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Hypothesis testing: A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine

whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected, or is unreasonable and
should be rejected.
Following is a five-step procedure for testing a hypothesis .
1. State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis.
Null Hypothesis – statement about the value of a population parameter.
Alternate Hypothesis – statement that is accepted if evidence proves null hypothesis to be false.
2. Select the appropriate test statistic and level of significance.
When testing a hypothesis of a proportion, we use the z-statistic or z-test and the
formula is,