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Inamullah Khan 2012/KMU/RCN/59 4 t h year Class NO 52 inamullah Khan 1
Inamullah Khan 2012/KMU/RCN/59 4 t h year Class NO 52 inamullah Khan 1
Inamullah Khan 2012/KMU/RCN/59 4 t h year Class NO 52 inamullah Khan 1
Inamullah Khan 2012/KMU/RCN/59 4 t h year Class NO 52 inamullah Khan 1
Inamullah Khan 2012/KMU/RCN/59 4 t h year Class NO 52 inamullah Khan 1

Inamullah Khan

2012/KMU/RCN/59

4 th year Class NO 52

Angina  Angina pectoris -(Latin: squeezing of the chest) is chest pain, discomfort, or tightness
Angina  Angina pectoris -(Latin: squeezing of the chest) is chest pain, discomfort, or tightness
Angina  Angina pectoris -(Latin: squeezing of the chest) is chest pain, discomfort, or tightness
Angina  Angina pectoris -(Latin: squeezing of the chest) is chest pain, discomfort, or tightness

Angina

Angina pectoris -(Latin: squeezing

of the chest) is chest pain, discomfort,

or tightness that occurs when an area

of the heart muscle is receiving decreased blood oxygen supply.

Types of Angina  Pain or discomfort in the chest that typically lasts from 1
Types of Angina  Pain or discomfort in the chest that typically lasts from 1
Types of Angina  Pain or discomfort in the chest that typically lasts from 1
Types of Angina  Pain or discomfort in the chest that typically lasts from 1

Types of Angina

Pain or discomfort in the chest that

typically lasts from 1 to 15 minutes. The

condition is classified by the pattern of

attacks into Stable, and Unstable angina.

Stable angina  Stable (or chronic) angina is brought on when the heart is working
Stable angina  Stable (or chronic) angina is brought on when the heart is working
Stable angina  Stable (or chronic) angina is brought on when the heart is working
Stable angina  Stable (or chronic) angina is brought on when the heart is working

Stable angina

Stable (or chronic) angina is brought on when the heart is working harder than usual, such as during exercise. It has a regular pattern

and can be happen over months or even years.

Symptoms are relieved by rest or medication.

Unstable angina  Unstable angina does not follow a regular pattern. It can occur when
Unstable angina  Unstable angina does not follow a regular pattern. It can occur when
Unstable angina  Unstable angina does not follow a regular pattern. It can occur when
Unstable angina  Unstable angina does not follow a regular pattern. It can occur when

Unstable angina

Unstable angina does not follow a regular pattern. It can occur when at rest and is considered more serious as it is not relieved by

rest or medicine. This version can signal a

future heart attack within a short time - hours or weeks.

Angina risk factors Risk factors include :  Unhealthy cholesterol levels  Hypertension Tobacco smoking
Angina risk factors Risk factors include :  Unhealthy cholesterol levels  Hypertension Tobacco smoking
Angina risk factors Risk factors include :  Unhealthy cholesterol levels  Hypertension Tobacco smoking
Angina risk factors Risk factors include :  Unhealthy cholesterol levels  Hypertension Tobacco smoking

Angina risk factors

Risk factors include:

Unhealthy cholesterol levels

Hypertension Tobacco smoking

Diabetes

Being overweight or obese

Sedentary lifestyle

Being over 45 for men and over 55 for women

Causes of angina  Angina is most frequently the result of underlying coronary artery disease.

Causes of angina

Angina is most frequently the result of underlying coronary artery disease. Physical exertion is a common trigger for stable angina. Unstable angina is often caused by blood clots that partially or totally block an

artery.

Symptoms of angina  Angina is usually felt as a squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightening, squeezing,

Symptoms of angina

Angina is usually felt as a squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightening, squeezing, burning or aching across the chest, usually starting behind the breastbone. This pain often spreads to the neck, jaw, arms, shoulders, throat, back, or even the teeth.

Stable angina usually is unsurprising, lasts a short period of time, and may feel like gas or indigestion. Unstable

angina occurs at rest, is surprising, last longer, and may

worsen over time.

Exams and Tests  Coronary angiography  Blood cholesterol profile  ECG  Nuclear medicine

Exams and Tests

Coronary angiography Blood cholesterol profile ECG Nuclear medicine (thallium) stress test

Nursing Assessment  Gather information about the patient’s symptoms and activities, especially those that precede

Nursing Assessment

Gather information about the patient’s

symptoms and activities, especially those

that precede and precipitate attacks of

angina pectoris. The patient’s response to angina

Nursing Diagnosis  Ineffective Cardiac Tissue Perfusion secondary to CAD as evidenced by chest pain

Nursing Diagnosis

Ineffective Cardiac Tissue Perfusion

secondary to CAD as evidenced by chest

pain or other prodromal symptoms

Deficient knowledge about underlying disease and methods for avoiding

complications

Planning and Goals  Goals include immediate and appropriate treatment when angina occurs, prevention of

Planning and Goals

Goals include immediate and appropriate treatment when angina occurs, prevention

of angina, reduction of anxiety, awareness

of the disease process and understanding of the prescribed care.

Nursing Interventions  Take immediate action if patient reports pain or if the person’s symptoms

Nursing Interventions

Take immediate action if patient reports pain or if the person’s symptoms suggest anginal ischemia

Direct the patient to stop all activities and sit or rest

in bed in a semi Fowler’s position to reduce the

oxygen requirements of the ischemic myocardium.

Measure vital signs and observe for signs of respiratory distress. Administer oxygen therapy if the patient’s respiratory rate is increased or if the oxygen saturation level is decreased.

Evaluation  Expected Patient Outcomes  Reports that pain is relieved  Reports decreased anxiety

Evaluation

Expected Patient Outcomes Reports that pain is relieved

Reports decreased anxiety

Understands ways to avoid complications and demonstrates freedom from complications

Complies with self care program

Medication  The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin  Beta Blockers and
Medication  The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin  Beta Blockers and
Medication  The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin  Beta Blockers and
Medication  The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin  Beta Blockers and

Medication

The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin Beta Blockers and calcium channel blockers Aspirin.