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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents review of some relevant theories and studies

concerning with the discussion about background of the study, formulation of

research problems, the objectives of the research, the significance of the study, the

scope and limitation of the study, definition of key terms and the organization of

the study.

A. Background of the Study

Language is a means in which people use it to communicate with other

people. Language has important part in our life. In our life language has amazing

influence in which, using language can differentiate between people and

animals1.

Language develops base on the development of period. We can see how

language changes between formerly and now. Like a story in the Leonard

Bloomfield’s book, about Jack and Jill story. One day Jill looked at an apple on

the tree. Jill wanted the apple. Later Jill made sound with her larynx, tongue and

lips. She did it by the purpose that Jill wanted Jack to crate an apple for her 2.

This story implies that the people before period also used language to

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Leonard Bloomfield, Bahasa, (Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1995), 1
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Ibid…………,20

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communicate although their method was very simple. But, later the people

communication develops.

Now in the world there are many kinds of languages. For example are

English, Indonesian, Chinese, Javanese, Japan, etc. One of them is English as

international language. The students are directed to learn English both in oral

and written contexts. The capability of using English is very useful for the

students. The language capability can help the students improve themselves

intellectually, socially, and emotionally.

By realizing the importance of English, the government of Indonesian has

decided to place it as a compulsory subject to be taught at schools from

kindergarten school up to university level. Especially at junior high school and

senior high school, English is an obligatory lesson they must take.

Speaking is one of four skills in English. Speaking is the process of

building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols,

in a variety of contexts3. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning

and teaching. Despite it is importance, for many years, teaching has been

undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking

just as a repetition, drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today’s world

requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students

communicative skills, learn only in that way students can express themselves

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Chaney, ………., 1998, P.13
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and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each

communicative circumstance4.

Teaching is process of transfer knowledge for the students. Teaching

speaking is process of teaching speaking for the students. Teaching speaking

must have the students in the English teaching learning process. Teaching

speaking is very important part of second language learning. Since there are

some techniques to teaching to speaking, teachers must know the most effective

method used in teaching speaking. In teaching learning speaking process the

teachers must look for appropriate and effective methods for teaching speaking.

The example of techniques that can be used are discussions, role play, brain

storming, interviews, storytelling, drama, watching TV and etc. There is no a

single best method to teaching speaking. Every method has it’s strength ness and

weaknesses. For example storytelling is an interesting strategy in teaching

speaking, but the weakness is the senior high school students have limited

vocabulary. Besides, watching film is also very interesting activity. But the

students feel difficult to scrutinize, listen and understand vocabulary and

pronunciation in film. The causes the students are unusually to listen English

vocabulary spoken by native speakers.

In the teaching speaking process the teachers using drama. They feel that

it’s more effective method. Because this method can combine many method. To

teach speaking by using drama, teachers can combine two elements, they are

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http://Unr.edu/homepage/hayryek kayih [at] unr nevada. Edu University of Nevada (Nevada, USA)
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speaking and movement. However, practically in teaching speaking using drama,

teachers must combine many factors. Firstly, the students must know the story

will be show, the students must understand about grammar and application, the

students must often read novel in order that they know how to make good

dialogue, and the students must often watching film in order that they can

improve their pronunciation, diction and fluency skills. With use combine many

skills hope that the students can improve their speaking well.

Teaching speaking using drama very suitable when using in teaching

speaking at senior high school. May be this technique look foreign, but this

technique very interesting and challenged. Majority senior high school students

have active and expressive characteristic. So when the teachers do this

technique, the teaching learning process will be done fluently. Beside that the

students feel enjoy in teaching learning process. The feel challenge do learning

process when they get part in the process. These activities make the students

more active in the learning process and at the some time their learning more

meaningful and fun for them. Based on the background above, the researcher is

interested the introducing the teach of speaking by using drama.

B. Formulation of Research Problem

In this research the researcher of design is descriptive. Although this

research is descriptive, the researcher to describe her teaching and learning


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speaking process by using drama. Many things the researcher explanation,

there are :

1. How is the preparation in teaching speaking by using drama ?

2. How is the process to teach speaking by using drama at SMA N I Gondang?

3. What are the problem in teaching speaking by using drama at SMA N I

Gondang?

4. How is the solves of the problem in teaching speaking by using drama ?

5. How are the students respond they are taught by using drama ?

C. The Objectives of the Research

1. To introduce the preparation to teaching speaking by using drama

2. To introduce the process to teach speaking by using drama at SMA N I

Gondang

3. To know the problems in teaching speaking by using drama at SMA N I

Gondang.

4. To looking for how the solves the problem in teaching speaking by using

drama.

5. To know the student’s responses when the teacher teaches speaking by using

drama.

D. The Significance of the Study

In this thesis the writer expects that the results of this research can be

useful for the teacher and the students. For the teachers the results of the study
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can be used to develop their skills in teaching English and to be creative in

applying a particular technique. For the students of SMA Negeri I Gondang to

have more motivation to study and not to be shy or afraid to express their

opinions.

E. The Scope and Limitation of The Study

The study is conducted at SMA Negeri I Gondang. The study focuses on

the teachers preparation to teaching speaking by using drama, the process to

teach speaking by using drama to extending the students capability in speaking

English at SMA Negeri I Gondang, the teachers problems in teaching speaking

by using drama at SMA Negeri I Gondang, the teacher solve this problem and the

students responses when the teacher teaches speaking by using drama.

F. Definition of Key Terms

1 Drama

a. Conceptual

Drama is a phenomenon in human life which has a soul conflict,

turbulence, clash or impact between two or more people 5.

b. Operational

In this research I use drama in the teaching and learning process

The means of drama is combination between action, speaking and

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http://pakguruonline.pendidikan.net/buku_tua_pakguru_dasar_kpdd_b12.html
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expression of face to express something condition. So in the process of

learning speaking students must combine between speaking, actions and

expression.

2 Teaching Speaking

a. Conceptual

As quoted by Evans and Brueckner opinion the concept of

teaching are :

1. To explain the capability to looking for the knowledge life long

2. To honor for the children’s and young.

3. Mengongsi knowledge

4. To guidance, to direction, to help, to fertile and to stake.

5. To constant matlamat for themselves and the student.

6. To face insipid self and professional.

7. To lead culture value and nationalism.

8. To real lice the consciousness and appreciation about your potency.

b. Operational

In this research I do the research by my self. My purpose are to

introduce for the students about new technique in the teaching speaking

English. In this study I introduce how is learning speaking using drama,

so they can develop their speaking skill.

G. The Organization of the Study


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This thesis is divided into five chapters :

Chapter I : Introduction it consists of Background of the study, Formulation

of Research Problem, The Objectives of the study, The

Significance of the study, the Scope and Limitation of the study,

the Definition of key term and the Organization of the study.

Chapter II : Review of related literature, it presents definition of speaking,

Teaching speaking, Techniques in teaching speaking, definition

of real action, Definition of drama and the process of teaching

speaking using drama.

Chapter III : Research Methodology, it consists of Research design, Time and

place of the research, Subjects of the study, Variable, Data

collecting methods and instrument and Data analysis techniques.

Chapter IV : Research finding and discussion, it consists of Description of

research object and Data presentation and analysis.

Chapter V : Conclusion and suggestion.