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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)

“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

A study on Environmental Impact of


Madukkarai limestone mine, Coimbatore
District, Tamil Nadu, South India
S.Ravichandran
Assistant Engineer, TWAD Board
Rural Water Supply, R. Nagarajan
Dharampuri, Tamil Nadu, India Department of Science and Mathematics
School of Engineering and Science
V. Gayathri Curtin University of Technology
Lot.5802, Desa Senadin, 98009, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia
98000, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia Email: nagarajan@curtin.edu.my
Email : gayathriv4@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Rapid urbanization and and future development activities. Adoption of


industrialization particularly in developing various environmental friendly measures such as
countries have resulted in a considerable impact on modern technological processes, installation of
the environment. Mining is the second largest pollution control equipment for reduction of
industry after the agriculture and has played a vital pollution loads, elaborate afforestation (126 Ha so
role in the development of civilizations from times far undertaken for afforestation) could reduce the
immemorial. In India, generally mineral resources mining impact on our environment. The present
and forest cover are seen together. Man is compelled status of environmental and ecological scenario
to increase and diversify mining activity to meet his overall socio economic impact in the core zone and
increasing demand, and on the other hand resultant buffer zone of existing Madukkarai limestone mine
changes in both rural and urban areas. Mining, in put together positive effects.
short, contains inevitably the seeds of pollution; if
unchecked; they will grow and spread widely or Keywords: Environmental Impact Analysis,
sparsely as the case may be. Thus the Madukkari limestone, Coimbatore, India;
environmental impacts of mining could be broadly
classified into five categories, namely water, air, I. INTRODUCTION
land, noise and Ground vibrations problems.
Environment is the totality of surroundings in
Human has caused severe degradation of his which one is located. Man has caused severe
environment, by mismanaging both the renewable degradation of his environment, by mismanaging
and non-renewable resources. Environmental both the renewable and non-renewable resources
impact is any alteration of environmental condition all the way through his development. Mining is
or creation of new set of environmental conditions,
the second largest industry after the agriculture
adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the
action or set of actions under consideration. The and has played a vital role in the development of
Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) should civilizations from times immemorial. In India,
contain an analysis of the proposed action, generally mineral resources and forest cover are
alternative actions and associated impacts on the seen together. Mining implies selection, selection
environment. Therefore, this paper attempts to in turn implies rejection of waste; and the very
assess the rapid environmental impacts of process of selection may produce smoke, dust,
Limestone mining and the preparation of noises and other undesirable effects. The major
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the impacts include impact of existing and proposed
proposed and expansion of the Madukkarai
mining operations on ambient air quality and
limestone mines using matrix method. The
magnitude of impact varies in broad range. Each sensitive receptors, water quality, availability and
mining action having an impact on environmental uses of water, land use pattern, wild life habitats,
attribute is given a weight or Parameter Importance socio-economic profile and occupational pattern
Unit (PIU) viewed by experts. The overall impacts of the neighboring population and infrastructure.
have been assessed and remedies have been Mining creates huge wastes and requires space for
suggested for the Madukkarai Limestone Mine their dumping and thus triggers a number of
expansion project. environmental problems like degradation of
The monitoring program will help in observing terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, water
the improvements of various environmental
pollution, etc., further huge quantities of air and
parameters and will provide useful guidelines for
taking remedial measures in time for the present water pollutants are added to the environment

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

during beneficiation of minerals. Mine may have APHA, 1977. On-site monitoring was
impact on the physical, chemical and biological undertaken for various meteorological variables
attributes of surrounding environment. in order to generate the site-specific data. The
Environmental impact is any alteration of Central Monitoring Station (CMS) equipped with
environmental condition or creation of new set of continuous monitoring equipment was installed
environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, on top of the existing limestone mines office at a
caused or induced by the action or set of actions height of 4.0m above ground level to record wind
under consideration (EPA, 1989). The speed, direction, relative humidity, temperature
Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) should and atmospheric pressure. Rainfall is monitored
contain an analysis of the proposed action, by rain gauge. Hourly average, maximum and
alternative actions and associated impacts on the minimum values of wind speed, direction,
environment. The basic objective of relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure
Environmental Impact Assessment and and temperature have been recorded continuously
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) exercise at this station, for the study period starting from
is to minimize adverse impacts of any 1st February to 25th April 2003, the above
development on the environment (EGI, 1985; generated Meteorological data were considered.
Abasis and Arya, 2000). This environmental Secondary information on meteorological
impact assessment was carried out for the conditions has been collected from the nearest
Madukkarai Limestone Mine owned by The IMD station at Coimbatore. Pressure,
Associated Cement Companies Limited located at temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, cloud
Madukkarai in Coimbatore District of Tamilnadu, cover, wind speed and direction are measured
which is quarrying the lime stone from the year twice a day viz., at 0830 and 1730 hr. The wind
1934 to till the day and proposed to mine up to the speed and direction data of IMD, Coimbatore
year 2020 and may be renewed in future. station has been obtained for the past available 10
Therefore, this thesis attempts to assess the Rapid years (1993-2002). Ground water sources
Environmental impacts of Limestone mining and covering 5 km radial distance were examined for
the preparation of Environmental Management physico-chemical parameters in order to assess
Plan for the proposed and expansion of the the effect of limestone mining and other activities
Madukkarai limestone mines. on ground water. The samples were collected
and analyzed as per the procedures specified in
“Standard Method for the Examination of water
II. METHODOLOGY and waste water” published by American Public
Health Association (1991) (APHA). The ground
To assess the environmental impacts of vibration was monitored within the mine lease
limestone mining in the proposed expansion of boundary to assess the impact of ground vibration
Madukkarai Limestone Mine, reconnaissance due to mine blasting. 4493 V 2.5 Minimate
survey was conducted and sampling locations vibration measuring equipment of Fast Fourier
were identified on the basis of Topography, Transform (FFT) analyzer was used to measure
location of surface water bodies like ponds, the status of the vibration levels at the time of
canals and rivers; baseline data were collected blasting (Lenard, 1975).
and various environmental factors were
considered for this study. Field was conducted for III. STUDY AREA
a period of three months (February 2003 to April
A. Geography and Physiography
2003 – partly winter, pre monsoon seasons) to
determine seasonal variation and also to Limestone deposit at Madukkarai is located
determine existing conditions of various 2.50 km away from Madukkarai Cement Works,
environmental attributes such as Ambient air which lies 10 km from Coimbatore and is on
quality (SPM, SO2, NOx), Meteorology, Water National Highway – 47 connecting Cochin and
quality, Ecology, Noise levels, Soil Salem. Geographically the mining lease area
characteristics, Land use, Socio-Economic (ML3) fall between the latitude 10° 55’ to 10° 56’
aspects, Geology and Hydrology etc. At the and longitude 76° 56’ to 76° 59’ and are covered
selected sites, soil samples were collected using on the survey of India Topo sheet no.58 B/13, 58
Auger/Core cutter. Approximately 2kg of F/1,58 A/16. Madukkarai block is bounded on the
samples were collected in polythene bags, sealed north by Perur, on the NE by Sulur, on the east by
well and transported to laboratory for analysis for Sultanpet, on the south by Kinathukadavu and on
its physico-chemical characteristics. The the west side by Thondamuthur blocks of
methodology adopted for monitoring surface Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. The average
observations is as per the standard norms laid elevation ranges from 362m to 465m in the area.
down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 8829), The topography is gently undulated and
Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and surrounded by Calc – granulites hills. Ettimadai,

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

Dharmalingam Malai and Ayyaswami Malai are Namakkal and d. Madukkarai – Ettimadai.
the hill ranges located in 10 km radius from the Madukkarai area is mainly associated with
limestone mining area, which are covered by metamorphic rocks and are considered to belong
shrubs and bushes. The area is characterized by a to the middle Dharwars of southern peninsular
tropical climate. The temperature varies in the shield with the following succession of rocks,
range of 14.9°Cto 37.8°C. The total annual
rainfall in the area is about 574.2mm. The Basic Dykes, Chiefly dolerites
average humidity of the area ranges from 29% to ---------------------------------
81%. The winds in the area are light to moderate Felsites and porphyry dykes
during summer and winter. However, the speed Chamockites
of the wind increases during the end of the Norite dykes
summer season .predominant wind direction is Hornblendic dykes
from southwest followed by northwest. The Peninsular gneiss
rainwater from the area drains out through --------- Unconformity -----------------
seasonal nallas, which ultimately join the Munjiar Upper Dharwars – Cherty, Ferruginous silts,
nalla. The study covers core area of 10 km radius clays, calcareous silts.
with the proposed expansion of the Lime Stone
mining area as center. Middle Dharwars – Basic and ultrabasic
intrusives with iron stone, Limestones etc.
Area under the mining leases (ML3) of
Madukkarai limestone mines is undulating with Lower Dharwars – Rhyolites, Basic
intermittent ridges/hillocks. Kurichi section of Volcanics, Dykes and Flows.
mining lease of ML1 located on the foot hill of
the hillocks has abandoned quarry of about 15 m
depth whereas, the roadside East section of ML3 C. Geology of the Study area
has partly abandoned quarries covering the The Madukkarai mining lease area is part of
cuttings along the hillock slope upto a height of locally referred roadside west block of
400 m RL. These pits have 25 meter maximum Madukkarai limestone deposit as they constitute
depth from the surrounding ground level. The the Western portion of single deposit separated
south east and north east corners of the roadside by the National Highway 47. Four distinct
west section of ML3 has waste dumps built upto limestone bands namely Band 1,2,3 and 4 of
a height of 15 m. The roadside west section has a varying width are well exposed in roadside west
gentle slope towards east, i.e. towards NH 47. block with intervening calc granulite bands. The
Beyond the southern limit of roadside west limestone is greyish white and light to dark grey
section, Dharmalingamalai hills having the in colour, crystalline and coarse to fine grained in
highest peak at 615 m RL exist. ML1 is divided nature. It is generally observed that at the contact
into northern and Kurichi sections by Munjar zone with calc granulite, the limestone is pink in
nallah passing through the lease area. Kurichi colour. The limestone commonly shows
section is located around the foothill of a hillock inclusion of diopside, biotite, muscovite and
extending to a maximum height of 400 MRL. In graphite. Limestone bands are separated by calc
this section narrow abandoned quarry of 1.7 km granulite and at places there are thin lenses of
length worked to the maximum depth of 15 m calc granulite within the limestone band itself.
exist. Intrusions of pegmatite and occasional thin quarts
veins are common within limestone. Occurrence
of clay within the limestone is commonly
B. General Geology
observed. The clay infillings along the joints and
The study area has huge deposits of limestone fractures in the limestone appear to have been
in Madukkarai, and Ettimadai region within 10 derived from the overburden soil. Another
km radius. Country rock is garnetiferous occasional impurity of reddish brown bodies are
sillimanite schist in most of the places, at places
observed within limestone and locally termed as
the limestone also occurs in association with
“oda”. This body is of two types, one is the
charnockite and calc gneiss. The main crystalline
limestone resources of Tamilnadu occurs mainly Kankar variety which has appreciable calcium
in four major belts. a. Tirunelveli – carbonate content and the other a harder type with
Ramanathapuram, b. Madurai – Dindigul – quartz nuclii.
Tiruchi, c. Sankaridurg – Tiruchengodu –

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

2) Soil Quality
Knowledge of soil characteristics, the
erosional aspects, soil fertility etc., is vital for the
planning and implementation of
afforestation/green belt development measures, as
part of maintaining the ecological balances of a
region. Location and functioning of limestone
mining industries, generation and dumping of
waste material etc., could directly or indirectly
affect the soil regime of the area surrounding the
limestone mining industry. Hence, the study of
the soil characteristics in and around the
limestone mining complex become an important
Figure 1. Satellite image showing the Madukkarai factor in the Environmental Impact Assessment
limestone mine (Soure:Goole map) studies (Jain et al., 1977, Cantes, 1977).

3) Meteorology
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The meteorological data recorded during the
monitoring period is very useful for proper
A. Existing Environmental Status of The Study
interpretation of the baseline information as well
Area
as for input prediction model for air quality
dispersion.
1) Land use
The land use in general reflects the activities
of human being on land thereby changing the 4) Air Quality
land cover. Identification and periodic The levels of air pollution thus depend upon
surveillance of land use and cover at site and in the magnitude of activities in the particular area
the vicinity of any developmental activity are one as well as the meteorological conditions
of the most important aspects of EIA (Munn, (Khopkar, 1993). Thus, the study of ambient air
1975). quality is the must to assess the impact of the
industrial (Mining) activity on the environment
and for advocating control measures.

5) Water Quality
It is imperative to study the water quality of
the regime likely to be influenced by the limestone
mining and allied activities. The results of water
quality parameters shown in the table. 4.

6) Noise Level
Noise beyond limits; interfere with
communication in the work spot apart from
Figure 2. Land Use Pattern of Core Zone of Madukkarai
Limestone Mine
annoyance and health hazard. Relevant noise
emitters at Madukkarai lime stone mine are
mining machinery and blasting operation. While
blasting produces impulsive noise other mining
operations involving various mining equipment
Area not available Forest Land
for cultivation 3.11% produces continuous noise. The noise rating
23.09%
Irrigated Land
developed for community noise from all sources
Culturable Waste 33.53% is the Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn). It is similar
Land
4.62%
to a 24 hour equivalent sound level except that
during night time period (9 pm to 6 am) a 10 dB
Unirrigated Land (A) weighting penalty is added to the
35.65%
instantaneous sound level before computing the
24 hour average (NEP, 1969). The Ldn was
calculated from the hourly Leq’s equation.
Figure 3. Land use Pattern in the Study Area as per 1991
Census.
Ldn = 10 log {1/24 [16 (10 Ld/10) + 8 (10 (Ln+10)/10]}

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

Where, “Ld” is the equivalent sound level V. DISCUSSIONS


during the day time (6 am to 9 pm) and “Ln” is
the equivalent sound level during the night time A. Environmental Status of The Study Area
(9pm to 6 am). The field data was generated for a period of
three months i.e. from February 2003 to April
7) Ground Vibration 2003 covering partly winter, pre monsoon season.
The ground vibration during the study period The monitored ambient air quality data indicate
was monitored within the mine lease boundary to that the concentrations of SPM, SO2 and NOx are
assess the impact of ground vibration due to mine found to be in the range of 277.7 – 315.3 µg/m3,
blasting. The Table 6. represent the ground 7.7 – 12.8 µg/m3, 15.6 – 21.5 µg/m3 in core zone,
vibration monitoring details in the study period. and 71.0 – 141.2 µg/m3, 5.4 – 11.8 µg/m3, 5.8 –
18.0 µg/m3 respectively in buffer zone and the
B. Ecology: Flora and Fauna levels are well below the National Ambient Air
Quality (NAAQ) standards for industrial,
The ecological study is an important aspect of
residential and rural areas. The Noyal River is
environment, in view of the conservation of
environmental quality and protection of natural located at a distance of 5.5 km north from the
flora and fauna (Odum, 1975). In this perspective Madukkarai limestone mine.
the study/survey of biological environment of the
The study area experiences shortage for water
project area was taken up.
resources. The annual rainfall is very less and is
vagrant. Water catchment tanks in the area are
1) Types and Composition of Vegetation
only seasonal and they remain dry during most of
The type of vegetation varies from place to
the seasons. Here the ground water is developed
place and depends on various climatic factors like
by means of dug wells and bore wells and the
temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, etc. The
ground water occurs in phreatic conditions in
variation is mainly due to edaphic factors and
shallow aquifers, The hydro graphics prepared for
topo-geographical conditions. The core and
this area by the Central Ground Water Board
buffer zone contains vegetation of the Southern
(CGWB), reveals that the rainfall is the principal
tropical dry deciduous scrub and tropical dry
source of recharge for ground water. The water
evergreen species, which can be observed in
quality results indicates that Total Dissolved
patches along road sides, within villages, etc. The
Solids (TDS), Total Hardness, Chlorides in
core zone of limestone mining area was
Machchampalayam village is exceeding the
surrounded by shrubs, herbs and climbers. The
standards of 500 mg/l, 300 mg/l and 250 mg/l
trees like Neem trees, Acacia, etc have been
respectively and the Total Dissolved Solids
planted along the National Highway (NH-47) in
(TDS), Total Hardness in mine pit water is also
the mine lease areas in colonies, playgrounds,
exceeding the standards of 500 mg/l, 300 mg/l
along roads sides, etc. The main agricultural
respectively (WHO, 1993). All the other
crops in the buffer zone are Groundnut, Coconut,
parameters in all the wells and mine pit are below
Mango, Paddy, Pulses, and Plantain etc. The
their respective permissible limits except
climbers such as Cissus quadrangularis, Coccinia
coliform level in mine pit and Machchampalayam
grandis, Cuscutta sps, Diplocyclos sps, Ipomoea
village. However the water could be suitable for
sps, Passiflora foetida etc are found growing in
drinking purpose after treatment but the
the wasteland areas.
Machchampalayam village water should be used
for agricultural purpose only. Water levels
2) Fauna Assessment
monitored in buffer zone study areas within the
The core zone area is properly guarded to
range of 21.6 to 22.7 m in Machchampalayam
prevent the entry of grazing animals such cow,
village, 22.0 to 24.8 m in Kurichi Industrial
sheep, etc. However, small birds and reptiles like
Estate and 19.5 to 21.7 m in Kuniyamuthur. The
lizards, etc., are seen in this area. The birds like
average water level in the above area is 22.2 m,
Grey Pelicans, Common heron, Egret, Green
24.4 m, 20.6 m respectively. Seven samples from
Parrot, Rock Dove, Green Imperial Pigeon etc.,
agricultural and barren area within 5 km radius
are observed. The reptiles like Chamaelon,
were collected and analyzed for physical and
Monitor Lizard are also observed in Buffer zone.
chemical constituents. The pH of soil indicates
The domestic animals like cows, buffaloes, goats,
usually alkaline and neutral in nature. The soil
sheep etc are also seen everywhere. No sanctuary,
texture is found to be silty clay. The nitrogen
biosphere, or national parks are situated in the
levels were observed to be less in barren land and
buffer zone nor does if form a path for any
having better quantity in agricultural areas.
migrating birds.
Similarly the potassium levels in the study area
were observed to have very less quantity. The
phosphorus levels in the study area were

41
Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

observed to have medium quantity in agricultural patterns of social and economic activities by the
areas. It is observed that Day time (Ld) and Nigh proposed action.
time (Ln) noise levels in all the location were
below the permissible limits except the day time The proposed limestone-mining project would
noise levels in commercial zone of Kurichi create impact on the environment in two distinct
market. The study area is predominantly agro eco phases: Mine development phase and Mine
system. Main crops in the region are cereals, operational phase. Potential Significant impacts
vegetables, pulses and fruits. The forest area is and their Mitigation during Mine Operational
3.11%, cultivated land (irrigated and unirrigated) Phase:
of about 69.18% in the study area. The study
area did not record the presence of any critically 1) Land use Pattern
threatened plant species. There is no Wildlife The proposed expansion of limestone mining
Sanctuary or National Parks or Biosphere or at expanded capacity will not have significant
Hotspots in 10 km radius from the proposed and impact on alteration in relief. Because majority
expansion of Madukkarai Limestone mine lease of mining will be concentrated in the existing
area. The Dharmalingam malai – Ettimadai R.F. disturbed area at greater depth. Backfilling of
of Bollavampatti forest range location is adjacent part of abandoned quarry at narrower portions of
to the mine lease area on southwest side. the mining lease will restore the already carried
out alteration.
B. Environmental Impact Analysis
The magnitude of impact varies in broad 2) Ecological Environment
range. As a result, one would like to know the The ambient air quality standards observed
magnitude of collective or overall impact and its within the study area are likely to be within the
nature i.e. beneficial or adverse. Matrix Method AAQ standards. Therefore, the impact of these
was used to assess the environment impact in the emissions on the surrounding agro eco system
study area. A matrix having rows as will be insignificant. Extensive plantation
environmental attributes or impact areas and comprising of pollutant resistant will be
columns having proposed limestone-mining undertaken in and around the proposed expansion
activities is constructed. Each action having an of limestone mining project will be the mitigate
impact on environmental attribute is given a measures. So the impact due to mine operational
weight or Parameter Importance Unit (PIU) phase will minimal on the terrestrial eco system.
viewed by experts. The predicted environmental There will not be wastewater discharge into the
impact rated on a scale of environmental scores surface water stream. Hence, there will not any
multiplied by the corresponding weight then impact on the aquatic ecology.
gives the weighted impact. All weighted impacts
added together give the overall weighted impact 3) Air Quality
of proposed Madukkarai limestone mining The observed values for all ambient air
expansion project on environment. Negative sign quality parameters in the core and buffer zone
in impact matrix indicates that the impact is of area of the study areas are within prescribed
adverse nature. Results of Environmental Impact limits (CAA, 1970). Hence there will not be any
Analysis carried out on above concepts are impact on air quality. However in mine
presented in Table 7. The total impact is operational phase the pollution abatement
therefore assessed to be positive for the capacity measures will also be strictly implemented and
expansion of Madukkarai Limestone Mine of monitored throughout in future years of mining at
Madukkarai Cement Works. In the matrix expanded capacity. Moreover deployment of
analysis method the weighted impact such as Mega Rock Breaker will completely eliminate
drilling, blasting, and loading are having negative induced ground vibrations and air blast. It is
impact sign in that blasting is having higher therefore totally eco-friendly mining activity.
altitude it means that it is crating major adverse
effects. 4) Water Quality
Water quality in Machchampalayam well in
C. Environmental Impact Pridiction buffer zone is exceeding the standards; it may be
Generally, the environmental impacts can be due to the leachate problem of abandoned stone
categorized as either primary or secondary. quarry exists nearby the sampling stations. So
Primary impacts are those, which are attributed the impact on water quality is short term and
directly by the project and secondary impacts are adverse. By providing safe discharge of
those, which are indirectly induced and typically wastewater from the nearest habitat will be the
include the associated investment and changed mitigative measures of impact on water quality.

5) Water level

42
Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

The hydro graphics prepared for this area by improvements in various environmental
the Central Ground water Board (CGWB), parameters and will provide useful guidelines for
reveals that the rainfall is the principal source of taking remedial measures in time for the present
recharge for ground water and the water level and future development activities. Due to
fluctuations are in response to recharge for adoption of various environmental friendly
ground water. It is observed that, run off water measures such as modern technological
flowing over the eastern and northern flank of the processes, installation of pollution control
hill, Dharmalingam malai is partly entered into equipment for reduction of pollution loads,
the limestone mine pit. In large scale of mining elaborate afforestation for over 126 Hectares so
in mine operational phase, the run off flowing far undertaken by the Madukkarai Cement
into the nearby Munjiar nallah in northern side of Works, etc., the present status of environmental
the mine lease area will be considerably reduced. and ecological scenario in the core zone and
So this may cause the negative impact on water buffer zone of existing Madukkarai limestone
resource in buffer zone after the mine operational mine is good. The hydro graphic prepared for
phase. By, providing suitable drain in this area by the Central Ground Water Board
scientifically designed manner will be the (CGWB), reveals that the rainfall is the principal
mitigative measures. However the water could be source of recharge for ground water and the water
suitable for drinking purpose after treatment but level fluctuations are in response to recharge for
the Machchampalayam village water should be ground water.
used for agricultural purpose only.
VI. CONCLUSION
6) Noise level The present study reveals that Madukkarai
Noise levels measurements predicted in the limestone pit act as a temporary water storage
buffer zone is within the standard limit. The reservoir, which helps in ground water recharge
predicted impact on noise in core zone is within at the micro scale as well as meeting
the permissible limit. The noise pollution of the requirements of the core zone. Hence no impact
proposed expansion of limestone mining due to on ground water resources in the core zone is
vehicular traffic is calculated. Hence noise level envisaged. But, the negative impact on water
impact after the mine operational phase is resource in buffer zone may be envisaged after
negligible. the mine operational phase.

7) Ground Vibration By providing suitable drain in the mining area


Ground vibration monitoring at the time of to discharge the collected rainwater all over the
blasting is within the standards. During the mine area to the Munjiar nallah facing north side of the
operational phase the safe charge per day is mine lease boundary is the mitigative measures
calculated for protecting even Kuchcha houses for strengthening the water resources in
located at 100 m distance with a factor of safety surroundings.
of 2. Hence no major impacts on buildings are
anticipated. As the proposed expansion of Madukkarai
limestone mine will be carried out in the existing
8) Social Environment mining lease, there will be an adverse impact on
There will be an overall socio economic despoliation of land, and no rehabilitation will
development in the study area due to the rise, overall socio economic impact will be in
proposed expansion of Madukkarai limestone positive effects.
mine. The development will be in the spheres of
direct and indirect employment, communication,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
education and reduction in out migration.
Ancillary/auxiliary industries around Madukkarai The authors thank the Authority of Associated
will be developed. The impact on health will be Cement Companies Limited, PWD, CGWB, IMD
primarily occupational in nature. However, the Madukkari, Coimbatore for their contribution
workers will be provided with ear plugs/ear during this study.
muffs. Over all impact will be positive in nature.
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43
Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

[3] American Public Health Associations. “Standard [10] Leonard Meirovitch, “Elements of vibration Analysis”,
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April, 1997.
[8] Khopkar, S.M. “Environmental pollution Analysis,”
Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, 1993. [15] WHO (World Health Organization). (1993). Guidelines
for drinking water quality, recommendations (2nd ed).
[9] Larry W.canter, “Environmental impact Assessment”, Geneva.
McGraw Hill Book Co., 1977.

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Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

TABLE I. SOIL ANALYSIS RESULTS IN CORE AND BUFFER ZONE OF LIMESTONE MINING STUDY AREA.

S.No Soil Sample Identity


Parameters of Analysis Unit
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
1. pH of 10% suspension - 7.8 9.0 7.2 7.8 7.4 7.8 7.2
2. Moisture content at 105°C % 6.5 2.8 6.2 6.8 8.5 7.5 7.6
3. Water holding capacity % 175.4 170.2 175.4 180.4 220.5 186.4 175.8
4. Organic carbon % 0.18 NIL 0.38 0.41 0.46 0.41 0.48
5. Free Ammonia cal Nitrogen % 36 NIL 145.0 180.0 296.0 161.4 180.0
6. Potassium as K % 12.0 NIL 23.5 26.4 16.0 39.7 34.0
7. Phosphorus as P % 13.8 NIL 24.2 42.7 35.2 47.3 29.0
8 Particle size distribution
Gravel % 17.30 22.48 13.89 10.24 9.50 10.24 16.80
Coarse sand % 22.48 16.32 15.68 2.88 3.50 2.88 23.50
Medium sand % 14.25 21.27 18.26 3.75 3.48 3.75 15.20
Fine sand % 15.49 21.32 24.23 3.67 3.86 3.67 16.30
Coarse silt % 22.46 15.30 22.18 28.65 32.35 28.65 20.62
Medium silt % 2.42 1.17 2.25 5.92 6.20 5.92 2.25
Fine silt % 4.24 1.02 2.24 16.24 15.45 16.24 3.77
Clay % 1.36 1.12 1.27 28.65 25.66 28.65 1.56
Textural class Silty Silty Silty Silty Silty Silty Silty
clay sandy clay clay clay clay clay
S1 - Topsoil in Lease Area, S2- Overburden, S3 – Madukkaraiwest, S4- Madukkarai East, S5 - Kurichi, S6-Machchampalayam, S7-Pulakkadu

TABLE II. THE METEOROLOGICAL DATA GENERATED AT LIMESTONE MINING LEASE AREA (1ST FEB – 25TH APRIL 2003)
Total Rainfall
Temperature (°C) Relative Humidity (%)
Month (mm)
Max. Min. Max Min
February 37.1 21.2 3.7 3.4 1.0
March 38.0 20.1 3.9 3.4 62.5
April 39.1 14.2 3.8 3.5 Nil

TABLE III. THE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY RESULTS

SPM µg/m3 SO2 µg/m3 NOx µg/m3


Station 98% 98% 98%
Max Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Min Avg
Hile Hile Hile
AAQ1 314.5 290.3 305.4 314.5 12.0 7.7 9.6 12.0 21.5 17.1 19.5 21.5
AAQ2 301.5 277.7 286.6 301.5 11.6 8.5 20.4 11.6 18.0 15.6 16.7 18.0
AAQ3 315.3 291.6 305.6 315.3 12.8 8.5 6.2 8.5 19.2 16.5 17.5 19.20
AAQ4 127.6 98.7 111.8 127.6 9.7 5.8 8.1 9.7 11.8 6.0 9.4 11.8
AAQ5 105.3 82.4 96.0 105.3 9.1 5.5 7.2 9.1 11.2 6.4 9.0 11.2
AAQ6 135.8 101.0 115.7 135.8 11.8 5.4 8.4 11.8 13.1 5.8 9.7 13.1
AAQ7 141.2 99.7 114.1 141.2 11.5 6.2 8.6 11.5 12.6 7.1 9.6 12.6
AAQ8 127.6 88.4 108.0 125.6 11.3 8.8 10.3 11.3 13.7 10.6 11.8 13.3
AAQ9 89.6 71.0 77.8 89.6 8.4 6.5 7.5 8.4 18.0 15.7 16.9 18.0
AAQ10 120.4 89.4 103.4 118.9 10.2 7.5 8.7 10.1 11.7 8.7 10.1 11.6
Station details AAQ1- AAQ10: Mining area view point, Mines Office, Haulage Road Rest Hall, Madukkarai West Village, Madukkarai School, Kurumbapalayam, Near Kurichi
Industrial Estate, Ichchanari Village, Kuniyamuhur village and Kovaiputhur respectively.

45
Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

TABLE IV. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS RESULTS WITHIN CORE & BUFFER ZONE OF MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINE
Water quality of Samples collected within Limit as
Sl.
Parameters Unit Core Zone Buffer Zone per
No.
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 IS:10500
1. pH - 7.2 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.5 6.5 – 8.5
2. Colour Hazen 4 6 3 2 <1 3 10
3. Taste - Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable Agreeable
4. Odour - Unobjectio- Unobjectio- Unobjectio- Unobjectio Unobjectio- Unobjectio- Unobjectio-
nable nable nable -nable nable nable nable
5. Temperature OC 23 25 24 23 22 23 $
6. Residual chlorine Mg/l < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 0.2
as d2
7. Total Dissolved Mg/l 415 621 397 455 412 690 500
Solids (TDS)
8. Total suspended Mg/l < 0.5 0.63 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 < 0.5 $
solids
9. Dissolved Mg/l 4.3 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.4 3.7 $
oxygen
10. BOD (3 days at Mg/l < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 < 3.0 3.0
27°C)
11. Total hardness as Mg/l 164 312 174 288 240 540 300
CaCO3
12. Total Alkalinity Mg/l 184 322 84 125 268 340 $
as CaCO3
2+
13. Calcium as Ca Mg/l 61.5 71.1 58.9 62.6 62.5 64.6 75
14. Magnesium as Mg/l 13.4 22.4 11.2 13.8 13.4 15.6 30
Mg 2+
15. Chlorides as Cl Mg/l 140 205 95 230 200 634 250
16. Sulfates as SO42 Mg/l 41.2 42.3 41.2 35.6 34.4 37.6 $
17. Fluorides as F Mg/l 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.0
18. Nitrates as NO3 Mg/l 14.5 15.3 12.6 13.4 12.3 14.2 45
19. Total Coliforms MPN/ Absent 4 Absent Absent Absent 2 Absent
100ml
NOTE: ($) Indicates no limits have been specified. Locations: W1 to W6: Madukkarai Limestone Mine Pit Kovaiputhur, Kurichi Industrial Estate,
Kuniyamuthur and Machchampalayam respectively

TABLE V. NOISE LEVEL LIMITS ON THE STUDY AREA

Sl. Location Category L10 L50 L90 Leq Lday Lnight Ldn
No
N1 Madukkarai East Residential/Rural area. 51.9 49.7 47.5 50.0 54.2 42.6 53.7
N2 Kurichi Market Commercial area 66.3 59.4 55.0 61.6 67.2 54.5 66.6
N3 Ichchanari Residential/Rural area. 44.8 39.2 35.5 44.1 45.6 39.0 47.1
N4 Kuniamuthur Residential/Rural area 51.0 44.7 39.5 46.9 48.7 40.6 47.4
N5 Kovaipudur Residential/Rural area 46.8 41.6 38.8 49.1 50.5 42.0 51.2
N6 ACC Main Gate Industrial area 68.9 63.4 58.7 65.1 67.4 63.4 70.7
(Time Office)

TABLE VI. GROUND VIBRATION MONITORING DATA AT MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINE

Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) mm/sec


Date Time Location Details
Transverse Vertical Longitudinal
06.02.2003 15:16:22 Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of
10.7 1.78 3.3
observation is 100m. Record time is 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS.
20.02.2003 16:02:18 Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of
14.7 3.94 5.37
observation is 100 m. Record time is 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS
07.03.2003 16:38:08 Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of
10.8 7.87 8.14
observation is 100 mts. Record time 4.0 Sec at 1024 SPS
09.04.2003 16:30:23 Blast is taken at R.EAST pit no.1. Distance of
5.46 2.35 4.57
observation 50 mts.

46
Curtin Sarawak 1st International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009)
“Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5th Sep’ 2009)

TABLE VII. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATRIX FOR THE PROPOSED MADUKKARAI LIMESTONE MINING EXPANSION PROJECT

Sl. Mining Activities Total


Environmental Attribute
No. I II III IV V VI Score
1. Air quality -2 5 -1 5 -3 7 -3 5 -3 7 3 5 -57
2. Noise levels -2 3 -1 3 -2 3 -2 3 -2 3 2 3 -21
3. Land use 0 3 -1 3 -2 5 -1 3 -1 5 3 5 -6
4. Soil Chemistry -1 5 -1 3 -1 5 -1 3 -1 5 1 5 -16
5. Crop Yield -1 3 -1 3 -2 3 -1 3 -2 5 0 0 -25
6. Occupational Structure 4 7 2 3 1 5 1 3 7 10 1 3 115
7. Terrestrial/ aquatic flora and fauna -2 3 -2 3 -3 7 -1 3 -1 3 3 5 -24
8. Social interactions 2 3 3 5 -1 2 1 3 3 5 1 3 40
9. Transportation - - -1 7 - - - - 3 5 - - 8
10. Aesthetics 0 3 -1 3 0 3 -2 3 0 3 5 7 26
11. Economy (5*7) - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total Score 4 -12 -66 -33 50 97 40
Mining Activities: I to VI; Drilling, Blasting, Loading, Crushing, Transportaion, Plantation/Landscaping

47