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Important rules of GRAMMAR.

I hope It will be
helpful for you. These were written(typed) by me.
1. NOUN
1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.

Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse,


fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry,
business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics,
innings, gallows.

ex. The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting.

2. Some nouns are singular in meaning, but they are used as plural
nouns and always take a plural verb.

Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company,


police.

ex. The cattle are grazing in the ground.

3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a
plural verb.

Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms,


premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.

ex. Where are my trousers?

4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money,


weight or number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they
remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand,
million.

ex. It is a five – years degree course. (correct use- year)

5. Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee,


government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as
singular and Plural. It depends on the usage.

ex. The jury was divided in their opinion. (correct use- were)

ex. The team have not arrived yet. (correct use- has)

6. Noun - Preposition - Noun Case:

Preposition: in, on, at, of, for, after, before, into, with, by, between,
among,....etc

ex. Be judicious in using your time , minutes after minutes are passing.
(incorrect)

-> Be judicious in using your time , minute after minute is passing.

7. Use of Apostrophe 's' : ('s):

-> The Ram House of ram = Ram's house

(a) Never use apostrophe with non-living like wood, table, chair etc.

(b) We can use (" 's ") with nouns which not come in the category of
living and non-living.

ex: America's Problems , Nature's law , A meter's length , A Kg's sugar

ex. Ram and Shyam's house

ex. His wife's secretary's mother has died (incorrect)


-> Mother of his wife's secretary has died. (Correct)

(c) Two apostrophe cannot come together in a single sentence.

ex. I visited John's and Marry's house twice but found the couple
absent. [Correct: John and Marry's]

(d) We can use ";" only with the words which are ended with 's'.

ex: Kalidas' work

2. PRONOUN
8. The pronoun one must be followed by one s .

ex. One must finish his homework in time. (Incorrect)

-> One must finish one s homework in time. (Correct)

9. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc.,
when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after
them. When self is added to my , your , him , her , and it , and
selves to our and them – they are known as reflexive pronouns.

ex. He absented from the meeting. (Incorrect)

-> He absented himself from the meeting. (Correct)

10. Who denotes the subject and whom is used for the object?

who : It s the subject of a verb—e.g., Who gave you that book?

It s a predicate nominative (a noun in the predicate that renames or


refers to the sentence s subject)—ex. This is who I am.

-> 'Whom' is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives


the action of a verb. It also has two main uses:
It is the object of a verb—e.g., Whom should I call?

It is the object of a preposition—e.g., From whom did you get this


information?

11. When two or more singular nouns are connected by either or ;


neither nor , ; and or , the pronoun used is singular.

ex. Either Rohan or Sohan will give their bike. (Incorrect)

-> Either Rohan or sohan will give his bike. (Correct)

12. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by or , nor , the
pronoun must be plural.

ex. Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect)

-> Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)

13. Each other is used when there are two subjects or objects and
one another when there are more than two.

ex. Ram and Sita loved each other.

ex. Those five students, who are sitting there, love one another.

14. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a


sentence, the serial order of persons should be as follows;

second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in normal sentences. But


when mistake or fault is expressed in the sentence, the order should
be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third person(3). RULE-231

ex. You, he and I have finished the work. (Normal idea)


ex. I, you and he are to blame. ( here Confession of guilt is expressed ,
it s a negative idea, hence order is 123)

15.Pronoun used after these {Is , are , was , were , be , been , such as ,
but , except} will be used in nominative form {I , we , you , he , she , it
, they}

ex. I have not seen such a consummate artist as him. (incorrect)

-> I have not seen such a consummate artist as him. (correct)

16. Pronoun after verb & preposition will be used in objective form
{me , us , you , him , her , it , them}

17. Pronoun coming before verb will be used in possessive form {my ,
our , your , his , her , its , their}

ex. I'm so well prepared that there is no question of me failing in the


examination. (incorrect)

-> I'm so well prepared that there is no question of my failing in the


examination. (correct)

18. After these verbs [avail of , enjoy , apply , resign] , Reflexive


pronoun will be come if these verbs are in active form & there is no
object after these verbs.

ex. An intelligent man always avails of every opportunity. (incorrect)

-> An intelligent man always avails himself of every opportunity.


(correct)

19. If before relative pronoun , these words are coming then we


always used "that" not "who or which".
[All , much , anything , the only , the same , nothing , anybody ,
somebody , nobody , none , Adjective in superlative degree]

ex. All which glitters is not gold. (incorrect)

-> All that glitters is not gold. (correct)

3. Adjective
20. "Some" is used in the affirmative sentence "any" is used in
negative and interrogative sentence.

ex. I don t want some chocolates. (Incorrect)

-> I don t want any chocolates (Correct)

ex. I will have any tea. (Incorrect)

-> I will have some tea. (Correct)

21. Use of little, a little, the little:

-> Little means Nothing' in quantity.

Ex. There is little water in the bottle

-> A little means Some in quantity if not much.

Ex. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

-> The little means not much in quantity but all that is .

Ex.-I spent the little money I had.

22. The use of few , a few and the few should be used with care
they denote number.

-> Few means 'nothing'.


-> A few means SOME AT LEAST

-> The few means WHATEVER THERE IS .

ex. I read few books.

ex. I Read a few books.

ex. I Read the few books I had.

23. Each is used to indicate a limited number and EVERY to denote


an unlimited number in selection or choice.

Ex.- Everyone of the two boys was given a prize. (Incorrect)

-> Each one of the two boys was given a prize (Correct)

ex. He came to see us Each day. (Incorrect)

-> He came to see us Every day. (Correct)

24. 'Other' used in Singular countable noun , 'Another' used in Plural


countable noun and 'Any other' used in Singular & plural both but in
negative sentences.

ex. Only first two are entitled to get prize. It will not be given to any
other.

25. If all is coming alone & without noun and after 'All' no verb came
then 'all' used in singular form.

ex. All is good when you are good.

26. In positive degree we used "as+ adj+ as" & In negative degree we
used "So+ adj+ as"
ex. In terms of human resources India is as developed as any other
country.

27. The comparative adjectives, ending with like superior, inferior,


senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior, exterior etc. Take to after
them and not than .

ex.-He is senior than me. (Incorrect)

-> He is senior to me. (Correct)

ex. Health is preferable than wealth. (Incorrect)

-> Health is preferable to wealth. (Correct)

28. With "Prefer" we used two types of structures

(a) Subject + prefer + noun/pronoun/gerund + to +


noun/pronoun/gerund

(b) Subject + prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1

ex. A poor man prefers poverty with continuing lethargy than


prosperity with perseverance. (incorrect)

-> A poor man prefers poverty with continuing lethargy to prosperity


with perseverance. (correct)

ex. The brave would prefer to lay down their lives rather than to yield.
(incorrect)

-> The brave would prefer to lay down their lives rather than yield.
(correct)
29. Structure of double comparative -

The + comparative + subject + V, The + comparative + subject + v

ex. The further up you go , the cleaner Ganga you find.

30. Comparative degree must be used when the comparison is


between two persons of things and superlative degree when the
comparison is among more than two things.

ex.- Who is the tallest of these two brothers ? (Incorrect)

-> Who is taller of these two brothers ? (Correct)

ex. He is wise of all students in the class. (Incorrect)

-> He is the wisest of all students in the class. (Correct)

31. When a comparison is introduced and has ANY after it, the things
compared must always be excluded from the class of things with
which it is compared, by using OTHER

ex. London is larger than any city in England. (Incorrect)

-> London is larger than any other city in England (Correct)

ex. Ram is cleverer than any student in his class (Incorrect)

Ram is cleverer than any other student in his class. (Correct)

32. Use of less and fewer

Less - Quantity

Fewer - Number

Ex. There is fewer sugar in your tea than in mine. (Incorrect)


-> There is less sugar in your tea than in mine. (Correct)

33. One of -> Adjective (superlative degree) -> Noun (Plural)

ex. India is one of the fastest developing countries of the world.

34. Some adjectives like (Perfect, Ideal, Full, Chief, Unique, Complete,
Infinite, Extreme, Entire, Universal, Empty, Impossible, Unanimous,
square, sound etc. are not compared as they express meaning which
do not admit of any variation of degrees.

Ex.-This achievement was most unique. (Incorrect)

-> His achievement was unique. (Correct)

35. The comparative ending in er is not used when we compare two


qualities in the same person or thing. In that case we use more
before the Adjective.

ex.- Ram is braver than wise. (Incorrect)

-> Ram is more brave than wise (Correct)

36. Use of (Later, Latter; latest, last):

Later and Latest – shows time

Latter and last – shows position

Ex.-He latter refused to come (Incorrect)

-> He later refused to come. (Correct)

ex. The later part of the novel is not clearly written (Incorrect)

-> The latter part of the novel is not clearly written . (Correct)
37. Use of (farther, further; farthest, furthest)

Farther, Farthest - denote distance

Further, Furthest - next, also (position)

ex. After this he made no further statement.

ex. Delhi is farther from Haridwar than Roorkee.

38. Use of (Elder, older; Eldest, oldest):

Elder and eldest – are used of members of the same family.

Older and oldest are used for persons or things.

Elder takes To after it while older takes than

Ex. I have an older brother (Incorrect)

-> I have an elder brother (Correct)

ex. Mohan is the eldest boy in the town. (Incorrect)

-> Mohan is the oldest boy in the town. (Correct)

4. Adverb
39. Adverb of manner are mostly formed from adjective by adding (ly)

Ex.- (Clever - Cleverly), (Wise - Wisely)

40. Some words are adjective & adverb both so we don't used "ly"
with them. [ fast , long , low , straight , well]

41. Adverb of manner are generally placed after the verb or after the
object if there is one.
Ex. It is raining heavily.

ex. He is walking slowly.

ex. He does his work carefully.

42. Adverbs of frequency are normally placed before the main verb
and after the auxiliary (is, am, are, was, were, had, have, will, shall
etc.)

ex. He enchanted the entire audience as he talked to it nicely.

43. If these words are coming at start of the sentence then auxiliary
verb always comes before the subject.

(always, never, often, rarely, usually, generally, sometimes, almost,


already, hardly, nearly, just, quite, occasionally, scarcely, seldom, nor,
no, not, only by, only in this way, only when/then, In/under no
circumstances, on no account, So + adjective)

ex. There is no other way; only by hard labor you can get success.
(Incorrect)

-> There is no other way; only by hard labor can you get success.
(correct)

44. SO as an adverb of degree must not be used without a


correlative.

Ex. He is so weak. (incorrect)

-> He is very weak (Correct)

ex. He is so weak that he cannot walk.


45. The adverb too means more than enough and should not be
used instead of every or much . Format - Too + adjective + to v1

ex. The news is too good to be true.

ex. He is too weak to walk.

46. "Rather" is used for dislike something in negative form & "Fairly"
used in positive form.

ex. In hot summer, tea seems rather hot.

ex. In winter, tea seems fairly hot.

47. Adverb ENOUGH is always placed after the word which it


qualifies.

ex. Is the hall big enough ?

ex. He spoke loud enough to be heard.

48. The auxiliaries have to and used to prefer the adverb before
them.

ex. I often have to go to college by walk.

ex. He never used to agree with me.

49. Else should be followed by but

Ex. It is nothing else but pride.

50. Adverb AS is used with the following verbs:

[Regard, Describe, define, treat, view, know]

ex. I regard him as my brother.


ex. Biology had been defined as the study of organism.

-> Adverb AS is not used with the following verbs-

[Name, elect, think, consider, call, appoint, make, choose]

51. Use of hard, hardly, scarce, scarcely:

-> Hard – as an adverb means Diligently . It usually follows the verb.

ex. He works hard to make both ends meet.

-> Hardly – When used as an adverb means scarcely, barely. It conveys


a negative meaning.

Hardly (Scarcely) had he reached the station, when the train left.

[Hardly and scarcely are followed by when]

[No sooner is followed by than]

-> Scarce – as an adjective means not plentiful, hard to find, not


often found.

Ex.- Coal has become scarce in England.

-> Scarcely – as an adverb is almost synonymous Hardly

ex. They have scarcely enough to look after their children.

5. Rules of Conjunction & Preposition


-> A conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences or
clauses, and sometimes words.

ex. Though , Although , but , however , Nevertheless , yet , Because ,


since , as , In order that , so that
-> A preposition is a word placed before a noun (or a pronoun) to
show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands to
something else.

ex. In spite of , Despite , Notwithstanding , Because of , Due to ,


Owing to , On account of , In order to , So as to

Rules
52. (a) No sooner - than , Scarcely/Hardly - when

ex. No sooner did he start writing when his pen ran out of ink. (x)

-> No sooner did he start writing when his pen ran out of ink. (correct)

(b) If no sooner / hardly or scarcely came in starting of the sentence


then Auxiliary verb is also came before the subject. This rule is not
applicable when they came at the middle.

ex. Hardly he stood to deliver his speech when there was a


pandemonium. (x)

-> Hardly did he stand to deliver his speech when there was a
pandemonium. (correct)

ex. He no sooner moved from his place than it was acquired by some
other person.

53. Not only - But also

Not only ----> verb ; But also ------> Verb

-> take care of sequence

ex. In the scuffle I not only lost my purse but also my gold watch also.
54. Both - And

-> take care of sequence

ex. Both Ram as well as some of his friends have come during their
holidays. (x)

-> Both Ram and some of his friends have come during their holidays.
(c)

55. So - That

ex. He is so intelligent and hence everybody admired him. (x)

-> He is so intelligent that everybody admired him. (c)

56. Such - as/that

"Such...as" is used to denote a category whereas "such...that"


emphasizes the degree of something by mentioning its consequence.

ex. Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems
necessary. (x)

-> Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action that it
deems necessary.(c)

57. Though/Although - "Yet" and ","

-----> But will never used with Though / although

ex. Although he is hardworking, but he does not get a job. (x)

-> Although he is hardworking, yet he does not get a job. (c)

-----> Though/Although is used with contradictory sentences


(sentences expressing opposite views).
ex. Since she was sick, she attended the party. (x)

-> Though she was sick, she attended the party. (c)

58. The reason (why)

The reason (after-->) never used (Because , Because of , Due to ,


Owing to)

ex. The reason why he spoke so rudely is because he is emotionally


disturbed today. (x)

-> The reason why he spoke so rudely is that he is emotionally


disturbed today. (c)

59. Since

When Since / Ever since added two sentences then sentence which
coming immediate after it , used in V2 and second sentence used in
has/have + v3

ex. Nothing has changed in this town since I have left it. (x)

-> Nothing has changed in this town since I left it. (c)

60. In case / provided

-> In case means "because of a possibility of something happening"

-> Provided means "if, or only if"

--> In case/provided (after--->) Will/shall/modal auxiliary not used.

---> This rule is also applicable with "IF , UNLESS & SUPPOSING"

ex. India will become a developed country provided it will strengthen


its infrastructure. (x)
-> India will become a developed country provided it strengthens its
infrastructure. (c)

ex. I shall remain indoors provided it rains continuously. (x)

-> I shall remain indoors in case it rains continuously.(c)

61. Lest

--> The conjunction lest is followed by should .

ex. Work hard lest you would fail. (x)

-> Work hard lest you should fail. (c)

Note: Lest is a negative word. There should be no use of not ,


nothing , never , no with lest .

ex. Word hard lest you should not fail. (x)

-> Word hard lest you should fail. (c)

62. Whether

In condition of doubt we used "whether"

ex. I was unable to decide that to leave that questions or attempt it.
(x)

-> I was unable to decide whether to leave that questions or attempt


it. (c)

63. Supposing

Suppose (after ------>) If is not used

64. Unless
--> Unless means "If not"

---> Unless (after ---->) Not , will , shall or auxiliary verbs not used

ex. Success is very doubtful unless you will not preserve in your effort.
(x)

-> Success is very doubtful unless you preserve in your effort. (c)

65. Till /Until

---> Both denotes time. "Till" used for "Period of time" & "Until" used
for point of time.

--> Till/ Until (after----->) Will , shall , auxiliary verbs not used

---> Until (after--->) "not" never used

ex. Until government does not make effort to improve the condition
of the poor , how will it improve? (x)

-> Until government makes effort to improve the condition of the


poor , how will it improve? (c)

ex. The condition looked up until a communist government ruled the


USSR. (x)

-> The condition looked up till a communist government ruled the


USSR. (c)

66. When/While

---> If sentence is in continuous tense then "While" is used

ex. When the match was going on , one part of the stadium collapsed.
(x)
-> While the match was going on , one part of the stadium collapsed.
(c)

67. Like/as

---> As is conjunction, after "as" whole sentence came.

---> Like is preposition, after "like" some words came not whole
sentence

ex. Like the expert committee recommended , the government is


making a three-tier system. (x)

-> As the expert committee recommended , the government is making


a three-tier system. (c)

68. Nothing else

--->Nothing else should be followed by but, not by than.

ex. Mr. Bureaucrat! This is nothing else than red-tapism. (x)

->Mr. Bureaucrat! This is nothing else but red-tapism. (c)

69. Other

---> Other (after---->) always come Than

70. "In" is used with names of countries and large towns; "at" is more
often used when speaking of small towns and villages.

ex. He lives at Germany. (x)

-> He lives in Germany. (c)

71. "In and at" are used in speaking of things at rest; "to and into" are
used in speaking of things in motion.
ex. This week the song jumped at the top of the charts. (x)

-> This week the song jumped to the top of the charts. (c)

72. "Till" is used of time and "to" is used of place.

ex. The office will remain open to six in the evening. (x)

ex. The office will remain open till six in the evening. (c)

73. "With" often denotes the instrument used by the agent.

ex. The ball was hit by the bat. (x)

-> The ball was hit with the bat. (c)

74. Both since and from are used before a noun denoting some point
of time. However, while "since" is preceded by a verb in the perfect
tense, "from" is used with the non-perfect tense.

ex. India has been playing Test cricket from 1932. (x)

-> India has been playing Test cricket since 1932. (c)

75. "Beside" means by the side of while "besides" means in additions


to.

ex. He sat besides the chair. (x)

-> He sat beside the chair. (c)

76. "Above and below" merely denote position while "over and
under" also carry a sense of covering or movement.

ex. The bird flew above the lake. (x)

-> The bird flew over the lake. (c)


77. "During" is used when we are talking about the time within which
something happens. "For" is used when we are talking about how
long something lasts.

ex. There were few incidents of irregularity for the Emergency years.
(x)

-> There were few incidents of irregularity during the Emergency


years. (c)

78. The preposition off denotes separation , at a distance from


or far from whereas the preposition of denotes cause, origin,
quality, possession.

ex. He put of his coat. (x)

-> He put off his coat. (Separation) (c)

ex. He died off cancer. (x)

->He died of cancer. (Cause) (c)

79. The word compare is followed by "to" when it shows that two
things are alike. It is followed by with "when" we look at the ways in
which two things are like and unlike each other.

ex. His batting may be compared with the sales of a useful book: they
score fast right from the beginning. (x)

-> His batting may be compared to the sales of a useful book: they
score fast right from the beginning. (c)

80. "In" means at the end of, while "within" means before the end of,
the said time duration.
ex. We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back in an hour and watch
the 6 o'clock movie. (x)

-> We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back within an hour and


watch the 6 o'clock movie. (c)

81. The words in spite of and despite share the same meaning.
The only difference is that in spite takes the preposition of whereas
despite does not take any preposition.

ex. Despite of bad weather, he went to school. (x)

-> Despite bad weather, he went to school. (c)

->>> In the same way, the word consist takes the preposition of
whereas comprise does not take any preposition.

ex. The classroom comprises of twenty students. (x)

-> The classroom comprises twenty students. (c)

6. VERB
TENSE:

82. Simple present tense

Format - Subject + V1 (s/es) + object

(a) Expresses any action which happens regularly [word like Seldom ,
usually , sometimes , often , everyday etc.]

Ex. They go for shopping every weekend.

exception - Never & always will used with Simple present & present
perfect also.
(b) used simple present with "IF , When or whenever"

ex. Whenever he gets time , he watches films.

(c) Expresses universal truths.

Ex. The sun rises in the east.

83. Present continuous tense

Format - Subject + is/am/are + v1 ing + object

(a) "If Presently , At present , at the moment , now or still" will come
in sentence then Present continuous tense will be used.

ex. Don't disturb him, he is studying at the moment.

(b) Expresses any action which is happening or going on at the time of


speaking/writing etc. but some words like [ feel, hear, see, smell,
hate, like, admire, fear, love, respect, dislike, want, wish, agree, know,
mean, think, suppose, understand, believe, belong, has/have,
possess] will not be used in continuous tense.

ex. Most of the Indians are not thinking God to be just


imagination.(incorrect)

-> Most of the Indians are not think God to be just imagination.
(correct)

84. Present perfect tense

Format - Subject + has/have + v3 + object

(a) this tense used with "So far, uptil now, ever"

ex. Did you ever think of going abroad?


-> have you ever thought of going abroad?

(b) "Yet" -> Present perfect used in negative form

ex. He has not yet received the information of the picnic. (incorrect)

-> He has not received the information of the picnic yet. (correct)

(c) Since + point of time or For + period of time will be given & work is
not continuing then we used present perfect.

ex. India faced four foreign countries' attacks since independence.


(incorrect)

-> India has faced four foreign countries' attacks since independence.
(correct)

(d) Since + point of time or For + period of time will be given & there is
no verb given in sentence then we used "has/have + been".

ex. For ages, India is a champion of peace & non-violence. (incorrect)

-> For ages, India has been a champion of peace & non-violence.
(correct)

85. Present perfect continuous tense

Format - Subject + has/have + been + V1 ing + since/for + object

ex. Ram has been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

86. Past Indefinite tense

Format - Subject + v2 + object

ex. He played cricket.


(a) If the main verb of sentence is in past then other verbs used in
past.

ex. Nobody has answered the questions properly was his opinion.
(incorrect)

-> Nobody had answered the questions properly was his opinion.
(correct)

(b) If the main verb is in past but other verbs used as universal truth
then verb is not change. and Verb came after relative pronoun [who,
which & that] also not changed.

ex. Today I missed my morning train which I usually caught.(incorrect)

-> Today I missed my morning train which I usually caught. (correct)

87. Past continuous tense

Format - Subject + was/were + v1 ing + object

(a) if two sentences came in past and if one sentence telling about the
incident & other sentence telling that when this incident happened
then sentence which telling about the incident used in "past
indefinite" & sentence which told that when this incident happened
used in "past continuous tense".

ex. When she entered the office , a speeding car dashed her.
(incorrect)

-> When she was entering in the office , a speeding car dashed her.
(correct)
88. Past perfect tense

Format - Subject + had + v3 + object

(a) When two actions were completed in the past , a past perfect
tense is used to clarify which event happened earlier & which work
finished after , used in past indefinite. [before or after is used]

ex. After she had read the letter , she tore it into pieces.

89. Past perfect continuous tense

Format - Subject + Had + Been + V1 + ing + time [since or for] + object

ex. Ram had been playing cricket since morning or for two hours.

90. Future Indefinite tense

Format - Subject + will/shall + V1 + object

(a) Time [when, until, till, so long as, as long as] & Condition [If,
unless, in case, whether, provided etc.] -----> Will/shall or no other
model auxiliary used

ex. Until you will stay here, how will you meet the chairman?
(incorrect)

-> Until you stay here, how will you meet the chairman? (correct)

(b) Sometimes we used Present continuous for telling about the


future.

format - Subject + is/am/are + going + v1 + object

ex. I am meeting the chairman today to present my grievances.


(correct)
-> I am going to meet the chairman today to present my grievances.
(correct)

91. Future continuous tense

Format - Sub + will/shall + be + V1 ing + Object

ex. He will be playing cricket.

92. Future perfect tense

Format - Subject + Will/shall + have + v3 + object

(a) If in the sentence "by then, by that time or by + future time" given
then used Future perfect.

ex. We hope that by 2020 A.D. India will be a developed country.


(incorrect)

-> We hope that by 2020 A.D. India will have been a developed
country. (correct)

93. Future perfect continuous tense

Format - Subject + will/shall + have + been + v1 ing + Since/for+ object

ex. Ram will have been playing cricket since morning.

94. Conditional sentences

They are always starting with "IF".

(a) If + past indefinite , Subject + would + V1 {used in imaginary


sentences}

ex. If I were a billionaire , I would open a charitable hospital. [always


were will be used with IF]
(b) If + past perfect , subject + would have + v3 { used to explain that
present circumstances would be different if something different had
happened in the past.}

ex. If he had seen you there, he would have scolded you.

-> It is written is this form also if you don't want to start this sentence
with IF

ex. Had he seen you there , he would have scolded you.

(c) If both are imaginary sentences & both are of past structure then

ex. If I were God , I would have made the world peaceful. (incorrect)

-> If I were God , I would make the world peaceful. (correct)

Some special cases:

95. As if/ As though

Both are same but they are used to express the imaginary sentences
so we used V2 after these clauses & sentences are conditional so we
used were after subject.

ex. He behaves as if he were the president.

Exception - If sentence told about past then we used Had + v3 after


subject

ex. The members of the family pretended as though nothing had


occurred one night before.

96. It is (high) time

-> It is (high) time + Subject + V2


ex. It is time we started the match.

97. Wish

It has two structures.

(a) Wish , wanting change for the present or future with the simple
past. Format - Subject + wish, past indefinite/would + v1

ex. I wish I knew / I would know his name.

(b) To complain about a behavior that you disapprove

Format - Subject + wished, Past perfect/would have + v3

ex. I wished He had become/would have become the P.M of India.

98. If only

It showed imaginary sentence

Format - If only + Subject + past indefinite/would + v1

ex. If only I would have / I had more money!

99. If in the end of the sentence there is no sign of question mark then
auxiliary verbs will not come before the subject.

ex. I don't know where could he have gone so early in the morning.
(incorrect)

-> I don't know where he could have gone so early in the morning.
(correct)

100. That will never used before (wh- pronoun)

ex. He asked that how long you would be absent. (incorrect)


-> He asked how long you would be absent. (correct)

101. Assertive sentence, auxiliary verb + pronoun?

-> Sentence (positive) -----> auxiliary verb of question tag (negative)

-> Sentence (negative) ------> auxiliary verb of question tag (positive)

ex. India stands as a powerful country, doesn't she?

ex. People have not witnessed such an event, have they?

-> Hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, barely are negative words so tag is
always positive.

ex. I break my promise rarely, do I?

Non-Finite verbs (infinitive , gerund)

102. If after these verbs (ask , forget, know, learn, remember, think,
want to know, wonder) Infinitive will come then WH- pronoun will
come in the middle of Verb & infinitive.

ex. He did not know to solve this question. (incorrect)

-> He did not know how to solve this question. (correct)

103. Needn't , dare not , would rather , rather than , had better ---->
Infinitive came {but not "to"} ----> V1

ex. Looking at the disturbed condition we had better gone from here.
(incorrect)

-> Looking at the disturbed condition we had better go from here.


(correct)
104. Help -----> If verb came ---> then structure {to + v1 , In + v1 ing,
V1}

ex. He helped me solved the problem. (incorrect)

-> He help me to solve / In solving / Solve the problem. (correct)

105. Do + anything/nothing/everything + but/except + infinitive


without "To"

ex. It is quite boring because we do nothing but sitting idle. (incorrect)

-> It is quite boring because we do nothing but sit idle. (incorrect)

Gerund

106. Phrases [look forward to , take to , addicted to , accustomed to ,


habituated to , is/am/are + used to , with a view to] ----> verb (ing
form)

ex. When I was young I was used to play for hours at a stretch.
(incorrect)

-> When I was young I was used to playing for hours at a stretch.
(correct)

107. Pronoun used before Gerund is in possessive form (my, our,


your)

ex. Please excuse me coming late. (incorrect)

-> Please excuse my coming late. (correct)

108. Admit, Avoid, delay, deny, detest, enjoy, excuse, finish, forgive,
mind, prevent, resent, can't stand, can't help, it's no use/good, worth
-------> verb (ing)
ex. I always enjoy to talk to strangers. (incorrect)

-> I always enjoy talking to strangers. (correct)

7. Syntax
109. The verb is always in singular form when used with Each, Every,
No, None, Somebody, Someone, One

ex. Not one of the five members of the committee was able to present
a viable solution.

-> Exception - If 'each' is followed by 'of ' we have to use plural noun.

ex. Each of the three/ five/ thousand boys is playing.

110. If two nouns are added with "And" then verb used as plural form.
But if both made a one unit then we use singular verb.

ex. The innocence and playfulness of a child exists in every human


being.

ex. The president of the company and the friend have arrived in the
meeting.

111.When there is case of "as well as, together with, along with ,
besides, like, unlike, governed by, headed by, lead by, controlled by ,
more than ,and not , in addition to" the verb will always depends on
the 1st noun or pronoun.

ex. Ritu as well as some of her friends has fallen in love with Sonu ,
who is the eldest son of SDO.

112. If two nouns are added with "Either-Or, Neither-Nor, Not only-
But also" then the verb will always depends on the 2nd noun.
ex. Not only the doctor but also the nurses of the this nursing home
are very kind and helpful.

113.Nothing but -------> Noun {singular or plural} ---> Verb {singular}

ex. Nothing but the heads of innumerable people was seen in the
ground.

114. Many ------> Noun & Verb {plural}

Many a -------> Noun & verb {singular}

ex. Many a religious traditions are followed in India. (Incorrect)

-> Many a religious tradition is followed in India. (correct)

115. A number of -----> verb {plural}

The number of -------> Verb {singular}

ex. The number of students taking admission in the colleges is rising.

ex. A number of students are taking admissions in the college.

116. If Noun is uncountable then singular verb is used.

' Some - Some of ', 'All - All of ', ' Most Of ', ' A Lot Of ', ' Lots Of ', ' One
- Third Of ', ' Two - Thirds Of ', ' Three - Fourth Of '

ex. Some money is needed.

ex. A lot of milk has been utilized.