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CHAPTER THREE

CONCEPT OF
CONSUMPTION IN ISLAM
CONCEPT OF
CONSUMPTION IN ISLAM
• THE ATTITUDE OF MUSLIM MAN AS
CONSUMER
• PRINCIPLES OF CONSUMPTION
• CONCEPT OF PRODUCT
• DEVELOPING CONSUMER DEMAND
PATTERN
• DEVELOPING EXPENSES (WORLD
AND HEREAFTER)
DEFINITION
• Consumers are people who have a
variety of requirements to be met so
that they get satisfaction.
• Islamic consumers are special, different
from other users of the terms of the will,
the type and quantity of goods to be
used and the goal of its use so that its
use gives blessings in the world and
well-being in the hereafter.
The Attitude of Muslim Man
as Consumer
How, why and where should a Muslim man
spend his money? How should he behave as a
Muslim man?
As we know, there are four possibilities in
economic life:
 (a) A man spends at first for his consumption to
satisfy his needs,
 (b) If his income is excess of his needs, he makes
saving
 (c) He may hoard his savings as gold, silver and as
other jewelleries, or
 (d) He may invest his saving into production, either
having a new establishment or joining a company,
etc.
Basic Islamic principles related
to the consumption

Muslim man should refrain himself from


Consumption in Islam is limited by spending his income for luxurious and
ethical legitimacy. visible consumption and making a
demonstration.

He is not permitted to be prodigal and


He should also limit the level of he is not supposed to borrow unless it
consumption by quantity, refraining is necessary. He should behave
himself from wasteful attitudes economically and regulate his
consumption according to his income.
Economic Rationalism
rationality assumes that the
consumers will aim at the maximization of
their ‘satisfaction’.
Economic agents are assumed to be
rational when the people are able to order
their wants from most preferred to least
preferred and are able to act consistently.
A consumer is considered rational when he
spends his income to maximise both
material as well as spiritual utility or
satisfaction.
Rationalism
A rational Islamic behaviour would
lead the individual to settle
Anas somewhere between the sufficiency
threshold and the prodigality
Zarqa frontier, based on three level
hierarchy of consumption , i.e.
Dharurah, Hajah, and Kamalah.

The rational Islamic individual as an


individual who would order his
Siddiqi behaviour with a view to achieving
maximal conformity with the Islamic
norms.
Rationalism
He has replaced economic rationality
with the Islamic rationalism which is
Monzer consistent with Islamic values. He outline
the basic elements of Islamic rationalism
Kahf are the concept of success, the time
scale of consumer behavior and the
concept of wealth.

In the Islamic economic system, a


Muslim consumer has to be rational in all
Fahim his spending. Rationality requires that
the spending behaviour of a Muslim
Khan consumer conforms to the teachings of
Islam. A consumer is rational only if he
spends in moderation.
Islamic rationalism has following effects.
a) Demand for unlawful goods & services will
be zero
b) Demand for luxury goods will be limited
c) Due equitable distribution of wealth the
demand for comforts goods will increase
d) The decline in the demand of luxury goods
will release funds which can be spent on
welfare of people, such as education,
health, roads, parks etc.
PRINCIPLES OF CONSUMPTION

According to Kahf
Concept of success

Time scale of consumer behaviour

Concept of wealth
The concept of success in Islam
• From the point of view of Islam, success does not lie in
amassing the wealth, but in achieving the favor of Allah.
• So Muslim consumer uses his income in two ways.
1 Spending for his personal needs
2 Spending in the way of Allah
And (these) are the people who are neither extravagant nor
miserly when they spend. And their spending is (based on) a
balance between the two extremes (of extravagance and
miserliness). [ Al-Furqan 25; 67]
The concept of life hereafter
• In concept of life hereafter
The utility has two aspects; WORLDLY & ETERNAL, this
can be shown in the following equation
U= U1+U2
where U = total utility,
U1= Worldly utility
U2= Eternal utility
The concept of wealth in Islam
• The concept of wealth in Islam is quite different from the
concept of wealth in capitalism.
• In Islamic perspective the consumer is a trustee of the
wealth given to him by Allah. So he is bound to spend it
according to the laws promulgated by Him.
• Believe in Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon
him) and spend (in His cause) out of that (wealth) in which He
has made you His vicegerents (and trustees). So those of you who
believe and spend (in His Way) for them is mighty reward. [ Al-
Hadeed 57 ; 7]
PRINCIPLES OF CONSUMPTION

Principles of righteousness
Principles of cleanliness
Principle of moderation
Principle of beneficence
Principle of morality
CONCEPT OF PRODUCT
• The Islamic Concept of Goods
– Two terms used in the Qur’an for concept of goods
are (1) al-tayyibat and (2) al-rizq.

Al-rizq
Al-tayyibat

• ‘good things’, • ‘Godly


‘good and pure sustenance’,
things’, ‘clean ‘Divine bestowal’,
and pure things’, ‘Godly provision’,
‘good and and ‘heavenly
wholesome gifts’.
things’ and
‘sustenance of
the best’.
Priority of consumption
Mannan
classifies
priority of
consumption
necessities
under three
headings:

comforts

luxuries
Priority of consumption
Afzal Ur
Rahman
classifies necessaries of life
under four
headings
necessaries of efficiency

comforts

luxuries
Priority of consumption
Sadeq
classifies survival necessities
under five
headings:
basic needs
headings

comforts

luxuries

harmful items
Conclusion for priority of
consumption
Necessaries of life: those wants which are absolutely
necessary for human life and without which man cannot
survive, for example food, clothing and shelter.

Necessities usually include all thing required to meet


wants which must be satisfied. For example house, basic
clothing, medicare and so on.

Necessaries of efficiency: the necessaries which are not


essential like food, clothing and shelter but are necessary
for increasing the efficiency of work are called necessaries
of efficiency.
Conclusion for priority of
consumption
Comforts: comforts include things which are neither necessaries of life
nor necessaries of efficiency but provide comfort and convenience to
man. Their consumption makes life of man easier and comfortable. A
proper bed to sleep on instead of sleeping on the floor.

Luxuries: excess in personal gratification or excessive expenditure on


unnecessary and superfluous wants is called luxury. The cost of
luxuries is usually more than the benefit one derives from their
enjoyment, for example, costly dress, big expensive car, a bungalow
house with swimming pool, utensils of gold and silver etc.

Harmful items: refer to those which are


harmful for mankind. For example, pork,
alcoholic beverages, prostitution and so on.
Ethics of consumption
Overconsumption, which is a characteristic of the
Godless society, is condemned in Islam and is
termed israf (extravagance) or tabthir (profligacy).

Tabthir/ Profligacy
means spending in the Israf/ Extravagance
wrong way, e.g. on means overspending
prohibited activities on lawful matters such
such as a bribery, on as a food, clothes,
illegal things, or in a shelter or even charity.
reckless manner.
Developing Consumer Demand
Pattern
The demand for alcoholic drinks and other prohibited
goods and services would fall to zero.
• Hard drinks and pork
• The institution or practice of prostitution,
professional dancing and all immoral
entertainments
• The use of gold and pure silk is prohibited for men
Developing Consumer
Demand Pattern
The trend of the luxury goods to multiple would be checked and
their demand as a whole would decrease, certain luxury goods
may even go out of demand.
• If the general standard is very low, it would be sufficient to
make the consumption of certain luxuries morally
reprehensible.
• Besides this fact, false luxuries which contribute nothing
to our efficiency or well-being are discouraged, whatever
the social standard.
Developing Consumer
Demand Pattern
The demand for necessaries and some of the
comforts would increase other things being same
due to the more equitable distribution of wealth and
income.
The redistributive function of zakah and ‘ushr,
supplemented by the declared policy of the Islamic
state to see that every individual is supplied with the
primary needs of life, are sufficient to effect this
change.
Developing Consumer
Demand Pattern
Social needs e.g. defence ,
education etc. would be reflected in
the demand in the form of a
decrease in the demand of luxuries
and an increase in the demand for
services and goods associated with
these social needs.

The demand for cultural services


and leisure would increase,
adversely affecting the demand
for material comfort and luxuries
of life.
Characteristics of Islamic
Consumption
Type of goods
• The goods use is legitimate goods and allowed in
syarak.
Qardhawi define the legitimate is:
1. Object that is not illegal and not like pork
and alcohol.
2. Sources is not illegal and not as usury,
gambling and corruption.
3. Container and place which is not illegal
and is not such as container affected by
impurities.
4. The way of preparation is proper
cleaning methods and halal ingredients
in its preparation.
Characteristics of Islamic
Consumption
The way of consumption
• No violations of legislation. For example lamb is
halal animals but if they are not slaughtered, the
meat is not halal to eat.
• Not contrary with the custom. For example, the car
as a vehicle for transportation purposes. If the car is
purchased to be used as a store of goods that
would have violated customs or habits.
• Not abused. For example, chicken meat to be
eaten. When the supply is surplus and is feared the
price will decrease, it would be destroyed.
Characteristics of Islamic
Consumption
Quantity of consumption
• Islam encourages to moderation in the quantity
of consumption. Basic principle for the quantity
of consumption is no wastage and avoid it.
• Three stage to reduce of consumption:
– Just need: This is the stage of Sidiqin
– Half a cup a day, or enough to fill one third of
the stomach.
– A quart of a day
Analysis of demand pattern
• In Islam, satisfaction does not refer only to material
but must be refer to spiritual too.
• According to Siddiqui, rational behaviour does not
assume any specific norms or goals. It does
assume that there are some norms or goals.
• A rational Islamic individual would order his
behaviour with a view to achieving maximal
conformity with the Islamic norms.
 The demand for alcoholic drinks and other
prohibited goods and services would fall to zero.
Analysis of demand pattern
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Zero Reward
• This corresponds to line segment C1C5.
• He is consuming legitimate (halal) things but has
no conscious intentions regarding his
consumption.
• But if he exceeds C5, he will be committing a
specific and punishable violation (prodigality).
• For consumers who can afford, God fearing is a
measure to consumer behavior. This caused
consumer devotion will not skip level C3, but it will
spend to the way of Allah SWT.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Great Reward
• This corresponds to line segment R1R7. To attain
this level, one need not give up consumption, but
he must consciously abdicate his will to God.
• If his income is low and he is a devoted Muslim,
he will spend his income on dharuriyah and
hajiyah goods only as indicated by C1, C2 and
C3. Doing so he will get a great reward R1
provided that his consumption intention is right
and his income is from halal sources.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Great Reward
• If he rich he can buy kamaliyah goods and
services. Being a devoted Muslim, he will try to
minimize the consumption of kamaliyah goods
to C4 only even though he can afford C5. Doing
so he will also receive great rewards R1
assuming his intention is right that is to fulfill his
submission to Allah SWT and his income is also
halal.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Great Reward
• Partial between consume and sacrifice shown
by curve T1T1 and T2T2. At T2T2, curve for
example, when the consumption at Cx, then the
reward received by the consumer at OR.
Otherwise, if the consumer is to decrease the
consumption from Cx to C4 and increase the
spending of Allah ways, reward will be received
is ON.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Severe Punishment
• This corresponds to line segment P1P7.
• They refuse to submit their will to God. They may
happen to be consuming halal things anyway. But
they are not doing so because God permits such
things, nor would they mind consuming what they
like, even if it were haram.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Severe Punishment
• A Muslim consumer can also be punished as a
result of this worldly consumption of C5 of kamaliah
goods.
• He will also receive severe punishment if he is
ungrateful to Allah SWT.
• consumption of forbidden things;
• neglecting the needy or helpless members of the
society in general, and one’s own relatives in
particular. Such lack of concern is punishable even if
shown to needy animals, as indicated by several
traditions of the Prophet (SAW); and,
• refusal to share some of one’s consumption with
others to the extent required by Islam.
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Severe Punishment
• For consumers who can afford it, but deliberately
annoy their life without fulfill their necessity for
being too stingy or because lazy to find the
necessities of life, then it gets threat sin. This
sinful act is shown by curve C3F1.
• As well as for overspending consumption, it will
be threatened the severe punishment and
wasteful act is equated with status Satan friends.
The curve for the severe punishment is in C5F3..
LEVEL OF REWARD
• Severe Punishment
• For luxury goods, although basically permitted,
but if the general standard is very low then its
use is reprehensible or rather wasteful (look the
curve C4F4 and CxF4).
• The consumption to be a great sin even if his
intentions for prestige purposes the boastful and
shows off (ripple). Because of the ripple-is false
worship, the predicted sin greater than wasteful
and stingy. This sin is shown by curve C3F2
•.
Developing expenses
(world-hereafter)
Therefore, on the expenses world and hereafter, B1
being "spending to achieve satisfaction in this world"
and B2 being "spending for others with a view to
earn reward in the hereafter."
To Muslim, they are should paying Zakah and
charity, they are obligations only on those who can
afford. Allah asks haves to share wealth with have-
nots, but does not make it obligatory to earn more
and more one does not have to become rich or
Zakah payer to earn a reward in the hereafter.
Allocation of expenditure towards B1 and B2
should be to Muslim because it is imposed
zakat. With the rate of zakat 2.5 percent, the
consumer in equilibrium, for example at the
point Z and the people which is more piety,
allocation of expenses will be point left from Z,
example Y. For the people which is less piety,
allocation of expenses will be point right from
Z, resemble expenses only for worldly.
The final spending decision
Zakat influences both its payer and its recipient.
The effects of zakat on the zakah payer are as
follows:
1. The payment of zakat entices the payer to raise the
saving ratio at each level of income. Since zakah is
imposed on accumulated net worth and not only on
income, the wealth owner-consumer must increase
his saving ratio in order to prevent the level of his
wealth from decreasing.
2. Zakah penalizes idle wealth, whether this is held in
terms of ‘waiting’ means of production. This effect
tightens the relationship between saving decisions
and investment and brings these two decisions
closer to each other as far as the time span
between them is concerned.
Developing expenses (world-
hereafter)
The effect of zakah on the income allocation
decision of zakah recipients is to increase their
disposable income, hence, increasing both
saving and final spending together. However,
when the expenses is high, the saving is
become low.
In the economic without interest, the budget line
YY has a slope of 1. In the rate of interest is
positive, the slope of budget line YY’ must be
more than one (absolute value). The point C
measures the level of final spending when
current money income is equal to the distance
OY and the rate of interest is zero; whereas,
point C” measures final spending for the same
level of current income but for a positive rate of
interest.
In Islamic economics, the rate of interest
should zero, and imposed to pay zakah at
the rate of 2.5 percent. The combined effect
of the prohibition of riba and imposition of
zakah is to shift the final spending function.
The effect of zakah at the rate 2.5 percent
will decrease the slope of budget line YY”
and the positive effect to increase the final
spending to C”.