ~ rrgardl11 tI$ n'St'mblm.r. /itl' IIIf/O"~'-IIC" of II fig Ilml j< 1101 r'IIc/osed. Tile illll<lmlirJII i, btl<"d 011 III,' flml~'r<af Dorstcnia.

FicusL.

The trees or climbing vines within this go!nus con tain latex The leaves are simple, and the flowers are very small, with

up 10 several t housands enclosed in a single receptacle

Sesnmot/lIl/1rnrlsWelw.

A few species of spiny shrubs or small trees, with short

leafy shoots in Ihe axils of the Ihorns.

DISTRrlllffiON;· Angola, Bolswana. Ethiopia, Namibia and

DISTlI.ll:IUTlO:'>!: tropical and temperate regions.

Somalia.

UI/CI/filli/Stapf

OXAl.l Ilt\ C EAE IL Br . ( 1l ICOn ' L E UONS)

The small trees or herbs within Ihis f.1Il1ily have tubers and trifolia te leaves. The fruit is a capsuJe. DlSTRI6l1T10N; tropical and tempcrilte regions.

Ge nus Illustrated

Ora/isL.

A genus of stemless herbaceous plants with tuberous

usua lly

lowered at

when they achieve maturity, d ispersing the seeds over considerablcdistanccs. DISTRI6l1T10N: soulhern Africa and South America; some spedes are naturalized in Europe and have become pt'rni- ciousweeds.

roots.

nigh t. The flowers are yellow. Fruits exp lode

The

trifolia te,

long-stalked

leaves

arc

P

A SS I FL O II A CE A E J u ~s . ( 1)I CO n

/ L E UO NS)

Lianas, shrubs or trees

with

lobed

leilves arrilnged

in

spi

rals.

Genus Illus trated

Adl!llia Forsk.

A

genus of herbaceous climbers wit h tendrils. The species

of

interest 10 succulent enthusiasts have swollen roots.

DISI"RIBlITION: Africa to Asia.

P

A family of shrubs or herbs with opposi te, usually hairy,

leaves. The flowers are campanulale, and the fruit is a

capsule, often armed wi th spines or prickles. DISTRlBlITION: temperilte ilnd Wilrm regions.

Genera Illustrated

Prerodisclis H ook

A genus containing species of small herbaceous plants and

shrubs with succulent, swollen caudices and tuberous roots. The leaves, which have undulate margins, are vari- able in shape. Flowers arise from the leafaxils. DrSTI<l8unON: Angola, Nilmibia and South Africa.

E IM L! AC F. A F. IUk ( D I COTYLE D O NS)

A genus of nine species found in the dry to arid regions of

th M~d agascar. The flowers arc yellow or maroon to

pink.

DISffiJUlffioN: Madagascar.

sou

PIP E Ilt\ C E,\ E C. Ag llrtl h (1l ICOT \ ' LE UONS)

The Piperaceae family contains species ranging from

herbacrous plants to small trees. many of which a re aro- matic. The leaves ilrc simple, ilnd there arc small flowers. Pepper is obtained from Piper lIigrulII, a member of th is family. Dr5TRlBlffiOO: tropical regions.

Gen us Illustrated

Pel'erOlllil/Ruiz & Pav.

A genus of small succulent herbs with minute flowers

DISTRIButiON: tropical regions.

I' O B T U L ,\ C A CE AE J u ~~ . ( 1) I C UT YL E D U i"S)

This family contains more Ihan 20 genera and 400 species

of shrubs and herbaceous plants with succulent le,wes.

The leaves are entire and often bear long hai rs at their

base. The flowers are small, but they may be very showy

in some species. The family is widespread in tropical and

tempcrateregions.

Gene ra Illustrated

ArracampserosL

The genus contains dwar f pl,lIlts that have papery stipules

covering the small leaves or hair-like stipules among the succulent leaves. DISTRlBlJTION: Argentina (one species), Australia (one species), Namibia and South Africa.

eeraria Pearson & Stephens.

A genus of shrubs and branches with reduced leaves. The

inflorescence has from two to six small pi nk flowers.

DISTKrl:ll1TlON: Namibia and South Africa.

LewisillPursh

A group of low-growing plants with fleshy t~proots and

leaves arranged in rosettes. DISffiIBunON: west to north North America.

PvrtulllCilL.

Trailing herbs with opposit(' l('il\'es ilnd tufts of bristles in

the axils. The purple or yellow flowers open only in direct

sunshine

D1STRlSunON: tropical regions.

\'ITAC I':'\I~ Ju ss. ( 1JICOT\' U : DU i\' S)

A family contain in g ilbout 12. genera and 700 species

lianas with tendrils or small trees. Only two genera are of

of

interest to the succulent collector. Induded in this family is

the grapevine, Vilis vinifem.

PortlllllrnriaJacq.

DtSTRIIIUTIO:-J: widespread in tropi cal regions.

A genus uf plants with branches cuvered with succulent

Genera Illustrated

leaves. The sm,dl flowers are pink. D1STRlllunON: Muzambiq ue, Namibiil ilnd South Africil

CissusL.

Tali'lIIm Ad~ns. Plants with fleshy rools and annual, shrubby brandIes. The flowers have two-keeled sepals DIS1~lblffIO:-J: tropical regions.

IlU lIl ACEA E Ju ~s. (!)!{; UTl ' I.I ·: ])() "\'S )

A large family of trees, shrubs and lianas, although very

few genera Me of interest to succulent collectors. Coffell species (coffeeJ belong to this famil y

DISTRIBlffIO:-l: /\frica. ,\si

and Europe.

A gcnus of climbing pli\nts with

leaves. A few species hilve succulent TOOts and leaves

DISTRIBUTIO~: tropical and sub tropical [(.-gions

CypJrQstellllllll{Plnnch.) Alston

There nrc approximately 150 spt.·dl.>s of caudidform shrub.;

or trees within this genus. Thc lei\ves nre ~Iustercd (1\ th e apices of stems. Succulent species 1Th1y achieve huge dimensions. DISTRIBUTIO:-l' southern and eastern Africa and Madagascar.

tcndrils and oppositc

Genus Illustrated

WI·;I, WlT SI:lll ,\( :E,\E M;.rk)!.r. (' ;l'i\1 ,"\'()Sl'ElI ,\ IS)

MyrmcrodiilJack

A

monotypic family belonging to the Gymnosperms

A genus of woody shrubs with large tubers, which are

usually inhabited by ants in the wild. The tuber conta ins a

series of cavities, filled with dead plant materiaL TIle ants

remove the dead milteriill ilnd use th

There are several advantages to the plants for thi s symbi- osis, the main one being defence: the ants keep potentiill

predators away from the plilnts. Another advantage is the re-use of the carbon dioxid", produced by the respiration

of the ants.

DtSTRIBlfflO~: Indonesia and New Guinea

cavities ilS n

~ts.

STE Il CU

I.I M

~

E

,\

E

II nr l H !.

( ])I COTV LE!) O NS)

A family of trees and shrubs, but with no true succulent

plants. Some species are cultivated for their bonsai or cau- diciformaspect. DISTRIBUTIO~: tropical regions

Genus Illustrated

BmchychitOlr Schott ilnd End!.

A genus of trees with swollen trunks ~nd entire o r deeply

palmatelcilves. DISTRJBuno:-l: Australia and Papua New Guinea.

group, together with cycads and conifers. The pollen is

dispersed by the wind. D1STl!IIIl!T10": Angoli\ and Namibia

Wdwitschia Hook.f. A monotypic genus.

ILLUSTRATED A-Z OF SPECIES

Abrome;t;dl~ IQrentzi~n~ ( Mez ) A" C<ls./

~~:"~,"":,~'= ,':.:;:~~;:,,, -~"'~;~~;~~;'"

ArJ!"""'"

~,,~~,~~~~tl:,t~Engl

""

~t <.uJ~,. "1""""11 upw.nl. In.''

:::;:' ~;:~~I'7:~;,.~

M-.dd~ilJl~IN

"""'II"'

~,.;I),o')";

A"".-

y

~

1 m ,.11. ,."h Imdrils

flu"

""

,.,

H.ormo; A _I,

w

' Wt.

:"~~,~:~~!~~:~Sdtinz

L",):;~,i,~"L>,&""U<"I""'"

~~~;~S~~~~;~~~S~~~

~~:'2.='~'~;;I~)~.~~~II~

Bo""·.,""SuulhMri,.

(Tr

'·.l.ll)

Adcniakl'ramanthus

Ha rms

Ih

k(d"d~,IS-IO<mm

~~'";,O:;':;;:":,:~,,!:;:.~~;'"

roundPdk·.w

no"",,,,"

;yello"'i<h

An,",""ti,"bul""f",u";do""fo,~Adt-o, f""nd",,,,~·er.oJ,,,,II,, ~io,,,,

~~':,~;;:,;. 10-15= in di.,moh". "'ith

""".1 ~.fy ",oms; S"'''*''')''UOW

Adromischus alveoldlus Hutchison

~~j~b~~~~;o~\:,~~~;E,~~_S:;~,S~C~~Q"~~~J~~

Su"lhM'k.I(C~I"'P,,,\'\n,cJ

:l:~~~i:~~~,scooperi(B.lkcr) A. Berger

=;~rnn;::;:~7.~::;:'\:·;.;.7n!:';:h'runW. I,'.,,, ,m,bl.· In

,y""w""I'JI'c",,,,,',,' 1'"",lIn.;'" .""'''''''' l.'" ~m_:'" ".r""

Soorh Al r ko (Col"'l'rmir

-,,)

"."

U;r~w•• 1

Ad romischushcmi (W.F.BMkC'rjrOC'lln,

K""""ocklh

k;"""",,,·,h.ln7red·b,,,wn

l••,,

,,-h

h.,,·

,,,,,,,,J,.r'hw

~~~~~,:;,".,.; nod fL.,,, 01">. C,.",iJen:d I" b" • ~,,,n ,,{ JI. JI.""',,,,,,, .r. ollli

s"~lhAf

(C·f",rr"\i",,,"1

Adromischusroaneanu sUilcw,1al

Ewc"I"'dybranch'I\I\"""";;;""'!\""'n 1",,,,.,,,3,,,,, I""S "','h nu "'t'"",,"

w"ym.,king<; IIO\.,

,;i\h'~I\""'",;t"p;n.bl'"

5ou'hAffi.:~(C.I''-·Pro\·Ul'-d

Al'Onium arboreum var. atropurpureum (\V.A. Nicholson) A. Berger

EA~' •••,,,,.'olmh;g h

ilhdc.,

·n»<"l',

20< n,in d

m"cr:k.",.,,d.,k

~~lis h IS"""' in '''''IYI'''''p«"i''I; in fJon:.<c<o'''''lo)O<m~'lI.ycllo'''

C.""ry l,Lond•. M= :"" .u,.,li

-.:I(?)

n

i

,

IMoo; ' "

,

""•

., rou .,It;.,"S

Aeonium glJndulosum W('bb & Berth.

R<N

1leS

"ilh rhomboid.1 t

;::;;::mryrr,;

",lIolk'

"","S','''·c"o.J

by,.,r,

;""ydl"w 110

,""

t~e::J:~~::;.~~~tinosum (Aiton) A. BergeT

Lo"'shrub"'ilh"o.Jbr.,\CIl<"S.Ii);ht);"~ k,,,·<'S"ilhfi.,dy,iIi.I~ '''''I};

"""""hrood;,;h,lnl""'.in"l"

"""

~~:.,~cm tall; ~dlo,,'IOJ ",h'll' n"""",.

""'~ I.'<~nn;nd i.''''''" • • ';;nllo,.,,

:a~~~~:

~~:dlryiWclJb

& Berth.

H

"ph."T".1 bu,h I" :10,,,, l"~h. "'lh,

\hi" b'."d"~,,,,,,tj,,~ (" ,,,,,II

:'~r.1

""'-it.". k."

C.",,,,,·I.I~nd,

t Ii~ht!\""~. ,,,110,,"110,,"",,

AroniumsrdifoHumrit. &I'rou!.1

~. "J i~<mtuxh. """~t

ri_yd

lk

".J,ILoP~lm.J,
I

J2

Conu. 1,J

"ulll"''''''lu

T,""-"fll~,

''''~'''''-''''''''''''''Ie

·ith rod

:a:~~~~:~~:thulatuml'TJI'gCf

8r~nr","" "'

,

<m h'l\h

·lIh

gi"'-""'!Ji:'"'' wi)"'"n." (&"''Y 1• Lond•

""

U

,<n~

Io:.,',~ )"' .m 10.>0'II; w,th OJliLo·

L"w.""".wi,h L>.,!:~ ","",'~ ,,,50<m in diA_; Ie."

s,

n; brAnc hi ng

",/Io""""'''''''t"60<n \ h ;Sh;)'<II ,,wflu''·~rS.Th.''''''' tt .d,'''a fl " rn O\ wri ng .

,'"mMIa/'I

""m

1Io1l~;A. m<1<mI'l""" Webb

"'ryb"nd>IT~'''-·ri/~l c

Aeonium urbkurn Webb & Berth

A g ~\"e ~rneric~ l1 ~ va r . Illcdiopida Trcl.

~=~ ',;'g~~~~~I;.b,,'1,i:"~h~~~/hl":h~~k~:~~'b:'~7n"~~~;; .~, :J~ in

CalU ,y ld.lnd.(f

,,;f.)

~~:::c~:I~llIdnaGentry

Sk<>n

,.lNnmM

I""'

50--;0,", lonp

with brown m.lf~lI,".nd

tk.:!'!"'Th,t:;:~~~!f;::.~~~~°;.t~;~rt~~,:;:;,:~I\~~~t,l~:r~~o:~,kr

"""'t<-o; g""

~';::=~iI,,,og"''''A ms"""

I

~!.:::~~e:,din~"di ·rt'SiS A. Bc>rg('r

SmaIl",",-

rip<Sinlo,,,<'fpa''

\·.n n,I,,,,,,,J 0 ",m'"ym oi

".oir'>lk J"''o\'<"'''13<mlon~''·''hho,ny

. ,.,J bl.orl.l.~mi",,1 'I""" I" mm I n~ Inil""

,,,~ m ,.11;

fIoM''''' lin~<-.I w"h ,,-.I ,or 1"''1'10.0. ("",,,,'1 <on, ~k ",' ln" In b

,'.<!"'

.")<,,,••:

M",ku

CITESA f'l'li

~J:,V:CfEi!~eraSalm-Dyck

<;I,'ml,,,,, ",,;pll,,, '"f0 in di."n.~<.,.wi'h 1"<'1':11 ~h"o.s; num~I'O\" <hiny

K,,,,,nk."">lu25cm k",~

m.:Iq;iru.; inll"'""",,,", 103 m ",U;II"-"'I\ish-)",llow Ilo"w",

5~m

\d3cm w,J~ ",lh><h""I""".,,d fihf.ruu>

:;t:::""""Sohn·[)y<"k

~!.:::C"~:~'inif1 0 ra KerGawl

SI<-mI<So,brdnchinll""""<$ofm"""hanIOOk-.>,-".IOSOcml""l\ondSrnm w;d~ ,,"h4 mm long te""",.1 'p'ne,nJ fili~,mu '1:''''' inllon"",,,,,, to

4 m hiSh; Ilo",,,,,.sn

~~~::.:ngr"I""''''''En&'lm

,ni>h 1>.:low. Il".hc-.l will. ,oj .oo,.'c.

~t:,~:c~.~:.e5b",ghliic. Koch

S!emk""""rb 1(i~"""'Ul,>"',(hdJr~gn."I\,"'rung1yatn>NIo."",!040cm

~:::"nfl~oct'lOJm"II;I:""-'IU<h-bro"'n("purrh!ollno"

,.

Ag~,'e k~rwi"skii Zucco

 

Agave~leopoldii 110rt

St"""(o4mh'sh;,greo'lI,,,,"v""'toi'\)<mlongand4cmwid

,w,(hdArk

 

lIo,,"

tI""

ASOt"h>urlR_;AromJomt.Il.:IIu.'r

 

M"",("<>

:l

Aga\·emarmorat~R lI

51,·"'k'»f_""''',1",inJ.,n''-"I.·'

3(I('nI"" de •• b,'

>Pi",,2 '<m 1""1";"(1",,,",,,,,,,.· ,,, " '" ~'II.);"tJ,·n ,~II~" II"",·,

~:::'I!"WI!.'k,.r

•. Ih,'" ""'I):"" .• rm.'(! woth,,,,,,'(! 'r,,,,,,.md h·rrr.,,,,,1

,olmk'''.~.mdlo

'h_,o-;o \c'J'

~~:-":c~~~iEngelm.

-~, ~An<l ~1O('nI wid~: mf1on,scence 2-J m

Comp.!d

50-80<01 in d;"mct~r;11"-'1' '0 ligM II""'" IN,

1I:S""""

,.tOJO('nI

~·)Yllow Aow<"fS.

:r:::~~~~:~~~~~:;~:'~:~:11

Agave potatorum z ucc.

~:';~rd~hg~~pig=':::=~~~;~7:,~,,;~~r;:i~I"=jJe

"""",Uml.ll;lrghlgn

,.,Iuyt'llo,,·i>hnuw

eno.

=:rrrul<r.<uHook.f.' A .J<roIym~'KArw.

~~:::C~

~idigera

l£1lI.

S"IiI~ry rosct"" ,,·i(~ I\recn", )"llowish·!VN" ~~,.",,30--40 em kmgond 7 em

;:,t:n~u:':~.(C=':j~~b)~l~hl~~t.'~~~':JIP'Ji,&,~~;Fm~:

~;::lSapt'I~Drum'A.""'lrl.S.wal"'n

Agav~strkta S.,lm-Dy(k

Agavctriangularis /acobi

~~'~.';.":'~~,,~:.:?~~~,~'~;;;r~~~':~~~h.~~:~,~~~~~.~~,:::;~h

w;,.,,,,,,,i,,. 1,p'

~\o.».ironohu.Kln)

2<mkm!>';nfl",,""""'""2m'.II;l'4'dt"purrli'h 11m,,,,""

Agave utahensisvar.discretaM.E.Jones

Similo'Tolyl""perlesbu'";lh,ligh,diff,-"",,,,",inrol"UTandf05ol'!"'h.ol""'

il ;"Slilt /uurul i~

~:~~~T:':~h~V=~IC~~ .• y"""ym at A. "'ohtn

USA (Arizon.ll

Agav~ victoria~·regin~e x asp~rrima

:~ ~?::;~~:thencourtianurn Webb

~.:;;~~~:,,,,~:r:';:'il\~\~A:;~t;:':,~he<ffid;'\1Iin.m ,1I """""," Je

C''''>yl.l.ond.

Alluaudia dumosa Drnke

v

=ngbrnnche<.aoof

 

Modag"""c

CrThSApp . 11

Al()!'b~keri Scot I- E.11io l

Grwn Wio,

\.~.,

,,&-IOcm

;"""';nK.,.,j

\I>Ilg "'lIh ",hll, """l.Jn", _rOJ W,"I~ """T"",I.",,-

·;lhrtdd

l"n~

CrrESApp.D

Aloe brevifolia Mill

51

,

,.,

m><1"

S",n in dio""'l<>r "'jlh """"",1 olf,twx:.t. from "

,

forming

Aloe cili.uis Haw.

"~'I"ml";I<'.",",6cmlo"g.'nd2<:mwjd~.tb.'se"·j thl;ttl c",n j,.t,,,,",n;

j"~n",.w'mt.n;l"le!i<".'k1il<"\·.,,

I II

,

~·'"

Svulh M",.

11.'\01

(C>I"'I''''''i",d

CITFSi\pp.1I

SI

'

_·""""'mru,,_;',

r-""""Io'iO'm

n

\hd.>&O,

~yd

20"",,"~r"'N

,.,fkm·"'"

rtl',hurtt«lh;

CITE5i\I"P, II

~J~(~:~;ngsiiReynolds

=-,~cm"'::,'~"I:~,:r:~~~~~;'~';'.;~~~:";

~"'!::'.,

,.,j

'I

;'h".h~,.,""";;n~'~<m

,~

,

crn~"'rr·1I

Aloeeru A.Bcrger

~~~::tI~~';;;'m~.:c.::.~~~:tI~~~:'A';,=:~"'~lt:~:~~n::~';.

lII""oI'Y»i~;"'Il.ILo:r

I)!oop"

CITES App. II

Aloehumi1i sv ar. e ch inat~ (W illd-> Baker

"""" I k-rv.lietywilhfkshyspi""""" ~Pi'<"'5Urf.\«!of"'. '·""

1\I««h""". WillJ.; A 1.,""

.,1. fl ."

'iou,h Alricd (up<'l'rovlnul

CITESApp.l

"1(11' mdoughlinii (hn)tl.m

*mk~'''r.1",,, _"',n"",1 """"'~;):''''''I."., .""",4(lom Ion/\ ,.·lth

:"'n:':"';.;!"!.,.,;'

"'n

'\.'

'>dm

:"'

,

II."1h.lnllo""""n<t'lmh,Sh.

~

'f'"

CITESApp.1l

~~.~( ~:~]Oltii Reynolds

St''fI~20 25<mk>nl\.b

nchN1

~~7~:~",whi'"m

M

I;""'

,

~i"l;'.nd

from b.o

,,·h,le. c.ntl.lgi"""" ""''11,

,

k.,·",8-10cm km~.nd 7mm

1"-'<'Ih;

r,n~'"

CIT£SApp.1l

~~~c~::vu 1a A. Elcrgt'r

5rndllp"'nl> ~'I"ryo,fumoinss"",ng,,,,,,,,,,blu"'h·S"'Y.lhi<:k.nd Oe>hy

~~~Ocm \on~ amu-d

llh

AI"''''"'P'"'')'WiJN II.I'<"f1"icr

M.daga."",,'

eanil.l~inous.white. m.J'lIin.Jllccth. rrod".

CITES App. II

AlocrauhiiRcynolds

""""t",,10'm in di.lm•."k.,. fonningJo:n",,);f1><Op>-

~"'Y1\'('('" le"v",- someli" "ilh brownish IinSe.W<m lon~ 2 em "iokot

b

Sl<-m"",,<>T.h",f->temm

:t

,.

. ndM'm

ing"'""""

p"'nt.t.pt'X,.,.ithwh" ••JX>!".nd . m.,II

,.

ginal,pinn;influnx.'I'lCt."30<ml>oIl,,,,.rl<10,,,n.,

)o.1.>d.g.>S<df

un;sApp.II

Alocs.apo nanall,1"'.

"UA(~"

~,I~~er~~ drrosa Ihlker

<.mnJ

"

n

1"~.I,~I" ~M'" k"""~ 1~ 20"" long wah horn,.

·"'"

~lt.~.h",",,~.'Ik>

M"'''''h;.I'',~((""I''·I'r'''''''"·.'.,"'I).Z""rul,,,.·

St

ruo

"",,,,~,~

12-lb I.·.,·.~;I'>rm"nl,h"");""" I~A\,

lI>oUt

J.lT~ IPrown.

Thin<icnl'.2Ilcm ~m~"'llh k>."·'

'nl,

"!"OiS('II'":I\I

"'''SAnd

2cm ""I,·"·,,h'f"",.nd t."",I"",,1 <h."l' m"fJ;"

11,,·lh.

,nfkm'"

,,,,.

ClTESApl' II

Cm;s;.pp.lI

211 '"'" "'n~

""h nun"~'~I"f"~' .1n,j

5om.I1

rt"dd"h-\>n,wn m."~I,,",II.~1h; I"ln~n "~,,

{ 111~Arp II

~~:-c~~:nOS;'S; l11a I!orl.

~ hl"l>r>d. ~ ~",,,,'.,, ,1. om","''''''

l'-\lnn:''''''',lhho,n, ""''l'"",l 1"1h. ",.\I\):.""-.! [k,,, •.,,

"h

''''m' ow,. I m hlj;h; I.·ow,

OTESApr· 1I

All)(' striata subsp. kara sbergen sis Gll'n & 0 .5. Hardy

u,"-'-'''''''''I>i'",'u'I''''''i",-d;fi<'''''·''I''I~'.'\d loppo.-d """h~n."'n.

'.m'~Id.'>oulhAfr",.(C.f"·I''')\·'n«.'1

CfTESApp.11

Aloe I'era L.

~Id;':'~~~';::~~"::::"h:Ct~~';~~~~~~:I~_dn~.~ \,,"':.~":~~u~-

,-atronim,lSplumna<

ht.tp,op",h""

Ah-I»rb>.I."",

Gonaryt,land••

Mill.;A onol(1lRoyJe;A . l.o""","Tod.;A . •n./}<orisLlm

CaI"'Ve,J"J,t.nJ.;w,JclynatlJ'a h,O'd 'n'c.".,P<

~·n"Sliln.

CITESApp II

~!~~.:~r;!~~~:~~ :~~~~ L. BoJ.

ETect

1d""""lat<.gJ<Iucou's"-",nl"",v,",2<rnlongmvere.lWl,h",,,a

ll tubo>r-

~~""=,e;:,~~~::ts,Y dl ow n <> ,,rs2.5crni"d"''''d''r

South AlricatCA tv;lU.llJi.'nc,)

Aloinopsis orprnii (N .E.BdL.Bol

>>£"~.V~"''' '''~U-M

=~~~~~,~~~';'~'n ",0\"" 1S-20om 10"1\ wah Jdf~J"",.yellow

"""""'~""~J"''''L 8,,1. Swth AI",. ("J'o' J'r,w,,,,<,!

.1II

,Ir

",,,

,.,iLIJoI

SwlllAln,.,'C.'f"'" 1',,,,,,,,,,'1

Anacampserosalstonii Schonland

=~~~7n:I?;~.~::;~~~;~~:~;,::Vp-::r~ ~,~;~1ot;<:~f.':~,~~: l~~;'nd

~:~:f:!~~,t:~~::f;,·LloI.

)'do~·!I""""25cmrndi.1I""tcr

rd""L'''''~'I,,'''t"LBd

So<lh

tn<.

(C, p"I ·""·,

@)

~:~~:~~~~! crioit~ Oi nt~r

:;'~:~~i~:r!~':f5c;;';m~'~~"~f'jt~K~;i~~k~,f.~h\:::'~::'~

"'o",ibi./Suuth Af,ica (Nom"4uol.ondl

CITESApp_11

~:~~~~AS::~! papyr~cea E. Mey.

~~t;I:~~~!h;;~,r~"t:'~~o:~:,"~.~, Ion~.11<11 <m Ihkl-: I,,,m.

"'.mibia/~th Alrico IN

qu.l.nd).

South Arne

(K.]f"")

ClTESApp.1l

s

=" ~~;.

r;'S.

lelephiaslrum OC.

·~

V

I

1 <m longdnd !\mm wid

,

105cmh,!\h.,i>in~f"'mlhid.<:n

""

,

J

Soulh Alrico (Cop"Provioce)

,J1\>ct;8n

Wllh briSlly hoi

,nu,bru""ni,h , pink flower.;.

CITESApp. U

Argyrodenn~s(huldljiSchwantes

;;:::~~ pl.n",: l<"3vl 1_2 <m Iong.nd 'Inn wId., n",nd.-d • • "I"''' pink

"':S"'''~~l"''i';THl!d"n''E

5"ulh Afnr. (C'P" ['''''"'n<t")

54

~~~lj~!:~:~~;t~~~~ t~.

blN"""J"" Ioo~~rod 1.2",,_~,

:::::

"'~

tIoAf"

s.:

tC••,,·Pro

""d

uowno

-mJ.s<m'"

Bowil'~ volubi li5 I I.uv.

~~~~!~~~~~n~m.eum (Schlfr.) ~.E.Sr

~d: ,,:,r

'!-'ri=-.~

~~I:t:>=:~1:

'::"

South Afnca f l

"'.·

11

_5 lOem""',,-

Cmllum~lunlii i\'.E.Br.

~,u'r'AI'~~l~l

c

~,~. ~.•,.p.-d .kn\> IO-:!Ocm h,~h ",lI! f<'<l do,

nd

1Ioo<

,~.)"ftIow>!_

nd","""

bonT••

~byM.G.

conlr,l-n;

=y::V""''''''~~"'''

Car~Jlum~ IN'lraea

aI'TJnos 1

U

Fn.,,~ybran<~.·'''I!kd,

~~~~k~ft't:~~

:;ll P'AU

CI:<"Ih;

IN

ILc.d""""·Srftfl

no

d.<l:brownor

y.-I1noo

"'",,·,thbrown

dob.

s"udl".obio.Ymwn

Card llum~priogo nium

Schum.

"S("I.rr'ADAn

Drown

".2IJ

Wrmlon&

i'~4"""e.ng""bN""g

W'I'"

lon!loflo

1h;"'.'·"""'~mm

purp"'

II~

~':::~::'"rI.ol.Chic,

EIIuop K.:to,~,s

T.",

nl

wli.o,

Cu~l1um~ socotr~n~

(8.llf.f.)N.E.Br.

F"",,,ylmlnch'ng.~·.ngIed.

=~~"::~~I:;:=

"h,d.,kr.-dno

'"-

C."'II~_,.".,."It""N, E. Ik"

C.n'

("hKlV

~Ihk>ri•. Kony.,Somalia

So ut~ v,,""'" (So<<>I")

~:~~A~~:!~~gmiftr. C Fi sch

"""" ,"'~

Carru.nthus ~Bii L B()1.

""'''IIIYA'llll''''UA(

SI>c>n.br;uw;"'-"oI •.".,." ""~<,,,Iurqi;."""'"""""""'·ud••F"""""""

,_ h Oll

IlI'M,'

s

lhAfriuK."

""'·o w.n,

Pr"'"ntt)

~:~,~;,I:~hj,~I,~~:~~~~~leL. Bol

<>w-;:.ro"",~rl,,,,

I

.ro

"""'·"'I~"";pu'1'l

"'Ihcl<m);ollod b"'ncb,-,>; l"'vn7_IO<m 1""Il.nd ~ mm plnk

fIo"·~,,

5ou'h,\i'~.IC,po.·I'''''i''''')

Ccmchlamys pachyphyllal. BoI

Mo,;sl"."'.\Nntl"AllA'

St

So.,tbAtnco{Opo"l'm,'inno)

-mIt'S>,<1ump-lllmllng

I~

,

bCm lung in 2I'<'i,

purpl,-.w nO'WD.

"

~::r~ir~~~:Ir:~ndiiR~nh

F.JW1 or rm''',lle S""'" "','m' m_l~cm lonj;.nd 2 em Ih,ck, ",lh blMx_,poI>;