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g GE Energy Services

Glossary of Terms
& Acronyms

Document Number : Global Glossary


Version : 1.30
Revision : 4
Date : 19-Apr-2002
Classification : General, Full Release
Glossary of Terms
GE Energy Services & Acronyms

NOTICE OF © 2002, General Electric Canada Inc. All rights reserved.


COPYRIGHT &
PROPRIETARY The contents of this manual are the property of General Electric Canada Inc. No
RIGHTS part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
except as permitted in written license agreement with General Electric Canada Inc.
General Electric Canada Inc. has made every reasonable attempt to ensure the
completeness and accuracy of this document. However, the information contained in
this manual is subject to change without notice, and does not represent a
commitment on the part of General Electric Canada Inc.
Any attached hardware schematics and technical descriptions, or software listings
that disclose source code, are for information purposes only. Reproduction in whole
or in part to create working hardware or software for other than General Electric
Canada Inc. products is strictly prohibited, except as permitted by written license
agreement with General Electric Canada Inc.

TRADEMARK WESDAC is a registered trademark of General Electric Company, General Electric


NOTICES Canada Inc. and/or GE Harris Energy Control Systems Canada, Inc. All other brand
and product names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.

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Table of Contents

About This Document


Section 1: Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations ..........................................................................1
Section 2: Glossary of Terms .............................................................................................................13

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About This Document

Overview

In this Glossary This document is divided into two sections:


Section 1: Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations, and
Section 2: Glossary of Terms

What this • Section 1 provides meanings for many of the abbreviations and acronyms that
document may be encountered when using any GE Energy Services documentation. Note
provides that some of the abbreviations and acronyms will be further explained and
expanded in Section 2.
• Section 2 can be used as a dictionary of terms of specific use to those working in
our industry, or to further clarify terms found in GE Energy Services documents.

Not Complete or If you think of any term, abbreviation or acronym that you feel should be included in
in Error? this document, or if you think that you have discovered an error, please contact one
of the GE Energy Services D&S Documentation Team.

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Section 1: Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations

An asterisk (*) in the description column indicates a GE Energy Services-specific


Note K acronym or abbreviation

Acronym/Abbreviation Description

A
A/D Conversion Analog to Digital Conversion
ACK Acknowledge(ment)
ACSE Associated Consultants and Software Engineers
ADLC Asynchronous Data Link Control
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AIF Analog Interface
AM Amplitude Modulation
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit
AR Auto-Restoration
ARQ Automatic Repeat ReQuest
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
AS Auto-Sectionalization
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASO Automated Systems Operations
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUI Attachment Unit Interface
AWG American Wire Gauge

B
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCH Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem
BERT Bit Error Rate Test
BNC Bayonet Neill-Concelman (connector used with coaxial cable invented
by Mr. Neill-Concelman)

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

BootP Bootstrap Protocol


BootROM A Read Only Memory chip containing software necessary to Boot (get
up and running) a processor system
bps Bits Per Second
BRI Basic Rate Interface

C
C&I Control and Indication
CAIDI Centro de Avaliação e Integração de Dados Institucionais
CASM Common Application Services Model
CBEMA Computer Business Electronics Manufactures Association
CCAPI Control Center Application Programming Interface
CCC Common Class Component
CCITT Consultative Committee of International Telegraphy and Telephony
CCU Central Communications Unit
CD 1. Carrier Detect
2. Collision Detection
CEA Consumer Electronics Association
CISPR International Special Committee On Radio Interference, a sub-
committee of the IEC
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol
CLNS Connectionless Network Service
CLPP Connectionless Presentation Protocol
CLS Connectionless
CLSP Connectionless Session Protocol
CLTP Connectionless Transport Protocol
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CMISE Common Management Information Service Element
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CO 1. Complex Object
2. Connection-Oriented
3. Central Office

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

CODEC COder/DECoder. A device to encode/decode analog audio signals


to/from digital
COMTRADE Common Format for Transient Data Exchange
COS Change of State
CPM * Communication Processor Module. A protocol translator and front
end processor that can be used as a gateway for communications
between IEDs and other SCADA system levels.
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSA 1. Canadian Standards Association
2. Canadian Safety Association
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection
CSOM Client-Server Object Model
CSU Channel Service Unit
CT Current Transformer
CTS Clear To Send

D
D.20 * The HDLC protocol based link that acts as a communication
interface between a D20/200 RTU’s main processor(s) and its
peripherals.
DAA Data Access Arrangement An analog interface device between a PSTN
and a CODEC
DAC Digital to Analog Converter
DART * Distributed Automation Remote Terminal. A pole-top RTU product
by GE Energy Services.
DAU Data Access Unit
DB Data Base
dB Decibel
DBMR Data Base Manager
DCA * Data Collection Application
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Communications Equipment
DCS Distributed Control System
DDSP Dual Digital Signal Processor
DFR Digital Fault Recorder

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

DNA Dynamic Network Announcement


DNP Distributed Network Protocol
DNS Domain Naming System
DOC Data Object Component
DPA * Data Processing Application
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DSU Data Service Unit
DTA * Data Translation Application
DTE * Data Terminal Equipment
DTR Data Terminal Ready
DTS Digital Termination System
DXF AutoCAD file naming extension

E
ECN Engineering Change Notification
ECS 1. Enterprise Control System (FactoryLink)
2. Energy Control System
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EEPROM Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EIA Electronic Industries Association
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EME * Ethernet/Memory Expansion (module)
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
EMS Energy (Enterprise) Management System
EPA Enhanced Performance Architecture
EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
ESD Electrostatic Discharge
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

F
FAT Factory Acceptance Test
FCB Freeze Control Block
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FM Frequency Modulation
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
FTAM File Transfer and Access Method
FTP File Transfer Protocol

G
GOMSFE Generic Object Model for Substation and Feeder Equipment
GOOSE Generic Object Oriented Substation Event
GPS Global Positioning System
GUI Graphical User Interface

H
HDLC High-level Data Link Control
HEX Hexadecimal
HMI Human-Machine Interface
HVPS High Voltage Power Supply

I
ICCP Inter-Control Center Protocol
ICM * Integrated Configuration Manager
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol.
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IED Intelligent Electronic Device
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

IP Internet Protocols
IRIG Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (Satellite time reference)
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
iSCS * integrated Substation Control System
iSM&D * integrated Substation Monitoring and Diagnostic
iTMP * integrated Transformer Monitoring Package
ISO International Standards Organization
I/O Input / Output

J
JTAG Joint Test Action Group

L
LAN Local Area Network
LDRB Local Digital Loopback
LLC Logical Link Control
LRC Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRU Logical Remote Unit
LTC-MAP * Load Tap Changer Monitor (GE Harley)
LVDC Low Voltage Direct Current
LVPS Low Voltage Power Supply

M
MAC Medium Access (and) Control
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MAU Medium Attachment Unit
MCD Momentary (Multiple) Change Detect
MCU Micro Controller Unit
MDAC Microsoft Data Access Components
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MEC Memory Expansion Card
MIC * Media Interface Card

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

MMI Man-machine Interface


MMPM Multi-Media Presentation Manager
MMS Manufacturing Message Specification
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor
MRP Master Remote Protocol
MRU Master Remote Unit
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTTR Max Time to Receive (Message)
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit

N
NAK Negative Acknowledgment
NCP Network Control Program
NDI Network Device Interface
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NIC Network Interface Card
NPI New Product Introduction
NSAP Network (layer) Service Access Point
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

O
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OWC Oscillographic Waveform Capture

P
PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PEDI * Priority Event Distribution Interface
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PDN Public Data Network
PDU Protocol Data Unit

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

PF Power Factor
PICS Protocol Implementation Conformance Specification
PID 1. Process Identifier
2. Proportional, Integral, Derivative
Ping Acronym for Packet Internet Groper
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
POP Point Of Presence
PPI Pounds Per square Inch
PPM Parts Per Million
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PQ Power Quality
PSN Public Switched Network
pSOS Operating system for 68000 series microprocessors
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PT Potential Transformer. See also: Voltage Transformer
PTT Postal Telephone and Telegraph
pu per unit
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit

R
RAM Random Access Memory
RDLB Remote Digital Loopback
RFC Request For Comment
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
R/L Raise / Lower
RM&D * Remote Monitoring and Diagnostic
ROM Read Only Memory
RTC Real Time Clock (Counter)
RTS Request To Send
RTSE Reliable Transfer Service Element
RTU Remote Terminal Unit

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

S
SAP Service Access Point
SAIFI System Average Interruption Frequency Index
SAP Service Access Point
SAT Site Acceptance Test
SBO Select Before Operate
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCD Single Circuit Device
SCS * Substation Control System
SDS * Software Development System
SI Systeme International
SIDF System Independent Data Format
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOE Sequence of Events
SQE Signal Quality Error
SRAM Static Random Access Memory
SRU Sub-Remote (Unit)
STP Shielded Twisted Pair
SVC Switched Virtual Circuit
SWC Surge Withstand Components (Capability)

T
TASE(-2) Telecontrol Application Service Element (Version 2)
T/C Trip / Close
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TDR Time Domain Reflectometer
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
TIA Telecommunications Industries Association
tMEDIC * FARADAYTM Transformer Management & Equipment Diagnostic
System with Integrated Communications
TSEL Transport Selector

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

TTL Transistor-transistor Logic

U
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UCA Utility Communications Architecture
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UIB Utility Information Bus
UMS Utility Message Specification
UPS Uninterruptible power supply
UPT * UCA Points Table
UTC Universal Time Clock (or Code)
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair

V
VDT Video Display Terminal
VGA Video Graphics Adapter
VME Versa-bus Module Eurocard
VT Voltage Transformer
VT100 A Digital Equipment Corporation model of video terminal. Has
become the DeFacto standard for ASCII terminal emulation.

W
WAN Wide Area Network
WESDAC * Acronym for WEStronic Data Acquisition and Control
WESMAINT * GE Energy Services product maintenance facility.
WESTERM * Acronym for WEStronic TERMination module.
WIN * Acronym for WESDAC Interface Node. Refers to the database
manager that is fundamental to the operation of GE Energy Services
products such as: CPM, SAM, D10, D20, D25 and D200.
WYE A type of three phase power distribution

X
XCOM * eXternal COMmunication (module)
XMIT Transmit

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Acronym/Abbreviation Description

XML eXtensible Markup Language


XMT Transmit

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Section 2: Glossary of Terms

An asterisk (*) in the description column indicates a GE Energy Services-specific


Note K term.

Term Description

10BASE2 IEEE standard designation for Ethernet using thin-coaxial media


10BASE5 IEEE standard designation for Ethernet using thick-coaxial media
10BASE-FL IEEE standard designation for Ethernet using fiber-optic media
10BASE-T IEEE standard designation for Ethernet using unshielded twisted-pair
media
68K Monitor * A low-level maintenance and de-bugging tool included in all GE
Energy Services products that use a Motorola 68000 series
microprocessor.

A
Acceptance Written acceptance by designated representatives of applicable
organizations.
Access A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that
results in the flow of information from one to the other.
Access Control 1. A security technique to prevent unauthorized use of a network
resource.
2. A means of restricting access to objects based on the sensitivity (as
represented by a label) of the information contained in the objects
and formal authorization of subjects to access information of such
sensitivity
Accumulator See counter input
Address The identification assigned to a network device or component
Addressing The means to identify the source and recipient(s) of information
transfers.
Address Resolution The IP protocol used to link IP addresses to physical or MAC addresses
Protocol of LAN devices
Advanced Settings Special parameters that do not normally need to be altered. Only
experienced users should make changes to advanced settings
Alarm Condition A predefined change in the state or condition of equipment or the
failure of equipment to respond correctly. Indication may be audible or
visual, or both.

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Term Description

American Standard Code A seven-bit code that standardizes a set of characters representing
for Information letters and numbers for international use.
Interchange
Analog Device A device that operates with variables represented by continuously
measured quantities such as voltages, resistances, rotations and
pressures.
Analog Input A field input that can accept a continuous range of voltage or current
values.
Analog Output A field output that can produce a continuous range of voltage or current
values. Also known as a setpoint.
Analog Quantity A variable represented by a scalar value.
Analog Reference An analog voltage source present in a circuit that is used to calibrate the
analog input or output circuitry.
Analog Scan Rate The rate at which an application polls for analog input state
information.
Analog-to-Digital Production of a digital signal whose magnitude is proportional to the
Conversion value of an analog quantity.
Application A piece of software (a program) consisting of one or more processes
and supporting functions.
Attribute An attribute represents something that an object knows. An attribute
reflects both the problem domain and the system’s responsibilities as
some data (state information) for which each object in a class has its
own value.
Audit An independent review and examination of records and activities to
assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with
established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend
changes in controls, policies, or procedures.
Authentication Security service used to validate the identity of a network entity.
Automatic Pertaining to a process or device that, under specified conditions,
functions without intervention by a human operator.
Automatic Reclosing Automated operation of breakers based on local and/or remote power
system data.
Availability The ratio of uptime to total time (uptime plus downtime).

B
Backup Provision for an alternate means of operation if the primary system is
not available.
Bandwidth Maximum raw data throughput of a communication system or channel.

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Term Description

Base System * A GE Energy Services term to represent the system software and all
the necessary base-application programs. Does not include any custom
applications.
Base System Application * A piece of software (a program) having a purpose that is common to
most users (for example, the WESMAINT II process).
Battery Charger Device that keeps a battery bank fully charged to permit operation
during power system failures.
Baud The signaling speed, or, keying rate of a modem's carrier signal.
• The signaling speed in baud is equal to the reciprocal of the
shortest element duration in seconds to be transmitted.
• The terms “bit rate” and “baud” are not synonymous and are not
interchangeable in usage. Preferred usage is bit rate, or bps, with
baud used only when the details of a communication modem or
channel are specified.
• For example, the distinction between bit rate and baud for two
different types of modems is illustrated.

Signaling technique
Modem one Modem two
Signaling speed 1200 baud
Information Transmitted per 1 bit/baud 2 bits/baud
element duration (Bits per baud)
Bit rate 1200 b/s 2400 b/s

Baud rate A measurement of the speed of a communications line; the number of


times a line can change state in one second; the rate at which a signal is
modulated. It is not the same as Bits Per Second. See Baud above.
Binary A number system having only two symbols (1 and 0), and where values
are expressed in the base two number system.
Binary Input See Digital Input.
Binary Output See Digital Output.
Bit Contraction of binary digit. The smallest unit of information in a binary
system. Has a value of either one (1) or zero (0).
Bit rate The number of bits transferred in a given time interval. Bits per second
(bps) is a measure of the rate at which bits are transmitted.
Bits Per Second The rate at which a communication interface or channel transmits serial
bit stream data in a second.
BootP Server An IP network host that can respond to a BootP request from a network
client with the address and startup information required to BOOT.

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Term Description

Bootstrap Protocol An IP protocol used in a client/server environment to request and


download startup address and information.
Bose-Chaudhuri- A form of cyclic redundancy checking, to detect errors that may have
Hocquenghem been introduced into a message during transmission.
Breaker Device that connects and disconnects energized power circuits.
Breaker failure Backup protection scheme to trip all connected breakers if a breaker
protection fails to trip on a detected fault.
Bridge A computer or network device that connects two or more networks and
forwards data packets among them.
A bridge operates only at the OSI Data Link layer, and can only
recognize addresses and detect errors in packets.
Broadcast Simultaneous transmission of data to all destination addresses on a
network.
Buffer A device in which data are stored temporarily, in the course of
transmission from one point to another; used to compensate for a
difference in the flow of data, or time of occurrence of events, when
transmitting data from one device to another.
Burn-in A period, prior to on-line operation, during which equipment is
continuously energized for the purpose of forcing infant-mortality
failures.
Byte Usually a group of eight adjacent bits that function as a single unit.
Defined as an Octet by the International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC).

C
Calibration Adjustment of a device so that the output is within a specific range for
particular values of the input.
Capacitor bank A group of capacitors used to adjust power circuit impedance.
Change of State A significant change (as defined by a particular system) in the
condition of a point being monitored, for example, a change in flow
rate, temperature, voltage, etc. Usually associated with dual-state status
(that is, alarm/normal conditions).
Channel, SCADA The communication path between master station and RTU
Chatter Filter A facility that s used to disable a digital input point if the number of
state changes of that point during a defined time interval is excessively
high.

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Class A grouping of objects together, based on common characteristics, that


define those things that each of the objects knows and does.
An abstract class has no objects; only its specialization (or their
specializations) may have objects.
Clear Time The amount of time that the select relay will operate after the master
trip or close has operated.
Client A network device that requests information from another (the Server).
Client/Server A communication management scheme in which multiple clients can
request specified information from one device (the Server).
Closed loop control A type of automatic control in which control actions are based on
signals fed back from the controlled equipment or system. For example,
RTUs can manage local voltage conditions by control of load tap
changers and volt-amperes reactive (VAr) control compensation
equipment.
Cold load pickup Automated procedure to change feeder relay settings to pick up load
after an extended outage.
Collision Information or data passing through shared media interferes with
information from another source, corrupting both.
Common mode See also interference, common mode.
interference
Concurrency The performance of two or more actions at approximately the same
time. Some data transfer actions, in which information is moved to
several receivers concurrently, require tests for successful data receipt
at all receivers. Data discards may be required to ensure consistency of
the data used by all of the receivers.
Config Pro * A Windows based software program that operates on a personal
computer and allows you to download configuration information to all
GE Energy Services control products including D10, D20, D200,
DART, SCD, D25.
Confirm A representation (primitive) of an interaction in which a service-
provider indicates, at a particular service-access-point, completion of
some procedure previously invoked, at the service-access-point, by an
interaction represented by a request primitive.
Connectionless A mode of communication where no connection is established prior to
the data transfer; the data transfer itself is a self contained unit carrying
all information, such as address, etc.
Connection-oriented A mode of communication where the data exchange is done in a 3-
phase process: establishment of a connection, transfer of the data,
release of the connection.

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Console That component of the system that provides facilities for observation
and control of the system (e.g., operator's console, maintenance
console).
Contention An operational condition in which two or more devices simultaneously
try to use the same resource (e.g., communication channel, disk,
memory).
Control Arm Time-out The maximum amount of time that a device will wait to receive an
execute command after receiving an arm command.
Control Output Digital Output.
Control panel See: panel, control.
Counter Input An input that can be in one of two states (On or Off), and that is used to
detect and count transitions from one state to the other. Also known as
accumulator.
Custom Application A piece of software (a program) designed to address a particular need
of a particular user. Contrast with base-system application, which
addresses a need common to most users.
Cyclic Redundancy An error-detection scheme that checks the integrity of a transmitted
Check message for errors introduced during transmission.

D
Data Any, representation of a digital or analog quantity to which meaning
has been assigned.
Data Acquisition The collection of data.
Data Concentrator * A communication node comprising a D20 or D200 processor, which
is responsible for polling RTUs and reporting to the master station.
Data Display Data output to operator workstations
Data Element Any significant information or control capability provided by an
application/device that may be of interest and is accessible to some
other application/device. Specifically excluded is any data and/or
control capability only used internally by the application/device so that
it may accomplish its intended function.
Data Integrity Security serviced used to determine if data has been altered or
destroyed in transit.
Data Latency The age of data. I.e., length of time between an event occurrence and
the reporting of the event to the end user.
Data Logging The recording of selected data on suitable media.
Data Rate The rate at which a data path (e.g., channel) carries data, measured in
bits per second (b/s).

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Data-Collection * A software application that acquires data from and sends data to
Application various intelligent electronic devices or modules.
Data-Processing * A software application that accepts requests and processes data as it
Application is required by (usually) a master station.
Data-Translation * A software application that translates data from one form to another
Application (for example digital input to analog input). A data-translation
application usually has no direct interface to external devices.
Deadband The range through which an analog quantity can vary without initiating
response.
Debounce Period The amount of time for which the state of a digital input point must be
detected in a valid “on” or “off” condition before it is considered to be
in that position.
Decimal A number system having ten symbols, and where values are expressed
in the base ten number system.
Default Gateway An IP term describing the primary network gateway on an IP network.
Device 1. Any individual intelligent electronic piece of equipment operating
on a network
2. An operating element (e.g., relay, contactor, circuit breaker, switch,
valve, or governor) used to perform a given function in the
operation of electrical equipment.
Diagnostics, self Programs automatically executed, at predetermined intervals, in the
master station or RTU, to check the health of the system.
Differential mode See interference, differential mode.
interference
Digital Fault Recorder Device that samples and stores analog sensor data during power system
transients for later replay and analysis.
Digital Input An input that can be in one of two states (either “on” or “off”), and is
monitored to detect any change from “normal”. Also known as an
alarm, a binary input, or a status input.
Digital Output An output that can be in one of two states and is used to turn something
on/up or off/down. Comes in two types: trip/close, and raise/lower.
Also known as binary outputs or control outputs.
Directory Collection of open systems which co-operate to hold a logical database
of information about a set of objects in the real world (e.g., OSI users
and network resources).
The directory also provides services for users (people and application
processes) to access the information contained in the repository.
Disable A command or condition that prohibits some specific event from
occurring.

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Disconnect function The process of terminating communication between two applications


executing in two or more IEDs.
Disconnect switch Device that connects and disconnects de-energized power circuits.
Display, graphic: A hardware device (e.g., CRT, VDT, liquid crystal display (LCD),
mapboard, plasma panel, arrays of lamps, or light-emitting diodes) used
to visually present information.
Distributed processing A design in which data is processed by more than one processor.
Double-point A pair of digital input points that can assume four different states.
Accumulator
States 1 and 2 may be described as NORMAL or VALID states, and
states 3 and 4 may be described as ABNORMAL or INVALID states.
Purpose is to detect and count complete changes of state (transitions),
while ignoring any incomplete transitions.
Download The act of transferring data files from one device to another over some
type of communication link or cable.

E
Electromagnetic A measure of electromagnetic radiation from equipment.
interference
Electronically Erasable A type of data storage (memory chip) designed to be programmed more
Programmable Read-only than once. The chips are functionally the same as EPROMs, but are
Memory erased using a particular electrical voltage.
Enable A command or condition that permits some specific event to occur.
Encryption The transformation of data into an encoded form.
Engineering unit A unit of physical measurement (e.g., volts, amperes).
Erasable Programmable A type of data storage (memory chip) designed to be programmed more
Read-only Memory than once, that can be read but not altered by the system, because it is a
type of permanent memory.
Ethernet Common name for 10 Mbps LAN technology, uses CSMA/CD media
access and control techniques
Event A discrete change of state (status) of a system or device.

F
Failover The transfer of a function or functions to a backup device.
Failure An event that limits the capability of equipment or a system to perform
its function(s).
Fault recording Procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of power system
fault data.

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Term Description

File transfer and access The ability to manage efficient transfers of arbitrarily large files of any
format.
File Transfer Protocol The IP standard for transferring files from one host to another across a
network link.
Filter Base 1. The length of time (in milliseconds) during which the maximum
number of state transitions for a digital input point must not be
exceeded, or else the chatter filter turns on and disables the point.
2. * The length of time between reports of events or counter
accumulations (note that if you are using D.20 application, version
7.xx or higher, the filter base does not handle accumulators).
Filter Period See Filter Base
Firmware Data files resident in a processor’s non-volatile memory, or flash
memory
First-level Debouncing A filtering method applied to a raw digital input signal to screen out
glitches or contact bounce. Consists of two phases, tolerant and
intolerant.
Not available in pre-V7.00 versions of the D.20 application.
Form A Counters A single-point type of digital input that counts rising-edge changes of
state (or transitions).
Form C Counters A pair of digital inputs that counts the transitions from one valid state
to the next valid state, while ignoring any transitions to invalid states.
Form A Counts rising edge transitions.
Form B Counts falling edge transitions.
Form C 2 inputs, counts when both change to the opposite state (1 on, 1 off).

G
Gateway 1. An IP device providing similar functions to an OSI router
2. Processor providing communication protocol conversion services
to permit communications between dissimilar data systems. An
example is a communications mediation device that translates data
for communications between IEDs and other user system levels.
Global Positioning Device that acquires precision time and position data from the U.S.
System Receiver Department of Defense system of a constellation of low-orbit satellites.
Graphic display See display, graphic.

H
Hardcopy A paper record of information (e.g., reports, listings, logs, and charts).

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Term Description

Hardware Points The total number of physical input and output points in a system.
Hardware points may be available to multiple LRUs, multiple
applications, as well as to system use.
Hexadecimal A number system having 16 symbols, and where values are expressed
in the base 16 number system.
Commonly used to abbreviate binary data.
High-level Data Link A synchronous communications protocol used by a processor board to
Control communicate with its peripherals.
Historical data Procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of long term power
system-operating data.
Host 1. The client or host station/computer, with which the RTU equipment
communicates. Also called a master or master station.
2. Any intelligent LAN device running the Internet Protocol.
Host Computer Refers to the SCADA computer, also referred to as the Master Station.
Host Name On an IP network, an arbitrary name used as an alias for a network
device’s address
Host Table A list of all Host Names of all IP network devices that is maintained by
each device on the network.
Hub Multi-Port Repeater

I
Indication An audio or visual signal that signifies a particular condition.
Infant mortality failures A characteristic pattern of failure wherein the number of failures per
unit of time decreases rapidly as the number of operating hours
increase.
Inhibit To prevent a specific event from occurring (e.g., alarm inhibit).
Input Settling Time The length of time (in milliseconds) allowed for an analog input signal
to settle before being sampled.
Insulation The dielectric strength of a material.
Intelligent Electronic A single or multifunctional device incorporating one or more
Device processors with the capability to receive or send data/control messages
form or to an external source (e.g., electronic multifunction meters,
digital relays, controllers, RTUs).

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Interference, common 1. Interference that appears between both signal leads and a common
mode reference plane (ground) and causes the potential of both sides of
the transmission path to be changed simultaneously and by the
same amount relative to the common reference plane (ground).
2. A form of interference that appears between any measuring circuit
terminal and ground.
Interference, differential Interference that causes the potential of one side of the signal
mode transmission path to be changed relative to the other side.
Interference, normal A form of interference that appears between measuring circuit
mode terminals. See also: interference, differential mode.
Internet Message Control An integral part of the Internet Protocol that handles communication
Protocol error and control messages.
Interposing relay See also: relay, interposing.
Interrupts The ability of an information source with higher-priority data to pre-
empt communication capacity that is currently in use by traffic of a
lower priority.
Intolerant Phase The second part of first-level debouncing. A period of time during
which the state of a digital input must remain constant.
Invalid Period * - For single-point status inputs and accumulators, the period of time
for which the input must be in the “off” state before being recognized
as such.
- For dual-point status inputs and accumulators, the period of time
during which the inputs must be in an “invalid” state before being
recognized as such.
- This feature is not available in pre-7.00 versions of the D.20
application.

L
LAN Segment A part of an IP network where all network devices share the same
network address.
Line frequency The power utility’s line frequency (in cycles per second). This is
normally 60 Hz in North America, and 50 Hz for other continents.
Load Control Critical quantities (AGC & kWh) used by the master station to match
load and generation and for accounting purposes in the users control
area.
Load Shedding Procedure to manage the shedding and restoration of service under
power system overload conditions.
Load tap changer Device that adjusts a transformer voltage ratio while operating under
load.

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Local Area Network A communication network to interconnect a variety of intelligent


devices (e.g., personal computers, workstations, printers, file storage
devices) that can transmit data over a limited area, typically within a
facility.
Lock-out Period A parameter that defines the length of time that a device or point will
be disabled from operation after exceeding a pre-defined error
condition
Log A record of data.
Logical Remote Unit * An RTU that exists in software, but not physically.
LRUs are created by software partitioning of a single physical RTU so
that it appears to the master station as two or more RTUs.
This technique is usually employed as a means by which to overcome
the point-addressing limitations of a particular protocol, or to form a
logical grouping of data.
Longitudinal An error-detection scheme based on an exclusive OR of transmitted
Redundancy Check characters, accumulated at both the sending and receiving stations
during transmission.

M
Manual Control Control in which the system or main device, whether direct or power-
aided in operation, is directly controlled by an operator.
Master The client or host station or computer, with which the RTU equipment
communicates. Also referred to as a host or host computer.
Master Remote Protocol The UCA 2.0 reduced stack serial implementation of MMS over IEEE
802.2 logical link control and ADLC.
Master Remote Unit An intelligent electronic device that acts as a data concentrator or
master to other intelligent electronic devices (that is, an MRU acquires
data from and sends data to other intelligent electronic devices). Also
referred to as a sub-master or remote-master.
Master Station Refers to the SCADA computer, also referred to as the Host Computer
or client station, with which the RTU equipment communicates.
Master Terminal Unit Refers to the master station of a supervisory control system.
Master/Slave A communication management scheme in which one IED (the Master)
requests a specified one of a group of IEDs (the Slaves) to deliver
specified information. Used where data flows primarily from the
Slaves to the Master. Unsolicited reporting schemes use an implied
initial data request solicitation by the Master.
Max Time to Receive Maximum acceptable amount of time between a message being sent by
Message an application and its being received by the destination application.
The transit delay constitutes only a portion of the total delay.

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Mean Time Between The time interval (hours) that may be expected between failures of an
Failure operating equipment
Mean Time To Repair The time interval (hours) that may be expected to return a failed
equipment to proper operation.
Meter Device that uses sensor data to calculate real and reactive power levels
and energy transfers.
Modem A MOdulator/DEModulator device, which converts serial binary digital
data to and from the signal form appropriate for the respective
communication channel.
Multicast Simultaneous transmission of data to a defined group of destinations on
a network. I.e., a limited broadcast.
Multi-Port Repeater A LAN media distribution center, each connection is isolated from all
others by repeater logic.

N
Network Interface Card A hardware component providing the physical interface between a
LAN device and the LAN media.
Network management The means by which the network can be monitored, controlled, and
updated.
Non-volatile Random A semi-permanent type of data storage (memory) that is backed up by
Access Memory batteries to maintain stored data even if system power is lost. Can be
both read and changed by the system.

O
Object 1. A noun defining a person, place or thing that represents what a
system needs to know and do about an actual object.
2. A passive entity that contains or receives information
Octal A base-8 numbering system
Offset A predetermined value modifying the actual value (e.g., the use of a 4
mA signal to represent zero in a 4 mA to 20 mA system).
One-based Number A number that is determined by counting from one (1) up to the
number. For example, a hypothetical point number three (as a one-
based number) is the third point in a series: 1, 2, 3. Contrast with zero-
based number.
Open Collector A type of digital output. A transistor output that lets you logically
“OR” more than one output together.
Open loop control A form of control without feedback.

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Open System A system, in which various equipment supplied by numerous vendors


can be assembled, easily expanded and upgraded to best meet the needs
of the user. All system interfaces and components are isolated so that
hardware, software, operating systems, etc., can be replaced by that of
another supplier without disruption to the system.
Open Systems ISO communications model for the interconnection of cooperative
Interconnection computer systems

P
Peak Information Rate The maximum amount of information, expressed in bits/second, that
will be transmitted to and received from this application. Note that this
is not the peak data rate, which includes overhead from the protocol
being utilized.
Peer-to-peer The ability of pairs of network nodes to manage mutual information
transfers without invoking the support of other nodes. The ability for
two applications to communicate with each other without having to rely
on the services of a third application not directly involved in
performing the function. For example, two capacitor controllers may
have to exchange information without requiring the services of a master
station. Note that whether the applications communicate indirectly via
a repeater, bridge, or router is not an issue here.
Peripheral Board * With reference to the Harris D20/200 RTU family, one of several
types of intelligent input and/or output modules that are controlled by
the D.20 application.
Ping Acronym for Packet Internet Groper
A utility that can test the “reachability” of destinations on an IP
network. It uses an ICMP echo request, and waits for its reply.
Point Description A brief description associated with a system point.
Point Descriptor See Point Description
Point to Point Protocol An IP Protocol for framing messages for sending across serial
communications lines.
Polling Communications access control procedure where a primary (master)
station systematically invites secondary stations, one at a time, to
transmit data.
Polling for Exceptions A Polling technique is used for obtaining Report by Exception data.
Port An interface point connecting a communications channel and a device.
Power Quality Procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of power quality
monitoring data at sub-transmission and distribution load points.
Primary An equipment or subsystem that is normally on-line and performing
system functions. See also backup.

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Programmable Logic General-purpose user-programmable control device.


Controller
ProLogic A PLC type of user programming function provided as standard on
most GE Energy Services products. Requires an optional PC based
ladder logic editor program.
Propagation Delays A measure of the length of time required to move information from one
device to another over a communication path.
Proprietary Equipment, hardware, software, designs or written words that may not
be released to other parties without written permission unless no longer
supported by the original manufacturer.
Protocol A strict procedure required to initiate and maintain communication.
Pseudo Points System data points generated internally by a software application.
They often represent the results of a calculation, or the internal state of
a process.
Pulse-type telemeter A telemeter that employs characteristics of intermittent electric signals,
other than their frequency, as the translating means.

Q
Quality of Service A parameter specifying the level of performance needed by
communications, such as transit delay, priority, accuracy, or reliability.
Quiescent Operation A system that is normally alert but inactive.
It transmits information only when a change in indication occurs at the
RTU or when a command operation is initiated at the master station.

R
Raise/Lower A type of digital output. Raise/lowers are controls that allow for an
increase or decrease of some action over a specified period of time.
Random Access Memory A type of temporary data storage (memory) that can be read and
changed while the computer is in use. Data stored in random-access
memory is lost if the system loses power.
Reactor bank A group of inductors used to adjust power circuit impedance.
Read Only Memory A type of permanent data storage (memory) that can be read but not
altered by the system. Data stored in read-only memory is not affected
by power loss to the system.
Recloser A special-purpose breaker with integral relaying that automatically
trips and recloses it to minimize service restoration time after
temporary faults.
Redundant Routing To protect from communication link failures, alternate or redundant
communication paths may be supported.

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Term Description

Reference Check A periodic test performed on the reference voltage sources of the
analog input peripheral boards.
Reference Deadband The allowable difference between the running references and a pre-
defined stored reference value before an error is generated.
Relay, interposing A device that enables the energy in a high-power circuit to be switched
by a low-power control signal, provides isolation, and/or provides
contact multiplication.
Relaying Forwarding information through an intermediate system to reach a
destination end system.
Remote control Control of a device from a distant point.
Remote Terminal Unit 1. Device that concentrates sensor data for transfer to, and accepts
power system device control commands from, an external SCADA
system.
2. A piece of equipment located at a distance from a master station to
monitor and control the status of outlying equipment, and to
communicate the information back to the master station or host.
Repeater A hardware device used to extend a LAN. It copies and regenerates
signals from one physical network segment to another.
Because it operates at the OSI Physical layer, it does not check or
respond to the signals passing through it.
Report-by-exception The reporting of data (e.g., from RTU to master station) only when the
data either changes state (e.g., for a status or digital input point) or
exceeds a predefined deadband (e.g., for an analog input point).
Resolution The least value of the measured quantity that can be distinguished.
Response time The time between initiating some operation, and obtaining results.
Retries In a communication system, it is the number of subsequent attempts a
network device will make after it recognizes that the first attempt to
transmit traffic has failed.
Router An intelligent device that connects two or more networks, and forwards
packets from one to another.
A router uses sophisticated algorithms to determine the best path and
techniques to forward information from one host to another.
Routing The process of determining a path for data to traverse the network by
using knowledge of the network topology and loading.

S
Scan (interrogation) The process by which a data acquisition system interrogates RTUs for
points of data. See also polling (data request).

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Scan cycle The time in seconds required to obtain a collection of data (e.g. all data
from one RTU, all data from all RTUs, or all data of a particular type
from all RTUs).
Scan Enable A feature that allows or disallows a particular input point to be scanned.
Segmenting A function performed where a data stream is broken down into groups
of a pre-defined size.
Select Before Operate Two-part command sequence for high communications security and
hardware verification before the control is actually executed.
Self-diagnostics See: diagnostics, self.
Sensor Sensing device for physical variables such as AC and DC Voltage and
Current, Switch Status, Temperature, Humidity, etc.
Sequence of Events 1. Digital input points that are time tagged to include relative or
absolute time of occurrence.
2. A time-tagged change of state, logged as part of a chronological
record of significant changes in the condition of a particular point
or points being monitored.
Sequencing A function performed by a device’s communication software to
preserve the order of information units that were transmitted to another
device or communication process.
Serial communication A method of transmitting information between devices by sending all
bits serially over a single communication channel.
Server The responder to a communications request.
Service Access Point Conceptually identifies the point at which a service is made available to
a user.
Service Primitive An abstract model describing how an OSI service is requested or
accepted.
Setpoint See Analog output.
Settling time Time required by channel or terminal equipment to reach an acceptable
operating condition.
Slave Responding device in a polling network
Software Debouncing A method used to determine whether a digital input has actually
changed state, or whether a perceived change of state was actually
contact bounce or other line noise.
Source code A piece of code that has not yet been compiled or assembled (that is, it
is still in the language it was programmed in) and so cannot yet run on
a machine.

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Source Routing A type of routing whereby the route is determined by the source station
for each transaction sent through the communication network to a
desired destination station.
The routing information is contained within each frame/packet.
Status Information describing a logical state of a point or equipment.
Status Input See Digital Input.
Sub-Master Refers to an RTU that is responsible for polling other RTUs and
reporting to the master station.
Subnet Mask A 32 bit code used by IP hosts to identify which part of an IP address
represents the (sub)network address and which part of the IP address
represents the host.
Sub-Remote (Unit) Refers to an RTU that is polled and reports to a sub-master RTU.
Supervisory Control And A system operating with coded signals over communication channels
Data Acquisition so as to provide control of RTU equipment.
The supervisory system may be combined with a data acquisition
system by adding the use of coded signals over communication
channels to acquire information about the status of the RTU equipment
for display or for recording.
Switch Device that connects and disconnects de-energized power circuits.
System Points 1. A list of points owned by a data-collection application or a data-
translation application. System points may include hardware points,
and pseudo-points.
2. Input or output points that are organized and numbered by type
System time A coordinated value of time maintained throughout the control and data
acquisition equipment.

T
TELNET The TCP/IP standard protocol for remote (character-mode) terminal
service.
Time-out The maximum length of time an application will wait for a service to
respond to a request.
Timer, watchdog A form of interval timer that is used to detect a possible malfunction.
Transaction That sequence of messages between master and remote stations
required to perform a specific function (e.g., acquire specific data or
control a selected device).
Transmission Control The IP’s standard reliable, connection-based transport level protocol
Protocol

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Transverse Mode See interference, differential mode.


Interference
Trip/Close A type of digital output that opens (Trips) and closes a relay or switch.
Trivial File Transfer The IP standard protocol for connectionless file transfer Uses UDP as
Protocol a delivery service
Troubleshoot Action taken by operating or maintenance personnel, or both, to isolate
a malfunctioned component of a system. Actions may be supported by
printed procedures, diagnostic circuits, test points, and diagnostic
routines.

U
Uninterruptible Power A system designed to automatically provide power, without delay or
Supply transients, during any period when the normal power supply is
incapable of performing acceptably.
Unsolicited Reporting Reporting schemes where the slave initiates a message to a master -
usually used to indicate the change or alarm data is available for
retrieval.
Unsolicited Response This application includes a function, which requires the ability to notify
another application than an event has occurred, without waiting to be
polled for the information.
Upload The process of transferring information from one device or network to
another device or network
Uptime The time during which a device or system is capable of meeting
functional requirements.
User Datagram Protocol The IP standard connectionless protocol that allows application
programs to send one datagram at a time to another application on a
remote system
User interface A physical interface between the operator and the system equipment.

V
Video Display Terminal The visual equipment used as a user interface. See also user interface
(U1).
Virtual connection The ability of a network and associated devices to provide a data
pipeline function whereby messages can be passed unaltered from a
user (remote or local) to an IED connected to the network.
The user would see little difference (look, feel, response) between a
local physical connection to the IED and the remote virtual
connections.

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Virus A self-replicating, malicious program-segment that attaches itself to an


application program or other executable system component and leaves
no external signs of its presence.
Voltage Regulator A device that automatically adjusts a voltage level.

W
Watchdog Timer See timer, watchdog.

Y
Y2K Compliant Computer systems or applications that accurately process date/time
data (including but not limited to, calculating, comparing, and
sequencing) from, into and between the twentieth and twenty-first
centuries, the years 1999 and 2000, and leap-year calculations.
Y2K Ready A computer system or application that has been determined to be
suitable for continued use into the year 2000 even though the computer
system or application is not fully Y2K compliant.

Z
Zero-based Number A number that is determined by counting from zero (0) up to the
number. For example, a hypothetical point number three (as a zero-
based number) is the fourth point in a series: 0, 1, 2, 3. Contrast with
one-based number.

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