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Rebecca French1 , Sylvain Gigan2 , and Otto L. Muskens1,*

1

Faculty of Physical and Applied Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

2

Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS-PSL Research University,CNRS, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, Collège de France, 24 rue

Lhomond, 75005 Paris, France

*

Corresponding author: O.Muskens@soton.ac.uk

arXiv:1705.02991v1 [physics.optics] 8 May 2017

Encoding of spectral information onto monochrome imaging cameras is of interest for wavelength multiplexing

and hyperspectral imaging applications. Here, the complex spatio-spectral response of a disordered material is

used to demonstrate retrieval of a number of discrete wavelengths over a wide spectral range. Strong, diffuse

light scattering in a semiconductor nanowire mat is used to achieve a highly compact spectrometer of micrometer

thickness, transforming different wavelengths into distinct speckle patterns with nanometer sensitivity. Spatial

multiplexing is achieved through the use of a microlens array, allowing simultaneous imaging of many speckles,

ultimately limited by the size of the diffuse spot area. The performance of different information retrieval algorithms

is compared. A compressive sensing algorithm exhibits efficient reconstruction capability in noisy environments

and with only a few measurements.

© 2017 Optical Society of America. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction

and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modifications of the content

of this paper are prohibited.

With the advancement of modern camera technology, sacri- tiple scattering could be combined with compressive sensing

ficing spatial resolution to obtain additional functionality is (CS) to enable more efficient imaging and spectroscopy [8, 9].

an attractive way to extract more information from a single In the spectral domain, it is well known that the output inten-

exposure. In particular, the incorporation of wavelength in- sity pattern, or speckle of light, after traveling through a mul-

formation into a spatial image is of interest as it enables the tiple scattering medium is frequency-dependent [10, 11, 12].

measurement of multispectral datasets. Several solutions have A transmission matrix approach can be used to store the dif-

been demonstrated based on spectral encoding using diffrac- ferent spectral fingerprints for a desired frequency range in

tive or refractive elements [1, 2, 3]. While impressive results order to characterize arbitrary wavelengths [13, 14, 15]. A

have been achieved, the trade-off between the accessible spec- compact spectrometer has been demonstrated by character-

tral range and the resolution in such linearly dispersive sys- izing the frequency channels of a multimode fiber, where the

tems poses limitations on their performance in specific appli- spectrometer resolution is dependent on the length of the fiber

cations. Especially in cases where intensity is concentrated [16, 17]. Other recent examples of speckle-based spectrom-

in a few narrow spectral features over a wide spectral range, eters have utilized the memory-effect, principal-component

conventional dispersive techniques will not make optimal use analysis of spectral intensity patterns, or a disordered pho-

of the available pixel space. Alternative methods of mapping tonic crystal to achieve a compact spectrometer [18, 19, 20].

spectral content in a way that distributes energy more equally

Here, we demonstrate a highly multiplexed transmission

over all available pixels are of interest, as these can exploit the

matrix-based spectrometer to achieve a hyperspectral imag-

full dynamic range of the imaging system. A recent example

ing system. A 1.7 µm thin layer of strongly scattering gallium

showed that diffraction from deterministically designed struc-

phosphide nanowires is used to provide a uniform, highly-

tures can be used to obtain multispectral images [4].

dispersive scattering medium of only a few micrometers in

In recent years, the utilization of multiple scattering in imag- thickness. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image

ing and sensing has seen an increase in interest. The emer- of the cross-section through the nanowire mat is shown in

gence of wavefront shaping and transmission matrix tech- Figure 1. The nanowires were grown using metal-organic

niques has raised the awareness that random multiple scatter- vapor phase epitaxy described in detail elsewhere [21, 22].

ing can provide powerful tools for manipulating information This method allows fabrication of highly uniform layers over

in the spatial domain. These techniques have enabled the fo- wafer-scale size. Multiple scattering in the nanowire mat re-

cusing of light and transmission of images through multiple sults in a transport mean free path of ` = 300 nm, yield-

scattering media [5, 6, 7]. It has also been suggested that mul- ing a transmission T ' `/L of around 17%. The spec-

N sources (produced Transmission matrix 200

1

Intensity

using a microlens array) measurement

(norm.)

400

600

200

800

1000

0.5

400

200 1200

600

400 1400

0

800

600 1600

N

1000

800

1200

1000

.

Input

...

1400

1200

1000 1600

laser source

1200

1400

1600

3 Speckle

1400

1600

2

3

1 position

2

1 index

Letter-shaped Wavelength

aperture Spectral & spatial recovery

Retrieval Amplitude

0.8

N

0.4

Multiple scattering

medium 0

1 µm Array of speckle patterns 620 640 660

Wavelength (nm)

Figure 1: Scheme of speckle-based hyperspectral camera. A microlens array separates the input light into a grid of N sources.

The light travels through the multiple scattering medium (SEM in inset) producing an array of speckle patterns which are

imaged onto a camera. Mapping the spectral patterns at each spatial position using a tunable source results in the STM.

Reconstruction of a letter: An input beam in the shape of an ‘H’ is sent through the imaging system and forms an intensity

pattern. The pre-calibrated STM is used to reconstruct an image of the original incoming beam and extract its corresponding

wavelength.

tral correlation width is given by the inverse Thouless time The wavelength-dependent spectral intensity transmission

−1

τD = D/L2 = 4.8 THz (corresponding to 7 nm at 650 nm matrix (STM) for each position is obtained by selecting the

wavelength), where D = 14±1 m2 /s is the measured diffusion same square area of interest (AOI) from each speckle pattern

constant of light inside the nanowire mat [23]. The nanowire for wavelengths in the range of 610 nm to 670 nm, with sep-

mat contains around 100 independent transmission channels aration of 1 nm. For each spatial coordinate, the 2D speckle

within the illumination area [23]. This number is sufficient images are reshaped into column vectors to create a STM.

to encode spectral information but is also small enough to As illustrated in Figure 1, the stack of STMs can be used to

yield good stability. Furthermore, the thin medium allows a reconstruct full spatial and spectral information for a given

potentially high spatial resolution as the diffuse spreading of image, where each spatial position becomes one “pixel” in

the spots is small. our reconstruction. The measured STM remains stable for

Figure 1 shows the experimental design for the characteriza- periods of up to an hour, mainly limited by the optical setup.

tion of spectrally- and spatially-dependent speckle patterns. The retrieval of spectral information using the STM can be

Light from a white light supercontinuum laser (Fianium, SC- treated as a linear problem y = T x, where x is an input in the

400-2) is spectrally filtered using a monochromator consisting system, y is the resulting output signal, and T is the STM.

of a 600 lines/mm grating and a 10 µm single-mode optical Knowledge of the STM allows us to rearrange this equation

fiber, resulting in a tunable source with spectral resolution of to find the original input, and hence to determine the spatial

0.5 nm and several mW average power. The collimated light and spectral information of the original input signal. Several

from the single-mode fiber is used as an illumination source mathematical inversion techniques can be used. The method

for imaging. The objects in this study are aperture masks of of Tikhonov regularization (TR) is able to account for the

around 1.5 mm in size. After transmission through the ob- experimental noise by suppressing divergences in the singular

ject, the light is focused onto the scattering medium by using values below a critical noise parameter [6, 24]. TR requires

a microlens array with a pitch of 300 µm, producing a grid careful adaptation of the noise level and in practice works

of around N = 100 input spatial positions. Each microlens best for a large AOI, as will be shown below. Figure 1 shows

produces a diffraction-limited spot of 10 µm. a reconstruction of the letter ’H’ for a single-wavelength input.

Intensity patterns produced by multiple scattering at the exit Here, the individual coordinates of the microlens array were

plane of the scattering medium are imaged onto the camera converted to a bitmap image with grayscale representing the

using a 1:1 imaging system consisting of a pair of 3 cm focal retrieval amplitude at the chosen wavelength of 661 nm.

length lenses. The detection camera (AVT Guppy) is a 12- An alternative method of determining the original input in a

bit, 5 MPixel monochrome CMOS array of 2.4 µm pixel size. system is to employ CS in our computational reconstruction;

The imaging magnification was chosen to yield a speckle size more specifically, using l1 -minimization. Candes, Romberg,

close to the size of the camera pixels, thus optimizing the in- Tao, and Donoho established that a sparse signal can be com-

formation density. While in future applications the nanowires pletely reconstructed in a number of measurements less than

could, with appropriate spacers, be positioned directly onto the Nyquist-Shannon limit [25, 26]. It was suggested that a

the sensor surface itself, the current configuration offers some multiple scattering medium with natural randomness could

flexibility for placing additional components. A linear polar- be employed in a CS device [8]. In our CS reconstruction we

izer was used to increase the speckle contrast. used CVX, a package for specifying and solving convex pro-

(a) 670 (c) 0.9 Nyquist-Shannon (e) 1

0.6 0.8 Sampling Limit 0.9 TR

Wavelength (nm)

CS

660

Intensity (norm.)

Reconstructed

0.5 0.7 0.8

Correlation

Correlation

650 0.4 0.6 0.7

0.3 0.5 0.6

640 0.4

630 0.2 0.3 0.5 Speckle AOI

875

880

885

0.1 0.2 0. 4

890

895

900

620 0 0.1

TR

0.3

905

910

CS 915

920

610 620 630 640 650 660 670 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Known wavelength (nm) Y/X No. of wavelengths

(b) 670 (d) 1 (f ) 0.9

0.6 0.9 0.8 TR

875

Speckle AOI

Wavelength (nm)

TR 880

660

885

0.7 CS

Intensity (norm.)

Reconstructed

890

0.8 CS 895

Correlation

0.5

Correlation

900

910

915

0.6

640 0.4

0.3 0.5 0.3

630 0.2 0.4 0.2

0.3 0.1

620 0.1 0.2 0

610 0.1 -0.1

610 620 630 640 650 660 670 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Known wavelength (nm) % noise No. of wavelengths

Figure 2: (a,b) A comparison between the known input wavelengths and reconstructed wavelengths using TR and CS,

respectively. (c-f) Cross-correlations between known wavelengths and an experimental reconstruction: (c) as the ratio

between the number of measurements (or AOI size) Y and number of wavelengths in data set X is varied, averaged over

many spatial positions; (d) with increasing noise using different computational methods (Y /X = 25), averaged over many

spatial positions; (e,f) with an increasing number of discrete wavelengths recovered from one spatial position, using 2 different

measurement sizes: above (Y /X = 7) and below (Y /X = 0.8) the Nyquist-Shannon limit, respectively. Data from (c,e,f)

were correlated between two subsequent datasets.

grams [27]. Figures 2 (a) and (b) show the reconstruction of the two experimental datasets for a STM measured above and

a broad range of wavelengths to compare TR and CS. While below the Nyquist-Shannon limit, respectively. Using a large

both methods are able to accurately reconstruct wavelengths, number of measurements (large AOI) allows a reconstruction

CS is able to minimize reconstruction noise while TR pro- of up to 10 wavelengths using CS, assuming a correlation of

duces many small values fluctuating around zero. The width 0.5 or more. In both cases, CS outperforms the TR method.

of the diagonal on both graphs defines the correlation between The CS sparsity condition dictates that the method is less

speckles of neighboring wavelengths. The reconstruction am- advantageous for a large number of wavelengths, and so it

plitudes are slightly higher toward longer wavelengths due to appears that TR surpasses CS above 14 wavelengths for a

an increase in available laser intensity and correspondingly large AOI. All of these measurements provide evidence that

better signal-to-noise. a CS technique can dramatically reduce the amount of data

Figures 2 (c-f) show computational experiments in which all required to fully reconstruct a signal.

the resulting reconstructions were cross-correlated with the Next, we compare the methods of TR and CS in an experi-

original input. Figure 2 (c) shows the reconstruction quality mental spectral image reconstruction situation with multiple

between two different experimental datasets whilst varying objects at different wavelengths, as illustrated in Figure 3 (a).

the ratio of the number of available speckles, Y , to the number Speckle images of the letter-shaped apertures taken at differ-

of independent wavelengths, X. As the AOI size is reduced ent wavelengths are superimposed numerically to produce a

from overdetermined (Y /X > 1) to underdetermined (Y /X < hyperspectral dataset as shown in Figure 3 (b). To the human

1), the fidelity of the results produced by the TR method is eye, the resulting monochromatic image does not appear to be

seen to decrease. In comparison, CS performs consistently made up of different shapes or wavelengths of light. Using the

well even for underdetermined systems. methods above, we reconstruct spectral information at each

In Figure 2 (d) the same dataset was used both for the recon- spatial coordinate in the image, yielding the results shown in

struction and the correlation, however a percentage of artifi- Figures 3 (c) and (d). The illustrated reconstruction was done

cial randomly-generated exponential noise was added to the using Y /X = 25, therefore both the TR and CS methods are

measured speckle pattern to investigate the effect of noise on appropriate methods to distinguish between frequencies and

the reconstruction. CS shows improved performance, even un- spatial coordinates in our imaging system. While both exhibit

der noisy experimental conditions, when compared with TR a high fidelity in terms of spectral and spatial reconstruction,

despite being optimized to account for the increase in noise. it is clear that CS produces relatively low computational re-

To investigate the ability of our system to reconstruct a full construction noise when compared with TR. CS assumes that

spectrum, CS and TR were both used to recover an increasing our input spectrum is sparse and, therefore, once peak values

number of wavelengths, with uniform separation of the order are determined, all others are assumed to be zero. This means

of the spectral correlation bandwidth of the system, in one ac- that instead of our signal being degraded by computational

quisition. Figures 2 (e) and (f) show the correlation between noise, as in the TR method, we observe a clearly defined spec-

(a) (c) based technique is clearly limited in spectral and spatial res-

HH

C+E+H+J = H

C

EJ

Retrieval Amplitude

0.2 Pixel A - TR HH

olution. Ultimately, the transmission-matrix approach will

EE

(b) 4 JPixel A - CS

J

break down by the self-averaging properties of speckles. The

C

Pixel B - TR

C

contrast of the speckle pattern is reduced proportional to the

pixel number

800 3 Pixel B - CS

Pixel B 0.1

square root of the number of discrete spectral components.

Camera

1200 2

Pixel A The successful reconstruction of up to 10 wavelengths in this

1 0 study using CS techniques demonstrates that there is a win-

1600

0 dow of opportunity for these techniques to be viable. The

600 1000 1400 1800 630 640 650 660 670 reconstruction is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the

Camera pixel number Wavelength (nm)

(d) 0.3 0.2

imaging system and the available photon budget, and faithful

2 2 0.2 2

2 0.1 reconstruction of broadband signals with high spectral resolu-

0.2 4 4

4 0.1 46

Pixel number

0.1 6

TR

6 0.1 6 tion has already been demonstrated for the case of multimode

8

0

8 0

8

0 8 0 fiber systems [17]. Application of this technique to narrow-

2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6

0.2 0.2 band features such as found in Raman spectroscopy remains

2 2 2 2

0.1 challenging but appears within the range of possibilities. Per-

CS

4 4

0.1 4 4 0.1

6

0.1

6 6 6 haps one of the key challenges in this case is the maximization

8 8 8 8

0 0 0 0 of throughput through the scattering medium, which involves

2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6

Pixel number the optimization of scattering strength as well as the collec-

tion efficiency of high-angle diffuse light after transmission.

Figure 3: Reconstructing spatial and spectral information In conclusion, we have shown that hyperspectral imaging in

using TR and a CS technique. (a), (b) A composite im- the frequency domain can be achieved using a microlens ar-

age constructed of four experimental camera images (example ray, a multiple scattering nanowire mat, and a monochromatic

shown in Figure 1): an artist’s impression of the experiment camera. The technique is based on the principle that we can

and raw data showing superimposed speckle patterns, respec- characterize frequency-dependent speckle patterns at various

tively. (c) Wavelengths recovered from ”Pixel A” and ”Pixel spatial coordinates in a STM, and solve a linear system. We

B” in (b). (d) The reconstructed spatial intensities for each have compared two computational processes used to recover

spectral channel. spectral and spatial information, and shown that CS can re-

construct a discrete spectrum to high precision.

allows the recovery of a more complex spectrum than TR, due Funding Information

to its ability to suppress background computational noise.

Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)

The use of transmission-matrix based methods for hyper-

(DSTLX1000092237). European Research Council (ERC)

spectral imaging has several specific advantages compared

(278025).

to conventional, dispersion based systems. The illumination

of many camera pixels for each wavelength results in an in-

creased dynamic range per wavelength for situations where

spectra are reasonably sparse. Furthermore, as only a small

Acknowledgements

area of each speckle contains information about all calibrated The authors thank Laurent Daudet for useful discus-

wavelengths, CS based techniques can be applied allowing for sion. All data supporting this study are openly avail-

a reduction of the number of measurement points below the able from the University of Southampton repository at

Nyquist-Shannon sampling limit. Our technique proves more http://doi.org/10.5258/SOTON/D0006.

advantageous than normal diffraction methods when dealing

with measurements of sparse narrowband signals over a wide

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