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Zakri Azis


Dr. Rusdi Noor Rosa, M.Hum.



A. Background of the Research

Language is a medium to communicate among human in the world. In every

activity that is doing by human, there is language taking a part. According to O’Grady

and friends. (1996: 1), language is in many things – a system of communication, a

medium for thought, a vehicle for literary expression, a social institution, a matter for

political controversy, a catalyst for nation building. By this case, human cannot be

separated with language.

As it is known, the language, based on its form, there are two forms of language.

They are written form and spoken form. These forms are related each other since the

languages in the world are made by the time. The written form, at least, help to develop

the language and also to keep the language exist if it comes to extinct. For example,

the age of English language, there are least three ages, Old English, Middle English,

and Modern English. They were spoken at that time but in historical study of language,

it is documented into books and journals about these ages based on the documents or it

can be said the written form of the English language.

In these recently days, human lives in many activities which become into an

occupation. There are lots of occupations in the world which make their own context
in each of it. For example, the object that researcher study, Aviation context. It has its

own context of using language in its communication among human in it. Another

example that is usually recognized by common people is Medical context of language.

It is understood by a particular language but the meaning of the words are usually

different due to the context. By those contexts, it can come up as a language based on

its used. In the sociolinguistics study, it is commonly called register, a variety of

language used for a particular purpose or in particular social setting (Wikipedia.com).

Based on the term of register in sociolinguistics study, the researcher dig the

language used into the used of words among the human in a particular social setting.

In fact, Oxford released the book for this environment. It is English for Aviation. The

book will be the source of data since it is for Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers (ATC).

The book will be examine the use of English words for its purpose and its words

formation processes in it.

The aviation term inspire the researcher to study because it is one of the

professional-ness required occupation in the world. The selection of human to be able

having the occupation strictly tests. Then, the tested will be train in some years until

they are good at the occupation. The capacity to the human in the occupation to do their

job, cannot be doubted.

In this paper, the researcher want to come up with the case of the word

formation which is studied in Morphology of Linguistic study. Morphology is a study

of structure or form. In linguistics, morphology means a study of word and word

structures, the system of word-forming elements and process in a language. It explains

how words are forming, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

The structure of words, part of words such as stem, root, base, and affix, can be

analyzed through morphology. The process of analyzing word structure is called

morphological process or word formation process. In English, there are several types

of word formation process such as affixation, coinage, compounding, cliticization,

blending, clipping, backformation, onomatopoeia, internal change, and suppletion.

This paper research the use of English language for aviation as the object to

analyze the word formation use based on the book. By observing the table of contents

in the book, the researcher found enough kind of communication in aviation

environment, by usual until emergency condition. In each part of the book, there are

exercises. So that, the book is used to train the students in Pilot school and Air Traffic

Controller student in Pilot school and Air Traffic Controller school.

There are two reasons why the researcher want to study about word formation

in aviation terms. Firstly, based on the English for Aviation book, it is said in the about

the book’s section, International Civil Aviation Organization requires the people be

able to improve their plain English into specified skill area; pronunciation, structure,

vocabulary, fluency, comprehension and interactions. By this point, the researcher

predicts that word formation process exists in this occupation. Secondly, the study

about word formation in this skill area is not yet exist. The previous studies tend to

analyze novels, movie scripts, short stories, and another written form in a language.

B. Limitation of the Research

This study limits the researcher to analyze the 11 of word formation process

found in the English for Aviation book published by Oxford. So that the research is

library research. To analyze the types of word formation processes, the writer used

theory from O’Grady (1997). Based on O’Grady (1997) theory, there are 11 types of

word formation processes, they are affixation, cliticization, internal change, suppletion,

compounding, clipping, blends, backformation, acronyms, onomatopoeia, and coinage

or word manufacture. This paper attempts to find out 10 types of word formation

process proposed by this theory, they are affixation, cliticization, internal change,

suppletion, compounding, clipping, blending, backformation, onomatopoeia, and

coinage or word manufacture.

C. Formulation of the Research

Based on the limitation of the problem above, the research will be formulated

in the following questions:

1. What are the types of word formation processes found in Aviation terms?

2. What are the types of word formation processes which frequently appear in

Aviation terms?

D. Purposes of the Research

This research have the purposes, as follows:

1. To describe the types of word formation processes found in Aviation terms.

2. To describe the types of word formation processes which frequently appear

in found in Aviation terms

E. Significance of the Study

This study has two points to signify, theoretical and practical. Theoretically,

this study contributes to linguistics, especially word formation study. The contribution

of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of word formation process and the

differences among the types of word formation process which is used in different skill

area, aviation.

Practically, this study might be useful for the readers, especially for those who

will study in the same matter. It can help the reader to enrich their references about

word formation in this skill area and. Furthermore, it can be the great source for those

who like to do field research in the same object.

F. Research Instrument

There are four instruments are needed in this paper. The first one is internet

access to get the book from the internet then download it (through Google.com). The

second is the printer to print the book. The third is English dictionary. The fourth

instrument is the writing equipment such as pencil or pen, notebook, and others in order

to write the related data to this paper.

G. Techniques of Data Collection

There are some steps to collect the data as it follows:

1. Downloading the English for Aviation book on the internet.

2. The researcher print the book.

3. The researcher read the book and highlighting the words that assumed

have word formation process.

4. The researcher takes note the words based on the highlighted words


5. Finally, researcher type all the sentences from the cut-scene and then

looking for words that have word formation process based on O’Grady

(1997) theory.

Word formation process



Af Cn Cm Clt Bl Clp Bf On IC Sp

Af: Affixation Clt: Cliticization Bf: Backformation Sp: Suppletion
Cn: Coinage Bl: Blending On: Onomatopoeia
Cm: Compounding Clp: Clipping IC: Internal Change

H. Techniques of Data Analysis

After collecting the data, the researcher identify the data to the words form by

word formation process.