Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 439

ATMOSPHERIC UNIT-III

MANUAL-2016
GUJARAT REFINERY
VOL-I

1
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PREFACE

This Operating Manual gives the operating guidelines for AU-III Unit of Gujarat Refinery,
IOCL, Vadodara.

The Instruction and guidelines contained in this manual are for purpose of facilitating the
start up and subsequent operation of the unit.

The operating procedure and conditions are indicative only and the modification may
become necessary in due course of time as result of experience gained in actual operation of
unit.

K Sarma

Date: 01/09/2016 CHIEF PRODUCTION MANAGER

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 2
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Index

List of contents

Addendum list
Sr No

Date of change

Existing system in brief

Modification in brief

Chapter/Page no. of manual

Sr No. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO


Chapter-1 PRINCIPLE OF DISTILLATION 11-16
Chapter-2 INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIT 17-24

18
2.1 Chapter 1 FUNCTION OF PLANT
18
2.2 Chapter 2 ONSTREAM FACTOR
2.3 DESIGN FEED RATE 18
2.4 TURNDOWN RATIO 19
2.5 FEED &PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 19
2.6 FEED & PRODUCT BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS 22
2.7 UTILITY SPECIFICATIONS 22
2.8 MATERIAL BALANCE (% WT) 23
2.9 UTILITY CONSUMPTION 24
Chapter-3 EQUIPMENT DATA 25-40
3.1. PUMPS 25
3.2. EXCHANGERS 27
3.3. COOLERS / CONDENSERS 29
3.4. VESSELS 30
3.5. TANKS 30
3.6. COLUMNS 31
3.7. FURNACES/AIR PRE-HEATER 32
3.8. TURBO BLOWERS 32
3.9. PSV'S 33
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 3
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.10. LIST OF CONTROL VALVES/CONTROLLERS 34


3.10.1. FLOW CONTROLLERS 34
3.10.2. LEVEL CONTROLLERS 36
3.10.3. PRESSURE CONTROLLER 36
3.10.4. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS 37
3.11. LIST OF ALARMS AND TRIPS 38
Chapter-4 PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION 41-88
4.1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS 41
4.2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS : 43
4.2.1 CRUDE SUPPLY 43
4.2.1.1 CRUDE STORAGE AND SETTLING 43
4.2.1.2 SLOP PREPARATION AND SUPPLY 44
4.2.1.3 CURDE BOOSTER PUMP 44
4.2.2. FEED PREHEAT CIRCUIT 44
4.2.3. CRUDE PRETTOPING 47
4.3 FURNACES 49
4.3.1 FURNACE F-1 49
4.3.2 FURNACE F-2 51
4.3.3 AIR PREHEATER (APH) SYSTEM 53
4.3.4 FURNACE F-3 55
4.4 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN 59
4.4.1 OVERHEAD SYSTEM 59
4.4.2 SIDE-CUT HEAVY NAPHTHA-II CIRCUIT 61
4.4.3 KEROSENE-II CIRCUIT 61
4.4.4 SRGO (HSD) CIRCUIT 63
4.4.5 RCO CIRCUIT 65
4.4.6 NAPHTHA STABILIZER 67
4.5 DESIGN OPERATING CONDITIONS 69
4.5.1 PRE-TOPPING COLUMN K-1 69
4.5.2 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN K-2 70
4.5.3 NAPHTHA STABILIZER K-4 72
4.6 NORMAL OPERATING PARAMETRS 73
4.6.1 COLUMNS 73
4.6.2 FURNACES 75
4.6.3 DESALTERS 77
4.7 CRITICAL OPERATING PARMETERS 77
4.8 CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM 84
4.8.1. DEMULSIFIER 84
4.8.2. CAUSTIC INJECTION 84
4.8.3. AMMONIA SOLUTION INJECTION 85
4.8.4. CORRODION INHIBITOR INJECTION 85
4.9 UNIT PERFORMANCE MONITORING 86
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 4
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Chapter-5 UTILITIES SYSTEM 89-97


5.1. INSTRUMENT AIR 89
5.2. PLANT AIR 89
5.3. CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM 90
5.4. FIRE WATER 90
5.5. DM WATER 91
5.6. STEAM 92
5.7. FUEL GAS SYSTEM 94
5.8. FUEL OIL SYSTEM 94
5.9. VR BURNING FACILITY 94
5.9.1. ALTERNATE FUEL OIL SYSTEM 96
5.10. FLARE SYSTEM 96
5.11. FLUSHING OIL 96
5.12. SLOP 97
5.13. CLOSED BLOW DOWN SYSTEM 97
5.14 OWS SYSTEM 97
5.15 PASSIVATION FACILITIES 97
Chapter-6 EQUIPMENT OPERATING PROCEDURE 98-204
6.1 DESALTER 98
6.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF DESALTER 100
6.1.2 DESALTER OPERATION 101
6.1.3 OPERATING VARIABLES 101
6.1.3.1 RAW CRUDE QUALITY 102
6.1.3.2 SLOP ADDITION / OIL 102
6.1.3.3 FEED RATE 102
6.1.3.4 WATER INJECTION 102
6.1.3.5 TEMPERATURE 103
6.1.3.6 PRESSURE 103
6.1.3.7 MIXING ENERGY 103
6.1.3.8 INTERFACE LEVEL 104
6.1.3.9 CHEMICAL AGENT 104
6.1.3.10 AMPERAGE & VOLTAGE 105
6.1.3.11 PH 105
6.1.3.12 SOLIDS AT WATER OIL INTERFACE 106
6.1.4 RETROFITTING OF DESALTER-1 106
6.1.4.1 PETRECO BIELCTRIC DESALTING 106
6.1.4.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 107
6.1.4.3 DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS 110
6.1.5 COMMISSIONING OF DESALTER 115
6.1.6 SHUTDOWN OF AND HANDING OVER OF DESALTER 116
6.1.7 DESALTER DESLUDGING 116

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 5
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.1.7.1 CONTINUOUS DESLUDGING 116


6.1.7.2 INTERMITTENT DESLUDGING 117
6.1.8 TROUBLE SHOOTING 117
6.1.9 INSTRUMENTATION 120
6.1.10 LABORATORY TEST 121
6.2 FURNACES F-1/F-2 AND AIR-PREHEATERS 122
6.2.1 FURNACE F-1 123
6.2.2 FURNACE F-2 124
6.2.3 AIR PREHEATER 125
6.2.4 FD & ID FAN 126
6.2.4.1 GENERAL 126
6.2.4.2 OPERATION 126
6.2.5 BURNERS 127
6.2.6 SOOT BLOWERS 128
6.2.6.1 GENERAL 129
6.2.6.2 SOOT BLOWER PANEL 129
6.2.6.3 OPERATION 130
6.2.7 FURNACE OPERATION 131
6.2.7.1 BALANCED DRAFT OPERATION 131
6.2.7.2 BALANCED DRAFT TO NATURAL DRAFT
133
OPERATION
6.2.8 COMBUSTION CONTROL SCHEME 134
6.2.9 INTERLOCK SYSTEM 136
6.2.9.1 FD FAN FAILURE 136
6.2.9.2 ID FAN FAILURE 137
6.2.9.3 FURNACE ARCH PRESSURE HIGH 137
6.2.9.4 LOW PASS FLOW IN F-1 138
6.2.9.5 LOW PASS FLOW IN F-2 138
6.2.9.6 TOTAL FUEL CUT-OFF TO FURNACE F-1 139
6.2.9.7 TOTAL FUEL CUT-OFF TO FURNACE F-2 139
6.2.9.8 DOS AND DONTS OF INTERLOCK CIRCUIT 139
6.2.10 EQUIPMENT RUN PERMITS 141
6.2.10.1 FD FAN 141
6.2.10.2 ID FAN 142
6.2.10.3 DODs 142
6.2.10.4 STACK DAMPERS 144
6.2.10.5 PRECONDITIONS FOR OPENING F-1 SHUTDOWN
145
VALVES (FO/FG)
6.2.10.6 PRECONDITIONS FOR OPENING F-2 SHUTDOWN
147
VALVES (FO/FG)
6.2.10.7 CLOSING OF SHUTDOWN VALVES 148
6.2.10.8 EMERGENCY TRIP 149
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 6
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.10.9 CRACK OPENING TEST OF DODs 149


6.2.11 FURNACE DRY OUT OPERATION 150
6.2.12 PASSIVATION OF FURNACE 151
6.2.13 STEAM AND AIR DECOKING 152
6.2.14 PRE-COMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES 155
6.2.15 NORMAL FURNACE START UP 155
6.2.15.1 PREPARATION FOR START UP 155
6.2.15.2 START UP OF THE FURNACE 156
6.2.16 NORMAL FURNACE SHUT DOWN 158
6.2.17 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 160
6.2.18 OPERATING INSTRUCTION 161
6.2.19 TROUBLE SHOOTING 162
6.3 FURNACE F-03 165
6.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 165
6.3.2 OPERATING CONDITIONS 167
6.3.3 FURNACE INSPECTION AND MECHANICAL CHECK 174
6.3.4 PREPARING FOR INITIAL COMMISSIONING 175
6.3.5 DRYING-OUT PROCEDURE 177
6.3.6 START-UP 183
6.3.7 NORMAL OPERATION 192
6.3.8 SHUTDOWN 195
6.3.9 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN OF F-03 196
6.3.10 DECOKING INSTRUCTIONS 198
6.3.11 INTERLOCK SYSTEM 198
6.3.12 F-03 SOOT-BLOWING 200
Chapter-7 TASK TO BE PERFORMED BY OPERATORS 205-221
7.1 PUMP OPERATOR 205
7.2 FIELD OPERATOR 207
7.3 FURNACE OPARETOR 210
7.4 PANEL OPERATOR 213
Chapter-8 NORMAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURE 222-232
8.1 INTRODUCTION 222
8.2 PRELIMINARY PREPARATION 222
8.3 DECOMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS 223
8.4 THROUGHPUT REDUCTION 224
8.5 COOLING 225
8.6 SHUTDOWN OF NAPHTHA STABLISER 226
8.7 PUMPING OUT 227
8.8 GAS OIL FLUSHING 228
8.9 DEPRESSURISATION AND STEAMING 229

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 7
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8.10 PASSIVATION OF F1/F2/F3 232


Chapter-9 NORMAL START UP PROCEDURE 233-242
9.1 PRELIMINARY PREPARATION 233
9.2 AIR REMOVAL & PRESSURE TEST 234
9.3 GAS BACKUP 237
9.4 COLD CIRCULATION 238
9.5 HOT CIRCULATION 239
9.6 BRINGING UNIT ON STREAM 241
Chapter-10 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 243-258
10.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES 243
10.2 POWER FAILURE 244
10.2.1 PARTIAL POWER FAILURE 244
10.2.2 TOTAL POWER FAILURE 245
10.2.3 TOTAL POWER FAILURE FOR SHORT LONG DURA 246
10.3 FAILURE OF ALL UTILITIES TOGETHER 246
10.4 STEAM FAILURE 248
10.5 WATER FAILURE 249
10.6 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE 250
10.7 CRUDE FEED FAILURE 251
10.8 FAILURE OF HEATER TUBES IN F-1, F-2 & F-3 252
10.8.1 SMALL LEAK 252
10.8.2 MAJOR LEAK 253
10.9 CONTROL SYSTEM FAILURE 254
10.9.1 24V DC FAILURE 254
10.9.2 110V AC FAILURE 254
10.9.3 110V DC FAILURE 255
10.9.4 440V AC FAILURE 255
10.9.5 DCS/PLC FAILURE/FREEZING 255
10.10 FIRE IN THE PLANT 256
10.11 FAILURE OF CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS 256
10.12 FURNACE OIL FAILURE 258
Chapter-11 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 259-283
11.1 EQUIPMENT HANDING OVER TO MAINTANANCE: 259
11.2 EQUIPMENT TAKING OVER FROM MAINTENANCE 264
11.3 EQUIPMENT HANDLING PROCEDURE : 267
11.3.1 PUMPS 267
11.3.1(A) CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 267
11.3.1(B) RECIPROCATING PUMP 269
11.3.1(C) ROTARY/GEAR PUMP 270
11.3.2 ID/FD FANS 270

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 8
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

11.3.3 HEAT EXCHANGERS 271


11.3.4 COOLERS 272
11.3.5 CONDENSERS 272
11.3.6 DESALTER 274
11.3.7 FURNANCES 275
11.4 TANK OPERATIONS 280
11.4.1 TANK HANDING OVER FOR MAINTENANCE: 280
11.4.2 CHECK LIST FOR TAKING OVER STORAGE TANK
281
AFTER MAINT AND INSPECTION
11.4.3 COMMISSIONING OF TANK 283
11.4.4 DO'S AND DO NOTS OF TANK OPERATION 283
Chapter-12 INTRODUCTION TO DCS 284-288
12.1 INTRODUCTION 284
12.2 ADVANCED MULTIFUNCTION CONTROL 285
12.3 CRITICAL PROCESS CONTROLLER 285
12.4 INDUSTRIAL PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER 285
12.5 UNIVERSAL STATION 285
12.6 HISTORY MODULE 285
12.7 APPLICATION M MODULE 285
12.8 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 286
12.8.1 LOCAL CONTROL NETWORK 286
12.8.2 DATA HIGHWAY 286
12.8.3 HIGHWAY GATEWAY 286
12.9 UPS SYSTEM 287
12.9.1 INTRODUCTION TO UPS 287
12.9.2 SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION TO DCS SYSTEM 287
12.9.3 TYPES OF UPS FAILURES 287
12.9.3.1 ANY INCOMING 440V AC SUPPLY OR ANY MODULE 287
FAILURE
12.9.3.2 TOTAL FAILURE OF 110V AC TO NODES 288
12.9.3.3 PARTIAL FAILURE OF 110V AC TO NODES 288
Chapter-13 LINE-UP OF CIRCUIT 289-297
1 FEED CIRCUIT 289
A) PRE HEAT TRAIN-1 289
B) PRE HEAT TRAIN-2 290
C) PRE HEAT TRAIN-3 291
2 STABILIZED NAPH. CIRCUIT 291
3 SIDE CUT NAPHTHA -1 CIRCUIT 292
4 KERO-1 CIRCUIT 293
5 CR-1 CIRCUIT 293
6 NAPHTHA-2 CIRCUIT 293

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 9
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

7 HEAVY NAPHTHA CIRCUIT 293


8 KERO-II CIRCUIT 294
9 SRGO (HSD) CIRCUIT 294
10 RCO CIRCUIT 295
11 CR-II CIRCUIT 296
12 CR-III CIRCUIT 296
13 LPG CIRCUIT 297
Chapter-14 FIRE FIGHTING FACILITIES 298-327
SAFETY SYSTEM & PROCEDURE FOR ACCESSING
Chapter-15 ROOF OF FLOATING AND FIXED ROOF STORAGE 328-332
TANKS
Chapter-16 SAMPLING SCHEDULE 333
Chapter-17 MASTER BLIND LIST 334-339
Chapter-18 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET 340-359
CORROSION INHIBITOR /AHURALAN 340
AMMONIA 345
CAUSTIC SODA 350
DEMULSIFIER 354
CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY
359
LEVEL
Chapter-19 AU3 CONTROL VALVE DATA 360-369
Chapter-20 LIST OF INTERLOCKS 370-374
Chapter-21 HSD COALESCER 375-377
Chapter-22 Annexures 378-424
1. Checklist for handing over and taking over of
378
equipments
2. AU-3 M&I-2009 jobs 389
3. K-2 Flash zone replacement 391
4. RUP Hook up jobs 392
5. Procedure for dechoking of equipment drain
393
line
6. Flare KOD draining procedure 394
7. General Safety Instructions 396
8. Routine check by operator 398
9. AU-3 M&I-2013 jobs 400
10. Columns, vessels, furnace blind list 411
11. Limit for Skin thermocouples in AU3
421

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 10
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

12. List of work instructions 422


Chapter-23 DRAWINGS 425
1 CRUDE PREHEAT CIRCUIT (I&II)
2 DESALTERS
3 CRUDE PREHEAT CIRCUIT(TRAIN III&IV)
4 PRETIOPPING COLUMN K-1
5 F-1 FURNACE CIRCUIT
6 F-2 FURNACE CIRCUIT
7 AIR PREHEAT SYSTEM FOR F-1 & F-2
8 FURNACE F-3
9 F-3 PASS BALANCE & COT
10 NAPHTHA & KERO-I STRIPPER
11 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN K-2
12 HEAVY NAPHTHA CIRCUIT
13 CR-III & DIESEL R/D CIRCUIT
14 KERO C/R & R/D CIRCUIT
15 NAPHTHA STABILIZER K-4
16 NAPHTHA R/D CIRCUIT
17 FUEL OIL SYSTEM
18 FUEL OIL PUMPING SYSTEM
19 VR SURGE DRUM'
20 VR BURNING SYSTEM
21 VR BURNING FACILITY
22 CR/ RFO CONNECTION
23 FUEL GAS SYSTEM
24 DM WATER SYSTEM
25 DEEMULSIFIER INJECTION
26 CAUSTIC INJECTION
27 AMMONIA INJECTION
28 AHURALAN INJECTION SYSTEM
29 DESALTER DETAILS
30 FLUSHIN OIL / FO FACILITY
31 STEAM SYSTEM
32 PESSIVATION FACILIYT
33 FLARE KO DRUM
34 FLARE SYSTEM
35 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF FURNACE F-1
36 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF FURNACE F-2
37 DETAILS OF APH
38 BURNER DETAILS
39 FURNACE DRYOUT
40 INTERMEDIATE TANK SYSTEM
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 11
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

41 OWS SYSTEM
42 INTERLOCK SYSTEM

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 12
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Addendum List

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 13
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

REVISION HISTORY

AMENDMENT RECORD

MANUAL NO: JR: PN: OM: HGU-2- 01/02

Revision
Date Description Approved By
No.
1 01/09/2016 Design Feed & Product yield CPNM

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 14
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

ADDENDUM LIST:

THE ADDENDUM LIST IS BEING PREPARED BASED ON THE NEW CHAPTER / TOPIC
ADDITION IN THIS MANUAL AS PER RTF (RELIABILITY TASK FORCE) GUIDELINES.

THE DETAILS OF THE CHANGES MADE IN THIS MANUAL ARE AS PER BELOW
TABLE:

S No Date of Existing Modification in brief Chapter


Change system in brief / Page
no of
manual
1. 01.10.2016 New Topics EFFLUENT SUMMARY: Gaseous & Aqueous Chapter
effluent data No-2

2. 01.10.2016 New Chapter JOB RESPONSIBILITY: Job description of shift Chapter


engineers/ panel Engineers and field operators No-5

3. 01.10.2016 New Chapter Commissioning and precommissioning Chapter


no.-6
6. 01.10.2016 New Topic SOPs Chapter
No-20
7. 01.10.2016 New Chapter SAMPLING, LABORATORY ANALYSIS AND Chapter
QUALITY CONTROL: –10
Sampling and testing frequency of respective
streams, test methods and
8. 01.10.2016 New Chapter PLANT PERFORMANCE MONITORING: Chapter
Detailed methods for various calculation, –11
monitoring, troubleshooting etc
9. 01.10.2016 New Topic List of Safety equipments like safety showers, Chapter
Communication facilities such as pagers system, –12
field telephones, walkie-talkie etc
UOP Catalyst MSDS

10. 01.10.2016 New Chapter INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS: Frequency of Chapter


Inspection requirements for various equipments and –14
M&I.
Tabulate metallurgical limits with respect to
pressure, temperature and corrosive conditions etc.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 15
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

11. 01.10.2016 New Chapter DCS, PLC, ADVANCE PROCESS CONTROL, Chapter
CCTV AND ONLINE ANALYZERS: –16

12. 01.10.2016 New Topic Complete description of Electrical power substation Chapter
facilities –17

13 01.10.2016 New Chapter Respective unit PFD along with detailed material Chapter
balance sheets –21

14 01.10.2016 New Topic Accident Reporting Procedures Chapter


–22

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 16
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Volume -1

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 17
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER - 1

PRINCIPLES OF DISTILLATION

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 18
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Distillation is a technique by which two or more substances with different boiling points can be
separated from one other. For example, fresh water can be obtained from seawater (water that
contains salts) by distillation. When seawater is heated, water turns into a vapor that can be
condensed and captured. The salts in the seawater remain behind.

In contrast to the preceding example, distillation is most commonly used to separate two or more
liquids from each other.

General Principles:

Separation of components from a liquid mixture via distillation depends on the differences in the
boiling points of the individual components. Depending on the concentrations of the components
present, the liquid mixture will have different boiling point characteristics. Distillation processes
therefore depends on the vapor pressure characteristics of liquid mixtures.

The vapor pressure of a liquid at a particular temperature is the equilibrium pressure exerted by
molecules leaving and entering the liquid surface. A liquid is said to ‘boil’ when its vapor pressure
equals the surrounding pressure. Liquids with high vapor pressures (volatile liquids) will boil at
lower temperatures. The vapor pressure and hence the boiling point of a liquid mixture depends on
the relative amounts of the components in the mixture. The ease with which a liquid boils depends
on its volatility. Distillation occurs because of the differences in the volatility of the components in
the liquid mixture.

Dew-point is the temperature at which the saturated vapor starts to condense. Bubble-point is the
temperature at which the liquid starts to boil.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 19
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Boiling Point Diagram

The boiling point diagram shows how the equilibrium compositions of the components in a
liquid mixture vary with temperature at a fixed pressure. Consider an example of a liquid
mixture containing 2 components (A and B) - a binary mixture. The boiling point of A is that at
which the mole fraction of A is 1. The boiling point of B is that at which the mole fraction of A
is 0. In this example, A is the more volatile component and therefore has a lower boiling point
than B. The upper curve in the diagram is called the dew-point curve. The lower one is called
the bubble-point curve. The dew-point is the temperature at which the saturated vapor starts to
condense. The bubble-point is the temperature at which the liquid starts to boil. The region
above the dew-point curve shows the equilibrium composition of the superheated vapor.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 20
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The region below the bubble-point curve shows the equilibrium composition of the subcooled
liquid. For example, when a subcooled liquid with mole fraction of A=0.4 (point A) is heated, its
concentration remains constant until it reaches the bubble-point (point B), when it starts to
boil. The vapors evolved during the boiling have the equilibrium composition given by point C,
approximately 0.8 mole fraction A. This is approximately 50% richer in A than the original
liquid. This difference between liquid and vapor compositions in equilibrium is the basis for
distillation operations.

Relative Volatility

• Relative volatility is a measure of the differences in volatility between two components, and
hence their boiling points.
• The relative volatility of component ‘i’ with respect to component ‘j’ is defined as

yi = mole fraction of component ‘i’ in the vapor

xi = mole fraction of component ‘i’ in the liquid

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 21
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Example

Imagine a mixture of three liquids, A, B, and C. A has a boiling point of 86°F (30°C); B has a boiling
point of 104°F (40°C); and C has a boiling point of 122°F (50°C). Ordinary gasoline is such a mixture,
except that it consists of many more than three components.

The three-liquid mixture described above is added to a distillation flask. The mixture in the flask is
heated by a Bunsen burner or some other apparatus. The temperature of the liquid mixture rises
until it reaches the boiling point of any one liquid in the flask. In our example, that liquid is A,
which boils at 86°F. Liquid A begins to boil when the temperature in the flask reaches 86°F. It turns
into a vapor at that temperature, rises in the distilling flask, and passes out of the flask arm into the
condenser.

The condenser consists of a long tube surrounded by a larger tube. The outer tube contains water,
which enters near the bottom of the condenser and leaves near the top. The water passing through
the outer jacket of the condenser cools the vapor passing through the inner tube. The vapor loses
heat and condenses (meaning it changes back to a liquid). It flows out of the condenser and into a
receiving container—a flask or beaker placed in position to capture the liquid. The liquid (liquid A)
is now known as the distillate, or the product of the distillation.

Meanwhile, the temperature in the distilling flask has not changed, as indicated by the
thermometer in the mouth of the flask. Heat added to the liquid mixture is used to vaporize liquid
A, not to raise the temperature of the mixture. That temperature will begin to rise only when liquid
A has completely boiled away. By watching the thermometer, therefore, an observer can know
when liquid A has been completely removed from the liquid mixture. At that point, the receiver
containing pure liquid A can be removed and replaced by a new receiver.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 22
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Once liquid A has boiled away, the temperature in the distilling flask begins to rise again. When it
reaches 104°F, liquid B begins to boil away, and the sequence of events observed with liquid A is
repeated. Eventually, pure samples of A, B, and C can be collected.

Some liquids decompose (break apart) at or below

A typical laboratory distillation setup.

their boiling points. Vacuum distillation is used for such liquids. In vacuum distillation, air is
pumped out of the distilling flask. Under reduced pressure in the flask, liquids boil away at
temperatures less than their boiling points (below the point at which they would otherwise
decompose).

Applications

Distillation is among the most important and widely used industrial operations today. About 95
percent of all separation processes today are carried out in industry with more than 40,000
distillation systems. Those systems generally consist of structures that look very different from the
one shown in the distillation setup figure. For example, a petroleum refining plant is usually
distinguished by a group of distilling towers that rise more than 100 feet (30 meters) into the air.
The principle on which such towers operate, though, is no different from the one described above.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 23
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

In petroleum refineries, crude oil is heated at the bottom of the refining tower. The hundreds of
compounds that make up crude oil each boil off at their own characteristic boiling point. They rise
in the refining tower, are cooled, and condense to liquids. Collectors at various heights in the tower
are used to draw off those liquids into various fractions known by designations such as gasoline,
diesel oil, heating oil, and lubricating oil. To vaporize heavier components at a prescribed
temperature, stripping steam is provided in some distillation column at the bottom to reduce partial
pressure of heavier components.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 24
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER-2

INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIT

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 25
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Atmospheric Distillation Unit-III was originally designed by Russians to process 1.0 MMTPA of

50:50 mix of Ankleshwar and North Gujarat Crudes. It was commissioned on 28.09.1967. The Unit

has been revamped to process North Gujarat as well as Imported (Low Sulphur) / Bombay High

crudes.

The Unit was debottlenecked in four stages:

 In first stage, the processing capacity was raised to 1.4 MMTPA in year 1974 - 1975.
 In second stage, the processing capacity was raised to 1.6 MMTPA.
 In third phase, the heaters were replaced and unit was revamped to increase the processing
capacity to 2.0 MMTPA in 1987.
 In fourth stage, the Unit was revamped in May-June 2000, to augment its processing capacity to
3.0 MMTPA.

 In June-July’06 Planned shutdown, K-2 and E-2 vessel hook-up job to LP flare header executed
and commissioned.
 HSD Coalescer commissioned in HSD rundown line in October 2005.
 HSD salt dryer has been installed in May ’11. It was commissioned in jan’13
 In June-2009 M&I, K-2 flashzone section of 6 meters height was replaced by SS cladded CS
plate.

Atmospheric Unit-3 consists of two Electrostatic Desalters, Pre-topping Column K-1, Main

Fractionating Column K-2, Hy Naphtha-I — Kero-I Stripper K-6A/B, Hy Naphtha-II—

SRGO Stripper K-3A/B, Kero-II Stripper K-3C, Naphtha Stabilizer K-4 and three Furnaces

F-1/ F-2/F-3.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 26
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 In 2013 M&I 14 new heat exchangers (7*2 RCO/CRUDE) installed and 9 new pumps installed.

Details given in ANNEXURE.

2.1 FUNCTION OF PLANT

After the last revamp in May-June, 2000, the plant can process 3.0 MMTPA North

Gujarat and Imported (Low Sulphur) / Bombay High crude in a recommended proportion of

55%NG and 45% Imported (Low Sulphur) / Bombay High. The Unit can also process

100%NG crude. At times of requirement, the Unit can also process slop at a slow rate

together with the in-going crude. LPG, Naphtha, SKO, HSD (SRGO) and RCO/LSHS are

normal products obtained from this Unit. On demand from UDEX, Hot Oil is produced

here.

2.2 ONSTREAM FACTOR

No of Onstream hours in a year considered for design is 8200 hrs (344 days)

2.3 DESIGN FEED RATE

Case I: NG55% + Imp45%

Case II: NG55% + BH45%

Case III: NG100%

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 27
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

DESIGN CAPACITY (MT/Hr)


Sr FEED Case-I Case-II Case-III
No. (NG55% + (NG55% + (NG100%)
Imp45%) BH45%)

1 Crude 375.0 375.0 375.0


2* a) Total feed to F-1 77.0 76.0 83.0
b) Total feed to F-2 141.0 139.5 153.0
c) Total feed to F-3 107.0 106.0 116.5

3 Feed to K-2 325.0 321.5 353.0

4 Un-stbalised Naphtha 27.3 31.6 8.5


(E1Gasoline) to K-4

*Note: Feed rates to F-1, F-2 & F-3 are given on the basis that the stripper
K-6A/B is in operation.

2.4 TURNDOWN RATIO

50% of the design feed rate

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 28
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2.5 FEED &PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

A. CRUDE

Sr. IMP
Specifications UNIT N/G B/H
No. (Kuwait)
1 Density @ 15°C. gm/cc 0.8927 0.8278 0.8723

2 TBP Distillation
IBP to 75 ° C. % Vol. 0.88 6.3 5.12
75 to 100 ° C. 1.17 5.1 3.51
100 to 125 ° C. 1.76 5.9 3.11
125 to 150 ° C. 1.76 5.5 3.51
150 to 175 ° C. 2.22 6.8 3.80
175 to 200 ° C. 2.22 4.2 3.60
200 to 225 ° C. 1.23 3.7 4.56
225 to 250 ° C. 2.40 4.6 3.53
250 to 275 ° C. 4.54 5.9 4.01
275 to 300 ° C. 4.68 4.3 3.16
300 to 325° C. 4.51 4.8 3.84
325 to 350°C. 4.19 4.6 4.59
350 to 370° C. 3.25 3.7 3.26

Residue at 370 °C 63.82 31.0 49.4

Gas & Loss 1.37 3.6 1.00


3 Viscosity @ 20°C CSt - - 19.5
30 °C 13.8
37.8°C - 3.75 -
40°C 68.0 3.28 -
50°C 42.5 2.24 -
4 Pour Point °C + 24 + 30 +36
5 RVP @ 380°C. Kg/cm2 0.02 0.38 -
6 Sulphur % wt. 0.16 0.17 2.49
7 CCR (Conradson) % Wt. 5.43 1.20 6.20

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 29
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8 Acidicity (i) Total MgKOH/gm 3.88 0.15 0.13

(ii)Inorganic ,, 0.002 -

9 KUOP - 11.95 11.70 -

B. PRODUCTS

SR
PRODUCTS PARTICULARS DESIGN VALUE REMARKS
NO
1 LPG TBP Distln 95% vol + 2.36 °C Density at 43.80C : 552.8
RVP/TVP 5.6/7.8 kg/cm2 kg/m3
2 E-1 Gasoline Density at 450C 0.673 gm/cc
( Unstabilised TBP Distln 5% vol -19.3 0C
Naphtha) 98% vol 151 0C
3 E2Gasoline Density at 450C 0.721 gm/cc TBP cut : IBP—120OC
(Naphtha-II) TBP Distln 5% vol 60.2 OC
(Light 98% vol 162.5 0C RVP : 0.55 kg/cm2(a)
Naphtha)
4 K-4 bottoms TBP Distln 5% vol 28.85 0C
(Naphtha-I) 98% vol 152.6 0C
Density at 166.8 0C 0.693 gm/cc
5 SKO Density at 50 OC 0.804 gm/cc TBP cut : 140—270OC
(KeroI + TBP Distln 5% vol 143 0C
KeroII) 95% vol 308 0C
Flash Point 39.67 OC
6 HSD Density at 299.3 0C 0.856 gm/cc TBP cut : 270—340/370OC
TBP Distln 5% vol 234.6 oC SRGO only
70% vol 344 OC No Naphtha Injection
90% vol 375 OC
388.3oC ASTM D86 Distillation :
95% vol
1% vol : 194.5 OC
92.4 OC 5% vol : 250.7 OC
90% vol : 359.4 OC
Flash Point
95% vol : 369.9 OC
Density at 359.5 OC 0.948 gm/cc TBP cut : 370OC(+)
7 RCO TBP Distln 1% vol 238.2OC
5% vol 336.9OC

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 30
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

10% vol 373.8OC


Watson K 11.95
8 Heavy TBP Distln 5% vol 102.9 OC TBP cut : 120—140OC
Naphtha 98% vol 197.04 OC
( Hy Naph-I + Density at 50 OC 0.757 gm/cc
Hy Naph-II )

2.6 FEED & PRODUCT BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS

SR. FEED/ PRESSURE TEMP SOURCE / DESTINATION


NO. PROD (kg/cm²)
(abs) °C

1 Crude 3.5 to 5.0 32 to 40 Offsite Crude pump discharge at GRE


2 Fuel Gas 1.5 to 2.0 35 to 40 Fuel gas bullet at CRU/GRE
3 LPG 12.5 45 AU-I/GRE Caustic Wash
4 SKO 4.5 45 OM & S / LAB feed stock
5 HSD 6.0 45 OM & S
6 RCO 5.0 80 FPU-I, FPU-II, OM&S,GRE, Job-50
7 Naphtha-I To General Naphtha pool (OM&S) via
(Stabilised Naphtha) 6.0 45 AU-1. To AU-IV for Caustic Wash.
(K-4 bot.) To AU-I/II for reprocessing.
8 Naphtha-II
(Light Naphta) 10.0 45 - DO -
(E-2 gasoline)

Provision have been made to route SKO &HSD to DHDT feed tank. As on June’11, it is yet to be
commissioned.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 31
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2.7 UTILITY SPECIFICATIONS

SR. PRESSURE TEMP OTHER


UTILITY
NO kg/cm²(g) (° C) SPECIFICATION

1 High 39.0(max) 440


Pressure 35.0(max) 435
Steam 32.0(max) 420
2. Medium Pressure 13.0 (max) 325
Steam 8.5 (nor) 230
7.5 (min) 200
3 Instrument Air 6.5 Ambient -15° C dew point
4 Plant Air 6.5 Ambient Free from Oil
5 Recirculating 2.8 to 3.5 Ambient -
Water
6 DM water 6.0 Ambient Hardness 0.5ppm (max)
as CaCO3.
pH = 6.5 to 8.0
Viscosity at Burner
7 Fuel Oil 2.0 to 4.0 80 to 95 = 25.30 cSt
(RCO)/ Slop (at burner) Calorific Value =
Distillate (IFO) 9600 kCals/kg.
Sulphur = 0.3%
8 VR 4.0 120 to 140 -

9 Fuel Gas 2.0 to 2.52 35 to 40 Calorific Value =


13,000 KCals/Kg

2.8 MATERIAL BALANCE (% WT)

The design yield pattern is as follows.


(Actual yield pattern obtained from Test Run on 12th October, 2000 compared)

Feed : 375 MT/Hr ( NG100% )

SR PRODUCT TEST RUN DESIGN TEST RUN


NO (MT/Hr) (% Wt) ( % Wt)
1 LPG 0.75 0.20 0.02
2 Naphtha-I 10.21 2.07 2.73
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 32
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

(Stb Naphtha)(K4 Bottom)


3 Naphtha-II
(Lt Naphtha i.e. 8.10 0.80 2.17
E2 Gasoline)
4 Hy Naphtha-I 4.10 0.93 -
(K-6A Naphtha)
5 Hy Naphtha-II 5.23 0.80 1.4
(K-3A Naphtha)
6 Kero-I 11.90 2.87 --
7 Kero-II 32.31 9.94 8.64
8 SRGO 54.26 11.88 14.51

9 RCO 262.25 70.71 70.12


10 Gas + Loss 0.0095 0.0025 -

* The above have changed after introduction of Advance Process Control. To be modified
after test run.

2.8 UTILITY CONSUMPTION

SR.
UTILITIES CONSUMPTION USES
NO
Atomising, Soot blowing, Stripping in K1,
1 M.P. Steam 18.3 Kg/MT of crude K2, K3 & K6, Hose stations, Steam air
decoking
2 Instrument - Instruments
Air
3 Plant Air - Service stations, decoking
4 Circulating 655 M3/MT of crude Coolers, Condensers
Water And Pumps
5 Service Water Utility stations at heat exchangers and
- decoking pot
6 DM Water 5 to 6 M3/Hr Desalter-I, Desalter-II

7 Fuel Oil/Fuel 3-4 MT/Hr Furnaces F-1, F-2 and F-3


Gas (IFO)

8 HP Steam VR Heating

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 33
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER - 3

EQUIPMENT DATA

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 34
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.1 PUMPS

Sr EQPT SERVICE FLOW DISCH P MOTOR


No NO (M³/Hr) PRESS
(kgf/cm2) (kgf/cm²) Rated LUBE
kW Amp OIL
Rated Normal

1 H-2/2A CRUDE 175 150 21.0 18.0 220 23 SS46


2 H-2B CRUDE 175 150 21.0 18.0 260 27 ,,
3 H-2C CRUDE 175 150 22.0 19.0 260 27 ,,
4 H-4/5A SRGO 110 137 180 SS68
(H in m)
5 H-6 K-1 TOP 75 65 8.0 5.0 22 37.8 SS46
REFLUX
6 H-8 K-2 TOP REFLUX/ 50 80 18.5 32 ,,
NAPHTHA-2 R/D (H in m)
7 H-8A K-1 TOP 75 12 22 38 ,,
REFLUX
8 H-9 K-2 TOP 50 80 18.5 32
REFLUX / (H in m) ,,
NAPHTHA-2 R/D
9 H-10/ 10A KERO-II 113 78 SS68
(H in m)
10 H-11/ 11A RCO (K-2 BOT) 200 147 ,,
(H in m)
11 H-14 K-4 BOT 40 14.5 18.5 45 SS46

12 H-15/ 15A K-4 REFLUX / 56 47.4 15.0 6.2 30 50 ,,


LPG R/D
13 H-18 SLOP/CBD 80 6.0 8 16 ,,
14 H-19 SLOP/CBD 60 6.0 11 20 ,,
15 H-20/ IFO/E6-E7 pump 18 7.3 8 18 ,,
20A
16 H-21A/ AHURALAN 5 6.0 0.37 0.9 ,,
/B/C/D Injection LPH
17 H-25 CAUSTIC Injection 150 20 0.37 1.1 ,,
LPH
18 H-26 CAUSTIC Injection 150 20 0.37 1.1 ,,
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 35
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Sr EQPT SERVICE FLOW DISCH P MOTOR


No NO (M³/Hr) PRESS
(kgf/cm2) (kgf/cm²) Rated LUBE
kW Amp OIL
Rated Normal

LPH
19 H-28/ DM Water Injection 20 40 35 52 ,,
28A Pump
20 H-29/ DEMULSIFIER 8 21 0.37 1.1 SS46
29A
21 H-30 /31 AMMONIA 20 8 0.37 1.1 ,,
SOLUTION LPH
22 H-41 K-1 BOT 220 12 160 268 SS68
A /B / C (K-1 RESIDUE)
23 H-42 RCO (K-2 BOT) 200 147 ,,
(H in m)
24 H-101 SUCTION FROM 60 - 5.5 15 27.5 SS46
TK-212/213/214
25 H-102 SPARE FOR (Slop) 50 - 4.3 11 20 ,,
H-101 / H-103
26 H-103 SUCTION FROM 52 - 5.2 15 28 ,,
TK-209/210/211
27 45-PM- VR/IFO PUMP 10 9 15 27.5 SS68
002 A/B
28 P-231 DESALTER 22 16 3.25 5.5 10.5 ,,
A/ B DESLUDGING
29 P-231C DM WATER 30 52 SS46
Injection
30 P-301 K-1 CR-I 28 23.2 6.6 4.0 7.5 13.5 SS68
A/ B (KERO-I)
31 P-302 K-2 CR-II 250 225 6.5 5.1 45 74 ,,
A/ B (KERO-II)
32 P-304 Hy Naphtha 23 18 8.5 6.0 15 25.1 ,,
A/ B/C (K-6A & K-3A
bottoms)
33 P-305 KERO-I Product 28 17.5 9.0 6.0 15 26.5 ,,
A/ B (K-6B bottoms)

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 36
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Sr EQPT SERVICE FLOW DISCH P MOTOR


No NO (M³/Hr) PRESS
(kgf/cm2) (kgf/cm²) Rated LUBE
kW Amp OIL
Rated Normal

34 P-306 K-4 Feed 15 37 61 SS46


A/ B (E-1 to K-4)
35 P-307 K-2 CR-III 270 238 7.5 6.1 67 105 SS68
A/ B (SRGO)
36 P-5A/B Hot Oil/FO to UDEX - - - - 11 19.9 SS46
Sucn. ex TK-212/213
37 2115P119 Diesel boostr pump 127.6 55.46 53
A/B (H in m)

3.2 EXCHANGERS

FLUID
Sr Temp, °C (in/out)
EQUIPMENT NO SERVICE
NO
SHELL TUBE
1 E-102 A/B CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE SRGO+HN-
35/70 I+HN-II
150/70
2 E-103 A/B CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
155/110 70/102
3 HM3A/B CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE CR-II
102/147.2 192/133
4 E-106 K-4 BOTTOM REBOILER CR-III K-4 BOT
288/268 165/180
5 E-231 DM WATER DM WATER BRINE
A/B/C HEATER 40/65 13.5/75
6 E-301A/B CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE KERO1+
35/65 KERO2
132/70
7 E-302A/B/C CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
215/110 65/114
8 E-303 CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE KERO-II
106/123 177/132
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 37
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

FLUID
Sr Temp, °C (in/out)
EQUIPMENT NO SERVICE
NO
SHELL TUBE
9 E-305 CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE SRGO
123/142 189/150
10 E-306A/B CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE SRGO
142/190 284/189
11 E-307 CRUDE PREHEAT CRUDE CR-III
202/220 241/224
12 E-308A/B/C CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
325/235 213/256
13 E-309A/B/C K-1 RESIDUE K-1 BOT RCO
HEATING 229/265 339/284
14 E-310A/B K4 FEED (E1 Gasoline) K-4 FEED K-4 BOT
PREHEAT 45/129 172/85
15 E-311 K4 FEED (E1 Gasoline) K-4 FEED SRGO
PREHEAT 40/129 147/60
16 E-313A/B DM WATER CR-I/CR-III D M Water
HEATER 100/127 108/140
17 E-315 SRGO(HSD) SRGO(HSD) Cooling Water
COOLING 70/45 33/42
18 E-317A/B K1 RESIDUE K-1 BOT CR-III
HEATING 204/231 285/232
19 E-318 BRINE COOLER C.WATER Desalter Brine
33/42 72/43
20 E-320A/B CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
182/168 140/150
21 E104A /B CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
184/167 126/138
22 HME/F CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
347/184 138/178
23 HMC/D CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
347/184 178/218
24 HMA/B CRUDE PREHEAT RCO CRUDE
347/184 218/260
25 45-EE-003-A/B/C/D VR/IFO HEATING VR HP STEAM
120/235 430/239

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 38
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.3 COOLERS / CONDENSERS

FLUID
Temp, °C (in/out)
SNO EQUIPMENT NO SERVICE
SHELL TUBE

1 T-7A/B K-1 O/H VAPOURS K-1 TOP WATER


CONDENSING 132/45 33/42
2 T-8A/8B/8C K-2 O/H VAPOURS K-2 TOP WATER
CONDENSING 125/45 33/45
3 T-8D K-2 O/H VAPOURS K-2 TOP WATER
CONDENSING 125/45 33/45
4 T-9 A/B K-4 O/H VAPOURS K-4 TOP WATER
CONDENSING 61/35 33/45
5 T-14A KERO R/D KERO-I+ WATER
KERO-II 33/42
72/42
6 T-16 A/B/C/D RCO R/D RCO WATER
110/90 33/45

3.4 VESSELS

PRESSURE
(kg/cm2)
SNO EQUIPMENT SERVICE CAPACITY
NO OPERATING DESIGN
(M)3

1 E-1 K1 REFLUX 42 2.7 3.5


DRUM
2 E-2 K-2 REFLUX DRUM 20 0.25

3 E-4 K-4 REFLUX DRUM 18.3 8.0 10.5


4 E-8 UGT/CBD 20 ATM -
5 E-9 AHURALAN 1.199 ATM -
6 E-11 INSTRUMENT AIR 20 6.0
7 E-12 DM WATER 16.7 ATM -

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 39
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8 E-13 DEMULSIFIER 2.033 ATM -


9 E-19 BRINE FLASH DRUM
10 - DESALTER-I (OLD) 13.5 19 at 300 0F
11 - DESALTER-II (NEW) 13.5 19 at 300 0F
12 45-VV- 003 VR SURGE DRUM 31 2.4

13 45-VV-004 FLARE KO DRUM 3 2.2


0.3 3.5
14 03-V-107 LP FLARE KO DRUM 48 Op Temp : 80- Des. Temp :
1000C 1800C

3.5 TANKS

REFERENCE
SNO TANK SERVICE CAPACITY HEIGHT SFH FACTOR
NO (M) 3 (cm) (cm) (MT/CM)
1 209 UDEX RAFFINATE 300 608.8 0.238
2 210 UDEX RAFFINATE 300 608.8 0.238
3 211 UDEX RAFFINATE 300 608.8 0.238
4 212 DIESEL 300 670 0.370
5 213 HOT OIL 300 670 0.370
6 214 SLOP / PDF R/S 300 670 0.370
7 E-6 FUEL OIL 60 585 -- --
8 E-7 FUEL OIL 60 587 -- --

3.6 COLUMNS

TRAY FEED TOP TOP


EQUIPMENT ENTRY TEMP PRESSURE
SNO SERVICE Nos TYPE
NO TRAY (°C) (kg/cm2)
1 K-1 PRE TOPPING 1 to 8 SIEVE 8 110 to 129 2.2 to 2.9
COLUMN 9 to 29 VALVE
2 K-2 MAIN 1 to 6 SIEVE 6 111 to 125 0.6
FRACTIONATING
COLUMN 7 to 41 VALVE
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 40
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3 K-3A HYNAPHTHA-II 6 SIEVE 6 175 to -


STRIPPER 180
4 K-3B SRGO STRIPPER 6 SIEVE 6 333 -
5 K-3C KERO-II 6 SIEVE 6 - -
STRIPPER
6 K-4 NAPHTHA 34 VALVE 11,15, 60 8.0 to 8.3
STABILIZER 17
7 K-6A HY NAPHTHA-I 6 SIEVE 6 - -
STRIPPER
8 K-6B KERO-I 6 SIEVE 6 - -
STRIPPER

3.7 FURNACES/AIR PRE-HEATER


EQUIPMENT HEAT DUTY
NO. OF
SERVICE (ABSORBED) EFFICIENCY
SR NO NO BURNERS
MMKCal/Hr
1 F-1 8.63
CRUDE HEATER 90% WITH
6
FOR K-2 FEED APH

2 F-2 CRUDE HEATER FOR 90% WITH


16.02 10
K-2 FEED APH
3 F-1/F-2 COMBUSTION AIR -
2.55 -
APH PREHEATING
4 F-3 CRUDE HEATER FOR K- 6
8.0 90%
2 FEED
5 F-3 APH 1.5 ( oil fired
COMBUSTION AIR design) -
-
PREHEATING 0.825 (oil fired
norm)

3.8 TURBO BLOWERS


CAPACITY CAPACITY DIFFL MOTOR
SR TAG PR.
NO SERVICE RATED
NO NO (NM3/HR) (NM3/HR) (MMWC kW
) Amp
MAX MIN

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 41
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

1 C-1 COMBUSTION 66,000 10,000 316 90 190


(FDFAN) 1 AIR BLOWER
(FOR F1/F2) (3099 Pa)
2 C-2 1 FLUE GASES 88,200 15,700 204 110 224
(ID FAN)
(FOR F1/F2) (2000 Pa)
3 410-FD-01 A/B 2 COMBUSTION 25,300 - 333.45 37 63
(FD FANS) AIR BLOWER
(FOR F3) (3270 Pa)
4 410-ID-02 1 FLUE GASES 38,160 - 250.85 45 76
(ID FAN)
(FOR F3) (2460 Pa)

3.9 PSV'S

SNO TAG Nos LOCATION SERVICE SET PR RELEASE


NO (kgf/cm ) 2 TO
1 3PSV-3201 2 K-1O/H To vent 3.7 FLARE
A/B (On Condensers Naphtha
Platform)
2 3PSV-05 1 On E-1 Vessel To vent 3.15 FLARE
LPG
3 3PSV-3501 5 K-2 TOP To vent 1.5 L.P Flare
A/B/C/D & Naphtha
3PSV3502
. 3PSV-3503 1 On E-2 Vessel To vent 1.2 L.P Flare
Naphtha
5 3PSV-3601 2 K-4 TOP To vent 9.4 FLARE
A/B LPG
6 3PSV-3601 1 On E-4 Vessel To vent 9.4 FLARE
LPG
7 3PSV-901 1 Desalter -I To vent 19.34 K-1
O/H line on K-1 Crude
8th Platform
8 3PSV-902 1 Desalter -I To vent 18.7 K-1
O/H line on K-1 Crude
8th Platform

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 42
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SNO TAG Nos LOCATION SERVICE SET PR RELEASE


NO (kgf/cm ) 2 TO
9 3PSV-3101A 1 Desalter-II O/H To vent 20.3 K-1
On K-1 Platform Crude
10 3PSV-3101B 1 Desalter-II O/H To vent 20.3 K-1
On K-1 Platform Crude
11 3PSV-4501 1 On VR surge To vent FG 3.15 Flare
Drum K.O. Drum
12 3PSV-4504 On disch of VR 10 Suction of
1 pump To vent VR Temp=120 to the
45-PM-002B 1700C same pump

13 3PSV-4505 On disch of VR 10 Suction of


1 pump To vent VR Temp= the
45-PM-002A 120 to 1700C same pump

14 3TSV-4501 1 VR O/L of Exch To vent VR 10 CBD


45-EE-003A/B Temp=235 C 0

15 3TSV-4502 1 VR O/L of Exch To vent VR 10 CBD


45-EE-003C/D Temp=2350C
16 3TSV-4503 1 On VR/FO Supply To vent VR/FO 10 Surface
lines to AU- Drain
3/Udex furnaces
before supply-
return bypass
17 3TSV-4504 1 On VR/FO Supply To vent VR/FO 10 Surface
Line to Udex Drain
18 3TSV-4505 1 On VR/IFO To vent VR/FO 10 Surface
Return line (to Temp=2350C Drain
VR Drum) near
E-7
19 3TSV-4506 1 On IFO line ex E- To vent FO 10 CBD
6/E-7 to VR Drum Temp=1700C
near VR pumps

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 43
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.10 LIST OF CONTROL VALVES/CONTROLLERS

3.10.1 FLOW CONTROLLERS

SR
TAG NO SERVICE CONTROLLER
NO
1 3FV3003 F-3 PASS-1 FEED FLOW 3FC3003
2 3FV3005 F-3 PASS-2 FEED FLOW 3FC3005
3 - TOTAL AIR TO F-3 3FC3012
4 3FV3110 CRUDE FLOW TO K-1 3FC3110
5 3FV3111 KERO-II TO KERO R/D 3FC3111
6 3FV3112 RCO TO OM&S (HV Grade) 3FC3112
7 3FV3113 COLD RCO TO OM&S (LV Grade) 3FC3113
8 3FV3114 SKO TO RCO TO VR (HV) 3FC3114
9 3FV3115A HOT RCO TO FPU-1 3FC3115A
10 3FV3115B HOT RCO TO FPU-2 3FC3115B
11 3FV3116 RCO TO OM&S /VR (HV Grade) 3FC3116
12 3FV3117 RCO VBU TANKS 3FC3117
13 3FV3118 SK TO RCO (LV Grade) 3FC3118
14 3FV3119 SKO TO RCO TO OM&S (LV) 3FC3119
15 3FV3120 COLD RCO TO FPU-2 3FC3120
16 3FV3135 SRGO R/D (TO HSD) FLOW 3FC3135
17 3FV3203 FEED (E1 GASOLINE) TO K-4 3FC3203
18 3FV3205 STRIPPING STEAM TO K-1 3FC3205
19 3FV3208 KERO-I FLOW TO KERO R/D 3FC3208
20 3FV3211 KERO-I CR TO K-1(CR-I) 3FC3211
21 3FV3301 FEED TO F-1 3FC3301`
22 3FV3303 FUEL GAS TO F-1 3FC3302
23 3FV3402 PASS-1 OF F-2 FEED FLOW 3FC3402
24 3FV3403B PASS-2 OF F-2 FEED FLOW 3FC3403
25 3FV3411 FUEL GAS TO F-2 3FC3411
26 3FV3501 STRIPPING STEAM TO K-2 3FC3501
27 3FV3502 KERO CR TO K-2 (CR-II) 3FC3502
28 3FV3508 STRIPPING STEAM TO K-3B 3FC3508
29 3FV3509 STRIPPING STEAM TO 3FC3509
K-3A(Hy Naphtha-II Stripper)
30 3FV3510 NAPHTHA-II R/D FLOW 3FC3510
31 3FV3517 STRIPPING STEAM TO K-3C 3FC3517
32 3FV3519 CR-II (SRGO) TO K-2 3FC3519

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 44
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

33 3FV3602 DRAG STREAM EX CRU 3FC3602


34 3FV3604 LPG EX E-4 TO AU-4/AU-1 3FC3604
35 3FV3209 HY NAPHTHA TO SRGO (HSD) 3FC3209
36 3FV3210 HY NAPHTH TO SRGO (HSD) 3FC3210
37 3FV3801 F1/F2 FD FAN COLD AIR FLOW 3FC3801
38 Damper HOT AIR FLOW TO F-2 3FC3802
39 Damper HOT AIR FLOW TO F-1 3FC3803
40 3FV3906 DM WATER TO DESALTER-I 3FC3906
41 3FV3907 DM WATER TO DESALTER-II 3FC3907
42 3FV5905R HSD to blending (EURO-3) 3FC5905R
43 3FV5903R Kero to DHDT feed tank 3FC5903R
44 3FV3112A Kero to LABFS tank 3FC3112A
45 3FV5911R P119A/B MIN CIRC FLOW 3FC5911R

3.10.2 LEVEL CONTROLLERS

SR NO TAG NO SERVICE CONTROLLER


1 3LV3109 DM WATER TO TANK( E-12) LEVEL 3LC3109
2 3LV3201 K-1 BOTTOM 3LC3201
3 - E-1 HYDROCARBON 3LIC3202
4 3LV3203 E-1 BOOT WATER 3LDIC3203
5 3LV3205 K-6A (Hy NAPHTHA-I) BOTTOM 3LC3205
6 3LV3206 K-6B (KERO-I) BOTTOM 3LC3206
7 3LV3501A K-2 BOTTOM 3LC3501A
8 3LV3502 K-3A BOTTOM 3LC3502
9 3LV3503 K-3B (SRGO STRIPPER) BOTTOM 3LC3503
10 - E-2 HYDROCARBON 3LDIC3504
11 3LV3505 E-2 BOOT WATER 3LDIC3505
12 3LV3516 K-3C (KERO-II) BOTTOM 3LC3516
13 3LV3601 K-4 BOTTOM 3LC3601
14 3LV3602 E-4 HYDROCARBON (LPG) LEVEL 3LDIC3602
15 - E-4 BOOT-WATER 3LDIC3601
16 3LV3901 VR SURGE DRUM LEVEL 3LC3901
17 3LV3902A/B DESALTER-I INTERFACE 3LDIC3902A/B
18 3LV3903A/B DESALTER-II INTERFACE 3LDIC3903A/B
19 3LI1110 LP FLARE KOD LEVEL

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 45
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.10.3 CONTROLLER

SR NO TAG NO SERVICE CONTROLLER


1 VANES F-3 HIP ARCH PR. (ID FAN IGV CONTROL) 3PC3001
2 3PV3003 F.G. TO F3 PRESSURE 3PC3003
3 3PV3005 F.G. TO F3 PRESSURE 3PC3005
4 3DPV3006 DIFFL. PRESSURE BETWEEN 3DPC3006
FO & ATM STEAM TO F3
5 3PV3101 DESALTER PRESSURE CONTROL 3PC3101
6 3PV3201 K-1 TOP PRESSURE 3PC3201
7 3PV3205 STRIPPING STEAM TO K1 3PC3205
8 3PV3301 FO PRESSURE TO F-1 3PC3301
9 3DPV3302 DIFFL. PR. BETWEEN 3DPC3302
FO & ATM STEAM IN F-1
10 3PV3417 FO PRESSURE TO F-2 3PC3417
11 3DPV3419 DIFF PR BETWEEN 3DPC3419
FO & ATM STEAM TO F-2
12 3DPV3503 K-2 TOP PRESSURE 3PC3503A/B
A/B
13 3PV3601 K-4 TOP PRESSURE 3PC3601
14 3PV3701 STRIPPING STEAM PRESSURE 3PC3701
TO K-2 & K-3
15 3PV3702 STEAM TO UNIT PRESSURE 3PC3702
16 3PV3704 FUEL GAS SUPPLY PRESSURE TO UNIT 3PC3704

17 3PV3705 INSTRUMENT AIR VESSEL PRESSURE 3PC3705


18 3PV3706 FUEL OIL BPC 3PC3704
19 DAMPER F-1 HIP ARCH PRESSURE 3PC3801
20 DAMPER F-2 HIP ARCH PRESSURE 3PC3820
21 3PV3901A/B VR SURGE DRUM PRESSURE 3PC3901A/B
22 3PC5905R SRGO TO DHDT 3PV5905R
23 3PC5903R KERO TO RUNDOWN 3PV5903R

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 46
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3.10.4 TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS

SR NO TAG NO SERVICE CONTROLLER


1 3TV040 CRUDE PREHEAT TEMP 3TC040
2 - F-3 COT 3TC3013
3 DAMPER FLUE GASES (EX F-3 APH) TEMP CONTROL 3TC3028
4 3TV3102A CRUDE TEMP. CONTROL 3TC3102A
5 3TV3102B CRUDE TEMP. CONTROL 3TC3102B
6 3TV3125A CRUDE TEMP CONTROL 3TC3125A
7 3TV3125B CRUDE TEMP CONTROL 3TC3125B
8 3TV3129 CR-I(KERO-I) RETURN TEMP CONTROL 3TC3129
9 3TV3130 CR-II (KERO-II) RETURN TEMP CONTROL 3TC3130
10 3TV3131 K-4 FEED TEMPERATURE CONTROL 3TC3131
11 3TV3135 CR-III(SRGO) RETURN TEMP CONTROL 3TC3135
12 3TV3201 K-1 TOP TEMPERATURE 3TC3201
13 - F-1 COT 3TC3312
14 - F-2 COT 3TC3418
15 3TV3505 SRGO WITHDRAWAL EX K-2 TO K-3 B 3TC3505
16 3TV3506 Hy NAPHTHA WITHDRAWAL EX K-2 TO K-3 A 3TC3506
17 3TV3507 K-2 TOP TEMPERATURE 3TC3507
18 3TV3603 K-4 TOP TEMPERATURE CONTROL 3TC3603
(PREVIOUSLY 3FV3601)
19 3TV3605 K-4 REBOILER(E-106) TEMP CONTROL 3TC3605
20 3TV3901 VR/IFO (TO F1/F2/F3) TEMP CONTROL 3TC3901
(HP STEAM C/V)

3.11 LIST OF ALARMS AND TRIPS:

Following alarms and trips are provided in the unit :

SR
TAG NO SERVICE ALARM/ TRIP SET VALUE
NO
A UTILITIES
1 3PL3303 Fuel Oil Pressure Low ALARM 2.0kg/cm2(g)
2 3PSL3702 Unit Steam Pressure Low ALARM 6.0 Kg/cm2(g)
3 3PSL3705 Instrument Air Pressure Low ALARM 3.0 Kg/cm2(g)
4 3PL3704 Fuel Gas To Unit Pressure Low ALARM 1.0 Kg/cm2(g)

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 47
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SR
TAG NO SERVICE ALARM/ TRIP SET VALUE
NO
5 3PAL3901 VR Discharge Pressure Low ALARM 30%
6 3PAH3902 VR Surge Drum Pressure High ALARM 30%
7 3LAH3901A VR Level In KO Drum High ALARM 50%
B COLUMNS & VESSELS
1 3LI3201A K-1 Level Low ALARM 30%
2 3LI3203 E-1 Boot Water Level ALARM 20%
3 3LAL3501 K-2 Bottom Level Low ALARM 20%
4 3LAH3505 E-2 Boot Water Level High ALARM 80%
5 3LAL3505 E-2 Boot Water Level Low ALARM 20%
6 3LSL3601 K-4 Bottom Low ALARM 20%
7 3LAH3701 E-8 Level High ALARM 75%
8 3LI3904 E-6 Level High ALARM 75%
9 3LI3905 E-7 Level High ALARM 75%

C FURNACE F-1

1 3PAL3303A F-1 Fuel Oil Pr.Low ALARM 2.0 kg/cm2


2 3PSL3303B F-1 Fuel Oil Pr. Very Low TRIP 1.0 kg/cm2
3 3PAL3304A F-1 Fuel Gas Pr. Low ALARM 0.2 kg/cm2
4 3PSL3304B F-1 Fuel Gas Pr. Very Low TRIP 0.1 kg/cm2
5 3PAL3305 F-1 Pilot Gas Pr. Low ALARM 0.25 kg/cm2
6 3FAL33O7A Pass Flow Very Low (F-1) TRIP 60 M3/Hr
7 3FAL3307B Pass Flow Low (F-1) ALARM 80 M3/Hr
8 3FCL3307 Pass Flow Very Low (F-1) TRIP 60 M3/Hr
9 3TAH3303 F-1 Stack Temp High ALARM 450 0C
10 3TAH3315 F-1 Coil Outlet Tmp High TRIP 390 0C
15 3PSH3706 Fuel Oil BPC High ALARM 7.5 kg/cm2
11 3PAH3801 F-1 Arch Pressure High ALARM +1mm WC
12 3PAH3802 F-1 Arch Pressure Very High TRIP +5mmWC
13 3LAL3902 Desalter-I Level Low ALARM 20%
14 3LAL3903 Desalter-II Level Low ALARM 20%
D FURNACE F-2
1 3FL3402 F2 Pass-1 Flow Low TRIP 90 M3/Hr
2 3FL3403B F2 Pass-2 Flow Low TRIP 90 M3/Hr
3 3FL3401A F2 Combined Pass Flow Very Low TRIP 90 M3/Hr
4 3TAH3403 F2 Stack Temp High ALARM 450 0C
5 3PAL3411A F2 Fuel Oil Pr Low ALARM 2.0 kg/cm2
6 3PSL3411B F2 Fuel Oil Pr Very Low TRIP 1.0 kg/cm2
7 3PAL3412A F2 Fuel Gas Pr Low ALARM 0.2 kg/cm2

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 48
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SR
TAG NO SERVICE ALARM/ TRIP SET VALUE
NO
8 3PAL3412B F2 Fuel Gas Pr Very Low TRIP 0.1 kg/cm2
9 3PAL3413 F2 Pilot Gas Pr Low ALARM 0.25 kg/cm2
10 3TAH3413 F2 Coil Outlet Temp High pass-1 TRIP 390 0C
11 3TAH3422 F2 Coil Outlet Temp High pass-2 TRIP 390 0C
12 3PAH3820 F2 Arch Pressure High ALARM +1.0 mmWC
13 3PAH3821 F2 Arch Pressure Very High TRIP +5.0 mm WC

E. F-1 & F-2 AIR PREHEATER

1 3TAL3805 Flue Gases After APH Temp Low ALARM 170 0C


2 3TAH3806 Flue Gases After APH Temp High ALARM 230 0C
3 3TAH3807 Flue Gases Before APH Temp High ALARM 420 0C
4 3TAH3810 Hot Air After APH Temp High ALARM 200 0C
5 3PL3811 FD Fan Discharge Pr Low ALARM +30mmWC
6 3PL3811A FD Fan Discharge Pr Very Low ALARM +20mmWC
7 3PH3819 ID Fan Suction Pr High ALARM -30mmWC
8 3PH3819A ID Fan Suction Pr Very High TRIP -20mmWC
F. FURNACE F-3
1 3FT3002 F-3 Pass-I Feed Flow Low TRIP 10.0 T/Hr
2 3FT3004 F-3 Pass-II Feed Flow Low TRIP 10.0 T/Hr
3 3PT3004 F-3 Fuel Gas Pressure Low TRIP 0.4 kg/cm2
4 3PT3013 F-3 Fuel Oil Pressure Low TRIP 1.6 kg/cm2
5 3PT3015 Combustion Air Presure Low TRIP 16 mmWC
6 3PT3016A F-3 Arch Pressure High TRIP +10 mmWC
7 3PT3016B F-3 Arch Pressure High TRIP +10 mmWC
8 3PT3016C F-3 Arch Pressure High TRIP +10 mmWC
9 3TT3023A F-3 Pass-I COT High TRIP 4000C
10 3TT3023B F-3 Pass-II COT High TRIP 4000C
G. F-3 AIR PREHEATER
1 3FT3011A FD-A Suction Flow Low TRIP -20 mmWC
2 3FT3011B FD-B Suction Flow Low TRIP -20 mmWC
0.2ACount
3 3IT3001A FD-A Current Low TRIP
Ratio
0.2ACount
4 3IT3001B FD-B Current Low TRIP
Ratio
0.2ACount
5 3PT3003 ID Fan Current Low TRIP
Ratio
6 3PT3011 ID Fan Suction Pr High TRIP -60 mmWC
7 3TT3027 ID Fan Suction Temp High TRIP 285 0C

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 49
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER-4
PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 50
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4. 1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS

Crude from OM&S is received through booster pumps located at GR/GRE Crude Control. Crude
is charged at a temperature of 350C by feed pumps H-2, H-2A, 2B, 2C for processing. These are
actually crude booster pumps, which take suction from discharge of offsite pumps at GR/GRE Crude
Control. It is pumped and preheated by successive heat exchange with Hy Naphtha-I, Hy Naphtha-
II, Kero-I, Kero-II, SRGO (HSD), and RCO and received in desalters. Salts, water and BS&W are
removed from crude by applying high voltage across the electrode grids in the desalters. Crude is
further heated by successive heat exchange with RCO, SRGO and then it enters the pre-topping
column K-1.
K-1 top gasoline vapours are condensed in two sets of condensers (T-7A/B) and received in
reflux drum E-1. A part of this liquid is sent as reflux back to column and the remaining quantity is
sent to stabilizer column K-4 after passing through heat exchangers where LPG is removed &
naphtha is sent to R/D. K-1 bottom residue is further preheated in RCO and SRGO exchangers and
then heated up in three furnaces running in parallel. Hot residue crude from the furnaces is
combined and is sent to flash zone of the main fractionating column K-2.
Column K-1 has two side cut products. Heavy Naphtha-I is the first side cut product, which goes
to K-6A for stripping, and Kerosene-I is the second side cut which is sent to stripper K-6B. Later Hy
Naphtha-I combines with Hy Naphtha-II and SRGO of K-2 and goes to HSD rundown. Kerosene-I
combines with Kerosene-II of K-2 and exchanges heat with crude and then it is cooled in cooler and
sent as Kero R/D.
In flash zone of K-2 all products except RCO go in vapour form in upper section whereas RCO
drops in stripping section of K-2. Vapours rise through the upper section of the column and are
fractionated and withdrawn as a side product. Gasoline comes out as vapours from K-2 top whereas
Hy Naphtha-II, Kerosene and SRGO are withdrawn as side cuts from column K-2.
From the top of K-2, Gasoline vapours enter into four sets of condensers (T-8A/B/C/D) and after
condensing are collected in reflux drum E-2. A part of E-2 gasoline is put back into the column as a
reflux and balance is sent to Naphtha-2 rundown.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 51
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Hy Naphtha-II is drawn as first side cut from column K-2. This Hy Naphtha enters the top
section of K-3 stripper. After stripping, Hy Naphtha-II together with Hy Naphtha-I of K-6A and
SRGO exchanges heat with crude and circulating water and is sent to HSD rundown.
Kerosene-II is withdrawn as 2nd draw-off from column K-2. After withdrawing it is fed to K-3C
for steam stripping. Product pumps H-10/10A deliver kero-II from K-3C to crude exchangers where
it exchanges heat with crude. T-14A cooler is used to cool down the final rundown product (Kero-I
and Kero-II). A part of Kero-II is taken from the same draw-off line and sent to crude exchanger
where it exchanges heat with crude. From crude exchanger it returns to column K-2 as CR-II.
SRGO is withdrawn as 3rd side cut from column K-2. SRGO enters the bottom section of K-3
stripper. SRGO from stripper is pumped to storage after exchanging heat with crude, K-4 feed and
circulating water (in cooler E-315). After K-4 feed preheat exchanger E-311, Hy Naphtha-I and Hy
Naphtha-II together combine with SRGO. These three streams in combination pass through another
crude exchanger E-102A/B as HSD. Cooler E-315 is used to cool down this HSD to rundown
temperature.
A part of SRGO upstream of stripper is pumped through K-4 bottom reboiler; K-1 residue
exchanger, crude exchanger and DM water heat exchanger and then returns to main column K-2 as
circulating reflux (CR-III). There is interconnection between discharge lines of P-307A/B and H-
4/5A to facilitate SRGO C/R through stripper K-3B instead of upstream of SRGO withdrawal.
RCO from K-2 bottom is routed to FPU-I, II and OM&S after exchanging heat with crude in
different crude heat exchangers and with circulating water in coolers T-16/16A/B/C/D/E.

4.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS

For convenience of understanding, the unit is divided in various circuits viz. crude supply, feed
preheating, crude pre-topping, furnace, main fractionating column, overhead system, Hy Naphtha,
Kerosene, SRGO, RCO, Stabiliser, Naphtha Stripper, Utilities etc. The drawings of the respective

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 52
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

circuits are given in Annexure. These drawings show the arrangement of the process equipment
and major controls.

4.2.1 CRUDE SUPPLY


4.2.1.1 CRUDE STORAGE AND SETTLING
AU-III processes NG crude Imported crude/ BH crude and Slop. These are stored in
respective tanks earmarked for them.

NG CRUDE TANKS OF GRE CRUDE CONTROL

SAFE
TANK SERVICE CAPACITY REFERENCE FILLING CRITICAL FACTOR
NO HEIGHT HEIGHT ZONE KL/CM
(kL) (cm) (cm) (cm)
781 NG 20,000 1769.0 1250 220 to 250 14.1
782 NG 20,000 1700.5 1230 150 to 186 14.1
783 NG 20,000 1694.0 1230 150 to 186 14.1
911 NG 20,000 1667.5 1360 180 to 218.5 14.1

Adequate settling time, 12 hours or more after completion of receipt is required for each tank to
settle down water/sludge. The water is thoroughly drained before feeding to the unit. The sludge
from the tank is drained to melting pit.
A crude tank prepared as above, is first fed at slow rate by crack opening of outlet valve
(bleeding), along with the already feeding tank. After minimum of 4 hours bleeding, this may be
made a complete feed tank. This procedure is adopted to avoid unit upsets due to possible sudden
influx of water or abrupt feeding of different quality crude from the fresh tank. Feeding from the
crude tank to the unit crude feed pump may be either by gravity, as in the case of low feed
requirement, or via crude booster pump as in the case of higher throughput requirement.

4.2.1.2 SLOP PREPARATION AND SUPPLY

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 53
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Slop is injected in the crude line Ex GRE crude. There is a CV (51FC100A) to control the slop
rate to crude depending on the unit condition whose indication is given in Au-3 DCS but the
control is in the hand of GRE. Slop is taken to unit initially at a slow rate, which can be slowly
increased up to 800 TPD, max.

4.2.1.3 CRUDE BOOSTER PUMP


5 Crude pumps are provided at GRE Crude Control for supplying crude to AU-3. Part of
this supply goes to other GR Units also. Out of these 3 pumps are in N/G crude service and 1 pump
each in SG & B/H crude service.

CAPACITY DISCH PR. MOTOR


SR NO PUMP NO SERVICE
(M3/Hr) (kgf/cm2) (kW)
1 751-P-11A NG CRUDE 375 7.5 110
2 751-P-11B NG CRUDE 375 7.5 110
3 751-P-11C NG CRUDE 375 7.5 110
4 P-101B SG CRUDE 400 7.5 300
5 751-P-01 SLOP 360 - -
6 751-P-06C BH/IMP 237 - 67

4.2.2 FEED PREHEAT CIRCUIT


Crude is supplied to the Unit by GRE Crude Controls. Through the crude booster pumps as
mentioned in the above tables provided at GRE Crude Controls, crude enters AU-3. Downstream
of the crude battery limit valve, demulsifier is injected. On crude line to pump suction start up
(circulation) line hook up is provided. One line is hooked up with UGT pumping line for
reprocessing UGT material through H18 and H19. Crude through the crude feed line reaches the
crude feed pump H2, H2A, H2B and H-2C. Out of 4 pumps, 3 pumps are running while operating at
maximum throughput (9000 + MT/Day) level. Usually two 2 crude pump suffice the need. On crude
pump discharge header steam connection is provided to facilitate flushing. FLO connection is also
provided on these pumps suction for flushing. Slop oil (of Tank- 213 & Tank- 214) line hook-up is
provided at suction of H-2B via H-101/H-102. H-2C can also be used for same slop processing by
diverting slop from H-2B to H-2C through FLO line.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 54
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

With the help of crude feed pumps, crude is pumped to a number of heat exchangers to recover
heat from run-down products. Crude is charged to two parallel preheat series branched by
3TV3125A and 3TV3125B. These two series of exchangers constitute pre-desalter section of
preheat circuit, Preheat Train-I, which impart a large quantity of heat to crude. The crude
preheat circuit is divided into three sections viz. pre-desalter (Preheat Train-I), post-desalter
(Preheat Train-II) & post-pretopping column (Preheat Train-III).

PREHEAT TRAIN-I
The first exchanger of one series of this train is E-102A/B (Crude/SRGO). Crude ex E-102 A/B is
divided into two parts and passes through tube side of E-103A and E-103B through flow indicators
3FI3101 and 3FI3102. Crude flow through heat exchangers is adjusted to optimize heat recovery
from RCO stream for which 3TI3107 and 3TI3109 have been provided on the outlets of E-103A and
E-103B respectively.
Crude ex E-103A and E-103B mixes and passes through tube side of HM3A/B and takes heat
from RCO flowing through shell side. Crude ex HM3A/B passes through the shell side of CR-II
(SRGO) heat exchanger E-104A/B (mounted one above another). Desalting temperature is achieved
in E-104A/B. Crude outlet of E-104A/B is the end of first series where the end of other series
combines.
The second part of this train consists of exchangers no. E-301A/B (Crude/Kero-I+II), E-
302A/B/C (Crude/RCO), E-303 (Crude/Kero-II) and E-305 (Crude/SRGO) respectively. While
passing through these exchangers crude takes heat from Kero-I, RCO, Kero-II and SRGO. In this
circuit, desalting temperature is achieved in E-305. Crude from both circuits mixes and proceeds
towards Desalter-I (old) and Desalter-II (new), which operate in parallel. Crude oil is heated from
35°C to 130°C in the pre-desalter section i.e., Preheat Train-I.
Crude enters for removal of salt and water at bottom section of both desalters through inlet
distributors. Crude is initially mixed with adequate amount of DM Water (3%) with the help of
mixing valve. Recommended pressure drop across mixing valve is 0.7 to 1 kg/cm2. Adequate settling
time is allowed to break the oil-water emulsion and salt-water to settle down in desalter. The crude
desalting operation is carried out at 145° C and 12.0 kg/cm2(g). The pressure in the desalters is

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 55
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

controlled by 3PC3101 located on discharge of feed pumps H-2, H-2A, H-2B and H-2C. DM water
(and stripped sour water) is injected to crude at desalter inlets through flow controllers 3FC3906
and 3FC3907. The DMW exchange heat with brine in E-231A/B/C and with CR-I/III in E-313A/B
and is heated to 120- 140° C. The desalted crude is withdrawn with the help of outlet crude
collector mounted on the top most part inside the desalter. The separated effluent water with
dissolved salt is drawn from each desalter through interface level controllers 3LC3902A/B (for
Desalter-I) and 3LC3903A/B (for Desalter-II) and after combining exchanges heat with DM water in
E-231A/B/C. Effluent water is then drained through a flash drum, E-19. Interface level is
maintained around 25%. The exact interface level for efficient desalting will depend upon the salt
content and appearance of effluent water. To physically check the interface level, tri-lines are
provided to each desalter and sample from these tri-lines is checked through a sample cooler.
Desalted crude from the two desalters combines in a common outlet on which 3PI3101 is
located. Corresponding control valve, as mentioned above, 3PV3101 is located on the common
discharge header of crude feed pumps. A small slipstream is withdrawn from desalter common inlet
and passes through a vortex mixer where it is mixed with caustic solution at a regulated rate and
injected to desalter common outlet.
PREHEAT TRAIN-II
Crude from desalters is sent to Preheat Train-II. The crude flow is again divided into two
parallel branches of heat exchangers by 3TV3102A and 3TV3102B. On one part passing through
3TV3102A, flow indicator 3FI3127 is provided to measure crude flow so that crude can be adjusted
to optimize heat recovery. In this branch of Preheat Train-II, crude oil is heated successively by
SRGO, CR-III and RCO in exchangers no. E-306A/B (Crude/SRGO), E-307 (Crude/CR-III) and E-
308 A/B/C (Crude/RCO) respectively.
In another branch of this train, crude oil passes through the tube side of E-320 (RCO/Crude) and
crude is then divided into two parts and successively heated by RCO in newly installed HME/F.
HMC/D,HMA/B.
Both the branches of Preheat Train-II combine before entering the flash zone of pre-topping
column K-1. In this preheat section crude oil is heated to around 230OC. The preheat temperature of
feed to K-1 is indicated by 3TC040 and 3TI3203.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 56
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4.2.3 CRUDE PRETTOPLING


The crude after getting preheated enters the pre-topping column K-1 (I.D. = 2400 mm; Ht =
23750 mm, TL to TL) above tray No.8 at around 230° C. This column is meant for removal of the
lighter ends from the crude and has 8 sieve trays below flash zone and 21 valve trays above 8th tray.
The column operates at top pressure of 1.9--2.7 kg/cm2 (g) and a top temperature in the range of
110OC to 129OC. Light naphtha boiling up to about 110 to 129OC is recovered as overhead product
from this column. This light naphtha also contains the lighter hydrocarbons like off-gas and LPG.
The column top pressure is controlled by 3PC3201 located on E-1 vessel, which actually controls E-
1 pressure. The c/v 3PV3201 is set to maintain a pressure fixed in the range of 2.2—2.9 kg/cm2(g) by
liberating off-gas either to fuel gas system or to flare system. Safety valve 3PSV05 set at 3.15
kg/cm2(g) pressure is provided on vessel. This PSV releases pressure to flare.
Though stripping steam is not used currently, the provision of the following is there.
Below the flash zone where 8 trays are provided, crude is steam-stripped to vaporize kerosene
and other light components. Stripping steam is introduced below tray no.1 through a flow
controller 3FC3205. A pressure controller 3PC3205 is provided at upstream of 3FC3205 to regulate
the stripping pressure. The overhead vapours are condensed and cooled in the condensers T-7A and
T-7B working in parallel and the product is received in the reflux drum E-1. A reflux temperature
indicator 3TI3204 is provided on the outlet of T-7A/B. 2 nos of 100% capacity safety valve
3PSV3201A/B discharging to flare are provided on overhead vapour line to condensers. These PSVs
are set at 3.7 kg/cm2(g). A provision of steam for flushing and fuel gas for gas back up is provided on
E-1.
One of the pumps H-6/8A takes suction from E-1 and discharges a part of liquid as reflux to K-1
through 3TC3201. The rest commonly known as E-1 gasoline is pumped by pumps P-306A/B and
goes as stabilizer feed to K-4 through 3FC3203, cascaded with 3LC3202, E-1 H/C level controller.
Also provisions are there for (i) routing off-grade E-1 gasoline to intermediate tank-214 of AU-3,
(ii) Direct routing of E-1 gasoline to AU-I/II for processing.
The sour water separated in E-1 boot is drained through inter-phase level controller 3LC3203 to
DMW tank E-12 or to OWS. Ammoniated water and Corrosion inhibitor are injected in the

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 57
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

overhead vapour line to maintain E-1 water pH and to avoid corrosion in condensers and reflux
drum E-1.
Heavy Naphtha-I is a side-cut product withdrawn from 22nd tray under level controller 3LC3205
and steam-stripped in a stripper K-6A (K-6 top section, I.D. = 800 mm; Ht. = 6500 mm, TL to TL)
having 6 nos. sieve trays. From this stripper Heavy Naphtha-I is pumped by one of pumps P-
304A/B/C and injected to SRGO via flow control valve 3FV3209 before exchanger E-102A/B
(SRGO/Crude) for R/D to HSD. The stripped off vapours along with steam return to K-1 above 23rd
tray.
Kerosene-I is also a side draw-off product withdrawn from 14th tray under level controller
3LC3206 and steam-stripped in a stripper K-6B (K-6 bottom section, I.D. = 800 mm; Ht. = 7750 mm,
TL to TL) having 6 nos. sieve trays. From this stripper pumps P-305A/B pump Kerosene-I and the
product goes through 3FC3208 to exchanger E-301A/B for exchanging heat with crude. Before
entering E-301A/B it combines with Kerosene-II ex K-3C. The product is cooled in a cooler T-14A
before sending it to storage as Kero R/D. The stripped off vapours along with steam return to K-1
above 17th tray.
In order to maximize the heat recovery and to balance the column loads, circulating reflux
Kero-I CR (CR-I) is provided. Kero-I CR (CR-I ) is withdrawn by pumps P-301A/B from Kerosene-I
draw-off line before 3LV3206 and sent to column K-1 above 17th tray after exchanging heat with
DM Water in exchanger E-313A/B.

*Currently, no side cut from K-1 is drawn and above system kept in mothballing from Aug’2013 after
consulting TS

Bottom level of column K-1 is controlled by 3LC3201, which is cascaded with 3FC3110, crude
flow to the column. 3FC3110 also controls crude flow to the Unit. The bottom residue (pre-topped
crude) at a temperature of 2450C is pumped to Preheat Train-III by K-1 bottom pumps
H41A/B/C(two of which run simultaneously).

PREHEAT TRAIN-III

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 58
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Crude residue (i.e. pre-topped crude) is further preheated in exchanger E-317A/B (pre-topped
crude/CR-III) and E-309A/B/C (pre-topped crude/RCO) exchangers. The pre-topped crude is heated
to a temperature of 2650C before sending it in three parallel parts to furnaces F1, F2 and F3.

4.3 FURNACES

The furnaces are provided along with APH, FD fan and ID fan. All the three furnaces F-1, F-2
and F-3 operate in parallel. Furnaces F-1 & F-2 have the option to operate either in balanced draft
or forced draft or natural draft. While furnace F-3 has the option of operating either in balanced
draft or forced draft.

4.3.1 FURNACE F-1

One parallel part (=6”) of crude feed from Preheat Train-III enters the convection section of
furnace F-1 through 3FC3301 at 264OC. Low flow alarm 3FL3307B, low flow trip for cutting fuel
oil/fuel gas to furnace and pressure gauge are provided. Down stream of flow control valve,
emergency steam connection is provided for purging the coils with MP steam to avoid coking in
furnace tube in case of power failure. Pre topped crude after getting heated up in convection section
enters radiation zone at 305—310OC. Temperature indication 3TI3316 and pressure gauge are
provided on the cross over between convection zone and radiation zone.

Furnace F-1 coil outlet temperature is controlled by 3TC3312 which regulates the firing rate by
changing the set point of either fuel gas control valve 3FC3303 or fuel oil control valve 3PC3301.
On furnace outlet, a temperature indicator, high temperature alarm and pressure gauges are
provided. The only pass of partially vaporised crude from Furnace F-1 comes out in a =10” dia
transfer line which later joins with =20” part of F-2 transfer line near K-2 feed entry. One jump
over line is provided from F1 outlet to F2 outlet through 3HV3401 for balancing F1/F2 heat load. At
present, it is kept non-operational

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 59
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

To facilitate furnace operation, following instruments are provided on the furnace:


1. Draft gauge DG-806 and DG-807 after and before stack.
2. Draft gauge DG-808A/B at firebox
3. Draft gauge DG-810 at hip arch
4. Furnace arch pressure high alarm 3PAH3801 (+1mm WC)
5. Furnace arch pressure very high 3PH3802 (+5mm WC)
6. Furnace inlet temp 3TI3313
7. Flue gas temp after stack damper 3TI3303
8. Flue gas temp before stack damper 3TI3302, 3TI3307
9. F-1 stack temp high alarm 3TAH3303
10. Furnace arch temp 3TI3304, 3TI3305
11. Fire box temp indicator 3TI3306
12. Furnace coil outlet temp 3TI3310, 3TI3317
13. Coil outlet temp high 3TAH3315
14. Coil outlet temp controller 3TC3312
15. Temp at cross over 3TI3316
16. Oxygen Analyzer 3AC3301
17. SO2 analyzer 3SO3403
18. 3DPC3302 for maintaining differential pressure between fuel oil and atomizing
steam.
19. Low fuel oil pressure alarm 3PAL3303A [2 kg/cm2 (g)]
20. Low fuel gas pressure alarm 3PAL3304A [0.2 kg/cm2 (g)]
21. Feed to furnace low flow alarm 3FAL3307B [80 m3/Hr]
22. Steam-air decoking facility
23. 4 Soot blowers are provided in the furnace convection zone to remove
Soot deposit from the tubes.
24. Interlock and combustion control system.
* Presently Combustion control system is not working.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 60
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4.3.2 FURNACE F-2

The second parallel part (=8” dia) of crude feed from Preheat Train-III, which enters F-2, is
split into two streams (=6” each) before entering its convection zone and the flow is controlled by
3FC3402 and 3FC3403B. On each of these streams a pressure gauge is provided. On feed line to F-2
a pressure gauge, temperature indicator 3TI3401, flow alarm low 3FL3401A are provided. At the
downstream of flow control valve, emergency steam connection is provided in each pass for purging
the coils with MP steam.

Pre-topped crude after getting heated up in convection section enters radiation zone at 310 to
315OC. Temperature indicator 3TI3420/3TI3421 and pressure gauges are provided on cross over
between convection zone outlet and radiation zone inlet on each pass. Crude is heated up to the
desired temperature (max 370OC) to get 3 to 4% over flash in column K-2. Coil outlet temperature,
which is measured by 3TI3412 and 3TI3413 of individual pass, is controlled by common coil outlet
temperature 3TC3418 by regulating the firing rate by changing the set point of either fuel gas
control valve 3FC3411 or fuel oil control valve 3PC3417. On furnace outlet, temp alarm high and
pressure gauge are provided. The two passes (=6”) of partially vaporised crude from furnace F-2
come out to combine in a =16” transfer line. This transfer line expands to =20” feed line in its
downstream before K-2 feed entry. On this 20” part, F-1 transfer line joins. The conjoined =20”
feed line further combines with =22” part of F-3 transfer line immediately before the K-2 feed
entry nozzle (=22”).
To facilitate furnace operation, following provisions are made:
1. Draft gauge DG-852 and DG-853 after and before stack damper
2. Draft gauge DG-854A/B at firebox
3. Draft gauge DG-855 at hip arch
4. Furnace arch pressure high alarm 3PAH3820 (+1 mm WC)
5. Furnace arch pressure very high 3PAH3821 (+5 mm WC)
6. Furnace inlet temperature 3TI3401
7. Flue gas temp after stack damper 3TI3402

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 61
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8. Flue gas temp before stack damper 3TI3403


9. Flue gas temp high alarm 3TAH3404
10. Hip arch temp 3TI3405 and 3TI3406
11. Fire box temp indicator 3TI3407
12. Skin temp 3TI3408A/B and 3TI3409A/B
13. Furnace coil outlet temp 3TI3412 and 3TI3413
14. Combined coil outlet temp 3TI3416 temp alarm high 3TAH3417.
15. Transfer line temp control 3TC3418
16. Temp at cross over on each pass 3TI3420 and 3TI3421
17. Oxygen analyzer 3AC3401
18. SO2 analyzer 3SO3403
19. 3DPC3419 for maintaining differential pressure between fuel oil and atomizing
steam.
20. Low pressure alarm 3PC3411B (2 kg/cm2g) on fuel oil and
21. Low pressure alarm 3PL3412B (0.2 kg/cm2g) on fuel gas
22. Feed to furnace low flow alarm 3FSL3401B (160 M3/Hr)
23. Steam-air decoking facility
24. 6 Soot blowers are provided in convection zone to remove deposited soot from
tubes.
25. Interlock and combustion control system (combustion control system not working)

4.3.3 AIR PREHEATER (APH) SYSTEM

The air pre-heater system improves the efficiency of the furnace by exchanging heat between
the hot flue gases leaving furnace and combustion air ex FD Fan. The APH system consists of a
common recuperative type air pre-heater common for both the furnaces, ID fan and FD fan. Flue
gases from both the furnaces are combined in the flue gas duct and heat combustion air in APH. FD
fan supplies the requirement of combustion air for the furnaces F-1 and F-2, whereas ID fan sucks

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 62
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

flue gases from furnaces upstream of stack dampers through APH and put it back to the stack of
furnace F-2, down stream of stack damper through ID fan.

A. COMBUSTION AIR CIRCUIT


Combustion air is sucked from atmosphere by the FD fan. The total combustion airflow is
controlled by 3FC3801, which actuates FD fan suction vane 3FV3801. A pressure gauge,
temperature gauge, vane position indication 3AL3808 vane open position indication 3AH3808 are
provided on FD fan suction. On FD fan discharge a pressure gauge, a pressure indicator 3PI3810
pressure alarm low 3PL3811, FD fan current low alarm 3IL3801 and manually operated damper HC-
3802 are provided. 3PL3811A and 3IL3801 actuate tripping circuit through interlock system and
bring furnace on natural draft.

Combustion air from FD fan enters APH. Bypass is provided to divert cold air with the help of
manually operated damper HC-3804 in case APH outlet temp is below 176OC to avoid corrosion.
Hot air from APH is bifurcated. One part goes to F-2 under 3FC3802, which maintains combustion
airflow to F-2 by operating the damper of 3FC3802. A pressure gauge and temp gauge are provided
on the combustion air to F-2. Balance quantity of combustion air goes to F-1 through 3FC3803. A
manual loader HC-3813 is provided which can be operated from the field. For better distribution of
air it is required to keep HC-3813 only 20 to 30% open. A pressure gauge and a temp gauge are
provided on combustion air to F-1. Vane close indication 3AL3813 and vane open indication
3AL3808 are provided in control room.

Hot combustion air from APH enters into plenum on F-1 and F-2. In case of FD fan failure,
Dropout doors (DODs) are provided through which required combustion air is sucked in from
atmosphere. There are 2 nos of DODs in F-1 and 4 nos of DODs in F-2. These DODs are opened or
closed from control room. For each DOD, indication lamps are provided in control room to show its
open and close position.

B. FLUE GASES CIRCUIT

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 63
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

To divert flue gases to APH stack damper HC-3811 is provided on F-1 stack and damper HC-
3812 is provided on F-2 stack. These stack dampers are closed from the control room and their close
and open position indications are shown in control room by 3AL3812, 3AH3812, 3AL3806 and
3AHH3806 respectively. On hot flue gases duct to APH damper HC-1801 on F-1 side and damper
HC-1810 on F-2 side are provided which can be operated from control room. Their close and open
position indications are shown in control room by 3AL3810, 3AH3810, 3AL3811 and 3AH3811
respectively. In addition to this, manually operated guillotine dampers are provided for positive
isolation of APH.

Hot flue gases from F-1 and F-2 are sucked by ID fan through APH. On APH a pressure gauge, a
TG, pressure indicator 3PI3817, temperature indicator 3TI3803, temp alarm high 3AH3807 are
provided. On outlet of APH a PG, pressure indicator 3PI3818, 3TI3804, temp alarm low 3TAL3805,
temp alarm high 3TAH3806, pressure alarm high 3PH3819A (this activates interlock system and
brings furnace on natural draft) are provided. On flue gases outlet from APH, hand operated damper
HC-1807 is provided to isolate the APH. Snuffing steam connection is provided on inlet and outlet
of APH and service water connection is provided at APH inlet for washing air pre-heater when it
gets fouled up.

In control room furnace F-1 pressure is indicated by 3PC3801 whereas of furnace F-2 by
3PC3820; pressure alarm high 3PAH3801 and 3PAH3820 set at +2 mmWC are provided on F-1 and
F-2 respectively. In case furnace pressure exceeds +5 mmWC pressure alarm high 3PH3802 and
3PH3821 are provided on F-1 and F-2 respectively which activate S/D circuit and bring the furnace
on natural draft. Furnace pressure is controlled through a high-pressure selector switch, which
operates ID fan vane controller 3PVC3814 through 3PIC3814. ID fan vane position is shown by
indicator 3AH3809 in control room.

On ID fan discharge, a pressure gauge and manually operated damper HC-1809 are provided. In
case of low current of ID fan 3IC3802 actuates shutdown circuit and brings furnace on forced draft
operation by tripping ID fan and by opening automatic stack dampers of both the furnaces.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 64
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4.3.4 FURNACE F-3

The third parallel part (=8” dia) of crude feed from Preheat Train-III, which enters F-3, is split
into two streams (=6” each) before entering its convection zone and the flow is controlled by
3FC3003 and 3FC3005. On one stream (pass-I) to F-3, a pressure gauge PG3003, a temperature
gauge TG3001, flow alarm low 3FT3002 are provided. And on the other stream (pass-II), a pressure
gauge PG3004, a temperature TG3002, feed flow alarm low 3FT3004 are provided. At the
downstream of flow control valves, emergency steam connection is provided in each pass for
purging the coils with MP steam.

Pre-topped crude after getting heated up in convection section of F-3 enters radiation zone at
281OC to 292OC. Temperature indicators 3TI3019/3TI3020 and pressure gauges PG3021/PG3022 are
provided on cross-over between convection zone outlet and radiation zone inlet on each pass.
Crude is heated up to the desired temperature (max 370OC) to get 3 to 4% over flash in column K-2.
Coil outlet temperature that is measured by 3TI3023 and 3TI3024 of individual pass is controlled by
common coil outlet temperature 3TC3013 by regulating the firing rate by changing the set point of
either fuel gas pressure control valve 3PC3003 or fuel oil pressure control valve 3PC3005. On
furnace outlet, temp alarm high and pressure gauge are provided. The two passes (=6”) of partially
vaporised crude from furnace F-3 come out to combine in a =12” transfer line. This transfer line
expands twice to =14” and =22” feed line in its downstream before K-2 feed entry. On this 22”
feed entry line, F-1/F-2 conjoined transfer line (=20”) joins immediately before the K-2 feed entry
nozzle (=22”).
To facilitate furnace operation, following provisions are made:
1. Draft gauge PG-3007 and PG-3008 after and before stack damper
2. Draft gauge PG-3006 & PG-3009, and pr. indicator 3PI3017 at firebox (radiant)
Draft gauge PG-3005 at hip arch
Draft gauge PG-3010 & pr. indicator 3PI3018 at convection arch zone

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 65
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

5. Furnace arch pressure high alarm 3PT3016A, 3PT3016B, 3PT3016C


(+10 mm WC)
6. Furnace arch pressure very high 3PAHH3016
7. Furnace inlet temperature gauges TG-3001 & TG-3002
8. Flue gases temp after stack damper 3TI3018
9. Hot flue gases temp gauge TG-3006 & indicator 3TI3015, pr gauge PG-3012 and pr.
Indicator 3PI3007 at APH inlet
10. Cold flue gases temp gauge TG-3009 and indicator 3TI3028, pr gauge PG-3015 and
pr indicator 3PI3010 at APH outlet
11. Cold flue gases temp alarms TAH3028, TAL3028 & TAHH3027 at APH outlet
12. Hip arch temp gauge TG-3003 & indicators 3TI3025, 3TI3031
13. Skin temp indicators 3TI3001, 3TI3002, 3TI3007 & 3TI3008 at convection zone
and 3TI3003, 3TI3004, 3TI3005, 3TI3006, 3TI3009, 3TI3010, 3TI3011 & 3TI3012 at
radiation zone
14. Furnace coil outlet temp 3TX3023, 3TX3024 (Pass-I and Pass-II)
15. Furnace COTs high alarms 3TT3023A, 3TT3023B (Pass-I and Pass-II)
16. Combined coil outlet temp 3TT3013, 33TX3017
17. Transfer line temp control 3TC3013
18. Temp at cross over on each pass 3TI3019 and 3TI3020
19. PG at cross over on each pass PG3021 and PG3022
20. Oxygen analyzer 3AC3002 at hip arch zone
21. SO2 analyzer 3AI3001 after stack damper
22. 3DPC3006 for maintaining differential pressure between fuel oil and atomising
steam.
23. Low pressure alarm 3PT3013 (1.6 kg/cm2g) on fuel oil and
24. Low pressure alarm 3PT3004 (0.4 kg/cm2g) on fuel gas
25. Feed pass-1 flow low flow alarm 3FT3002 (10 T/hr)
26. Feed pass-2 flow low flow alarm 3FT3004 (10 T/hr)
27. Self-actuating c/v 3PCV3001 on FG line to pilot burners

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 66
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

28. Mass flow meter on FO line, 3FX3007


29. Steam-air decoking facility
30. 6 Soot blowers are provided in convection zone to remove deposited soot from
tubes.
31. Interlock and combustion control system

AIR PREHEATER (APH) SYSTEM

The APH system consists of a recuperative type air pre-heater, one ID fan and two FD fans. Flue
gases from the furnace’s post-convection zone passing through the flue gas duct heat combustion air
in APH. The two FD fans supply the requirement of combustion air for the furnace F-3, whereas
ID fan sucks flue gases from the furnace upstream of stack damper through APH and puts it back to
the stack of furnace, down stream of stack damper through ID fan.

A. COMBUSTION AIR CIRCUIT


Cold combustion air is sucked from atmosphere by the FD fans. The total combustion airflow is
controlled by 3FC3012, which actuates FD fan suction vanes 3FY3012A/B. Vane position indicators
3ZI3002, and 3ZI3003 are provided on FD fans’ suction. Pressure indicators 3PI3008A and
3PI3008B are provided on each FD fan’s discharge.

Combustion air from FD fan enters APH. Bypass is provided to divert cold air with the help of
the damper 3TC3028 in case APH outlet temp is below 175OC to avoid corrosion. Hot air from APH
goes to F-3 and this is actually controlled by 3FC3012 (or manually by either 3FY3012A or
3FY3012B). A pressure gauge PG3014, temperature gauge TG3008 and two temp indicators 3TI3014
& 3TI3026 are provided on the hot combustion air to F-3.
Hot combustion air from APH enters into a closed annular duct around F-3 bottom. Its cross-
section is rectangular. There are six radial distributing ducts from this annular duct to the six
burners. Each of these six ducts has a damper assembly with expansion bellow in-between. Primary
and secondary air inlet dampers or registers are provided there in the damper assembly for

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 67
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

regulating air flow to burners manually. There are no Drop-out doors (DODs) at F-3 fire box floor
like F-1/F-2.

B. FLUE GASES CIRCUIT


To divert hot flue gases to APH, stack damper 3HS3001 is provided on F-3 stack. This stack
damper is closed from the control room and its close and open position indications are shown in
control room by 3ZI3001. Quantity of hot flue gases to APH can be controlled by 3PC3001, which
actuates the suction vanes of ID fan. Manually operated guillotine dampers are provided on hot flue
gases duct ex F-3 and cold flue gas return duct to F-3 for positive isolation of APH.

Hot flue gases from F-3 is sucked by ID fan through APH. On APH inlet a pressure gauge PG-
3012, a TG, pressure indicator 3PI3007, temperature indicator 3TI3015, pressure alarm high
3PAHH3011 are provided. On outlet of APH, a pressure gauge PG-3015, pressure indicator
3PI3010, temp indicator 3TI3028, temp alarm low 3TAL3028, temp alarm high 3TAH3028. Wash
water connection is provided at APH for washing air pre-heater when it gets fouled up.

In control room, furnace F-3 hip arch pressure is indicated by 3PC3001; pressure alarms
low/high 3PT3016A, 3PT3016B and 3PT3016C set in the range –20mmWC to +20mmWC are
provided on F-3. In case furnace arch pressure exceeds +10 mmWC or pressure alarm high
3PAHH3011at APH inlet is sensed, these high pressure alarms activate the interlock circuit and the
stack damper will open immediately and ID fan trips. If the stack damper fails to open within 30sec,
FO & FG to furnace will be cut off automatically and followed by ID & FD fan trip. Furnace arch
pressure is controlled by ID fan suction vane controller 3PV3001 through 3PC3001. ID fan vane
position is shown by indicator 3ZI3004 in control room. Hand selector 3HS3001 can also be
operated for controlling the movement of stack damper, which alternatively controls the arch
pressure.
On ID fan discharge, a pressure gauge PG-3016 and pressure indicator 3PI3012 are provided. In
case of low current of ID fan, 3IT3003 actuates shutdown circuit and brings furnace on forced draft
operation by tripping ID fan and by opening automatic stack damper of the furnace.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 68
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The pre-topped crude is heated to a temp of 3660C in all the three furnaces before sending it to
column K-2.

4.4 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN :

4.4.1 OVERHEAD SYSTEM


Pre-topped crude after getting heated to 355--3660C in F-1/F-2/F-3 enters the flash zone of
the main fractionating column K-2 (I.D. = 3400 mm; Ht.= 30350 mm, TL to TL) through a =22”
nozzle above the 6th tray. This column has 41 trays, out of which the bottom 1 to 6 trays are sieve
trays and 7 to 41 are valve trays. 5 nos of 100% safety valves 3PSV-3501A/B/C/D & 3PSV3502 set at
1.5 kg/cm2(g) are provided at the top of K-2. These PSVs release excess pressure to atmosphere. One
vent line is also provided on the column top.

The column K-2 is operated at 0.6 to 1.0 kg/cm2(g) pressure. Column K-2 pressure is controlled
with the help of split range controller 3PC3503 acting on the gas line of its reflux accumulator E-2.
This pressure controller admits gas into E-2 through gas make-up (from E4 vessel) line or releases
gas from E-2 to flare depending on whether the column K-2 pressure is lower or higher than
desired. A safety valve 3PSV-3503 set at 1.2 kg/cm2(g) pressure is provided at E-2. This PSV
releases excess pressure into atmosphere.

Naphtha boiling up to about 110 to 125OC is the overhead product from column K-2 and is
commonly known as E-2 gasoline. This naphtha is devoid of the light hydrocarbons like gas and
LPG. The overhead vapour from the column K-2 enters overhead condensers T-8A, T-8B, T-8C and
T-8D working in parallel and the condensed liquid is received in the reflux accumulator E-2. A
reflux temperature indicator 3TI3512 is provided on this line. A steam connection is provided on
vessel E-2 for steam flushing. Ammoniated water and Ahuralan are injected in two O/H vapour
lines of K-2 to maintain E-2 boot-water pH and to avoid corrosion in condensers and reflux drum.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 69
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

One of the pumps H8/H9 takes suction from the bottom of E-2 and partly discharges through
controller 3TC3507 as reflux to column K-2 to maintain the column top temperature between 115
to 120OC. The balance is discharged through controller 3FC3510 which is cascaded with E-2 level
controller 3LC3504 maintaining the H/C level in E-2 , and is sent to naphtha rundown as Naphtha-
2.

There is a provision for:

a) Routing off-grade E-2 gasoline into intermediate tank-214 of AU-3,


b) Normal routing to General / GOP naphtha
c) Direct routing of E-2 naphtha to AU1 for reprocessing

Water accumulation in E-2 is drained through inter-phase level controller 3LC3505 to E-12 or
OWS.

4.4.2 SIDE-CUT HEAVY NAPHTHA-II CIRCUIT

Side-cut heavy naphtha-II is withdrawn as 1st side cut (139—170OC) from tray No.36. This
withdrawal temperature is maintained at around 151OC with the help of controller 3TC3506 on
naphtha withdrawal line from K-2 to stripper K-3A (K-3 top section, I.D. = 1200 mm; Ht. = 6720
mm, TL to TL) thereby varying the internal reflux amongst trays in this region.

Six sieve trays are provided in the side-cut Naphtha-II stripper. The side-cut naphtha from K-2
enters above top tray of K-3A. Stripping steam is introduced at the bottom of the stripper through
3FC3509 and the stripped off vapours along with steam return to column K-2 above tray 37.
Stripping steam to K-3A is adjusted to regulate Naphtha flash point, which eventually controls the
flash point of HSD, a mixture of SRGO, side-cut naphtha-II and I at run-down. On average 100
kg/hr steam is required per MT of naphtha-II withdrawn per hour. On heavy naphtha line ex K-3A,
a temperature indicator 3TI3511 is provided.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 70
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The side-cut heavy naphtha-II from K-3A is pumped with P-304A/B/C and injected to SRGO
before E-102A/B. In E-102A/B, it along with SRGO and K-6A naphtha exchanges heat with shell
side crude. Then it passes through cooler E-315 to rundown system. Stripper level is controlled by
3LC3502, which actuates a control valve on heavy naphtha line at the discharge of P-304A/B/C. The
flow is measured by 3FC3210.
4.4.3 KEROSENE-II CIRCUIT

Two draw-off pipes of 14” dia ex diametrically opposite column nozzles are provided below 28th
tray of K-2 for kerosene withdrawal. These two 14” draw-off lines ex K-2 combine into one single
20” dia line. Kerosene and Kero CR (CR-II) are withdrawn as 2nd side-cut (208-215OC) from 28th
tray of column K-2 and pumped with the help of pumps H-10/10A to heat exchangers. Its
withdrawal temperature is indicated by 3TI301 provided on the 20” combined part.

Kerosene-II is withdrawn under temperature controller 3TC301 provided on a 10” line ex 20”
combined part and sent to stripper K-3C (I.D.= 1300 mm, bottom part below seal pan; = 1100 mm,
top part containing trays and seal pan; H1 = 3673 mm, TL to seal pan; H2 = 4807 mm, seal pan to TL
after top manhole) in which six sieve trays are provided. Withdrawn kero is fed above top tray of
stripper. 3LC3516 maintains the bottom level of K-3C. Stripping steam is introduced in the stripper
through 3FC3517 to strip off light components for improving kerosene flash point. The stripper
overhead vapours are returned to K-2 above 31st tray.

On kerosene line ex K-3C bottom a temperature indicator 3TI073 is provided. Kerosene ex K-3C
bottom is pumped with H-10/10A and sent to tube side of E-303 for exchanging heat with shell side
crude. A flow controller 3FC3111 is provided on the tube outlet of E-303, which is cascaded with
K3C level 3LC3516. At run-down kerosene-II is combined with K-6B kerosene (Kero-I) before
passing through the tube side of crude exchanger E-301A/B. Kerosene ex E-301A/B cools down in
cooler T-14A and is sent to storage (OM&S). Provision is made at run-down after T-14A for routing
kerosene to diesel pool by block-valve operation, as and when required also to slop tank of AU3.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 71
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

One of pumps P-302A/B draws kerosene-II CR (CR-II) via a 12” line from the =20” combined
draw-off line before 3LV3516. Kero CR-II from pump discharge is divided into two parts. One part
goes directly to the tube side of crude exchanger E-104A/B and the other part enters as a lower
stream to a 3-way control valve 3TV3130, which is provided, on the tube outlet of E-104A/B. The
controller 3TC3130 controls the return temperature of CR-II. Increasing its ‘OP’ decreases CR-II
return temperature. On downstream of 3TC3130 a flow controller 3FC3502 is provided which
controls the circulatory reflux flow back to K-2. The CR-II is returned to K-2 above 31st tray and the
return temperature is also indicated by 3TI3502.

During 2013 M&I control routing AU3 kerosene to LABFS tank commissioned.
Kerosene can be sent to diesel pool(EURO-3) along with AU3 disel after passing through diesel salt
drier.
Kerosene can also be sent o DHDT feed tanks, DHDT unit along with AU3 diesel

4.4.4 SRGO (HSD) CIRCUIT

SRGO along with SRGO CR (CR-II) is withdrawn as 3rd side cut from 16th tray of column K-2
through two diametrically opposite draw-off lines ( = 12”) like Kerosene-II draw-off. Both the
lines combine into a  = 18” common pipe. The withdrawal temperature of SRGO is maintained at
around 285OC to 300OC with the help of 3TC3505 on SRGO withdrawal line ( = 8”) parted from
the 18” dia common draw-off pipe, thereby varying internal reflux amongst trays in the draw-off
region inside K-2. Drawn-off SRGO is then fed via this 8” line to a stripper K-3B (bottom section of
K-3, I.D. = 1200 mm; Ht. = 6800 mm, TL to TL) above top tray. Stripper K-3B has been provided
with six sieve trays. Stripping steam is introduced at the stripper bottom through 3FC3508 and
stripped off vapours along with steam return to column K-2 above tray no. 20. When SRGO (HSD)
meets the flash point requirement without being stripped, stripping steam to column K-3B is then
kept isolated. Stripping steam is introduced only when hot oil is made for UDEX to meet flash point

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 72
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

requirement of 66OC. While making hot oil for UDEX, heavy naphtha injection to be stopped by
fully dropping HN to KERO. There is no provision available for routing HN to other naphtha
streams / slop tank. Temperature of SRGO ex K-3B is indicated by 3TI3510. A level controller
3LC3503 maintains the level of K-3B when cascaded with 3FC3135, SRGO run-down flow
controller.

SRGO from K-3B is pumped with H-4/5A through tube side of E-306A/B and then E-305 where
it cools down by exchanging heat with crude and enters exchanger E-311 for preheating K-4 feed.
In E-311, SRGO cools down by exchanging heat with K-4 feed. A 3-way combining type control
valve 3TV3131 is provided on E-311 tube outlet to control K-4 feed temperature. A 6” dia line taken
from upstream of E-311 enters the 3-way control valve as lower stream. Decreasing the lower
stream flow increases K-4 feed temperature. At downstream of 3TC3131 flow controller 3FC3135
acts in cascade mode on the stripper level control valve 3LV3503 provided next to 3FI3135.

SRGO ex E-311 and through 3TV3131, 3LV3503 enters the tube side of crude exchanger E-
102A/B. But before entering, it combines with Heavy Naphtha-I & II ex P-304A/B/C discharge to
maintain flash point. SRGO may be termed as HSD also and finally it goes to HSD pool. HSD ex E-
102A/B cools down in cooler E-315 and routed to OM&S. At run-down, a provision is made to route
kerosene ex T-14A to HSD as per requirement. Coalescer in HSD r/d line is commissioned in order to
route entire HSD through coalescer. There is also provision to route off grade material into slop tank
of AU3.

During RUP commissioning in 2010, AU3 diesel to RUP DHDT feed tanks and to DHDT
unti facility commissioned. In Jan’2013 Diesel salt drier commissioned to curtain water content in
diesel going to rundown.

With a view to maximize heat recovery and to balance the column loads, another circulating
reflux, namely, diesel CR (CR-III), is provided to the column K-2. Suction ( = 10”) to CR-III
pumps P-307A/B is taken from the SRGO withdrawal line (combined part,  = 18”) before

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 73
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3TC3505. On the discharge of P-307A/B, a 3-way diverting type control valve 3TV3605 is provided
for controlling the temperature of partially vaporised naphtha coming out from the tube side of
thermo siphon reboiler E-106. In other words, 3TC3605 controls the bottom temperature of K-4.
CR-III ex 3TV3605 enters the shell side of E-106. Lower stream of 3TV3605 joins with CR-III outlet
from E-106. CR-III ex reboiler enters the tube side of E-317A/B where it exchanges heat with shell
side K-1 bottom residue. It then is divided into two parts. One part enters the tube side of crude
exchanger E-307. Another part goes as lower stream to a 3-way control valve 3TV3135 provided on
the tube outlet of E-307. 3TC3135 controls the return temperature of CR-III back to column K-2. A
provision is made to take a part of CR-III ex E-307 tube outlet through an 8” dia. line to E-313A/B
for heating DM water, required for injection to crude before desalters. A flow controller 3FC3519
located on the downstream of 3TV3135 controls the CR-III return flow-rate. The CR-III returns
to K-2 above 20th tray through two 8” dia. lines.

4.4.5 RCO CIRCUIT

Partially vaporised crude from F-1/F-2/F-3 enters in column K-2 above 6th tray (flash zone).
Unvaporised RCO (reduced crude oil) falls in bottom section of K-2, along with over flash
hydrocarbons, which acts as stripper. Stripping steam (3 ata) is introduced at the bottom section
below 1st tray in K-2 through a controller 3FC3501. 3 ata stripping steam is regulated by 3PC3701
located before 3FC3501 near K-2 bottom on ground floor. Column bottom temperature is indicated
by 3TI3503.

RCO from K-2 bottom is pumped by pumps H-11/11A and H-42 to exchange heat with crude in
heat exchangers. A flow indicator 3FI3507 is provided on pump discharge. A diverting type 3-way
control valve 3TV040 is provided on this discharge line before E-309C. Lower stream of 3TV040
acts as bypass to all three exchangers E-309C & E-309A/B. Upper stream ex 3TV040 enters the tube
side of E-309A/B/C where RCO exchanges heat with K-1 bottom residue. The lower stream
combines with E-309A tube outlet. 3TC040 controls K-1 feed preheat temperature. Increasing the

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 74
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

lower stream flow will allow more of hot RCO to bypass E-309A/B/C and travel to downstream
crude exchangers, viz., E-308A/B/C, HM1A/B,HM1C/D,HME/F etc.

RCO stream ex E-309A/B/C is divided into two parts. Two number globe valves installed in 2013
M&I instead of gate valves for proper flow control. One part passes through shell side of exchangers
E-308A/B/C and E-302A/B/C in counter-current flow with preheated crude of Preheat Train-I. A
flow indicator 3FI3131 is provided between E-308A and E-302C to measure RCO flow in this
section. And the other part of RCO stream passes through shell side of HM1A/B, HM1C/D,HM1E/F
of Preheat Train-II in counter-current flow with crude. Flow indicator 3FI3107 provided before
HM1A/B to measure RCO flow through the two branches. RCO from these two branches combines
together to pass through E-320A/B, HM3A/B and exchanges heat with crude. Flow indicator
3FI3130 is provided before E-320B.

RCO from HM3A/B is divided into two parts and exchanges heat with crude in E-103A and E-
103B. On each pass flow indicator 3FI3103 and 3FI3104 are provided to adjust RCO flow for
optimizing heat recovery. Two number new HV’s installed at the down stream of
E103A/B(HV1001A) and E302A/B(HV1001B). Combined RCO Ex these HV’s gets cooled in RCO
coolers T-16/16A/16B/16C/16D/16E. Out of these six coolers operating in parallel, 5 coolers remain
in line normally. This RCO can be routed to FPU/OM&S via 3FC3507 (actuating 3LV3501) which
maintains column K-2 level under cascade control with 3LC3501A. Flow controller 3FC3120 can
also be cascaded with 3LC3501A, as per requirement. An additional flow control valve 3LHV3501 is
provided (Revamp, 2000) near RCO coolers for handling high RCO yield at maximum throughput.
A high level alarm is provided at K-2 bottom. RCO can be routed to following places:
1. A 4" tapping is taken before 3FV3507 (or 3LV3501) to route RCO to VBU. (Not in
use)
2. 6" line to OM&S under 3FV3507
3. 8" line to OM&S via AU-2. When this flexibility is used cold RCO to
FPU ex AU-1, AU-2 and AU-4 will require to be stopped and valve
on cold RCO to FPU line at AU-3 to be closed. (Not in use)

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 75
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4. 8" line through 3FC3117 to VBU tanks (Not in use)


5. 8" line to FPU-1 (FCC)
6. 10" RCO line to FPU surge drum. A 10" hot RCO line through 3FC3115A
is provided to route hot RCO to FPU-1. And through 3FC3115B to FPU-2 (GHC).
7. 4" line from RCO R/D d/s of 3FV3507 (3LV3501) is hooked up to join RCO receiving
line to VR surge drum and IFO tanks E6/E7.
8. 4" line to GRE for IFO. In this line IFO from job 50 meets. By utilizing these ines
RCO from AU-3 can be taken in IFO tank E-6/7, and in VR surge drum.
9. Cold RCO to VR (HV) through 3FC3116. (Not in use)
10. One tapping is provided on u/s of 3FC3507 to route RCO to 6" cold RCO
to OM&S through 3FC3113. (Not in use)
11 RCO to IFO tanks

4.4.6 NAPHTHA STABILIZER

E-1 gasoline, i.e., unstabilized naphtha contains LPG component. LPG is removed in naphtha
stabiliser column K-4. Column K-4 is provided with 34 valve trays and 2 nos. of 100% capacity
safety valve 3PSV3601A & B set at 9.4 kg/cm2(g). Out of these PSVs, one shall remain in line. A
service steam connection is provided at column bottom and PG at top and bottom. One vent line is
also provided at column top.

One of the pumps P-306A/B takes suction from E-1 and discharges to shell side of E-310A/B
where E-1 gasoline exchanges heat with tube side K-4 bottom naphtha. Unstabilized naphtha then
passes through shell side of HSD exchanger E-311. It then enters stabilizer K-4 through 3FC3203,
which remains under cascade control with 3LC3202, E-1 H/C level controller. Feed enters K-4 on
the 11/15/17th tray at 129OC. One 2" dia. drag streamline ex CRU enters at E1 gasoline inlet to E-
310A/B through 3FC3602 and one unstabilized naphtha line ex GRE is also connected with the
same inlet to E-310A/B. A temperature indicator 3T13604 is provided on feed to K4. Feed

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 76
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

temperature is controlled by 3TC3131 located on E-311 tube outlet by increasing or decreasing K-4
feed flow through E-311.

K-4 overhead product is condensed in condensers T-9A/B and is received in an accumulator


(reflux drum) E-4. A temperature indicator 3TI3602 is provided on this line. The column top
pressure is maintained at 8 - 8.3 kg/cm2(g) by a pressure controller 3PC3601 actuating a control
valve on the gas away line from E-4 (i.e. gas to fuel gas system). A pressure safety valve 3PSV3601
set at 9.4 kg/cm2(g) releasing excess pressure to flare is provided on E-4. Also a pressure gauge and a
service steam connection are provided at E-4. At frequent interval water from E-4 should be
drained. 3TI3603A indicates the reflux drum temperature.

Pump H-15 or H-15A takes suction from E-4 bottom and a part of the discharge goes through
3TC3603 back to the column top tray as reflux to maintain the column top temperature around
60—62.4C. Reflux flow to column is indicated by 3FX3601. The rest quantity goes as LPG to
GRE/AU1 for caustic wash through 3LC3602 which controls the level of E-4, the LPG rundown
flow being recorded with 3FX3604.

The column bottom temperature is maintained around 167—176OC with reboiler heat supplied
by SRGO (HSD) CR (CR-III), which heats part of K-4 bottom in thermo-siphon reboiler E-106.
3TC3605 maintains partially vaporised naphtha temperature ex E-106 to column by setting a
diverting type 3-way control valve 3TV3605 on CR-III line by allowing required quantity of HSD
CR to flow through E-106. A temperature indicator 3TI3612 is provided at K-4 bottom.
K-4 bottom product stream exchanges heat with feed to K-4 in exchanger E-310A/B. A cooler
T-18A cools down the product ex E-310A/B. A provision is kept to pump K-4 bottom ex E-310A/B
by pump H-14 to E-106 to establish cold circulation and to heat K4 bottom during start up. K-4
bottom is routed to General Naphtha R/D to OM&S via GRE (3” line) and AU1 (4” line) or routed to
GOP Naphtha R/D to OM&S under 3LC3601. A shut-off valve is provided at down-stream of
3LC3601, which gets actuated in case of very low level in K-4. This provision is made to avoid
escape of hot gas to OM&S tanks. To route K-4 bottom to OM&S in case of high level at the time of

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 77
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

start up when K-4 pressure is not adequate, provision is given through pump H-14 to empty out K-4
column. Off-spec product (i.e., slop or colored material, in case E-1 naphtha enters K-4 when K-1 is
very upset ) can be routed to TK-214.
Provision to route FPU-II Hy HSD to GR-II tanks 212-214 made in 2006.
Modification is also done in order to route the slop/off grade product in Tk 213. Hence Tk 214 M&I
job can be done.

4.5 DESIGN OPERATING CONDITIONS


The following operating conditions are to be maintained during normal running of the Unit at
9000 TPD crude input. This may differ from the actual conditions in the plant due to change in feed
rate, crude quality, crude mix and other unforeseen eventualities. To optimize the yield pattern and
quality of product, these conditions are to be changed
Case-I : NG55%+ IMP 45%
Case-II : NG55%+ BH 45%
Case-III: NG100%

4.5.1 PRE-TOPPING COLUMN K-1

PARAMETER UNIT CASE-1 CASE-II CASE-III


NG55%+ IMP NG55%+ BH NG100%
Top 45% 45%
Top pressure kg/cm2(g) 2.9 2.5 2.2
Top temperature 0C 129 132.8 110.3
Top Reflux flow MT/Hr 39.4 30 22.6
Top Reflux 0 C 45 45 45
Temperature
Unstab.Naphtha MT/Hr 36.8 31.59 8.5
Flow

Side-cut Heavy Naphtha-I


Draw off oC 165 163.1 137
temperature
Temperature ex 0C 136 139 128
stripper

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 78
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Stripping steam Kg/Hr 300 450 450


R/D flow MT/Hr 4.5 8 3.5

Kero-I
Draw off oC 193 189 168.6
temperature
Temperature ex 0C 178 175.8 156.5
Stripper
Stripping steam Kg/Hr 250 300 300
R/D flow MT/Hr 13.2 13.9 9.9

CR-I
Flow MT/Hr 23 22.58 36.15
Temperature 0C 193 189 168.6
Return temperature 0C 140 135 135

Bottom

Pressure kg/cm2(g) 3.0 2.65 2.35


Temperature 0C 245 223.5 240
Flow MT/Hr. 325 321.58 353
Stripping steam Kg/Hr 3200 3200 3200

Feed
Flow MT/Hr 375 375 375
Temperature 0C 259 233 248

4.5.2 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN K-2

PARAMETER UNIT CASE-1 CASE-II CASE-III

Top
Top pressure kg/cm2(g) 0.5 0.6 0.6
Top temperature 0C 110.5 111.6 125
Top Reflux flow MT/Hr 25.23 30 29.1
Top Reflux 0 C 45 45 45
Temperature
Naphtha flow MT/Hr 2.5 3 3

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 79
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PARAMETER UNIT CASE-1 CASE-II CASE-III

Side-cut Heavy Naphtha-II


Draw off OC 138.5 136 151
temperature
Temperature ex OC 121.0 119 131
Stripper
Stripping steam Kg/Hr 100 100 100
R/D flow MT/Hr 2.5 4.5 3.0

Kero-II
Draw off O C 210.7 208.3 215.5
temperature
Temperature ex O C 203.5 301.8 290.6
Stripper
Stripping steam Kg/Hr 200 200 200
R/D flow MT/Hr 42.0 44.25 38.5

SRGO
Draw off temp 0C 300 302.6 298.64
Température ex. 0C 299 301.8 290.6
Stripper
Stripping steam Kg/Hr 200 200 200
R/D flow MT/Hr 47.0 44.25 38.5

CR-II
Flow MT/Hr 167.0 213 110.6
Temperature 0C 210.7 208.3 215.5
Return temperature 0C 157 157 157

CR-III
Flow MT/Hr 151.0 178 150.15
Temperature 0C 300 302.7 298.6
Return temperature 0C 250 250 250

Bottom
Pressure kg/cm2(g) 1.0 .85 .85
Temperature 0C 360 356 362.9
Flow MT/Hr 235.0 205 265

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 80
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PARAMETER UNIT CASE-1 CASE-II CASE-III


Stripping steam Kg/Hr 3799 3800 3400

Feed
Flow MT/Hr 325 321.5 353
Temperature 0C 366 363 363

Furnace
Inlet temperature 0C 264 264 264
Coil Outlet temp 0C 366 366 366

4.5.3 NAPHTHA STABILIZER K-4

PARAMETER UNIT CASE-1 CASE-II CASE-III


Top Pressure Kg/cm2(g) 8.3 8.3 8.3
Top Temperature 0C 60 62.4 60
Top Reflux flow MT/Hr 11.68 6.5
Top Reflux Temp 0C 45 45 45
LPG R/D flow MT/Hr 3.3 1.85 0.2
Feed flow MT/Hr 27.3 31.58 8.5
Feed temperature 0C 129 129 129
Bottom Temperature 0C 167 176
Stab. Naphtha Flow MT/Hr 24.0 29.7
Bottom pressure Kg/cm2(g) 8.6 8.6 8.6

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 81
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4.6 NORMAL OPERATING PARAMETRS (At the present condition, after introduction of
APC, all the parameters have changed abruptly.)

4.6.1 Columns

Safe working range


Operating Parameters Alarm Limits Remarks
PV
8800
(T'put 7000- 9000 MT/day) Mt/d PVLL PVLO PVHO PVHH Unit Present
K1
K-1 Top Pressure 1.95 1.80 1.90 2.40 2.68 kg/cm2
K-1 Top Temp. 126 100 110 132 134 0C
K-1 topReflux 15.5 10 16 25 30 m3/hr
Feed Flow ----- 150 200 630 675 m3/hr
Feed Temp 228 - 190 268 - 0C

K-1 Level 50 30 35 60 75 %
K-1 Bottom Temp 223 175 200 225 285 0C
K-1 Bottom Pr. 2.05 1.80 2.4 2.65 2.85 kg/cm2
E1
E1 HC level 45 25 40 55 65 %
E1 Boot water level 25 10 15 35 70 %
E1 Naphtha R/D 18 1.0 1.5 25 40 m3/hr

K2
K-2 Top Pr. 0.8 0.7 0.75 0.85 0.89 kg/cm2
K-2 Top Temp 127 100 116 125 145 0C
K-2 Top Reflux 24 10 45 60 65 T/hr
k-2 Feed/Flash Zone temp 353 330 340 350 360 0C
K-2 Feed Flow 480 - - - - m3/hr
K-2 Overflash ----- - 10 40 - m3/hr
K-2 Level 32 20 23 41 52 %
K-2 Bottom Temp 348 - 320 370 - 0C

K-2 Bottom Pr. .92 0.3 0.5 1.2 1.3 kg/cm2


K-2 Steam 2900 - 1000 3200 - kg/hr

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 82
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

RCO R/D 340 - 100 220 - m3/hr


E2
E2 HC level 45 25 32 58 65 %
E2 Boot water level 35 20 22 75 85 %
E2 Naphtha R/D 13 1 8 20 - m3/hr
K-3A
HN WD Temp 150 - - - - C 0

K3A Level 45 15 25 65 80 %
HN RD 5 5 9 15 20 m3/hr
K-3C
Kero WD Temp 204 190 192 212 215 0C
Kero /CR-II Reflux 135 25 35 65 70 T/hr
Kero /CR-II Temp 160 - - - - %
K-3C Level 55 30 40 80 90 0C
Kero R/D 26 - 25 60 - m3/hr
K-3B
HSD WD Temp 288 275 280 305 310 C 0

HSD /CR-III Reflux 148 - - - - m /hr 3

HSD /CR-III Temp 208 - - - - 0C

K-3B Level 55 - 20 75 - %
HSD R/D 77 35 45 75 95 m3/hr

K-4
K-4 Top Pr. 7.8 3 5 8.35 8.75 kg/cm2
K-4 Top Temp 59 50 60 75 80 0C
K-4 Top Reflux 9 5 9 25 35 m3/hr
K-4 Feed Flow 19 1.0 1.5 25 40 m3/hr
K-4 Level 55 35 45 65 75 %
K-4 Bottom Temp 188 - 100 160 - 0C

K4 R/D 19 - 5 70 - m3/hr
E-4
E4 HC level 45 15 25 55 75 %
E4 Boot water level --- - - - - %
E4 LPG R/D .6 0 0.5 2.5 3.0 m3/hr

VR DRUM
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 83
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Level 60 50 55 70 75 %
VR drum Pr. 1.4 - 1.0 2.5 - kg/cm2
VR/IFO Temp 168 - 50 350 - 0
C
UTILITIES
Water Pr. 4 Kg/cm2 - 2.0 8.0 kg/cm2
Water Flow 1140 T/Hr 200 2500 - T/hr
Steam Pr. 10.5 Kg/cm2 - 5 15 - kg/cm2
Steam Flow 10100 Kg/cm2 - 1200 4800 - kg/hr
3-ATA Steam 2.4 - 2.0 4.0 - kg/cm2
Instrument Air 5.5 - 3.5 8.0 kg/cm2
FG Pr. To unit 1.6 1.0 2.5 - kg/cm2
FG Flow 3400 600 3200 m3/hr
FG Return to Gas Away 0 - 0 6 kg/cm2
FG to Gas Away 0- 30 m3/hr
FO BPC 5.6 2.5 4.5 6.5 7.5 kg/cm2

4.6.2 Furnaces

Safe working range


Operating Parameters Alarm Limits Remarks
PV
8800
(T'put 7000- 9000 MT/day) Mt/d PVLL PVLO PVHO PVHH Unit

F1
Feed Flow to F1 110 45 55 150 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 - 250 300 0C

F1 COT 360 330 340 370 380 0C

FO Pressure 4.8 1.5 1.8 5.8 6.2 kg/cm2


FG Flow 500 200 900 m3/hr
DPC Steam 2.9 1 3.4 kg/cm2
Flue gas Temp aft STD 352 200 900 0C

F1 Hip Arch Temp 775 625 900 950 0C

F1 Skin Temp 430 150 450 465 0C

F1 fire Box Temp 500 950 0C

F1 O2 3.0 0.5 5.0 %


Air Flow to F1 9800 2000 18000 m3/hr

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 84
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

F1 Draft -10.8 -10 2 5 mmwc

F2
Feed Flow to F2 205 55 150 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 20 300 0
C
F2 COT 360 330 340 370 380 0
C
FO Pressure 5 2.5 2.9 5.8 6.2 kg/cm2
FG Flow 900 400 1600 m3/hr
DPC Steam 2.6 1.0 3.2 kg/cm2
Flue gas Temp aft STD 230 200 800 0C

F2 Hip Arch Temp 800 500 890 950 0C

F2 Skin Temp 445 350 450 465 0C

F2 fire Box Temp 500 950 0C

F2 O2 3.0 0.5 5 %
F2 SO2 ---- 0 4 ppp
Air Flow to F2 10800 6000 30000 m3/hr
F2 Draft -7.0 -10 2 5 mmwc

F3
Feed Flow to F3 173 14 50 80 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 20 300 0C

F3 COT 360 330 340 360 365 0C

FO Pressure 3.0 2.5 2.9 4.5 4.9 kg/cm2


FG Pressure 0.8 0.2 4.5 4.9 kg/cm2
DPC Steam 1.4 1 2.2 kg/cm2
Flue gas Temp aft STD 175 150 375 0C

F3 Hip Arch Temp 830 890 950 0C

F3 Skin Temp 426 480 0C

F3 fire Box Temp 895 0C

F3 O2 2.5 0.5 5 %
F3 SO2 20 80 ppm
Air Flow to F3 20500 m3/hr
F3 Draft -13.5 -5 -0.5 2 mmwc

4.6.3 Desalters

Safe working range

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 85
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Remark
Operating Parameters Alarm Limits s
PV
(T'put 7000- 9000 8800
MT/day) Mt/d PVLL PVLO PVHO PVHH Unit

Desalters
Crude Inlet Temp 136 - - - - C
0

Crude Flow Old DS 280 - - - - m /hr


3

Crude Flow New DS 130 - 45 - - m3/hr


Desalter O/L presseure 12.6 9 10 13.25 15.25 kg/cm2
DM Water Inlet Temp 63 - - - - 0C

Brine Outlet Temp 62 - - - - 0C

DM Water flow old DS 4.5 2 2.5 5.0 8 m3/hr


DM Water flow new
DS 3.0 1.5 2 5 8 m3/hr
∆Pmix Old DS 1.2 - - - - kg/cm2
∆Pmix New DS 1.2 - - - - kg/cm2
LDIC Old 38 10 20 45 50 %
LDIC New 38 15 20 45 50 %

4.7 CRITICAL PARAMETERS

4.7.1 Columns

Safe working range


Operating Parameters Alarm Limits Remarks
PV
8800
(T'put 7000- 9000 MT/day) Mt/d PVLL PVLO PVH PVHH Unit
K1
K-1 Top Pressure 1.95 1.80 1.90 2.40 2.68 kg/cm2
K-1 Top Temp. 126 100 110 132 134 0C

Feed Temp 228 190 268 - 0C

K-1 Level 50 30 35 60 75 %
K-1 Bottom Pr. 2.05 1.80 2.4 2.65 2.85 kg/cm2

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 86
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

K2
K-2 Top Pr. 0.8 0.7 0.75 0.85 0.88 kg/cm2
K-2 Top Temp 127 100 116 125 135 0
C
k-2 Feed/Flash Zone temp 353 330 340 350 360 0
C
K-2 Level 32 20 23 41 52 %
K-2 Bottom Pr. .92 0.3 0.5 1.2 1.3 kg/cm2
K-2 Steam 2900 1000 3200 - kg/hr
Kero WD Temp 204 190 192 212 215 0
C
Kero /CR-II Reflux 135 25 35 65 70 T/hr
Kero R/D 26 25 60 - m3/hr
HSD WD Temp 288 275 280 305 310 0C

HSD /CR-III Reflux 148 - - - m3/hr


HSD R/D 77 35 45 75 95 m3/hr

K-4
K-4 Top Pr. 7.8 3 5 8.35 8.75 kg/cm2
K-4 Top Temp 59 50 60 75 80 0C

K-4 Bottom Temp 188 100 160 - 0C

K4 R/D 19 5 70 - m3/hr
VR DRUM
Level 60 50 55 70 75 %
VR/IFO Temp 168 50 350 - C
0

UTILITIES
Water Pr. 4 2.0 8 kg/cm2
Steam Pr. 10.5 5 15 - kg/cm2
Intrument Air 5.5 3.5 8 kg/cm2
FG Pr. To unit 1.6 1 2.5 - kg/cm2
FO BPC 5.6 2.5 4.5 6.5 7.5 kg/cm2

4.7.2 Furnaces

Safe working range


Operating Parameters Alarm Limits Remarks

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 87
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PV
8800
(T'put 7000- 9000 MT/day) Mt/d PVLL PVLO PVHO PVHH Unit
F1
Feed Flow to F1 110 45 55 150 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 - 250 300 0
C
F1 COT 360 330 340 370 380 0C
Flue gas Temp aft STD 352 200 900 0
C
F1 Hip Arch Temp 775 625 900 950 0
C
F1 Skin Temp 430 150 450 465 0
C
F1 O2 0.5 5 %
F2
Feed Flow to F2 205 55 150 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 20 300 0C

F2 COT 360 330 340 370 380 0C


Flue gas Temp aft STD 230 200 800 0C

F2 Hip Arch Temp 800 500 890 950 0C


F2 Skin Temp 445 350 450 465 0C
F2 O2 3 0.5 5 %

F3
Feed Flow to F3 173 14 50 80 m3/hr
Feed inlet Temp 261 20 300 0C

F3 COT 360 330 340 360 365 0C


Flue gas Temp aft STD 175 150 375 0C

F3 Hip Arch Temp 830 890 950 0C


F3 Skin Temp 426 480 0C
F3 O2 2.5 0.5 5 %

4.7.3 Desalters

Safe working range


Remark
Operating Parameters Alarm Limits s

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 88
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PV
(T'put 7000- 9000 8800
MT/day) mt/d PVLL PVLO PVHO PVHH Unit

Desalters
Crude Inlet Temp 136 - - - - 0C
Desalter O/L presseure 12.6 9 10 13.25 15.25 kg/cm2
DM Water Inlet Temp 63 - - - - 0C
DM Water flow old DS 4.5 2 2.5 5.0 8 m3/hr
DM Water flow new
DS 3.0 1.5 2 5 8 m3/hr
∆Pmix Old DS 1.2 - - - - kg/cm2
∆Pmix New DS 1.2 - - - - kg/cm2
LDIC Old 38 10 20 55 60 %
LDIC New 38 15 20 55 60 %

4.7.4 Critical Instruments / Critical Operating Parameters & Its Implication Of Operating
Outside Allowable Limits

Sl.N Critical Instrument


Equipment IMPLICATION
o Parameter Provided
1 Furnace 80-140 FRC  If pass flow decreases, its skin &
Pass flow m3/hr COT will increase.
 If pass flow increases, its skin &
COT will decrease.
 Ensure flow above low alarm limit
 Ensure equal pass flow through all
passes
2 Furnace 348 – 3630C TC  Ensure steady oil temp.
COT cascaded  Ensure steady oil pressure.
with PC  Ensure steady gas pressure
on oil or  Ensure steady atomizing steam
PC on gas pressure.
 Ensure healthy burner condition
 If COT increases more than the
limit, skin / arch temperature will
increase. Tube life time will
decrease, leak or coking in tube may
occur.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 89
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 If COT is lower than the limit,


proper fractionation may not occur,
product quality will hamper & RCO
yield will increase.
3 Furnace 2.0-3.0% O2  2 to 3% excess air requirement
O2 analyzer should be maintained
 More excess air means energy loss.
Fuel consumption will be more.
 Less than required air will lead to
smoky burner & burner tip coke up.
4 Furnace -5 to +2 PI  Chance of back fire is there in case
arch mmwc of high arch pressure
pressure  Its STD will open
 Inter lock will cut off furnace and
FD in case STD does not open at
high arch pressure with in 10 sec.
 Open more ID suction vane
 Reduce Excess air
 Explosion door will open in case of
excessive arch pressure.
5 Furnace 800 to 9000C TI  Adjust burner flame height.
arch  Adjust air requirement
temperatur  If required reduce T’put
e  High arch temp. Tube life will
reduce. Refractory may damage.
6 Furnace < 2500C TI Ensure furnace is not hard fired
stack  Arrange for APH cleaning
temperatur  At high stack temp. APH efficiency
e will reduce & fuel consumption will
increase.
7 K2 0.8-1.0 PC split  Ensure controller tuning
Column Kg/Cm2 range  Ensure good desalter operation
top between  Ensure steady top temp.
Pressure FG &  Ensure boot water level
Flare  Higher pressure will hamper
product quality. Product may got
colored
 Lower pressure also will hamper
product quality

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 90
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8 Column 120-1300C TC  Ensure controller tuning


top cascaded  Ensure normal reflux temp.
Temperatu with top  Ensure steady top pressure
re reflux  Ensure boot water level
 High temp: Top product quantity
will increase & quality will not be
proper.
 Low temp: Product quality will
hamper.
9 Over Flash 15-20 m3/hr FI  Maintain Over flash flow of 5-6
vol% by adjusting Gas Oil draw as
per HSD recovery / pour point
 High: HSD production will reduce
& RCO production will increase.
 Low: HSD production will increase
& RCO production will decrease.
Chance of HSD coloration will be
there if it is too low.
10 Column 40-60% LI / LCV  Maintain 40-50% level
Bottom cascaded  High level may colour gas oil
Level with  Low level may vapor lock bottom
bottom pump. In some column SDV is
R/D flow provided, which cutoff bottom draw
at low level.
11 Desalter 30 to 40% LDIC  Ensure that 30-40% level is
Inter- maintained
phase  At high level desalter load will
Level increase, resulting poor desalter
operation. Water carries over to
column.
 At low level chance of crude
draining along with brine is there
12 Desalter < 150 amps Ammeter Higher amps means higher desalter load.
Amps May be due to high inter-phase level, high
water emulsion in crude oil or Due to
sludge carry over with crude.
>Increase demulsifier rate & reduce mixing
valve pressure drop.
13 Desalter 11.0 to 14.5 PG / PC  Ensure controller tuning

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 91
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Pressure on pre  Ensure that pressure is well below


desalter PSV set point
crude  Ensure furnace pass flows are
pump steady.
discharge  High pressure: PSV may pop,
line. resulting product coloration.
 Low pressure: Water carry over to
column & non achievement of
required t’put.
14 De-salter 120-140  High temp. De-salter will not
temperatur work., At more than 150 deg post
e desalter pump may get vapor lock
 Low temp: Desalter efficiency will
reduce. Oil carry over in brine .
15 Reflux 40 to 50% LCV  Ensure 30-40% level.
drum boot  At low-level naptha may drain
level along with sour water.
 At high-level water will carry over
with reflux, resulting column
condition upset.
 Ensure desalter good operation
16 Boot Chloride High  Increase caustic dozing & adjust
Water content ammonia to maintain boot water
PH of 6-6.5 & Cl_ of < 10 ppm
 For control Fe content < 2 ppm
Fe content High increase corrosion inhibitor dozing

4.8 CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM


Chemical injection system is provided in the Unit to achieve the following:
1. To facilitate demulsification in desalter, demulsifier is added.
2. To protect K-1, K-2 and K-4 overhead systems against corrosion, ammonia solution,
Corrosion Inhibitor and caustic solution are added.

4.8.1 DEMULSIFIER

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 92
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

A demulsifying agent is injected into the crude oil at the crude pumps common suction
header in the Unit. It is injected at the rate of 3-15 ppm on crude t'put and of 5-20 ppm on crude
while processing slop depending upon demulsifier quality. Demulsifier helps in faster
demulsification inside the desalter, thereby helping in faster removal of water injected for
dissolving salt. Demulsifier is injected with the help of pumps H-29/29A, which take suction from
demulsifier tank E-13. Injection rate of demulsifier is adjusted by varying the pump stroke.

4.8.2 CAUSTIC INJECTION


Calcium and Magnesium Chloride present in crude hydrolyse on heating and release HCL that
attacks the overhead system. Some of these calcium and magnesium chloride are removed in the
desalters. To neutralise the chlorides escaping from desalters, caustic solution is added into crude. In
presence of caustic they get converted into harmless NaCl. The caustic dosing is done at a rate of 30
to 40ppm on N/G crude and is injected in desalter crude outlets common line via vortex mixer.
Caustic is received from OM&S in the form of caustic lye of approximately 48% strength in
Tank-C. Caustic is diluted by adding water to make 06--10% solution. Caustic from Tank-C is
transferred into one of the dilute caustic tanks A and B and a solution of 6.0% strength is prepared
by diluting with service water. Dosing of dilute caustic in crude is done with one of the two pumps
H-25 and H-26.

4.8.3 AMMONIA SOLUTION INJECTION


Ammonia is injected into overhead vapour lines of K-1 and K-2 to:
1. Neutralise residual hydrochloric acid by converting it into NH4Cl.
2. Maintain pH of E-1/E-2 water in the range of 6 to 6.5, because effectiveness of corrosion
inhibitor is more in this range of pH.

Ammonia is received in the Unit in 40-kg cylinders. Ammoniacal water solution is prepared by
bubbling gaseous ammonia from cylinder through fresh water in ammonia tank. There are two

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 93
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

ammonia tanks. There are three dosing pumps available (both pumps to be used to maintain pH) for
injection, viz. H-30, H-30A and H-31. Ammonia is injected through rotameters into O/H vapour
lines of K-1 and K-2 so that E-1 and E-2 water pH remains in the range of 6.3 to 6.7.

4.8.4 CORROSION INHIBITOR INJECTION


Corrosion inhibitor (Ahrulan) is an organic chemical, which acts by forming a continuously
renewable monomolecular layer on the metal surface, thereby preventing direct contact of the
metal surface with the corrosive elements present in the system. The dosing is done into the top
sections of K-1, K-2 and K-4 separately, at the rate of 5 ppm of production of overhead material in
the respective columns. The dosage rate to be adjusted on the basis of make (i.e. quality) and
generally manufactures guidelines are to be followed.

Corrosion inhibitor is received in drum and unloaded into solution tank E-9 with off-loading
pump H-21A. In this vessel naphtha from E-2 is taken to prepare 1:4 ratio (by volume) solution of
Corrosion inhibitor /Naphtha and circulated for an hour with H-21B to achieve a homogenous
solution. Pumps H-21A/C/D are used for injecting Corrosion inhibitor into the overhead lines of
columns K-4, K-2, and K-1 respectively. Rotameters are provided at the pumps discharge lines to
measure injection rate. The rate can be adjusted by adjusting pump strokes. In case one of the
dosing pumps is out, flexibility is there to inject Corrosion inhibitor by any of other pumps i.e. one
pump shall dose into two columns.

4.9 UNIT PERFOMANCE MONITORING

The Key operating parameters for efficient monitoring and operation of this unit are:

4.9.1 Quality of crude w.r.t. to BS&W & free water :

While preparing the crude tanks sufficient time (>24hrs) is to be given for settling/draining
the free water & residual salts. High BS&W and shots of free water loads the desalter and might be
carried over to the column corroding the internals & creating upsets in the unit.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 94
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Also there is the problem associated the old crude tanks where the sludge has been
accumulated at the bottom & when the dip of crude tank is low it is being carried to the unit
causing disturbances in the unit. As the density of this sludge is quite different from crude, all the
flow & level controllers do not function properly. And if there is pockets of water the situation gets
worsened.

Some typical BS&W & Salt values for North Gujarat Crudes:

Date BS&W,%V/V Salt,ptb


18.05.05 0.5 3.64
11.05.05 1.6 7.1
27.04.05 0.05 3.7
31.03.05 3 9
16.03.05 2 16.14
09.02.05 4 18
03.02.05 3 11
01.12.04 0.05 6

4.9.2 Desalter Operating Variables & Performance

Desalter is the heart of a crude distillation unit. If the performance of desalter is not satisfactory
there can be the problem of water carryover along with crude & if the crude is high in chloride
content there can be corrosion problem in unit.

An experienced operating approach to be adopted for obtaining the optimum condition for a
particular desalter for a particular crude.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 95
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The efficiency of the desalter can be judged based on the oil content in the brine & Salt content of
Desalter outlet Crude.

Some typical results:


Date Sample Den@15C BS&W Salt
11.05.05 Inlet 0.8875 1.6 7.1
O/L Old 0.8852 2 1.8
O/L new 0.8852 2.4 0.9

16.03.05 Inlet 0.8896 2 16.14


O/L Old 0.889 0.4 5.38
O/L new 0.8889 0.5 10.76

01.09.04 Inlet 0.892 0.6 3.61


O/L Old 0.893 0.1 1.81
O/L new 0.892 0.1 2.71

4.9.3 Pre-Heat

Preheat is the very good parameter to see the heat recovery from the run down & circulating reflux
srtreams. It also helps in getting the idea of water carryover along with crude. If the preheat is
getting low there is chances of fouling inside exchangers & cleaning is recommended. A low preheat
increases the furnace load & so fuel consumption.

4.9.4 Furnace Outlet Temperature

A particular temperature will give desired over flash & distillate recovery. If the temp is low it will
result in high RCO Yield & also low RCO temperature will lead to low preheat & whole distillate
yield pattern will be disturbed.

4.9.5 E1/E2 PH monitoring

E1 & E2 chlorides is to be monitored to get the idea of desalter performance Also if the
Chlorides remain on higher side metallurgy to be upgraded to handle the corrosion problem.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 96
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

In Au3 there has been the problem of high corrosion both in E1 & E2 boot waters. The chloride in
E1 reported to be in the range of (0-30 ppm) whereas in the E2 boot water it is as high as 120 ppm.
A high DM water injection rate will surely help in separating residual salts, but if the crude is high
in npathenic salts ( it is active in high temp range) the problem can be handled by suitable
metallurgy as this will not be neutralized by addition of ammonia.

Fe content of E1 & E2 is also a good indicator of corrosion & need to use corrosion inhibitor.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 97
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER - 5

UTILITIES SYSTEM

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 98
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The utilities system consists of Instrument Air, Plant Air, Circulating Water, DM water, MP
Steam, Service Steam, Fuel Oil, Fuel Gas, Flushing Oil, Closed Blow Down, Flare, Slop, Passivation
facility and OWS. The distribution of each of the above mentioned utility in AU-3 is described in
this section.

5.1 INSTRUMENT AIR

A 3" instrument header supplies dry air to instruments provided in the Unit. Instrument air is
supplied by TPS and for this purpose there are two sets of silica-gel dryers. TPS Instrument air
header is connected with GRSPF air system also. Instrument air from TPS is received in vessel E-11
[ 6.0--6.5 kg/cm2(g) ] and sent to instruments through a pressure controller 3PC3705 which
maintains instrument air pressure at 3.0 kg/cm2(g). A 2” line taken directly from upstream of
3PV3705 goes to F-1/F-2 DODs. Two 2” lines branch from its downstream, one supplying
instrument air to F-1/F-2/F-3 side instruments and the other supplying instrument air to other plant
instruments. At inlet of E-11, provision is given to receive plant air when instrument air is not
available. A low pressure alarm 3PSL3705 is provided on E-11 which is set at 3.0 kg/cm2(g).

5.2 PLANT AIR

A 4" plant air header supplies service / industrial air. On this line a PG, a pressure indicator
3PI3710 and battery limit valve is provided. Service air is used for agitating caustic solution during
dilution, steam air decoking and caters to the requirement of service stations provided in heat
exchanger, pump, column and furnace area. In case of non-availability of instrument air, an inter-
connecting 1" line from plant air header supplies air to instrument air vessel E-11.

5.3 CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM

Circulating water to meet cooling water requirement of Unit is supplied by GRE/AU-5


circulating water system. Circulating water is supplied through a =24" line and it returns to

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 99
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

cooling tower under pressure through a line of same diameter (i.e., =24”). These lines are laid
under ground in battery limit area. Inlet to Unit expands to 28” at d/s of B/L isolation block valve
before going under ground. This further expands to a =32” header laid under ground. End part of
the header near Pump House west corner reduces to 17” in diameter. Tappings have been taken
from different points of this 32”---17” header for supplying C/W to condensers, coolers and pumps.
Tapping for service water is also taken to cater to the requirement for decoking pot during steam air
decoking of furnace coils, pump gland/bearing cooling, caustic solution preparation and service
station requirement at pump house, desalter, furnace and heat exchanger area.
Circulating water supply and return lines are provided with isolation block valves at battery
limit. The inlet to the Unit is provided with a flow recorder 3FI3704, a flow integrator 3FQ3704, a
pressure indicator 3PI3711 and low pressure alarm 3PL3711 set at 1.5 kg/cm2(g).

5.4 FIRE WATER

A separate fire water system has been provided in the Refinery by running headers by the side
of each main road, with sectional isolation arrangements and with suitable extensions to the units.
AU-3 also has such an extension, running at the west of the Unit and parallel to Road No. 1 & 4.
The entire network is provided with hydrants to which hoses can be connected for fire water
supply.

Four power driven and five diesel driven pumps are used in the fire water network to boost up
the network pressure to about 9 kg/cm2; the fire water network is otherwise kept charged
continuously with fresh water header pressure through inter-connections with fresh water header
(fitted with non-return valves).
To cater to the emergency requirement of firewater in Unit, following provisions have been
provided:
1. Two tapping from Road No. 4-fire water header, each for monitors located near desalter
and ammonia pump.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 100
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2. Tappings have been taken from fire water header on Road No.1 and from header in the
west side of AU-3 to make a ring and monitors have been provided by taking tapping from
this near:
a. Old Control Room ( Now New El. Substation )
b. Condenser T8D on condenser platform
c. Hydrant at top for K5 column ( redundant )
d. Fire water monitors at F1 and F2
e. Hydrant near 45-PM-002A/B
f. One monitor above VR pumps for K1 top fire fighting
g. One 4" line for sprinkler in pump house
h. One 3” isolated line up to E4
3. A tapping from fire water header parallel to Road No.1 for monitor near F-2 and hydrant
near FD fan.
4. To safe guard pumps, sprinklers have been provided on the ring. At the time of fire in
pump house, on opening isolation valves water will sprinkle in pump house to cool down
pumps.
5. Two 3" tappings from west side 6" line have been taken for fire hydrant header (04") near
P-305A/B and one 3" line from this is provided at E4 for fire monitor.

5.5 DM WATER
DM water is received through a 2" line from TPS in vessel E-12 under level controller
3LC3109. A tap-off for PDF is taken to supply DM water before battery limit valve. On E-12 a LG is
provided for level indication. Also a over-flow line and drain are provided on this tank. A provision
is there to receive stripped sour water from AU-IV in case of scarcity in DM water supply.
(Provision is also to receive E1/E2 boot water to DM water tank –not used).
Pumps H-28/28A/P231C supply DM water to crude line to Desalter-I (old) and Desalter-II (new)
through 3FC3906 and 3FC3907 after it is preheated in E-231A/B/C and E-313A/B.

5.6 STEAM

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 101
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Steam in AU-3 is used for the following purposes:


i. Atomizing steam for fuel oil burners in F-1/F-2/F-3.
ii. Stripping steam to K-1, K-2 and other strippers.
iii. Fire fighting and other utility steam
iv. Heating steam, as in fuel oil tanks E-6/E-7.
v. Steam for steam tracers
vi. LP steam for heating VR in VR surge drum
vii. HP steam for heating VR in 45-EE-003-A/B & C/D

HP STEAM

36 ATA steam is being supplied to AU-3/UDEX from main HP steam line going from TPS to
FCC.
- HP steam is used in VR burning heat exchanger viz. 45-EE-003A/B and 45-EE-003C/D for
maintaining VR temperature, which is supplied to F1/F2/F-3 as fuel oil. Its condensate
is supplied to AU-2 condensate pot.
- HP steam from main header to AU-3 is inter-connected with MP steam with isolation
valves.
- HP steam is utilized when VR is used as fuel oil in the furnaces.
- MP steam is utilized when IFO (RCO) is used as fuel oil for furnaces.
- HP steam pressure is 36 kg/cm2, temperature 435OC
- MP steam pressure is 13 kg/cm2, temperature 320OC

MP STEAM

Extraction Steam at a pressure of 12 kg/cm2 is supplied to the Units. Further additional process
steam needed is supplied through the pressure reducing station in TPS where the pressure of 40
kg/cm2 steam is brought down to 12 kg/cm2. The process steam at 12 kg/cm2 made available from
the above two sources join together before being supplied to the Units.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 102
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The steam supply to the Units/offsite facilities is through two 200 mm headers parallel to each
other. Every Unit is connected with each of these headers with an independent isolation valve, so
that any Unit can be fed from either of these headers any time.

Provision for isolating a complete header from the TPS end is also there and in such a case the
Units can be fed from one header only. The two supply lines from the two headers at each Unit join
to form a common inlet to the Unit, on which a battery limit valve is provided. In AU-3, on the
Unit side of the battery limit valve, a pressure controller 3PC3702 is provided to control the steam
supply pressure to the Unit. Additionally an orifice meter with flow recorder 3FI3701, an integrator
3FQ3701 and a low pressure alarm 3PSL3702 set at 6.0 kg/cm2 have been installed on this line.
Steam from the main line goes to the steam manifolds of F-1, F-2 and F-3 from where it gets further
distributed for burner oil atomisation, furnace coil purging, fire fighting, decoking, header box
purging etc. for each of the furnaces. Further, the steam line goes around the Unit. Block valves are
provided at different places for isolating different portions of the line.

Stripping steam to K-2, K-3A/B and K-3C is supplied at a pressure of 3 kg/cm2(g), which is
obtained by reducing the main supply steam pressure to 3 kg/cm2(g) through another pressure
controller 3PC3701. From this line tapping for utility steam is taken which caters to the
requirement of hose stations at column platforms, reflux drums, pump house, heat exchanger and
desalter area. In addition to this, connection for service steam to K2 top PSVs release is provided.
One tapping is also provided to supply steam-to-steam coils of VR burning surge drum. K-1, K-4, K-
5 (redundant), E-1, E-2 and E-4 are also getting steam from this. A separate tapping is taken from
the main supply header for stripping steam to K-1 which is obtained by reducing the main supply
steam pressure to around 3.5—4.0 kg/cm2 (g) through a pressure controller 3PC3205. Stripping
steam to strippers K-6A/B is also taken from this controller. In case of surplus steam generation in
GRE/GRSPF Complex; steam can be received from that Complex also.

5.7 FUEL GAS SYSTEM

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 103
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The fuel gas produced in AU-3 goes to the main gas bullets no. 114 and 115 located near CRU
from where fuel gas is supplied to all Units. At fuel gas bullet a FG line from FCCU is meeting from
this line excess FG from FCCU can be consumed in GR Units. All the Units of GR-I & II and TPS
are connected to this fuel gas supply system. Fuel gas system pressure is maintained at around 2.0 to
2.4 kg/cm2 (g), either by making up through LPG vaporizer located in AU-1 or by releasing excess
pressure, through a control valve located at gas bullets into the flare. The indication for this control
valve opening is available in CRU control room.
Fuel gas to the Unit is supplied through a 150 mm line provided with a battery limit valve. A
flow recorder 3FI3703, flow integrator 3FQ3703, low pressure alarm set at 1.0 kg/cm2(g) and a
pressure indicator controller 3PC3704 are provided on fuel gas line to Unit. Three parallel lines
supply FG to F-1/F-2/F-3 for gas burners. A hook-up is provided on this line to supply fuel gas to
FGH.

5.8 FUEL OIL SYSTEM

5.9 VR BURNING FACILITY

In Au-3 facility is provided to burn VR ex FPU-1 and FPU-2.


VR ex FPU-1&2 is supplied to AU-3 VR surge drum 45-VV-003 through dia 6" line through
3LC3901. A flow orifice 3FI3902 is provided before this LIC. One fuel oil line dia 3" from JOB-
50/AU-3 RCO RD is connected with VR receiving line before 3LC3901. At this point, one 2" line ex
E6/E7 pump discharge is also given for emptying out E6/E7 to VR drum. Dia 2" FLO line is also
connected for flushing these lines. Dia 1” CBD line is also provided at this manifold. VR surge drum
is provided with steam coil for warming up the liquid in the drum. LP steam tapping after 3ATA
steam C/V 3PC3701 (located near K-2 bottom on ground floor ) is provided to this steam coil.
Condensate out-let from VR surge drum coil is drained out to OWS. Pressure in this drum is
maintained by split-range controller 3PC3901. Make-up is from dia 2" fuel gas line ex main fuel gas
header and released to the flare knockout drum 45-VV-004. Two safety valves PSV-4501 and PSV-
4502 are also provided on top of this drum which release its pressure to flare knock-out drum.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 104
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3LI3901 indicates level of the surge drum. On south side of the drum one TG is provided for
measuring temperature of VR in the drum. On the top 3PT3901, TG-3901 and one level indicator
is provided.

One =6" outlet from drum is passing through filter 45GN-005A/B. One over-flow drain line
and CBD drain line is provided on these filters. These filters can be cleaned keeping one filter in
line. Dia 2" FLO line is provided on these filters for flushing purpose. Liquid ex VR drum passing
through 45-GN-005A/B enters suction of pump 45-PM-002A/B. On discharge of these pumps,
safety valves PSV-4505 and PSV-4504 are provided which release to pump suction suctions itself.
One dia 3" pressure equalizer line from discharge to suction is provided. After PSV tapping NRV
and discharge block valve is provided. 1/2" line after discharge B/V to upstream of NRV is provided
for warming up the pump. Discharge from 45-PM-002A/B enters 45-EE-003A/B and 45EE-003C/D
in parallel. Only one heat exchanger is remaining on line whereas the other one remains stand-by.
HP steam through 3TC3901 is passing through these exchangers for heating FO going to furnace
supply header. FO is heated up to 230OC through these exchangers. One return line from BPC
3PC3706 is coming back through return line to VR surge drum. Supply and return lines of E6/E7 are
connected with VR burning supply and return lines with required isolation B/Vs.
Facility is there to use IFO in VR surge drum. MP steam is utilised when IFO is used in this
facility. Required tappings are provided for using either HP steam or MP steam.
Fuel oil outlet from 45-EE-003A/B and 45-EE-003C/D is passing through 45-GN-005A/B. Only
one filter remains on line. Filters and FO pumps are provided with dia 2" FLO line for flushing.
The slop distillates ex FPU-I/II can be received in GRE storage tanks. From GRE the same can be
received in AU3 VR drums and can be used as fuel inplace of VR.

5.9.1 ALTERNATE FUEL OIL SYSTEM


Fuel oil supply to the Unit is made from TK-57 and 58 located in JOB-50 through pumps H-13
or H-14. This is received in the Unit tanks E-6 or E-7 where IFO is settled and water, if any, is
drained out. Provision is there to receive Unit RCO through IFO to AU-4 line in emergency.
Provision is also there to receive AU3 RCO. Two fuel oil pumps H-20 and H-20A have been

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 105
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

provided, one running at a time, for supplying FO to AU-3 furnaces. In case running pump gets
tripped auto change over system is provided to start stand-by pump. Provision is there to supply
FO through same pump and tank or through separate pump and tank. Fuel oil supply line pressure
is maintained at around 5.4—6.0 kg/cm2(g) with the help of back pressure controller and balance
fuel oil returns to the tank through return line. Tappings are taken from fuel oil line to supply fuel
oil to furnaces F1, F2 and F-3 under individual PIC and a part is returned to return line.

5.10 FLARE SYSTEM


A 10" flare header with isolation valve at battery limit is provided. Flare header carries gas
released from safety valves on K-1, K-4 and from vessel E-1 and E-4. Excess pressure of E-1 can be
released through pressure controller 3PC3201 to flare header. Flare header joins the flare knockout
drum at GRE. Gas to Unit can be depressurized in flare header if necessary. In june’09 planned
shutdown ,K2 &E2 vessel hook up job to LP flare header commissioned.

5.11 FLUSHING OIL


Diesel is stored in TK-212 to meet flushing oil requirement. Flushing oil through pump H-101 is
supplied to Unit through 4" slop line to pump H-2A/B for flushing the Unit during shutdown. For
heat exchanger flushing a separate 4" flushing oil line is provided.

5.12 SLOP
Colored gasoline/kero and diesel from TK-214 is processed in Unit by using pump H-101/102.
This pump discharges to the suction of crude pump H-2A/B. Provision is there to route colored E-1
gasoline, E-2 gasoline and SKO/HSD into respective off-site tanks.

5.13 CLOSED BLOW DOWN SYSTEM


To drain and flush heat exchangers and coolers, a closed blow down system is provided. All
coolers and heat exchangers are connected with CBD vessel E-8 through 4" header. Material
received in vessel E-8 is pumped for processing along with crude. A level indicator 3LI3701 is
provided on the vessel for monitoring level inside vessel. During 2013 M&I a new slop line to GRE

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 106
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

slop tank laid by connecting AU3 CBD pump discharge, AU3 slop pumps discharge(H101/H102) and
RCO rundown line. This new facility commissioned in June’2013.

5.14 OWS SYSTEM


Pump house, column, heat exchanger, furnace area drains are diverted to underground OWS
manholes. Through these manholes Unit effluent is sent to CETP through 15" drain line, which
meets main 600 mm OWS line to CETP.

5.15 PASSIVATION FACILITY


Last 5 tubes and transfer-lines of all three furnaces F-1, F-2 and F-3 are made of SS316L. Before
exposing them to Oxygen, they are required to be passivated to avoid stress cracking due to chloride
and polythionic acid. For the passivation 2% sodium carbonate and 0.5% sodium nitrate solution
shall be supplied by FPU through a 4" line. For this FPU has a solution tank (5.0 M3 capacity),
dilution tank (100 M3 capacity) and pumps to supply passivation solution. Provision is there to
supply this solution through booster pump H-8 ( of AU-3 pump house ) directly by FPU pump.

CHAPTER - 6

EQUIPMENT OPERATING PROCEDURE

6.1 DESALTER
Desalting is the accepted industry term for an electrostatic process for removing contaminants
such as salts, solids and water from crude oils at a refinery. Most of the contaminants in crude oil
are present in the oil as it is produced, although the oil can be contaminated with seawater when
tanker or barge transports it. Salts produced with crude oil are generally present as brine a solution
of salts in water. In addition, the crude oil contains solids such as finely divided sand particles, clays,

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 107
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

drilling mud, and rust and scale accumulated during production and transportation of the oil to the
refinery.

Before the crude oil is refined, these impurities must be removed for several reasons. Solid
contaminants can contribute to plugging of equipment and to scale formation. The more water
crude oil contains the greater the amount of heat that must be applied to raise the temperature of
the oil and water mixture to the temperature required for distillation, Chlorides, one of the types of
salts found in crude oil, can be responsible for the formation of hydrochloric acid at the
temperatures commonly encountered in a crude oil distillation tower. Hydrochloric acid is
extremely corrosive. Removal of contaminants in crude oil can increase distillation capacity, cut
down on refinery fuel costs, and reduce corrosion and plugging problems. For all these reasons,
desalting is the first and one of the most important stages in a refining operation.

Crude supplied from OM&S have water in emulsion form which cannot be separated at OM&S
by settling. This water contains calcium, magnesium and sodium salts in dissolved form. Calcium
and magnesium chlorides on heating get hydrolyzed and release HCl, whereas sodium salts will get
deposited on heat exchanger surface which will foul them. To remove these salts along with water,
desalting process is used. For this two desalters are provided in the unit.

DESALTING OF CRUDE OIL IN REFINERIES

Electrical desalter is installed as an integral part of a crude distillation unit. When crude oil
enters a refinery, it typically contains a small amount of water, approximately 0.1 to 0.5 volume
percent. The water remaining in the crude oil contains water-soluble salts, and the crude oil
contains insoluble particulate matter. To lower the level of impurities in the crude oil, water must
first be added to the crude. The desalting of the crude oil is a two-part process; the first consists of
forming an emulsion of crude oil and water and the second is a demulsification process in which the
emulsion of crude and water formed in the first part is broken by means of an electrical field and
demulsifier.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 108
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The salt occurs in the form of highly concentrated brine droplets dispersed throughout the
curde. These droplets are extremely small and are difficult to contact with the fresh water added to
crude. Desalting process consists of diluting this high salt content brine with incoming fresh water
to produce a low salt content water. After demulsification and settling, the BS&W which remains in
the crude is a diluted water instead of a concentrated brine. For contacting incoming water
effectively a fairly light emulsion must be formed. This is done by means of a mixing valve ahead of
electric desalter or injecting water at the front of preheat exchanger train. Obviously, the greater
the mixing or shearing action as well as higher the velocity, the greater is the pressure drop, the
samller is the particle size and higher and more stable is the emulsion.

The process of demulsification is accomplished by coalescing the small particles of emulsion


together so that they can form droplets of sufficient size to permit separation by gravity settling.
This is accomplished in electric desalting by passing the emulsion through an electric field. The
particles of water becomes polarized, orient themselves in a straight line approximately in the lines
of force in the electrical field and by random collision form large droplets which settle.

6.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF DESALTER

The desalter is a pressure vessel fitted with electrodes inside it to create an electric field. The
crude water emulsion enters the desalter in the bottom section of the vessel through an inlet
distributor to ensure uniform distribution over entire cross section and also to attain low velocity
condition. A large header, known as outlet crude collector is mounted inside the vessel at top
portion and extends over the entire length. This header is connected to the external withdrawal
header, for drawing off the desalted crude. The water draw off piping is a header at the bottom of
the vessel and extends over the entire length. It is connected to the effluent drain header outside
the desalter vessel.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 109
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

At times, there can be sludge build up at the bottom of the vessel. A header with nozzles has
been provided at the bottom for creating turbulence by pumping water. Water mixed with sludge
can be drained out through a drain line. Steam also can be used in place of water for the above
purpose. This process is called desludging. It can be continuous as in AU-3 or can be done
intermittently also. Desludging is dealt under separate heading.The electrode system is the heart of
desalter. These electrodes are suspended from special suspension insulators, one electrode being
immediately above the other so that an electric field is created in the gap between the electrodes.
The lower row of electordes is connected to 18KV supply while top row of electrode is securely
earthed. Both old and new desalters in AU-3 operate on single phase supply.

6.1.2 DESALTER OPERATION

As the crude oil enters the unit, it is injected with a predetermined dosage of a chemical called
demulsifier that helps in subsequent breaking of emulsion in the electric field inside desalter. Crude
after passing through a number of exchangers, attains a temperature of around 130OC and at this
point water is injected into the crude at the predetermined rate, the mixture is passed through the
mixing valve (emulsifying valve) and is fed into the desalter. The water for the above injection
should contain minimum salt, and hence DM water /Stripping water (exit AU4) & boot w from E-1
and E-2 is used for this purpose. This water is received in storage tank E-12 and any make up
required is done with DM water for which a permanent connection with the tank is provided.
DMW make-up is done under 3LC3109 taken from TPS. Water from this tank is pumped with
pump H-28/28A/P-231C and heated in E-231A/B/C and E-313 before injecting into the crude line
up-stream of the mixing valve.
Water separated in the desalter will settle down and will be drained out from bottom through
the interface level control valve. This water after exchanging heat with DM water is routed to a
flash drum E-19, open to the atmosphere, where water vapours are vented out and the water is
drained into the OWS system. A unit switch is provided through which supply to desalter can be
put on or off. A pilot lamp is provided which glows steadily till the current is normal and its
intensity gets reduced once current exceeds 150 amps. Low-level magnetic switch is provided on

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 110
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

desalters, which trips desalter in the event of low crude level in desalters. In addition to this one
voltmeter and one ammeter is provided at site for each desalter. One ammeter alongwith high
current alarm is provided in control room for both desalters. To release excess pressure two PSVs
901/902 and PSVs 3101A/B set at 19.0 Kg/cm2(g) releasing to flash zone of column K-1 are provided.

6.1.3 OPERATING VARIABLES


Desalter unit operation entails a great many variable factors, some of which have greater
influence than others in effective unit operation and desalter efficiency. How these factors can be
taken into account while optimising desalter operation is discussed below :

6.1.3.1 RAW CRUDE QUALITY


Crude oils with high viscosities, high specific gravities and asphaltic in nature are generally
more difficult to desalt. Light crude oils are easily desalted because the separation of oil and water is
facilitated by the low hold up effect of the light crude oils on the dispersed water droplets.
Separation is thus easier. In heavier oils, water droplets formation is slower and hence separation is
difficult.

6.1.3.2 SLOP ADDITION / OIL


Oil slops collected in the refinery consist of recovered oils from the effluent system or other oils
to be reprocessed. These will sometimes adversely affect demulsification because of the stabilizing
effects of contaminants picked up in the effluent system.

6.1.3.3 FEED RATE


Since the desalting process is a largely physical and dynamic function, velocity and residence
time will affect its performance. Throughput changes will affect flow characteristics.

6.1.3.4 WATER INJECTION


Desalting may be linked to washing of the oil and hence requires sufficient wash water. The
usual recommendation is 3 to 8% vol (water) /vol (crude). If water is less desalting efficiency is

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 111
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

reduced due to inability to contact all the droplets of high BS&W crude. If too much water is
present, desalter may shut out or current will rise to the point where operation becomes expensive.
It is normally added just upstream of the mixing valve. Some refineries divide the wash water
injection, locating one entry point (@ 1%) ahead of the preheat train, to help keep this clean. In
case salt content is high, provision is there to inject water at inlet or outlet of E-101 to increase
contact time. The quality of the water used is of course important particularly when caustic is
added. Caustic addition to hard water will cause precipitation of salt, which may plug up lines and
be of considerable trouble. Normally DM water is used. Most of refineries use stripped sour water.
Normally water injection rate is varied from 2 to 6% of crude to get required degree of desalting.
Once the optimum rate is adjusted, it is not changed until crude quality and mix is changed. During
slop processing water rate is reduced due to high ingress of water along with slop oil.

6.1.3.5 TEMPERATURE
In order to produce a good emulsion the viscosity of the crude oil must be kept below 40 cSt.
This means that sufficient temperature must be maintained to get a low viscosity of crude. Increased
temperature assists water settling when oil viscosity and density are as low as possible. However, oil
conductivity generally increases with temperature which may give some cause for concern when an
alarming rise in amperage is observed. So normally most desalters are operated in the range of 120 -
140 0C.

6.1.3.6 PRESSURE
Pressure is not an operating variable except that the pressure should be high enough to prevent
vaporization within the desalter. Operating pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2 above the vaporization
pressure at a given temperature is normal.

6.1.3.7 MIXING ENERGY


Thorough mixing of the wash water and oil is necessary to extract the impurities. The closer the
admixing, the better is the removal. However, excessive mixing may form an emulsion too stable for
the desalter to break resulting in carryover of water containing salt with the oil. The mixing

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 112
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

energy is controlled by the "Mixing Valve". Higher the pressure drop across the mixing valve, more
thorough is the mixing.

As the pressure drop is first increased, good desalting is quickly obtained, for a long period of
increased pressure drop no appreciable change in the salt content of the effluent is noticed, then a
point is finally reached where the effluent salt content will suddenly drop to practically zero. There
will be another point where slight increase in pressure drop will suddenly raise the salt content of
the effluent crude oils to almost the original value. BS&W of the crude increases gradually as the
pressure drop is increased until a limiting value is reached when the BS&W curve will turn
abruptly upward. Average optimum pressure drop through mixing valve is approximately 0.5 to
1.0Kg/cm2(g). In case of slop processing it may be required to reduce pressure drop as slop contains
sludge and solids, which may produce tight emulsion.

6.1.3.8 INTERFACE LEVEL


Interface level controller is provided which maintains water level in desalter. This interface
should be maintained at 85 to 105cm below the lower electrode. The exact point of control for
maximum desalting efficiency will depend upon the type of crude being desalted and appearance of
effluent water. To counter check position of interface, a number of try lines are provided. Normally
interface level remains between 2nd and 3rd try line from bottom and maximum it can be taken up
to 4th try line. If interface level is high, current drawn will shoot up and water and salts carryover
along with crude will increase which in turn will disturb column operation. Improper functioning
of the interface level controller will result in high oil content in effluent water or high current
drawn.

6.1.3.9 CHEMICAL AGENT


A chemical agent is usually added to crude to help desalting. Its main functions are as follows :
* Help water coalescence

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 113
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

* Wet out solids


* Avoid hydrocarbon dispersion in the aqueous phase
* Assist in emulsion breaking
These agents often referred to as "Demulsifier" are added to the crude oil at the rate of 3-10 ppm
vol/vol ahead of the charge pump and water injection.

6.1.3.10 AMPERAGE & VOLTAGE

A good demulsification calls for the maintenance of a high voltage across the electrodes. As the
conductivity of the fluid flowing between the electrodes increases, the current flow across the
electrodes will also increase and the voltage will drop. Generally this drop in voltage will result in
poor demulsification. When the conductivity of this becomes so great the voltage drops below
approximately 200 volts on the primary circuit, the unit will fail to break the emulsion and the
voltage may rapidly drop further to the point where the overload will kick out and shut the desalter
down.

There are various factors that affect the conductivity of the flowing fluid. The type of crude is
one variable. The temperature of the crude water mix will also have a marked effect on
conductivity. As the temperature increases, the conductivity increases. Thus from this stand point it
is desirable to operate at as low a temperature as possible.

The biggest factor affecting conductivity is the percentage of water. Increase in water
percentage, increases conductivity until it reaches a point where the electrode will short out.
Voltage required for good desalting in approximately 3000 volts per inch of distance between
electrodes. This high voltage is obtained by means of transformers. Fluctuations in voltage are
usually due to localized appearance of water or emulsion and are generally not serious.

6.1.3.11 pH

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 114
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

pH has a big effect on conductivity. The conductivity becomes high at either high or low value
of pH. For this reason it is generally desirable to operate in the middle range. An operating range of
pH from 6.5 to 8.5 is acceptable. In the high pH range it has been noted that the sodium
naphthenates formed by reaction of caustic and naphthenic acids in crude act as emulsion stabilizers
and the emulsion becomes very hard to break. During 2000 revamp caustic addition lines were
removed and caustic addition is discontinued. Presently Caustic is added to crude after desalter
outlet.

6.1.3.12 SOLIDS AT WATER OIL INTERFACE

Invariably sludge will form at the water oil interface and if it is not removed, the sludge layer
will gradually build up until it finally reaches the electrodes and cause trouble. Some desalters have
skimming lines of removing the sludge periodically. Sludge or solids have a tendency to build up at
the bottom of the desalter. Some refiners have installed steam in the bottom of the desalter with the
holes facing the bottom of the vessel. Periodically steam is introduced through the drain out with
the desalter effluent water.

6.1.4 RETROFITTING OF DESALTER-I


Old Desalter Modified from Monoelectric Desalter to Bielectric Desalter in Revamp, 2000.

6.1.4.1 PETRECO BIELCTRIC DESALTING

A Petreco/Baker Process desalting system mixes wash water (water low in contaminants) into
crude oil in a special mixing valve that disperses the water in extremely small droplets. This
intimate mixing of water and oil causes fresh water droplets to contact brine droplets and various
water-soluble impurities in the oil. The water and oil mixture is piped into the desalter vessel where
the mixture is metered out at a low velocity into an electrical field. The electrical field causes the oil
and water to separate. The droplets of wash water (now combined with droplets of brine) form large
drops that are separated from the crude oil by high voltage electricity and the force of gravity. This
process is called electrostatic coalescence. If the wash water were not added, the total population of

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 115
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

water droplets in the crude oil would not be sufficient for much coalescence (combining) of water
droplets to occur. The addition of wash water to the crude oil increases the total water volume in
the crude and permits removal of contaminants through electrostatic coalescence of the water
droplets.
A chemical (demulsifier) can be added to the crude oil charge ahead of the mixing valve,
preferably at the raw crude charge pump suction. If this arrangement is not convenient, then the
demulsifier should be added at a selected point ahead of the preheat exchangers. The demulsifier
helps reduce the amount of oil entrained (trapped) in the water, thus reducing the amount of oil
carried out of the desalter with the effluent water. The demulsifier may also be added to the crude
charge to aid in separating the dispersed water droplets from the crude oil.

Details of how desalting works are below :

6.1.4.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Process Description – Bilectric Desalter – Single-Stage Operation

Ahead of the desalter vessel, wash water is added to the incoming crude oil stream. The crude
oil and water mixture passes through a special mixing valve before it enters the desalter vessel. The
mixing valve creates an emulsion. Water is thus dispersed throughout the crude oil in extremely
small droplets by this emulsifying action. Once the water and oil are mixed, the incoming crude oil
stream enters the bottom of the desalter vessel, flows through a riser pipe, and then into the
distributors. The distributors are responsible for metering the crude oil at a uniform flow rate
throughout each high voltage electrical field., One electrical field is produced by the lower and
middle electrodes inside the desalter vessel, and the other produced by the middle and upper
electrodes.

Grids of metal bars and rods make up the electrodes. The high potential gradient for the electric
field is furnished by power units installed externally on top of the desalter vessel. When crude oil
enters the two electrical fields, the electrical charges in each water droplet are separated. That is,
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 116
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

the negative charges concentrate to one end of the droplet and the positive charges to the other end.
Each droplet becomes an induced dipole – a particle carrying two equal but possible electrical
charges, or electrical poles.

The positive end of each water droplet is attracted to the opposite, or negative pole in the
electrical field that is acting on the water droplet. Each negative end of each water droplet is
attracted to the positive pole in the electrical field.

Since the electrical charges in each droplet are separated, the negative poles of droplets are
attracted to the positive poles of other droplets. Almost immediately after the crude oil enters an
electrical field, the water droplets begin to combine, or coalesce, as opposite electrical charges
attract one another.

The coalescing action created by the attraction of the water droplets to one another creates
larger and larger droplets, until finally, water drops are large enough to fall out of the crude oil by
the force of gravity. Large droplets fall through the crude oil and into the bottom of the desalter
vessel. When the desalter is in operation, the bottom one-third to one-half of the vessel is filled
with water.

An interface controller connected to a displacer at the oil/water interface controls the rate at
which the water leaves the desalter vessel in order to maintain a water level that meets operating
specifications. Water exits the desalter through an effluent water disposal line. Treated oil exits the
desalter vessel through a collector pipe near the top of the vessel.

Bilectric Desalter Process Description


The unit is equipped with two energized electrodes. Each electrode is energized by a single
power unit and the electrodes are set out of phase. The emulsion enters the vessel at the bottom
center of the vessel and enters an internal distributors, which is used to split the crude into
distributor head assemblies. The distributor head splits the flow between the upper and lower pairs
of electrodes. The emulsion enters the electrical treating field horizontally.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 117
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The PETRECO Bilectric® desalter was designed following considerable research and many years
of varied operational experience. The design was developed to achieve a more efficient utilization of
the interior volume within the desalting vessel. This is accomplished by establishing laminar
horizontal flow between the electrodes, with water coalescence occurring in the electrical treating
field, then vertical water separation from the crude. As a result the falling water has less resistance
to overcome than in a low velocity design. After separation, in a low velocity unit, water must
displace the rising crude to achieve separation. This is much less of a factor in the Bilectric desalter.
The principle of treating the emulsion between energized electrodes using horizontal fluid flow
with vertical water separation has been used for many years in several PETRECO designs.

Water separated from the crude enters the water phase in a “rain like” fashion. This minimizes
turbulence in the water phase and is helpful in improving effluent water quality by providing
“Quiescent Zone” water phase residence time in the vessel.

It is to be noted that the crude separated from the water between the center and lower
electrodes must pass through the upper electrode in a converging countercurrent flow with the
separating water from the upper set of electrodes. This creates a second washing zone for half the
feed in the unit in a strong electrical field. We believe this helps improve filterable solids removal
from the crude. In a low velocity design a 50-60% filterable solids removal rate is generally
considered acceptable.

With lighter crudes the theoretical doubling of crude capacity is achieving with this design.
With heavier feeds this theoretical value decreases slightly. For purposes of design, we use a value
of 1.75 as opposed to 2.00 to rate the capacity of the unit as compared to a Low Velocity design
(New Desalter). This is achievable without needing to increase the length of the vessel requirements
for heavy oils.

The following table lists the principal design features of the Bilectric desalting unit :

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 118
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Petreco Bilectric® Design Features

 Maximum Usage of Vessel Dimensions


 Maximum Utilization of Electrode Areas
 Sophisticated Crude Distribution System
 Efficient and Effective Oil/Water Mixing
 Maximum Water Residence Time for a Given Vessel
 Properly Sized Power Units with Special Design Features for the Crudes being Processed
 Ease of Operation for Operating Personnel
 Sediment Wash System
 Quiescent Zone, Low Turbulence Water Phase
 Stable Level Control System

6.1.4.3 DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS

Components Inside the Desalter


The following components are the features of Desalter-I
A. Distributor
B. Outlet collector
C. Electrode assembly
D. Support insulators
E. Entrance bushings
F. Interface level probe assemblies
G. Sediment wash piping and nozzles

A. DISTRIBUTOR
The PETRECO Biletric Desalter uses a device called a distributor to uniformly meter the
incoming crude oil throughout the two electrical fields in the desalter vessel. The distributor creates
a pressure drop that is sufficient to properly distribute the crude oil flow. Three distributors are
used to meter crude oil into the two electrical fields of the desalter vessel.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 119
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

B. OUTLET COLLECTOR
The collector is an internal pipe located at the top of the vessel, above the electrodes and near
the crown of the vessel. This pipe collects clean, treated oil, which exists the vessel through this
pipe.

C. ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY
The Bilectric Desalter uses two electrical fields to desalt crude oil. Three electrodes create the
two fields. Each electrode is constructed of bars and a framework of rods. The electrodes are
energized by power units installed external to the vessel. The electrodes must be installed level and
must remain level to insure uniform voltage between them.
D. SUPPORT INSULATORS
The electrodes are suspended from the vessel by support insulators. These insulators are attached
to brackets at the top of the vessel. The insulators are fabricated of solid, 100 percent virgin,
electrical grade Teflon.
E. ENTRANCE BUSHINGS
High voltage electricity is transmitted from a transformer outside the desalter vessel through an
electrical conductor (wire) enclosed in conduit and then through a specially designed high voltage
bushing into the vessel. One bushing is required for each power unit. An oil-filled pipe conduit
carries the high voltage conductor from the power unit to a flanged connection at the top of the
desalter vessel. At the flanged connection, the high voltage conductor enters the insulating Teflon
entrance bushing which insulates the conductor and isolates it from other desalter equipment until
the conductor connects to a contactor. The contactor makes physical and electrical contact with the
electrode assembly in the vessel.
Entrance Bushing Design Policy

BARG / PSIG °C / °F

Maximum Operating Conditions 31 / 450 176 / 350

Maximum Inert Gas 10 / 150 to

Maximum Steam 10 / 150 187 / 370

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 120
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Notes :
1. Pressure / Temperature must not exceed vessel design limitations.
2. Inert gas to be used for startup / shutdown purging and vessel closure integrity verification
only.

F. INTERFACE LEVEL PROBE ASSEMBLIES


The point at which water and oil meet inside the desalter vessel, called the interface, must be
kept at a specified level for proper operation of the desalter. The required interface is maintained
by measuring the water level with an interface capacitance probe connected to a controller. The
controller causes either more or less water to be drawn off at the bottom of the vessel by controlling
an automatic valve on the effluent water outlet line.

G. SEDIMENT WASH PIPING AND NOZZLES


To prevent the accumulation of undissolved solids at the bottom of the vessel, this desalter plant
is equipped with a sediment wash system. The sediment wash system incorporates solids removal
piping that extends through the length of the settling zone near the bottom of the vessel. Injection
nozzles in the piping point downward. Desalter effluent water from the water discharge line is
moved it into the solids removal piping. Desalter effluent water from the nozzles stirs up solids at
the bottom of the vessel so the solids can be carried out with the effluent water.

Components Outside the Vessel

1. Meterpanel 2. Power unit / reactors


3. Vent line 4. Relief valve
5. Mixing valve 6. Entrance bushing conduit
7. Interface control transmitter 8. Interface control valve

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 121
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

9. Safety float switch. 10. Steam-out connection.


11. Sampling. 12. Chemical pump

1. METERPANEL
The meterpanel provides a point for engaging or disengaging the electrical supply that energizes
the desalter power units. The meterpanel houses one voltmeter and one ammeter for each power
unit, and an Off/On pushbutton for applying electrical power to the power units. The customer
must provide a remote circuit breaker in line ahead of the meterpanel.

2. POWER UNIT / REACTORS


The power units provide the high voltage for the primary treating field that causes water and oil
to separate. The power units are a reliable oil-immersed design made to Petreco’s exacting
specifications. A current-limiting reactor is connected in series with each power unit. A reactor
protects each power unit from damage by limiting the amount of current that can enter that power
unit. The electrical system at each plant is 100% reactance controlled. As the required electrical
load varies with the conductivity of the fluid mixture in the vessel, the reactors automatically adjust
the applied voltage and power unit current.

3. VENT LINE
The vent line permits purging the vessel of all air and/or gas when the desalter is placed in
operation. The vent line is opened to a visible sewer so an operator can determine where the vessel
is liquid full. If the desalter is to be shutdown, the vent line must be opened to relieve the vacuum
inside the vessel as the vessel is pumped out.

4. RELIEF VALVE
A relief valve must be installed at the desalter by the customer to protect the vessel from
excessive pressure. The valve is normally set to open at a pressure less than the vessel design
pressure. The discharge from this valve is piped to a blow-down drum, closed sewer or other
disposal site.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 122
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

5. MIXING VALVE
A mixing valve is installed ahead of desalter. The valve is operated either manually or
automatically, depending on the installation. The mixing valve disperses wash water into the crude
oil. Typically, this mixing is accomplished with a minimum pressure drop at the mixing valve. The
optimum pressure drop required for creating a water-in-oil emulsion in a given crude oil must be
determined by some experimentation. In general, a (1.5 - 1.75 kg/cm2) pressure drop is the
maximum required. Presently both the desalters in AU3 are being operated at 1- 1.1 kg/cm2.

6. ENTRANCE BUSHING CONDUIT


As discussed under entrance bushings, this conduit is an oil-filed, flexible pipe containing an
electrical conductor that connects a power unit to an entrance bushing at the vessel.

7. INTERFACE CONTROL TRANSMITTER


An interface controller receives measurement information from the interface capacitance probe
inside the vessel. The controller uses this measurement information to control the action of the
vessel’s interface control valve. This valve in turn maintains the vessel’s water-oil interface at the
desired level.

8. INTERFACE CONTROL VALVE


This valve is installed on the vessel’s effluent water line to control the flow rate of water leaving
the vessel. The amount of compressed air applied to the diaphragm in the valve actuator determines
the percent by which the valve is open. Signals transmitted by the level controller determine how
much air is supplied to the valve actuator.

9. SAFETY FLOAT SWITCH

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 123
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

A float mechanism mounted on top of the vessel rises or falls with the level of oil in the desalter
vessel. If the level of oil in the desalter falls below the full operating level, the float switch
disengages power to the electrode zone.

10. STEAM-OUT CONNECTION


The steam-out connection is used for applying steak (or another purging medium) to the vessel
interior when the vessel is purged of air or vapors. The valve for the steam-out line is reached from
the top of the vessel safety platform. The vessel and its components must not be overheated if they
are steamed out.

6.1.5 COMMISSIONING OF DESALTER

During commissioning, it is desirable to bring the unit on stream with the desalter. The steps are
as follows :
1.Drain out any possible water accumulation in the desalter before admitting oil.
2.Close the desalter O/L valve and open the vent valve to expel air.
3.Admit crude slowly into the desalter by opening desalter crude I/L valve.

When the desalter vessel is full with crude oil and the air has been expelled, close the vent
valve. Settle the water and drain it After draining water, open the O/L valve slowly. Once the
flow through the desalter is established, slowly close the bypass valve. When the crude oil in the
desalter reaches the required temperature, energize the desalter.
If the meters show good voltage and low amps, start water and demulsifier injections keeping
~1.0 kg/cm2 pressure drop across mixing valve.

Key Point: During filling up of the vessel, do not energize the desalter to avoid any accident.

6.1.6 SHUTDOWN OF AND HANDING OVER OF DESALTER

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 124
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Refer Chapter-9 Item 9.1.H

6.1.7 DESALTER DESLUDGING

During operation, some sludges get carried over with the crude from storage tanks at Crude
Control and get settled at the desalter bottom. Excessive build-up of this sludges interferes with
interface level control of desalter resulting in improper separation of water from crude and carry
over of emulsion/oil into OW&S causing recovery problem in Effluent Treatment Plant. The aim of
desalter desludging is to remove the accumulated sludge over a period from vessel.
For desludging two principal methods are used:
1. Continuous desludging
2. Intermittent desludging

6.1.7.1 CONTINUOUS DESLUDGING

In continuous desludging, a part of the desalter brine is recirculated through a desludging pump
P-231 A/B. The re-circulated brine does not allow the sludge to settle at the bottom of the desalter
by the churning effect of the re-circulated water. Thus it helps in achieving the goal of desludging.
The desludging water injection rate is adjusted by seeing the interface level and the desalter current.
Desludging is done for 12 hours in Desalter-I (Old Desalter) and in Desalter-II (New Desalter) for
the next 12 hours.

6.1.7.2 INTERMITTENT DESLUDGING

In this process sludge is allowed to settle for some days and then the sludge is removed once or
twice a week as per requirement. The method of desludging is described below :

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 125
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

1. Inform ETP personnel about duration and starting time of desludging operation. This will
enable ETP personnel to take remedial measures at their end, particularly during the period of
excessive oil effluent likely to be received during desludging.
2. Stop water injection to desalter and bring down the water interface level in desalter upto 1st try
line point. Draining of water upto 1st try line can be either through regular interface control
valve or if required through bottom desludging line.
3. Stop demulsifier injection
4. Commission water to desalter through desludging line and build up interface water level in
desalter up to 3rd try line point. It is expected that sludge settled at the bottom will get
desludged due to force of water jets introduced for desludging purpose.
5. Stop water injection and drain sludge plus water from bottom drain line upto 1st try line point.
6. Repeat steps 4 & 5 three times in the same sequence
7. Introduce water through desludging line and continue desludging at a controlled rate.
8. Normalize desalter operation with demulsifier and water injection

6.1.8 TROUBLE SHOOTING

SR NO PROBABLE CAUSES OF
PROBLEM REMEDY
PROBLEM
1. Too much salt re- Mixing valve pressure drop Increase mixing valve pressure drop
mains in the trea- is too low
ted oil Insufficient amount of Increase fresh water flow rate
wash water being
injected
Operating temp too low Increased temp of untreated oil

2. There is too much Mixing valve pressure drop Reduce mixing valve pressure drop
water in treated is too great
oil Water injection rate too Reduce water injection rate
great
Untreated crude has a very Sample crude for BS&W; a change in
high BS&W content fresh water injection or mixing valve
insufficient oil and water pressure drop may help.
separation is occurring.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 126
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SR NO PROBABLE CAUSES OF
PROBLEM REMEDY
PROBLEM
Voltage at the electrode Check electrical system for operating
assembly is too low problem
Not enough demulsifier Increase demulsifier chemical injection
chemical is being added to rate/or change type of demulsifier
untreated crude, or chemical.
demulsifier should be
changed.
Oil /water interface too low Adjust controller set point as necessary

3. Dirty/crude mixed Incorrect amount or wrong Adjust injection rate of demulsifier


effluent water is type demulsifier chemical is chemical and/or change type of
existing at the being added to untreated oil demulsifier chemical
effluent water line Oil temp is too low for good Check temp and increase as necessary.
operation of plant. Mixing Reduce mixing valve pressure drop
valve pressure drop too great and/or process water injection rate.
or process water injection
rate too great.
Set point at level controller Check controller set point and valve
may be improperly adjusted action. Adjust if necessary.
or the valve on the effluent
water outlet may be stuck
open.

4. Voltmeter Vessel operating temp too Check vessel temp. adjust temp of oil if
readings vary high or back pres. necessary. Check action of back pressure
widely and Insufficient valve.
continuously Incorrect amount or wrong Adjust injection rate of demulsifier
type demulsifier chemical is chemical and/or change type of
being added to untreated demulsifier chemical.
crude.
Mixing valve pressure drop Reduce pressure drop at mixing valve
too great
An insulator inside the Take desalter out of service. When entry
vessel has failed is permitted, enter vessel & determine
which insulator has failed and replace
the same.

Energized electrode has Shutdown system. Inspect vessel interior


become grounded and locate point at which electrode is
grounded. Unground the electrodes.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 127
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SR NO PROBABLE CAUSES OF
PROBLEM REMEDY
PROBLEM
Set point at level controller Check the controller set point and valve
is improperly adjusted or and adjust as required.
valve on effluent water
outlet line is sticking.

5. Voltmeter Stable (difficult to break) Stop the injection of process water.


readings are emulsion has entered the Allow the vessel to operate for about 30
continuously very desalter. minutes without water injection. If this
low. does not seem to clear the emulsified
material out of the electrode zone, use
the following procedure :
Reduce the level of water in the vessel.
Stop operation of vessel for about two
hours and then resume operation. If
voltage returns to normal, resume
injection of wash water, but without a
pressure drop across the mixing valve.
Once water injection has resumed,
increase the pressure drop at the mixing
valve until the desired operating
conditions are reached.
Temperature in the vessel is Check temperature of oil
too high or too low.
Incorrect amount or wrong Adjust the injection rate of demulsifier
type demulsifier chemical is chemical and/or change type of
being added to the untreated demulsifier chemical.
oil.
A separate vessel entrance Check bushing and replace. Check the
bushing has failed. bushing only if tests indicate that the
transformer connected to that bushing is
not the source of the problem.

6.1.9 INSTRUMENTATION

For the monitoring of the desalter performance certain instrumentations are involved.

1. P ACROSS MIXING VALVE

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 128
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The differential pres. indicator across mixing valve gives the pres. drops. Seeing the pres drop
the mixing valve is adjusted to get the required Delta p.

2. BACK PRESSURE CONTROLLER


The back pressure controller 3PC3101 maintains the desalter pressure and this helps in avoiding
the water carryover along with the crude oil.

3. AMMETER
The ammeter reading shows the current consumption in the desalter. Higher the ammeter
reading, higher is the water carryover along with crude. At certain high valuel of current trips the
desalter.

4. LDIC
The most important instrumentation in the desalter is the LDIC, which maintain the interface
level of the desalter by controlling the brine discharge from the desalter. LDIC dictates the actual
performance of the desalter efficiently and the performance of the desalter is satisfactory, then the
oil content in the brine should be very less. If oil content in the brine is high the performance and
dosage of the demulsifier is to be checked and the desalter operating parameters are to adjust.

6.1.10 LABORATORY TEST

To monitor the performance of the desalter following laboratory test are required :
- Density of the crude
- BS&W of the crude
- Salt content of the crude inlet
- Salt content of the crude outlet
- Oil content in the brine

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 129
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Density of the Crude


Crudes with high specific gravity and high viscosity are more difficult to desalt.

BS&W of the Crude


It gives an idea of the water injection requirement, chemical dosage requirement and the
desludging requirement.

Salt Content
Salt content of the crude inlet and outlet give the idea of the performance of the desalters.
This also indicates the requirement of the water injection for washing of the salts. Salt content is
normally reported as pounds salts measured as Sodium Chloride, per thousand barrels of oil (PTB).
The range of salt content generally varies from 100 PTB to 200 PTB.

Oil Content in the Brine

In the desalter, the chemical demulsifier is used to break up the emulsion and if the
demulsifier works. There should not be any oil carryover in the brine. A oil carry over of < 100 ppm
is expected for a normal working desalter.

6.2 FURNACES F-1/F-2 AND AIR-PREHEATERS

Furnace F-1 and F-2 are of single cell horizontal tube, cabin type with convection and radiation
section. These furnaces are equipped with a common recuperative type Air Pre-heater (APH), ID
Fan, FD Fan and Decoking Facilities. For efficient and safe operation, DCS instrumentation has been
provided along with combustion control with lead lag mechanism. Safety interlock system is
provided in view of balanced draft operation keeping stack dampers in closed position.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 130
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

PROCESS DESIGN CONDITION

SR. APH
ITEM F-1 F-2
NO FLUE GAS AIR
1 Service Vaporisation Vaporisation Heating com-
of K-2 Feed of K-2 Feed bustion air

2 Throughput, 108.5 239 50.14 47.3


( MT/Hr )

3 Heat absorption, 8.63 16.02 - 2.53


( MMKCal/Hr )

4 Inlet / Outlet Temp., 285/370 285/370 385-190 35/256


( OC )

5 Inlet /Outlet 10.4/4.2 9.6/3.1 -30/-100 260/25


Pressure, mmWC mmWC
[ kg/cm2 (g) ]

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 131
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.1 FURNACE F-1

Furnace F-1 is vertical box type furnace with horizontal tubes. The furnace is upright steel
structure with a casing lined with insulating fire bricks and with a cylindrical stack mounted on top
of convection section.

The combustion chamber houses 44 nos. radiant section tubes arranged in one pass. Metallurgy
of last 5 tubes is SS 316L and others 5 Cr. ½ Mo. In this section heat is transferred by radiation
from the flame and the hot combustion products. The convection section provided on the top of the
radiant section serves to increase thermal efficiency of furnace by removing further heat from flue
gases leaving radiation section. First two rows of tubes in this section (3 tubes in each row)
receiving both radiation and convection heat are called shock bank tubes. Tubes in shock bank are
bare tubes. Metallurgy of these tubes is 5 Cr. ½ Mo. Balance convection section consists of two
zones, one above the other. The upper zone consists of 6 nos. of studded tubes (2 rows) and lower
zone consists of 12 nos. of studded tubes (4 rows). Metallurgy of all studded tubes is 5 Cr. ½ Mo.
Between the two zones there are 4 nos. of soot blowers for effective cleaning of outer surface of
tubes.
On the top of convection section stack damper HC-1811 is provided which can be opened or
closed from control room. Provision is also there to open or close it from field with winch
mechanism. 6 nos. of dual firing type John Zinc burners are mounted at the bottom of furnace
with primary and secondary air dampers. Hot air is supplied to the burners through the burner
plenum.. 2 nos. of drop-out-doors (DODs) are provided at plenum chamber through which
combustion air to furnace is provided when furnace is operating in natural draft. These dampers can
be opened and closed from control room with the help of power cylinders provided on it.
Draft gauges, oxygen and CO analyzers are provided on furnace to measure draft and to control
excess air being supplied to furnaces. SO2 analyzer measures the stack sulfur emission. Fuel gas
sample point below stack damper (After convection zone) is provided. Explosion doors are provided
to protect it from sudden rise in pressure. Snuffing steam connections are given at convection

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 132
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

section, radiation section return bend boxes and in furnace. These can be used during start-up and
shutdown for purging furnace.

6.2.2 FURNACE F-2

Furnace F-2 is vertical box type furnace with horizontal tubes. The furnace is upright steel
structure with a casing lined with insulating fire bricks and with a cylindrical stack mounted on top
of convection section. The combustion chamber houses 60 nos. radiant section tubes arranged in
one pass. Metallurgy of last 5 tubes is SS 316L and other 5 Cr. ½ Mo. In this section heat is
transferred by radiation from the flame and the hot combustion products. The convection section
provided on the top of the radiant section serves to increase thermal efficiency of furnace by
removing further heat from flue gases leaving radiation section. First two rows of tubes in this
section (4 tubes in each row) receiving both radiation and convection heat are called shock bank
tubes. Tubes in shock bank are bare tubes. Metallurgy of these tubes is 5 Cr. ½ Mo. Balance
convection section consists of two zones, one above the other. The upper zone consists of 8 nos. of
studded tubes (2 rows) and lower zone consists of 12 nos. of studded tubes (3 rows). Metallurgy of
all studded tubes is 5 Cr. ½ Mo. Between the two zones there are 6 nos. of soot blowers for
effective cleaning of outer surface of tubes.

On the top of convection section stack damper HC-1812 is provided which can be opened or
closed from control room. Provision is also there to open or close it from field with winch
mechanism. 10 nos. of dual firing type John Zinc burners are mounted at the bottom of furnace
with primary and secondary air dampers. Hot air is supplied to the burners through the burner
plenum.. 4 nos. of drop-out-doors (DODs) are provided at plenum chamber through which
combustion air to furnace is provided when furnace is operating in natural draft. DODs can be
opened and closed from control room with the help of power cylinders provided on them.

Draft gauges, oxygen and CO analyzers are provided on furnace to measure draft and to control
excess air being supplied to furnaces. Fuel gas sample point below stack damper (After convection

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 133
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

zone) is provided. Explosion doors are provided to protect it from sudden rise in pressure. Snuffing
steam connections are given at convection section, radiation section return bend boxes and in
furnace. These can be used during start up and shutdown for purging furnace.

6.2.3 AIR PREHEATER

One common air pre-heater has been provided, for preheating combustion air for F-1 and F-2.
Fuel gases are withdrawn from furnace through duct. One guillotine damper and control dampers
are provided on each duct. At APH inlet service water and steam connections are given for cleaning
APH. Flue gases from both the furnaces combine in flue gas duct which form the heating media in
the pre-heater. These flue gases from upstream of stack damper are routed via APH t stack by means
of ducts and ID fan. On hot flue gas to ducts two manually operated dampers at APH outlet and ID
fan discharge are provided whereas one control damper is provided on ID fan suction. (This is
presently out of service).

Combustion air from FD fan through air duct is heated in APH. On air side, a bypass has been
provided. Combustion air flows in three passes through APH having three, four and three rows
respectively. In each pass 22 tubes are provided. In first pass external fins are provided whereas in
other two passes fins are provided on both side. 66, 8 and 66 fins are provided on each tube in pass-
1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Manually operated dampers are provided at FD fan discharge, APH inlet, outlet and bypass.
Control dampers are provided at FD and ID fan suction and on hot air to F-1 and F-2 in combustion
air ducts.

Combustion air duct (hot), flue gas duct and APH are lined with refractory.

6.2.4 FD & ID FAN

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 134
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.4.1 GENERAL
FD fan and ID fan handle cold atmospheric air and flue gases respectively. These fans should be
started or stopped after closing inlet valves. FD fan bearing housings are filled with grease whereas
in ID fan lube oil system (Servo System –21) and cooling water system are given. Details of FD
and ID Fan are as following :

SR. FD ID
NO ITEM FAN FAN

1 Service Atm. Air Flue Gas

2 Capacity i. Rated , NM3 /Hr 65,980 88,180


ii. Normal, NM3 /Hr 56,700 73,300
iii. Minimum, NM3 /Hr 10,000 15,700

3 Differential pressure, mmWC 316 204

4 Motor power, KW 90 110

5 Rated amp, A 190 224

6.2.4.2 OPERATION

A. START UP OF FAN
 Ensure free rotation of the shaft
 Check the direction of rotation
 Check whether bearing is filled with grease/oil
 Start cooling water to the bearing
 Keep suction /discharge dampers closed
 Start the motor
 Check for abnormal sound or abnormal vibration etc.
 Open discharge damper fully

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 135
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Open suction damper from Control Room as required by process load

B. NORMAL CHECK UP
 Check pressure, flow, current and bearing temperature at regular intervals.
 Check for possible leakage level and quality of bearing lube oil.
 Check for possible abnormal noise, vibrations or any other abnormal condition.

C. STOPPING OF FAN
 Switch off the motor
 Close suction and discharge dampers

6.2.5 BURNERS

Furnaces F-1 and F-2 are provided with dual fuel fired burners. Each burner has got pilot gas
burner, fuel oil gun in the centre and a fuel gas burner having tips in periphery (6 & 8 in F-1 and F-
2 burners respectively). In each gas burner tip 2 nos of firing ports are directing to centre and one
ignition port in opposite direction to firing port. Each burner assembly has primary and secondary
air damper to control air. Combustion air through primary air damper mixes with fuel and
through secondary air damper meets the air requirement of burner. Further burner details are given
below:

SR. NO ITEM F-1 F-2

1 Number of burners 6 10

2 Heat release - Maximum 2.2 2.403


Kcal /Hr - Normal 1.6 1.78
- Minimum to -Oil 0.58 0.587

to --Gas 0.55 0.587

3 Max. oil pressure Kg/Cm2(g) 3.9 4.0

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 136
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SR. NO ITEM F-1 F-2

4 Viscosity at burner tip 30 30


at 170OC in cSt

5 % Excess air - Natural draft 15/10 15/10


Oil /Gas - Forced draft 10/5 10/5

6 Gas pressure Kg/cm2(g) 1.75/0.1 1.75/0.1


(max/min)

7 Draft at burner :
Natural / Forced draft - Oil 4.5/8.0 4.5/8.0
- Gas 4.0/7.1 4.0/7.1

8 Gas tip - Ignition port 1.6 x 1 1.6 x 1


- Firing port 3.3 x 2 2.95 x 2
- Nos. 6 8

9 Pilot Gas
Pressure required in Kg/ cm2(g) 0.32 0.32
Gas consumption Kg /Hr /Burner 1.2 1.2

6.2.6 SOOT BLOWERS

10 nos of soot blowers have been provided in F-1/F-2 heaters, 4 for F-1 and 6 for F-2. Two
separate soot blower-operating panels have been provided for F-1 and F-2 at their respective burner
platform.

Soot blower consists of a retractable lance operated by an electrical motor. With the movement
of lance the valve on the steam line connected to the lance opens automatically by lever
arrangements providing steam for cleaning.

At the end of the forward travel the direction of rotation of the motor is reversed and the lance
starts travelling back. The valve on steam line closes at the end of reverse travel and thus
completing the cleaning cycle.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 137
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.6.1 GENERAL

To blow out soot deposited on studded tubes in furnaces four and six numbers of soot
blowers are provided in F-1 and F-2 respectively. Soot blowers are retractable type, suitable for on
load cleaning having 106.7 and 137.2 cm travelling in F-1 and F-2 respectively.

These soot blowers are electrically driven. A panel is provided for sequential operation of
soot blowers by selecting and pressing buttons. On pressing start button motor rotates, lance and
nozzle rotates and travels forward on reaching travel length, forward limit switch acts and motor
rotates in reverse direction until the reverse limit switch acts bringing motor to rest. When nozzle
ports are inside furnace, steam valve opens and soot blowing operation starts and on stoppage of
soot blower steam valve gets shut off. Soot blower should not remain inside the furnace without
steam blowing through it.

6.2.6.2 SOOT BLOWER PANEL

The soot blower panel consists of the following provision :

1. Ammeter - showing the load on the soot blowing motor


2. Lamps for indicating the status

a) Panel live
b) Lamps for individual soot blower programmed
c) Lamps for individual soot blower operating
d) Lamp indication for overload trip
e) Lamp for time elapsed

3. Push Button

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 138
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

a) Individual soot blower programme push button


b) Emergency retract push button. This push button will immediately retract any
soot
blower that is operating forward and cancels programme.

4. Selector Switch
Two position selector switch, for programming and starting

5. ALARMS
a) Motor overload
If during operation a soot blower overload occurs “ overload tripped” light
illuminates.

b) Time Elapsed
If a soot blower has not completed its cycle within the time allowed “Time
elapsed” light illuminates.

When any of the above alarms occur any soot blower operating will automatically retract
if electrically possible, and the programme will be cancelled.

6.2.6.3 OPERATION

1. Ensure isolator is switched ‘ON’ and “Panel Live” light is illuminated.


2. Select “Programme” position on selector switch.
3. Select soot blower required to operate by depressing appropriate push button, thus
illuminating each required soot blower “Programmed” light.
4. Select “Start” position on selector switch

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 139
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

5. First programmed soot blower in sequence will operate, this can be observed by the
motor current reading, followed by the soot blower “operating” light illuminating.
6. The soot blower reaches the reverse limit switch (RLS). This is indicated by the
“Programmed” light extinguishing.
7. The soot blower is fully retracted when the “operating “ light extinguishes and
automatically operates the next programmed soot blower in sequence.
8. After all programmed soot blowers have operated the system self resets is ready for
the next sequence.

6.2.7 FURNACE OPERATION

Furnace can be run in natural, forced and balance draft operation.

In natural draft operation, air is sucked inside by the draft effect of stack. As heat recovery is not
taking place furnace efficiency remains on lower side (80%) . In forced draft operation FD fan
supplies combustion air at ambient temperature. Due to higher draft available at plennum chamber
burner performance improves. In balanced draft operation FD & ID fans remain on line and heat
recovery from flue gases takes place. This improves furnace efficiency (90%).

6.2.7.1 BALANCED DRAFT OPERATION

After Unit is stabilised, change furnace operation from natural draft to balanced draft. For this
following procedure is to be followed :

NATURAL DRAFT TO FORCED DRAFT OPERATION

1. Ensure dampers HC-1803, HC-1805 at APH inlet and outlet, HC-1802 and HC-
1809 on FD and ID fan discharge and Guillotine damper on flue gases duct F-1 and
F-2 to APH are open and APH bypass HC-1804 is closed.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 140
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2. From field close HC-1813 on hot air to F-1 with manual loader up to 20%. Keep
3FV3802, (combustion air to F-2 damper) full open from Control Room.
3. Put following switches on bypass mode :
a) FD/ID run permit
b) F-1, FG and FO pressure low
c) F-2, FG and FO pressure low
d) Furnace selector switch should be on “both furnaces” position.

[Note : KEEP FD/ID FANS LOW CURRENT SWITCH ALWAYS ON AUTO

MODE ]

4. Close FD Fan vanes 3FC3801 from Control Room. Start FD fan. On starting FD fan,
running signal will come.
5. Start opening FD fan vanes and bring up air flow to 35,000 NM3/Hr.
6. Check FD is normal i.e. discharge pressure and current is OK. Fuel oil/gas pressure
is OK and switches are on bypass mode.
7. Start closing DODs one by one form Control Room. On closing of DODs light signal
will come in Control Room. Ensure from the field as well as from panel scheme no
AU314 colour code that DODs are closed and no smoke comes out from both the
stacks.
8. Adjust air flow to F-2 by 3FC3802 and to F-1 by 3FC3803 and total air to get around
4% Oxygen. If required, damper HC-1813 on combustion air to F-1 should be
adjusted to get required O2. Now both F-1 and F-2 are on forced draft for putting F-1
and F-2 on BALANCED DRAFT.

A. FORCED DRAFT TO BALANCED DRAFT OPERATION

1. Start ID fan and open 3PC3801 and 3PC3820. Adjust ID fan suction vanes keeping a
watch on arch pressure controllers 3PC3801 and 3PC3820. Ensure that ID fan
suction pressure high alarm 3PH3819A vanishes.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 141
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2. Make sure that ( i ) Hip arch pressure 3PC3801 and 3PC3820 of F-1 and F-2 are OK,
( ii ) F-1 and F-2 fuel oil pressure 3PC3301, 3PC3417 and fuel gas pressure 3PI3306
and 3PI3420 are OK. Put “FD Run Permit” bypass switch in 'AUTO' mode.
3. Check furnace arch pressure 3PC3801 and 3PC3820 are normal. Close STD PB-13
and PB-65. During this period care should be taken that furnace is not getting
pressurised. This requires immediate opening of ID fan suction vanes.
4. Adjust furnace for required O2 and draft.
5. Put “ID FAN RUN PERMIT” switch on auto mode.
6. Put F-1, FO and FG low pressure switch on auto mode.
7. Put F-2, FO and FG low pressure switch on auto mode.

Now BOTH F-1 and F-2 ARE ON BALANCED DRAFT

6.2.7.2 BALANCED DRAFT TO NATURAL DRAFT OPERATION

A. BALANCED DRAFT TO FORCED DRAFT

Proceed as under :
1. Take “ID RUN PERMIT” on bypass mode
2. Open stack dampers of F-1 and F-2
3. STOP ID FAN
4. Close 3PC3801 and 3PC3820

Now BOTH F-1 and F-2 ARE ON FORCED DRAFT

B. FORCED DRAFT TO NATURAL DRAFT

Proceed as under :
Take “FD FAN RUN PERMIT” on bypass mode.
1. Open all DODs one by one.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 142
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2. Stop FD fan after ensuring all DODs are in open condition.


3. Close HC-1813.

Now BOTH F-1 and F-2 ARE ON NATURAL DRAFT.

6.2.8 COMBUSTION CONTROL SCHEME

The main objective of this scheme is to balance the air and fuel required to maintain the coil
outlet temperature at the desired level as dictated by TIC's and at the same time keeping the excess
air at a safe minimum level so as to maximise the heater efficiency. The main emphasis is on the
safety of the heater i. E. for a small interval of time a higher level of excess air is tolerated but not
deficiency of air. This is achieved by an interlock known as LEAD LAG SYSTEM.
The main function of the system is to increase air flow first and then increasing fuel flow
whenever a fuel increase is desired either because of higher level of COT or because of higher level
of throughput etc. In same way when fuel demand is loss fuel will be first decreased and then air
flow will be decreased. Combustion control scheme is an inter-link of the following control loops to
achieve the above-said objective :

1. F-1 & F-2 coil outlet temperature controllers 3TC3312 & 3TC3418
2. Total air flow controller 3FC3801
3. F-2 & F-1 air flow controller 3FC3802 & 3FC3803
4. F-1 & F-2 fuel oil pressure controllers, 3PC3301 & 3PC3417
5. F-1 & F-2 fuel gas flow controllers, 3FC3303 & 3FC3411
6. F-1 flue gases O2 analyser controller, 3AC3301
7. F-2 flue gases O2 analyser controller , 3AC3401

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 143
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Brief working of combustion control scheme is as follows :

(a) 3TC3312 and 3TC3418 will demand for fuel and air.
(b) From air flow actual fuel that can be safely fired will be computed.
(c) From the actual fuel oil and fuel gas flows air required for combustion will be computed.

Air demand as per step (a) and (c) will be compared and higher will be selected. This value will
be trimmed properly by flue gases O2 analyser controller AIC depending on the Oxygen available in
flue gases. The trimmer out put will adjust the measured variation (air flow) in such a way that
excess air level of both the furnaces will be in the desired level. Fuel demand as per step (a) and (b)
will be compared and lower one will be selected and passed on to either fuel oil PIC or fuel gas FIC
whichever is on temperature control as selected by selector switches.

6.2.9 INTERLOCK SYSTEM

The interlock circuit amongst certain instruments in the APH circuit, combustion control
circuit and the furnaces, ensure automatic operation of some equipments in contingency situations,
ensuring safety of equipments and personnel and also tries to reduce the down-time of the Unit by
switching over to Forced Draft or Natural Draft from the Balanced Draft operating mode.

The interlock system is connected to the following equipments / operating variables :

i. FD fan
ii. ID Fan
iii. Drop out doors (DODs)
iv. Stack dampers (STDs)
v. Furnace pressures of the Hip Arch levels

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 144
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

vi. Fuel oil pressures


vii. Fuel gas pressures
viii. Combined pass flows
ix. Shutdown valves of fuel oil / fuel gas supply lines to the furnaces
x. On or Off dampers of the APH circuit

Once the healthiness of the interlock system is ensured, following automatic sequential actions
are available.

6.2.9.1 FD FAN FAILURE

1. All the DODs of both the furnaces will oopen.


2. STDs of both the furnaces will open
3. Once opening of both the STDs are confirmed ID fan will trip.

 CLOSE 3PC3801 AND 3PC3820 FROM C/R

Now BOTH THE FURNACES WILL OPERATE ON NATURAL DRAFT

[NOTE : In case any of the DODs /STDs does not open within 20 seconds of FD fan failure, fuel
(FO/FG) to both the furnaces will get cut off..]

6.2.9.2 ID FAN FAILURE

1. Both the stack dampers will open

 CLOSE 3PC3801 AND 3PC3820 FROM C/R

[ NOTE : : In case any of the STDs does not open within 20 seconds of ID fan failure, fuel (FO/FG)
to both the furnaces gets cut off..]

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 145
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.9.3 FURNACE ARCH PRESSURE HIGH

1. Alarm will be sounded at the panel when the arch pressure of any one of the
furnaces reaches to ( + ) 2mm WC.
2. If it is reaches to ( + ) 5mm WC in any of the furnaces, the following actions take
place simultaneously (provided selector switch is on for “Both Furnaces”)
a) FD fan trips
b) All the DODs will open
c) Once opening of both the stack dampers are confirmed ID fan will trip.

[ NOTE : If the selector switch is positioned to F-2, the above actions will be actuated in case F-2
furnace hip arch pressure is high. In case the above actions (a), (b) and (c) do not take place within
20 seconds of sensing high arch pressure (+5mm WC), fuel to furnaces will be cut off. ]

6.2.9.4 LOW PASS FLOW IN F-1

If the Pass flow through F-1 coils comes below a present value, the following will take place :

1. Fuel to F-1 will be cut off .e. FO & FG to F-1.


2. DODs 1 and 2 will open
3. STD-1 will open
4. Furnace F-2 will also switch over to Natural Draft due to FD fan tripping.

 Close 3PC3801 and 3PC3820 from C/R.

[ NOTE : Furnace F-2 can be brought back to the balanced draft with all other safety interlock on
AUTO mode if F-1 DODs switch is kept on by-pass mode. ]

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 146
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.9.5 LOW PASS FLOW IN F-2

If the combined pass flows of F-2 comes below a present value, the following actions will take
place :

1. Fuel to both the furnaces (F-1 & F-2) will be cut off.
2. STD-1 & STD-2 will open.
3. ID fan will trip.
4. All the DODs of both the furnaces will open.
5. FD fan will trip.

 Close 3PC 3801 and 3PC 3820 from C/R

6.2.9.6 TOTAL FUEL CUT-OFF TO FURNACE F-1

1. All the DODs of furnace F-1 will open


2. STD of furnace F-1 will open

[ NOTE : Furnace F-2 will also switch over to Natural Draft due to FD fan tripping if F-1 DODs
limit switch (BPS-54) is kept on ‘A’ mode. ]

6.2.9.7 TOTAL FUEL CUT-OFF TO FURNACE F-2

i. Fuel (FO/FG) to furnace F-1 will also cut off


ii. STDs of both the furnace s will open
iii. All the DODs will open
iv. FD fan will trip
v. Once opening of both the STD’s is ensured, ID fan will trip

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 147
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Once ID fan trips close 3PC3801 and 3PC3820 from C/R

6.2.9.8 DOS AND DONTS OF INTERLOCK CIRCUIT

1. DODs cannot be closed unless FD fan is running.


2. STDs of both the furnaces cannot be closed unless ID fan is running.
3. When furnace is on balanced draft, automatic dampers on hot flue gases ducts
cannot be closed.
4. Shutdown valves cannot be opened unless resetting is done.
5. Even if all the four shutdown valves on fuel lines are activated all the pilot burners
of both furnaces will be on line.
6. ID cannot run on auto mode unless FD fan is on line

NOTE :
1. Fuel cut off of F-1 and F-2 together (i.e. activation of all the four S/D valves).

a) ID fan will trip


b) STDs of both the furnace will open
c) All the DODs will open
d) FD fan will trip

2. In case FO/FG pressure low to F-2, only FO/FG line S/D valve of F-2 will be activated without
disturbing any other interlock.

3. In case FO/FG pressure low to F-1, only FO/FG line S/D valve of F-1 will be activated without
disturbing any other interlock.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 148
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.2.10 EQUIPMENT RUN PERMITS

For operating certain equipments/ instruments some pre-conditions are required to be fulfilled.
These are known as run permits. Important run permits are as under :

6.2.10.1 FD FAN

A. FD FAN “RUN PERMIT”

Take FD fan run permit bypass switch (BPS-3) on ‘M’ mode to start the FD can be started by
pressing the “Start” button at the field. At this stage switching off can be done from the control
room as well as at the field. To switch off FD fan from control room press FD trip Push Button (PB-
4).

B. PRECONDITIONS FOR PUTTING FD FAN ON AUTOMATIC (A) INTERLOCK MODE :

The FD fan run permit bypass switch (BPS-3) which is on ‘M’ mode to start the FD fan can be
put on Automatic interlock mode only after meeting the following conditions :

1. Hip arch pressures of both the furnaces should be okay.


2. F-1 DODs No.1 & 2 should be in ‘closed’ position or F-1 DOD’s status bypass switch
should be on ‘M’ mode.
3. All the DOD’s of F-2 furnace should be in closed position.
4. F-2 fuel oil pressure should be OK, or F-2 FO bypass switch (BPS-51) should be on
‘M’ mode.
5. F-2 FG pressure should be OK, or F-2 FG bypass switch (BPS-52) should be on ‘M’
mode.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 149
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Now THE FD FAN RUN PERMIT BYPASS SWITCH CAN BE PUT IN AUTOMATIC (A)

INTERLOCK MODE.

6.2.10.2 ID FAN

A. ID FAN “RUN PERMIT”

Take ID run permit bypass switch (BPS-8) on ‘M’ mode to start the ID can be started by
pressing the “Start” button at the field. At this stage switching off can be done from the control
room as well as at the field. To switch off from control room press ID trip Push Button (PB-5).

B. PRECONDITIONS FOR PUTTING ID FAN ON AUTOMATIC (A) INTERLOCK MODE

The ID fan run permit bypass switch (BPS-8) which is on ‘M’ mode to start the ID fan can be put
on Automatic interlock mode only after meeting the following condition.

1. FD fan should be normal i.e. FD discharge pressure OK & FD fan motor current OK.

6.2.10.3 DODs

A. PRECONDITIONS FOR CLOSING DOD’s OF FURNACE F-2

1. FD fan should be normal (i.e. FD fan motor current normal and FD fan discharge pressure OK).
OR
FD fan low current bypass switch (BPS-1) and FD fan low discharge pressure bypass switch
(BPS-61) should be on ‘M’ mode.

2. F-2 fuel pressure i.e. F-2 fuel oil pressure & F-2 fuel gas pressure should be normal
OR

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 150
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

All the following BPS switches should be on ‘M’ mode :

F-2 FO bypass Switch (BPS-51) and


F-2 FG bypass Switch (BPS-5

At this stage F-2 can be closed individually by pressing the following buttons :

DOD-3 close (PB-61), DOD-4 close (PB-62),


DOD-5 close (PB-63), DOD-6 close (PB-64).

B. PRECONDITIONS FOR CLOSING DOD’s OF FURNACE F-1

a) First 2 nos of conditions as stated under 5.10.3 (A).


b) F-1 FO pressure OK
OR
Bypass switch (BPS-4) on ‘M’ mode.

c) F-1 FG pressure OK
OR
Bypass switch (BPS-5) on ‘M’ mode.

Now F-1 DODs can be closed individually by pressing following push buttons :

i. DOD-1 close (PB-11)


ii. DOD-2 close (PB-12)

NOTE :

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 151
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

1. DOD’s can be opened at any time either individually or simultaneously using the respective
open push buttons mounted on the control panel. There is no pre-condition for opening the
DODs.
2. Option available for closing all the DODs simultaneously using PB-1

6.2.10.4 STACK DAMPERS

There are two separate stack dampers, STD-1 for F-1 and STD-2 for F-2. The preconditions for
closing these two are given below :

A. PRECONDITIONS FOR CLOSING STD-1/2 (FOR F-1/F-2)

1. Automatic damper (3PC3801) on hot flue gases duct Ex f-1 to APH should be in
open position.
2. Automatic damper (3PC3820) on hot flue gases duct Ex f-2 to APH should be in
open position.
3. Either ID fan should be normal (i.e. ID fan motor current OK and ID fan suction
pressure OK)
OR
Both the ID fan low current bypass switch (BPS-2) and ID fan suction pressure
bypass (BPS-7) should be on ‘M’ mode
4. Furnace pressures should be normal
5. Either FD fan should be normal
OR
FD fan low current bypass switch (BPS-1) & FD fan low pressure bypass switch
(BPS-6)
both should be on ‘M’ mode.
4. Fuel (FO/FG) line pressure of both the furnaces should be normal.
OR

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 152
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

All the following four bypass switches should be on ‘M’ mode :

a) (BPS-4) F-1 fuel oil pressure bypass switch


b) (BPS-5) F-1 fuel gas pressure bypass switch
c) (BPS-51) F-2 fuel oil pressure bypass switch
d) (BPS-52) F-2 fuel gas pressure bypass switch

At this stage stack damper-1 and damper-2 can be closed by pressing the push button PB-13 and
PB-65.

B. OPENING OF STACK DAMPERS

Both the stack dampers STD-1 and STD-2 can be opened at any time without any pre-
conditions by using respective push button i.e. PB-3 for STD-1 and PB-55 for STD-2.

6.2.10.5 PRECONDITIONS FOR OPENING F-1 SHUTDOWN VALVES (FO/FG)

A. FOR NATURAL DRAFT OPERATION

1. F-1 pass flow should be normal


OR
F-1 low pass flow bypass switch (BPS-5) on ‘M’ mode.
2. F-2 pass flow should be normal
OR
F-2 pass flow bypass switch (BPS-53) on ‘M’ mode.
3. F-1, FO low pr. bypass switch (BPS-4) and F-1, FG low pr. bypass switch (BPS-9) on
‘M’ mode

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 153
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4. F-2, FO low pr. bypass switch (BPS-51) and F-2, FG low pr. bypass switch (BPS-52)
on ‘M’ mode
5. All DODs should be in open position.
6. Both the stack dampers STD-1 and STD-2 should be in open condition.

At this stage, F-1 shutdown valves can be opened by pressing fuel oil/fuel gas open push button,
and then by pressing fuel oil/ gas reset push buttons respectively.

NOTE :
For opening F-1 fuel oil shutdown valve press F-1 FO open (PB-18) and then press F-1
FO reset (PB-7)
AND
For opening F-1 fuel gas shutdown valve press F-1 FG open (PB-19) and then press F-1 FG
reset (PB-17)

B. FORCED DRAFT OPERATION

In addition to the first four conditions (1), (2), (3), (4) of Natural draft operation the following
other conditions are also to be met for running furnace in forced draft :

5. FD fan should be normal


6. All DODs should be closed
7. Both the stack dampers should be in open condition.

8. Both the furnace pressure are OK. At this F-1/2 is on forced draft.

C. BALANCED DRAFT OPERATION

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 154
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

In addition to the first four conditions (1), (2), (3), (4), of Forced Draft and Natural Draft
operation, following other conditions are also to be ensued :

5. Both the furnace pressure should be normal


6. FD fan should be normal
7. ID fan should be normal

Close STD 1 & 2. Now furnaces F-1 & F-2 are on balanced draft.

6.2.10.6 PRECONDITIONS FOR OPENING F-2 SHUTDOWN VALVES (FO/FG)

A. NATURAL DRAFT OPERATION

1. F-2 pass flow should be normal OR F-2 pass flow bypass switch (BPS-53) on ‘M’
mode.
2. F-2, FO low pressure bypass switch (BPS-51) and F-2, FG low pr. bypass switch
(BPS-52) should be on ‘M’ mode
3. All DODs should be open
4. Both the stack dampers should be open

At this stage both the shutdown valves can be opened by using the respective push buttons.
For F-2 fuel oil shutdown valve opening, press F-2 FO open push button (PB-69) and then press
F-2 FO reset push button (PB-71).
For F-2 FG S/D valve opening press push button or F-2 fuel gas (PB-72) and then press reset
push button (PB-70).
B. FORCED DRAFT OPERATION

In addition to first two conditions (1) & (2) for Natural Draft operation the following other
conditions are also to be ensured :

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 155
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3. FD fan should be normal


4. All DODs should be closed
5. Both the stack dampers should be in open position
6. Both the furnace pressures should be OK

C. BALANCED DRAFT OPERATION

In addition to first two conditions (1) & (2) for Natural draft operation the following other
conditions are also to be fulfilled :

3. Both the furnace pressures should be normal


4. FD fan should be normal
5. ID fan should be normal
6. F-2 DODs should be in closed position (in case F-2 alone is on line)

6.2.10.7 CLOSING OF SHUTDOWN VALVES

Fuel oil and fuel gas shutdown valves for F-1 or F-2 can be closed at any time without any
preconditions by pressing the respective push buttons as given below :

a) F-1 FO close (PB-8)


b) F-1 FG close (PB-9)
c) F-2 FO close (PB-59)
d) F-2 FG close (PB-60)

6.2.10. 8 EMERGENCY TRIP

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 156
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

To avoid confusion during abnormal situation an emergency Trip (PB-50) provision has been
made. After pressing that the following actions will take place:
1. All DODs will open
2. Both the STDs will open
3. ID fan will trip
4. FD fan will trip
5. Fuel (FO/FG) to both the furnaces will cut off

6.2.10.9 CRACK OPENING TEST OF DODs

To ensure operability of DODs in exigencies periodic check operation is to be done. This is


termed as crack opening test.
For doing crack opening test the following procedure is to be adopted :

i. Take FD fan run permit bypass switch (BPS-3) on ’M’ mode.


ii. Crack open the DODs one by one by bleeding out the compressed air of the
pneumatic cylinder, by pressing the handle of the three way spring loaded
directional bleeder valve. Once the DOD starts opening leave the handle
immediately to get the DOD closed back.
iii. After testing put BPS-3 on automatic interlock mode.

6.2.11 FURNACE DRY OUT OPERATION

After refractory repair in furnace and flue gas duct, refractory is to be dried before process
operation commences to remove absorbed moisture from the refractory. It is very important that

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 157
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

the rate of heating is gradual so that there is no spalling or cracking of refractory due to sudden
vaporisation of moisture from the refractory.

Generally 3/5 days dry out cycle is required and it depends on extent of moisture in the
refractory. If refractory is excessively wet, then pilots only should be lit for a day or two to remove
excess moisture. During the dry out cycle moisture in refractory close to the flame evaporates
within a short time. However, moisture inside refractory elsewhere is gradually heated and
evaporated. Therefore, heater casing temperature will rise gradually to about 100 Deg. C. This
indicates that moisture next to the shell is being evaporated gradually. After this shell temperature
will drop to normal.

During the dry out operation, it is necessary to steam through all process tubes to prevent over
heating of the tubes. The steam is to be vented out through the decoking pot. A close watch on skin
temperature is to be kept and steam rate to be adjusted to keep skin temperature within safe limit
during dry out burners are to be rotated for uniform heating.

Procedure for refractory drying is as follows:

1. Open stack damper wide. Open all burner registers and peep holes. Allow refractory
to dry under natural draft for 24 hours.
2. If refractory is excessively wet, light only pilot gas burners and allow refractory to
dry out for a day or two.
3. Start firing the heater as per standard procedure.
4. Raise fire box temperature @ 25 0C/hr upto 120 0C. Hold the temp. for 24 hours.
5. Raise fore box temperature @ 25 0C/hr upto 200 0C and hold for 24 hours.
6. Introduce steam through the tubes at 200 0C after making sure that no condensate is
present.
7. After 4 hours of achieving 200 0C temp. start ID fan, if refractory work is carried out
in flue gas duct or APH.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 158
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8. Raise temperature @ 25 OC upto 400 OC and hold for 24 hours


9. At 220 0C stop ID fan and close flue gas duct dampers.
10. Check skin temperature and ensure ample supply of steam before proceeding to
final stage of drying.
11. Raise temperature @ 25 OC/hr upto 500 OC and hold for 24 hrs. In case 500 OC
temperature is not achievable due to limitation of steam flow, to control skin
temperature hold at maximum achievement temp for 36 hours.
12. Reduce temperature @ 40 to 50 OC/hr upto 200 OC.
13. Cut off coil purging steam and firing. Close all air registers and stack damper fully.
Allow for natural cooling.
14. After cooling check the condition of refractory inside and if required carry out
repair work.
6.2.12 PASSIVATION OF FURNACE

Last five tubes of furnace F-1 and F-2 and transfer lines of both furnaces are of SS316L material.
Passivation is required to prevent stress corrosion cracking of these due to chloride and polythionic
acid attack. This is done by (i ) Preventing air ingress into the system by blanketing the system with
inert gas, (ii) Neutralise the SS316L surface with a solution of Na2CO3/ NaNO3 so that a film of
solution is left on the surface. This film will neutralise any polythionic acids which are formed. The
details of the procedure are given below :

1. Prior to shutdown inform FPU-1 to prepare 85M3 solution of 2% sodium carbonate and 0.5%
sodium nitrate (1734 kg sodium carbonate + 435 kg sodium nitrate).
2. Flush the furnace coils and transfer lines with gas oil and then with steam thoroughly keeping
pilot burners and a small gas burner on as per normal procedure. Steaming is to be continued till
clear steam comes from the vent provided at column K-2 feed entry keeping condenser inlet
B/Vs closed.
3. Once dry steam starts coming out ( I ) cut off furnace firing (ii) stop steaming (iii) introduce
inert gas to displace steam from the coils and transfer lines.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 159
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Note : A positive system pressure must be maintained at this stage.

4. Once inert gas starts coming out from the high point vent ensuring displacement of steam blind
at K-2 feed entry ( Φ=22" ) ex F-1 and F-2 ( and F-3 combined ) keeping inert gas supply on.
Stop inert gas purging once blinding job is over.
5. Start filling passivation solution in furnace coils through booster pump H-8A keeping vents on
F-1 & F-2 transfer lines ( combined with F-3 transfer line ) to K-2 open.
6. Once chemical solution starts coming out from the high point vent, stop pump at FPU-1 and
AU-3 and allow the soaking time of 4 hours.
7. Drain the solution to OWS after informing CETP.

6.2.13 STEAM AND AIR DECOKING

The principal mechanisms of decoking with steam and air are spalling and burning. During the
spalling period steam is admitted to furnace tubes at high temperature with furnace firing on. The
comparatively cooler steam, coils and thermally shocks the coke causing it to crack and break away
from the tube surfaces. The broken particles are picked up by the high velocity steam and scour the
remaining surfaces. As much as 80-90% of the coke can be removed by spalling alone.

The coke burning consists of injecting both steam and air simultaneously into the coil while the
furnace is fired at a higher rate. The residual coke after spalling is burnt by the air. Burning
effectively removes all coke deposits but requires close scrutiny to prevent overheating of furnace
tubes.
The general description of the procedure in sequence of operation is as follows :

i. After shutting down, steaming out and passivation of heater coils and transfer lines, reverse
the swing elbows at heater inlet and outlet to decoking position.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 160
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

ii. Commission steam flow indicator 3FI3304, 3FI3406 and air flow indicator 3FI3305 and
3FI3416 of furnaces F-1 and F-2 respectively. Install pressure gauges at inlet manifold of F-1
and F-2.
iii. Simultaneous spalling of more than 2 coils is not recommended since the quench system
capacity may be exceeded, whereas for coke burning one coil is decoked at a time with cooling
steam passing through the other waiting coils.
iv. Light furnaces as per standard procedure. At fire box temperature of 200 OC introduce steam to
coil @ 100 Kg/hr.
v. Commission the water quench to the decoking drum inlet manifold, drum spray nozzle and
drum surface water to reduce the temperature of effluent from the coils.
vi. Select the heater pass to be decoked by spalling (maximum 2 nos). the remaining pass referred
to as waiting pass. Steam in waiting pass is to be increased if skin temperatures 590 OC.
vii. Increase steam flow to 2300 Kg/Hr and raise temperature in the pass upto 300 OC. Spalling may
now begin.. Check the effluent from decoking pot for colour and coke scales. A Pyrex sample
to bottle with a large neck shoulder to be used for taking the sample of hot effluent.
viii. When the spalling stops raise the heater outlet temperature in steps of 10 OC to initiate further
spalling . then wait for spalling to stop before next increase.
ix. When 400 OC COT is reached, cycling of steam flow should be started. The steam flow is
quickly increased to 4500 Kg/hr, hold for 30 seconds and then reduce to 2300 Kg/r. Wait a
few minutes until no more scales appear then repeat the cycle five or six times until no more
coke is displaced.
x. Temperature cycling can now be started. Check that all burner pilots are alight and reduce the
steam flow to about 1800 Kg/hr. while maintaining the outlet temperature at 400 OC. Check
that the skin temperature do not exceed 500 OC ( for 400 OC outlet). Shut the fuel gas to the
main burners and immediately increase the steam flow to 4500 Kg/hr and hold for 30 seconds.
xi. Burners are then relit and the temperature gradually brought back to 400 OC Check the
effluent for coke particles.
xii. The temperature cycle is repeated two or three tines until no more coke appears on two
successive cycles.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 161
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

xiii. Spalling is repeated with each of the other waiting passes, one coils at a time.
xiv. Maintain steam flow of 1800 Kg/Hr in each coil and coil outlet temperature to 460 OC.
xv. Connect the air inlet line by using removable spool piece on each heater pass.
xvi. In decoking coil admit air @ 230 NM3/hr for 10 seconds. Wait 10 minutes for rise in the outlet
temperature which should not exceed 500 OC.
xvii. Repeat above operation for 20 seconds and repeat until temperature rises less than 500 OC.
Observe the skin temperature. Skin temp. limit is 590 OC, however, for a period 620 OC is
permitted.
xviii. Increase air time to 30 seconds after no further temperature rises are noticed the tubes are
ready for continuous air injection.
xix. Introduce air @ 12 NM3/hr and monitor CO & CO2 in effluent gas.
xx. With decrease in coke burning coil outlet temp. will fall. Increase air @ 10 NM3/hr at 10
minutes interval upto 230 NM3/hr, observe the outlet temp. which should be kept at 500 OC.
xxi. If there is any sign of rapid temperature rise, the air flow must be cut and the steam flow
should be increased maximum 2300 Kg/Hr.
xxii. When two successive analysis show CO2 less than 0.5%, the steam flow is to be raised to 2300
Kg/hr to remove traces of ash, loose piece or coke.
xxiii. Bring the steam flow to 1800 Kg/hr and repeat burning operation in waiting passes.
xxiv. On completion of burning in all passes shut-off steam and firing and increase air rate to 350
NM3 and start reducing coil outlet temperature to 150 OC.
xxv. Flush the coil with water and then with DM water.

6.2.14 PRE-COMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES

1. Flush the heater coils with air.


2. Flush the fuel oil and gas lines with air and do leak test
3. Flush the atomizing steam lines with steam and do leak test
4. Flush the burner tips with air
5. Flush the draft gauges' tappings and lines with air

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 162
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6. Check the burner alignment


7. Check the damper operation and calibrate it for 0%, 25%, 75% & 100% opening.
8. The refractory brick work and castable lining should be thoroughly inspected.
9. Soot blower checking
10. Before soot blower operation, ensure that the lance is free to travel into heater by hand
operation.
11. Check the motor rotation
12. Check the soot blower operation with motor and check the limit switches performance

13. All instruments and interlocks should be carefully checked because upon these the furnace
operation relies.
14. Check the furnace floor for cleanliness
15. Box up the man-way
16. Flush fuel gas lines with N2 and do the leak test
17. Commission FG header under N2 pressure

6.2.15 NORMAL FURNACE START UP

6.2.15.1 PREPARATION FOR START UP

i. Check that all fuel lines are blinded


ii. Check that all the fire fighting steam hoses with lancers and fire extinguishers in position and
in good condition.
iii. Commission tracing steam to FO lines and establish FO circulation and maintain back pressure
3-4 kg/cm2(g) by adjusting BPC. Also reset SOVs and establish circulation for individual
furnace.
iv. Keep the stack damper open and lock it in that position
v. Check all instruments and interlocks
vi. Prepare the hand torches as a standby for ignitors

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 163
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

vii. Check the ignitor operation for better sparks. Venturies must be cleaned.
viii. Check that all burners block valves in close position
ix. Purge fire box sniffing steam for 30 min. or steam is seen coming out of the stack and check
for the draft.
x. Check that fuel gas, pilot gas, and fuel oil systems have no open ends and that all vents and
drains are plugged or capped.

6.2.15.2 START UP OF THE FURNACE

1. Establish the circulation through coils for satisfactory flow, pressure and temperatur.
2. Deblind the gas to heater line
3. Flush the header to flare for removal of condensate if any.
4. Lighting Pilot Burners

i. Open pilot gas main block valve


ii. Check the ignitor
iii. Open gas to the pilot and press the ignitor switch. Observe that the pilot burner has
ignited. If not, close gas to pilot and try it again after 5 minutes.
iv. If necessary, adjust the air control of the pilot burner.
v. Light all the pilot burner

Note : If ignitors are not working, light the pilot burners with external torch.

5. Lighting Fuel Gas Burners

i. Under no circumstances should gas burners be lit off from adjacent burner or hot bricks.
ii. Recheck that all individual burner valves and main supply block valves are shut and that all
drains and vents are isolated and plugged or capped.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 164
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

iii. Reset the shutdown valve and pressurize the main fuel gas control valve to give
recommended fuel gas light up pressure at the burner [ 1.0 to 1.5 kg/cm2(g) ].
iv. Gradually open the burner gas valve until the burner ignites from the pilot. Continue
opening the valve until a stable flame is obtained. If the first or only burner fails to ignite
within five seconds, shut the valve and wait five minutes before making next attempt.
Adjust air register for proper flame shape.
v. Light additional burners if required in same manner.
vi. When the demands for gas comes within the control range of the fuel gas controller,
gradually open the burner isolating valves fully, simultaneously adjusting gas flow to
maintain constant heat input. Put the fuel gas pressure controller on auto control and
subsequently on cascade mode.
vii. Adjust air register if necessary, to maintain a bluish coloured flame with a slightly yellow
tip.

6. Lighting Fuel Oil Burners

i. Under no circumstances should attempts be made to light oil burners from an adjacent
burner or from hot bricks.
ii. Commission the atomizing steam supply to all burners, then adjust the atomizing steam
control valve to provide the desired light up pressure [ 1.0 to 1.5 kg/cm2(g) differential ].
iii. Recheck that the individual burner oil valves are closed and that all pilot burners are alight
and stable.
iv. Open the individual burner purge steam valve and purge the gun barrel. Close the purge
valve.
v. Gradually open the burner oil valve until the oil spray ignites from the pilot flame or the
main gas burner. If required, external torch can be used.
vi. Continue opening oil to the gun until a stable flame is obtained. Adjust air resister for
proper flame shape.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 165
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

vii. Light additional oil burners as necessary. This may require further manual adjustment of
the fuel oil control valve.
viii. At the first opportunity open individual burner valves fully and put the fuel oil controller
on Auto Mode. Make final adjustments to the atomizing steam supply pressure and put on
differential pressure control with respect to the fuel oil.
ix. Inspect the flames frequently. If any are unsatisfactory or go out, shut off the fuel, replace
the oil gun with a clean one and re-ignite.

6.2.16 NORMAL FURNACE SHUT DOWN

Take the heater TIC out of service and put the fuel on manual pressure control. As the feed rate to
the unit associated with the heater is reduced to the specified level, reduce the number of main
burners in service so that the desired temperature is maintained and fuel supply pressure does not
fall below flame stability limit The shutdown of burners should be staggered so that the remaining
burners are spaced to give even firing and heat distribution through out the fire box.

KEY POINT

The heater must not be left unattended during this period and checks to be made frequently to
ensure that pilot burners remain alight and burner firing conditions are satisfactory.

1. Put Off Oil Burners


 Close the fuel oil valve to the burner
 Keep on atomizing steam for some time
 Flush FO line with purge steam
 Remove the guns for cleaning if require

1 Put Off Gas Burners


 Close the primary air registers of the burners to prevent flash back

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 166
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Shut off the fuel gas valve to the burner


 Purge with atomizing steam to prevent gas accumulation in burner throat.

2 The flow rates through the heater coils must be maintained above the minimum specified in
the data sheet until all fires including pilot burners are put off.
3 When all the main burners are shut off main fuel gas supply to burner is to be stopped.
4 Check again that all pilot burners are still burning, then slowly open one main gas burner
block valve to depressurize the system.
5 Close the burner block valve when the flame goes out. Do not leave the burner unattended
during this operation.
6 Then close pilot gas block valves except one at farthest end.
7 Close pilot gas supply block valve.
8 Allow the header to depressurize and when flame goes out at that pilot burner, close the block
valve.
9 Start snuffing steam and purge the firebox at least for 30 minutes.
10 Blind the fuel gas to furnace line.

6.2.17 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

1. Total flame Failure

i. Shut off immediately all fuel supplied to the heater by either tripping al automatic SOV or
closing a main block valve in each fuel supply line.
ii. Close pilot burners B/Vs
iii. Open up the steam purge to the fire box and header boxes.
iv. Complete the valve isolation of the fuels to the heater by closing the main block valves and all
the individual burner valves in each fuel supply system.
v. Continue steam purge for at least 30 min. then shut off all steam and allow it to clean from
the heater.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 167
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

vi. Arrange for gas test through air resistors and through inspection doors at high and low
locations.
vii. If the gas test shows the presence of an explosive mixture, repeat the steam purging.
viii. If the fire box is free of gas, burners can be re-commissioned.

2. Flame Failure Where Pilot Burners Remain Alight

i. Trip the automatic fuel shut off valves and /or close the main fuel supply block valves,.
ii. Close all the individual valves to main burners.
iii. Ensuring above only, SOVs can be reset
iv. Check that all pilot burners are burning satisfactorily
v. Re-light main burners from pilot burners

3. Failure Of Individual Burners\

i. Close the fuel supply valve to the affected burner as per the standard procedure for closing the
burner.
ii. Check and rectify the cause of the failure
iii. Check the pilot, if found burning satisfactorily relight the main burner.
iv. If pilot had also failed, relight pilot by ignitor or torch and then light the main burner.

4. Liquid Carry Over into the Firebox

Flammable liquid can inadvertently enter the fire box from the fuel gas system or due to a faulty
fuel oil burner which may cause uncontrolled fire in the fire boxes which may spread outside.

i. Immediately shut off the fuel to the furnace from safe distance
ii. Rectify the cause of carry over, purge the FG header to flare

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 168
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

iii. Do not continue oil firing if combustion is occurring within the window box or burner
chambers due to faulty oil burners.

5. Heater Tube Failure

i. Open snuffing steam to header and fire boxes.


ii. Shut off all fuels to the heater
iii. Shut off all air resistors to avoid the formation of explosive mixture.

6.2.18 OPERATING INSTRUCTION

i. The burner should be clean and in good condition


ii. The burner flame should be nearly white with a bluish smoke at the tip of the flame.
iii. The burners should be operated to provide flames which are as uniform in length and size as
can be obtained.
iv. It is normally desirably to fire all burners even when running at reduced capacity to assure a
uniform heat distribution.
v. The flame should not impinge on the furnace tubes.
vi. There should not be too much of excess air which cause cooling, thereby increasing fuel cost.
Desirable range is 20-25%.
vii. The fire box should not develop positive pressure
viii. The furnace temperature should be increased or decreased gradually to prevent thermal
shock.
ix. The peephole doors should be tightly closed to prevent air in filtration, resulting in a decrease
in thermal efficiency.

ROUTINE CHECKS

i. Individual pass flows and pressure drops.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 169
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

ii. Furnace passes outlet temperature and skin temperature


iii. Furnace fire box temperature
iv. Burner flame appearance and size
v. Furnace tube appearance and movement
vi. Condition of refractory and tube hangers.

6.2.19 TROUBLE SHOOTING

The causes of defective furnace operation can be classified as follows:

1. SMOKE AND SOOT

i. Insufficient air for combustion


ii. Improper mixing of oil and air, too low steam pressure
iii. Nozzle worn and clogged
iv. Oil pressure too low
v. Flame impinging on tubes
vi. Insufficient draft
vii. Insufficient atomizing steam
viii. Chimney dirty and obstructed

2. HIGH OIL CONSUMPTION

i. Too much excess air


ii. Improper oil or air mixture
iii. High stack temperature
iv. Nozzle too large

3. SPARKING FLAME

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 170
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

i. Wet steam
ii. Suspended solid in the oil
iii. Foreign matter inside burner or in the tip

4. FAILURE OF IGNITION

i. Too much steam for atomization


ii. Fuel pressure low
iii. Fuel valve plugged
iv. Wet steam

5. BACK FIRING

i. Delayed ignition
ii. Oil spray defective, too low steam pressure
iii. Oil pressure too low
iv. Oil leaking into chamber
v. Low draft
vi. Water in oil

6. NOISE

i. Insufficient draft
ii. Chimney dirty and obstructed
iii. Nozzle too large

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 171
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

iv. Oil pressure too low or excessively high


v. Insufficient mixing of air and oil
vi. Nozzle clogged
vii. Wrong spray angle and flame impingement

CHAPTER - 6

6.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The Crude Heater 410-F03 is a vertical cylindrical type heater with a horizontal overhead
convection section and a top mounted stack.

The feed enters the convection section in a two pass arrangement. The convection section has
six tubes per row. The upper part consists of nine rows of CS studded tubes of P5 material. The
bottom part has three rows of bare tubes of P5 material, which serves as shock tubes.

The fluid enters the radiant section via external located cross-overs. Both passes enter the
radiant at one side. In the radiant section fifty tubes of P5 material and ten tubes of SS316L material
are arranged along the perimeter. Each pass traverses along one half of the perimeter. The last five

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 172
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

tubes of each pass are of SS316L material. Opposite of the inlets the fluid leaves the radiant section.
The two passes are combined and routed via a transfer line to column K-2.

Six skin-thermocouples are installed at each process pass. Four pieces are located at the radiant
tubes at equal spaced distances and two pieces are located at the shock tubes in the convection
section.

Six forced draft low-NOx burners are installed in the radiant floor for upwards firing. The
burners can be operated on both fuel gas and fuel oil or a combination of these.

A plate type Air Pre-Heater APEXTM is installed to regain the heat from the flue gas for pre-
heating the combustion air. The air pre-heater consists of four blocks in vertical direction arranged.
The flue gas enters the APEXTM at the top and flows downwards through three block of CS material
and one bottom block of enamel coated material. The combustion air enters the APEXTM sideways at
the bottom block and flows in cross-flow to the flue gas through the bottom block. The air is then
routed via a return bend to the next block for again a cross-flow heat exchange. The combustion air
leaves the top block sideways.

The APEXTM contains water wash facilities to clean the bottom block at a shutdown period. Two
skin-thermocouples are installed to monitor the metal temperature of the CS block above the
enamel coated block at the bottom.

The convection section has two rows of three soot-blowers for steam blowing the convection
tubes.

The stack at the top of the convection section has a multi-blade actuator controller damper,
which separates the flue gas ex convection and flue gas return from the air pre-heater. On the loss
of the induced draft fan, the heater can operate on forced draft. The damper will be operated to

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 173
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

achieve the required arch pressure. The cold combustion air will be supplied to the burners via the
by-pass along the air pre-heater.

The instrument connections supplied on the heater include a comprehensive set for flue gas
draft and temperature measuring. Further instrument connections for monitoring firing condition
include flue gas sampling and O2 measurements. In general, connections are located as follows:

a. At the heater floor: flue gas pressure connection.


b. At the inlet of the convection section: flue gas temperature and pressure, sampling and O2
measurement connections.
c. Below the stack damper: flue gas temperature and pressure, sampling connections.
d. Above the stack damper: flue gas pressure connection.

6.3.2 OPERATING CONDITIONS


The process conditions of the heater for the two process operating cases and the firing of various
fuels are described in the heater datasheets given below :

Unit : Crude Distillation Unit


Services : Crude Heater
Type : Vertical cylindrical plus horizontal convection section and top mounted stack.
Duty : 13.95 MW (absorbed)

PROCESS DESIGN CONDITIONS

Operating Case-I : 55%NG + 45%Imported Crude

DESIGN NORMAL
PARAMETERS
Radiant Convection Radiant Convection
Zone Zone Zone Zone

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 174
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Heater Section :
Heat absorption 9.27 4.68 7.94 3.70
Fluid MW HC HC HC HC
Flow rate kg/s 37.78 37.78 31.48 31.48
Pressure drop Allowable kPa  to to - 1200 to ---
Calculated kPa  to to --428 to to   to to -342 to to --
Flux density Avg, KW/ 33727 33727
allowable m2
Avg, ,, 31000 27350
calculated
Max, calculated ,, 58800 62800 58800 50600

Inlet Conditions :
Temperature 0C 284 250 282 250
Pressure kPa 580 658 515 572
(a)
Vaporization wt% 0 0 0 0

Outlet Conditions :
Temperature 0C 366 294 355 292
Pressure kPa 230 580 230 515
(a)
Vaporization wt% 22.3 0 22.3 0
Vapor Molecular Weight kg/ 189 189
kmol

PROCESS DESIGN CONDITIONS

Operating Case-II : 55%NG + 45%Bombay High Crude

DESIGN NORMAL
PARAMETERS
Radiant Convection Radiant Convectio
Zone Zone Zone n Zone
Heater Section :
Heat absorption 9.24 4.71 7.91 3.72
Fluid MW HC HC HC HC

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 175
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Flow rate kg/s 36.25 36.25 30.21 30.21


Pressure drop Allowable kPa  to to - 1200 to ---
Calculated kPa  to to --518 to to   to to -417 to to --
Flux density Avg, allowable KW/m2 33727 33727

Avg, calculated ,, 31850 27250


Max, calculated ,, 68100 62900 58300 50750

Inlet Conditions :
Temperature 0C 283 235 281 235
Pressure kPa 671 748 531 547
(a)
Vaporization wt% 0 0 0 0

Outlet Conditions :
Temperature 0C 353 283 353 281
Pressure kPa 230 571 230 591
(a)
Vaporization wt% 31.3 0 31.3 0
Vapor Molecular Weight kg/ 177 177
kmol

[Notes : (a) Process data calculated for 100% oil firing at 170 0C, design excess air and ambient air at
13.6 0C.
(b) Normal case applicable for flow distribution at 325000 kg/hr (Case-I) and 334000
kg/hr
(Case-II).]

The heater outlets are combined into a transfer-line to column K-2. The transfer-line from
heater 410-F03 is combined with the exiting transfer-line of heaters F-01 and F-02 upstream the
inlet nozzle(=22”) at this column. The operation of heater 410-F03 is thus linked to the
operation of the exiting heaters F-01 and F-02. The performance of the transfer-line should be
monitored during varying load conditions of the three heaters.
The heater has six burners installed. As many burners as possible should be brought into
operation under all operating conditions. In case only part of the burners are fired (turndown
conditions) then the burners in operation should be selected symmetrically. It is very important
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 176
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

that the burners are operated in such a way that they provide equal heat pick-up into the process
coils. Mal-distribution of heat, causing high metal temperatures and/or distortion of the coils, is to
be avoided.
When combination firing is applied, it is recommended to operate each burner at the same
oil/gas ratio to assure equal heat distribution. If the quantity of one fuel is not sufficient to fire all
burners at the same ratio, it is recommended to route this fuel to part of the burners in a
symmetrical way. This type of firing should be closely monitored and evaluated on equal heat
distribution via the burner performance curves and/or flame dimensions.
The burners are low-NOx type by means of staged air supply. The total air is divided into two
channels inside the burner wind box. Each channel contains an air damper. The individual setting
of these dampers should be done so that complete combustion takes place with low-NOx
production. Minor modifications to these settings can be permitted in the following cases :
a. Minimizing the NOx production. Adjustments may lead to poor flame performance. All
burners should have the same flame pattern.
b. Minimizing deviations in air supply during normal operation between the burners by
trimming burners’ dampers. The ratio between the two damper settings should be
maintained at all times.
c. If one or more burners are shut off for a longer period due to maintenance or turndown
conditions, it is advised to keep all burners at low firing instead of a few burners at higher
firing rate.
It is strongly advised to avoid frequent modifications to the burner dampers. The control of the
air supply is arranged at the FD-fans. If the damper settings are established at start-up then no
further modifications are required at a continuous operation. Review may only be necessary if the
heater operation is changed significantly.
The heater can be operated in forced draft mode. In that case the ID-fan is out of operation. The
FD-fans will supply the cold combustion air via the air pre-heater bypass to the burners. It is
recommended to close the guillotines at the stack to cut the flue gases to/from the air pre-heater to
avoid condensation effects. Also the shut-off plates/guillotines at the combustion air inlet/outlet
should be closed to avoid high cool down rates.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 177
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Operation of the guillotines should be performed carefully. In order to avoid high pressure
differentials over the APEXTM internals, following rules should be adhered to:
a. The guillotine in the combustion air duct downstream the APEXTM should always be opened
first.
b. The guillotine in the combustion air duct upstream the APEXTM should always be closed first.
c. Both guillotines in either air or flue gases duct should be operated at all times.
d. The combustion air by-pass should be fully opened.

The heater is designed for firing Sulfur containing fuels. Two types of fuel oil are envisaged in
the design, which may contain up to 1 %wt of sulfur. Also firing of two types of fuel gas are
foreseen. One type contains up to 2.0 % vol of H2S, which is equivalent to 0.13 % vol SOx in the
flue gases. The SOx in the flue gases determines the dew point temperature at which H2SO4 is
possibly formed. It is strongly advised to regularly check the SOx content of the flue gas.
Particularly when a fuel type switch is to be executed. In case the SOx level exceeds the design
value then adaptation of the APEXTM operation is required to assure sufficient temperature margin
towards this dew point temperature

For start-up it is strongly recommended to use sulfur free fuel to allow warm-up of the
equipment to a level above the dew point without a risk for acid formation. When operating
conditions are established, then a switch to one of the design fuels can be implemented. For the
dry-out procedure it is mandatory to use sulfur-free fuels due to the large quantities of water in the
system at low operating temperatures.

The installed plate type air pre-heater APEXTM has a number of mechanical constraints, which
should not be violated. The installed instrumentation requires regular maintenance to assure
reliable information.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 178
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The air pre-heater operation should be strictly according the process conditions as defined at the
datasheets given below :

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 179
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

THERMAL DATA SHEET

Service : Air Preheat System


Operating Case : Design case—Oil fired
OPERATING DATA
Cold Fluid Hot Fluid Units
Fluid Air Flue Gases
Total Quantity 6.21 6.7 kg/s
Bypass 0.10 kg/s
Cold Fluid Hot Fluid Units
Vapour Quantity 6.11 6.7 kg/s
Composition :
N2 78.2 70.9 vol%
O2 20.7 2.5 vol%
CO2 0.03 12.0 vol%
H2O 1.05 14.6 vol%
SO2/SO3 0.05 vol%
Acid Dew Point 144 0C
Allowable/Calculated min metal 159 172 0C
temperature (Pass-2)
Temperature Normal 15.6 293 403 176 0C
In/Out (APH O/L)
Pressure Drop Max 1.05 1.2 kPa
allowable/calculated
Fouling Coefficient 0.0001 0.0002 m2.0C/W

Heat Transferred 1746 kW


No of passes 4
Corrected MTD 131 0C
Overall Heat Tr Coefficient 29.4 W/m2.0C
Calculated Surface 452 m2
Installed Surface 473 m2

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 180
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

THERMAL DATA SHEET

Service : Air Preheat System


Operating Case : Normal Case—Oil fired
OPERATING DATA
Cold Fluid Hot Fluid Units
Fluid Air Flue Gases
Total Quantity 5.18 5.59 kg/s
Bypass 1.57 kg/s
Vapour Quantity 3.61 5.59 kg/s
Composition :
N2 78.2 70.9 vol%
O2 20.7 2.5 vol%
Cold Fluid Hot Fluid Units
CO2 0.03 12.0 vol%
H2O 1.05 14.6 vol%
SO2/SO3 0.05 vol%
Acid Dew Point 144 0C
Allowable/Calculated min metal temperature 159 178 0C
(Pass-2)
Temperature Normal In/Out 15.6 273 326 176 0C
(APH O/L)
Pressure Drop Max 0.45 0.85 kPa
allowable/calculated
Fouling Coefficient 0.0001 0.0002 m2.0C/W

Heat Transferred 959 kW


No of passes 4
Corrected MTD 93 0C
Overall Heat Tr Coefficient 22.9 W/m2.0C
Calculated Surface 452 m2
Installed Surface 473 m2

The warm-up of the APEXTM should be performed in a slow manner to avoid temperature or
pressure excursions beyond the constraints. Damage to the material is resulting.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 181
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The design of the APEXTM includes a 500C margin on the flue gases inlet temperature to cope
for fouling of the convection tubes in the heater. It is expected that at start-up rather lower flue gas
temperatures are present at the APEXTM flue gas inlet. However the flue gases outlet temperature
should be maintained at 1750C. For this reason more combustion air should be routed to the by-pass
duct to keep the metal temperature above the constraint value.

Two forced draft fans are installed for the supply of the combustion air. The fan design includes
at 120% over design factor at a 120% heater design. It should be determined in practice, if at the
specified normal heater conditions both fans and its inlet vane control will operate satisfactory.

6.3.3 FURNACE INSPECTION AND MECHANICAL CHECK

1. Before the heaters are started up the following general checks shall be performed.
2. Check and review free movement and clearance provisions for all parts subject to thermal
expansion, heater tubing, piping, ducts, expansion joints, etc.
3. Check for interference between piping and ducting with structural members or platforms.
4. Check that the refractory surfaces are in good condition and are correctly installed with
expansion gaps. It should especially be checked that the expansion gaps between the
firebricks in the floor are unobstructed.
5. Ensure that all debris has been removed from the heater floor, ducting, expansion joints,
tube guides. Inspect the inside of flue gas collector and stack for any construction materials
left there, on the finned coils or on the damper.
6. Check the burners to ensure that the gas spuds and oil guns are all correctly positioned and
orientated and that no debris is left in the burner tips.
7. Check that the burner air dampers can be opened and shut properly and will move freely.
Leave them in fully open position.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 182
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8. Check that all bolts and nuts for the three(3) fans have been properly tightened and locked,
and the coupling guards are in place. Confirm that impellers rotate freely. Check that the
bearings with any bearing lubrication are all correctly installed.
9. Check for correct rotation direction for the fans.
10. Check that the forced draft fan inlet vanes are correctly fitted, with the opening direction
leading into the impeller's rotation. Move the vanes to the minimum opening setting in
order to see the position clearly.

11. Check all flue gas and air dampers for correct mechanical operation. Check that the shut-
off plates/guillotines can move freely.
12. Ensure that all access doors and header housing doors are closed and bolted tightly, and all
observation doors are closed.
13. Check the gas tightness of the unit under modest (10-15 mmH2O) positive pressure,
with ID-Fan
14. and one FD-fan in operation. After overriding the high firebox pressure limit, start the fans
with closed inlet-vanes. Tighten, repair or renew bolts, seals, gaskets and bellows as
necessary.
15. Check soot blowers with their motor drives and turning mechanism. Check sequencing
mechanism.

6.3.4 PREPARING FOR INITIAL COMMISSIONING

1. After pressure testing the process coils shall be flushed out and drained, followed by
blowing out with air or inert gas to remove any water left and to ensure freedom from
obstruction.
2. Ensure that all fuel gas, fuel oil, atomizing steam and pilot gas lines are cleaned.
3. All control valves on all fuel gas, fuel oil, atomizing steam and pilot gas lines shall be
checked and operation verified. Check all automatic and manual firing controls. Ensure

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 183
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

that all bypass valves in these lines are closed, together with all fuel valves local to the
burners.
4. Check and drain draft gauges.
5. Check the operation of all instruments, thermo-wells, pressure gauges, etc. associated with
the process side.
6. Check the operation of temperature indicators associated with the flue gas and combustion
air side.
7. Check the operation of the various analyzing instruments, particularly the oxygen and
combustibles analyzers. These shall be fully calibrated prior to burner light-up. Their use
during start-up is prerequisite.

It is also recommended to analyze the CO amount in the flue gas during the start-up period.
Typically the sample point location below the convection section is used to take flue gas samples.

1. Check the correct operation of the induced draft fan draft control regulator.
2. Check all alarm and emergency/shut-down functions.
3. Check purging steam and steam tracing lines and valves and associated steam traps.
4. Check that all access and header housing doors are properly closed.
5. Check that the flue gases duct and air duct shut-off plates/guillotines are in the open
position. For start-up it is recommended that only one FD-fan is taken into operation. The
shut-off plate/guillotines at the other combustion air fan should be closed.
6. Check that portable combustible gas detection and/or other site safety equipment will be
available for the start-up.
7. Check the operation of the portable gas igniter in a designated "safe area".
8. Check that fuel gas, fuel oil, atomizing steam and pilot gas will be available.
9. Check the availability of purging steam.
10. Check the availability of sufficient cooling medium for dry-out (or process feedstock at the
required rate and temperature). All concerned equipment upstream/downstream of the
heater should also be commissioned prior to start this procedure. The availability of the

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 184
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

cooling medium should be checked against the required process duty at the dry-out
procedure. It is strongly advised to contact the process designer to review the proposed
cooling method. Introduction of the fluid may commence at the appropriate time during
dry-out procedure or at the start pending local conditions.

6.3.5 DRYING-OUT PROCEDURE

Before being put into service, the refractory lining of the heater, stack and flue gas ducting shall
be thoroughly dried out to remove the free and the crystal bond water in the concretes, by slow
evaporation. This operation should be scheduled in such a way that there is a minimum of delay
between its completion and the initial start-up of the heater.

The dry-out procedure normally takes approximately four to five days, during which the firing
rate should be slowly raised to produce a gradual temperature increase in the refractory. This
curve should be followed in general, but should possibly be adapted to local conditions and the
availability of the resources. The procedure described below should be used as a guide, which is
based on experiences in the field.

It is mandatory to use sulfur-free fuels for the dry-out procedure. The procedure includes long
periods of low temperature operation. Large quantities of water have to be removed from the
system. Presence of SO2 in the flue gas should be minimized to avoid formation of H2SO4 at the cold
regions in the heater and flue gas ducting.
During dry-out the following temperatures shall be measured and recorded:
a. The flue gas temperature at the air preheater outlet.
b. The flue gas temperature at arch level.
c. The flue gas temperature above the convection section.
d. The flue gas temperature at the stack.
e. The tube skin temperatures at the radiant tubes at APEXTM.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 185
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The burners should be operated with large excess of combustion air, compatible with good flame
stability. This will ensure low flame temperatures so that no excessive heat rate is applied to either
tubes or refractory. The large flue gas quantity is necessary to carry away the water vapor
generated from the moisture that was necessary for the cements hydraulic setting. Later, at higher
temperatures, sintering may take place.
For even heat distribution the burners used shall be selected in symmetrical pattern. The flue
gas and tubewall temperature readings listed above will give some indication of uneven
temperature/heat release levels.
Once commenced, the heating-up procedure should not be stopped or interrupted. In case of
firing failure, etc., the lining must be kept warm by stopping the forced and induced draft fans or
closing the burner air dampers and by ensuring that the stack damper is closed. When cooling
down cannot be avoided, a re-start must be carried out in accordance with a heat-up rate as defined
at dry-out start.

All preparation steps preceding the dry-out shall be performed in accordance with the start-up
procedure (see section 5.3.6/A—Preparations and Venting)

The introduction of protective fluid in the tubes is required prior to proceed to higher
temperature levels. It is very important to watch the tube skin thermocouples closely during the
dry-out period. The material constraints of the installed tubes should not be superseded. Distortion
and/or bending of the tubes may be resulting.

If cooling medium is present in the tubes, temperature at the arch can be raised at a rate not
beyond 300C per hour. Monitor the air pre-heater performance and verify the functioning of
damper in the by-pass air duct. Flue gas outlet temperatures should remain in the 175---1850C
temperature range.

Raise the arch temperature till 650---7000C. All burners should be in operation. Keep the arch
temperature at 7000C during 10 hours.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 186
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Check regularly the flame performance to assure an equal heat distribution to the tubes. Verify
if all burners receive equal amounts of air for proper combustion.

The excees air levels can be reduced to the design levels. The following table provides the data
based on the design fuels.

Design excess air O2 in flue gases


%vol dry condition %vol wet condition
Fuel gas 10% 2.1 - 2.3 1.7 - 2.0
Fuel oil 15% 2.9 - 3.2 2.5 - 2.8

The O2 analyzer should be monitored to achieve above values. Reduction of excess air levels
should be performed at small steps and sufficient large settling times. The performance of the
flames should be monitored closely to keep all flames in the same shape. If a CO analyzer is
available, it is advised to check the CO content of the flue gas to assure each burner has full
combustion conditions.

The dry-out heating procedure is completed after the firing at the 7000C level.

Should start-up not immediately follow the above sequences, reduce the burner heat release to
allow the furnace to cool down to ambient temperature at a rate not exceeding 500C per hour.
During the next start-up of the heater the temperature can be raised with 300C per hour to the
operating temperature. Once the temperature has been at operating level for 72 hours, the heater is
fully dried out. For subsequent restarts a temperature increase of 500C per hour can be used.

The cooling fluid flow through the coil can be cut when the flue gas temperature at the arch is
cooled below 3000C.
On reaching ambient temperature after dry out, it is recommended to inspect the refractory.
Ensure that the heater is appropriately ventilated before entering. Confirm the absence of

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 187
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

combustible gases. Carry out all procedures required by the Plant Operating Practices and
applicable safety regulations.

A network of small cracks may appear in the castable. Only cracks exceeding 6 mm or broken-
off parts need to be repaired, in accordance with ABB Lummus Heat Transfer B. V. approved
repair procedure.

Usually it is necessary to circulate protective, cooling fluid through each coil during the later
stages of the procedure to prevent overheating. This fluid may be inert gas (e.g. nitrogen), a
hydrocarbon or steam, if not prohibited for plant safety reasons.

The initial dry-out by means of air can be performed by testing the installed fans for a couple of
hours.

The dry-out procedure is preferably started at forced draft operation. The ID-fan and APH are
not in operation in that case. The combustion air is routed via the air pre-heater by-pass duct to the
burners. The stack damper is fully open until the draft in the heater is established at the negative
pressure of 3 - 5 mmH2O at arch level. In the initial phase of the dry large quantities of water vapor
are removed from the radiant and convection section. Because the flue gas ducting to/from the air
pre-heater is still below the water dew point, condensation may take place in these ducting in case
of balanced draft operation. At forced draft operation the water vapor is directly disposed via the
stack to atmosphere.

Light the pilot flames in accordance with section 5.3.6/B—Start-Up Of Pilot Burners.

When all pilot flames are on, ignite one of the main burners initially on an approximate 30%
heat release level (in accordance with section 5.3.6/C—Igniting The Main Burners On Fuel Gas). If
the flame is established, slowly decrease the firing rate to minimum liberation at high excess air
rate.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 188
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Raise the furnace flue gas temperature at arch level gradually, at a rate not exceeding 200C per
hour till 110-1200C.
Keep the arch temperature at 110-1200C during 16 hours.

It is recommended that the burners should be fired in rotation (symmetrically) during the dry-
out cycle. In this way every burner can be commissioned and each part of the heater will be
exposed equally.

After this first holding time and after all signs of vaporization have disappeared, arch
temperature can be raised at a rate not exceeding 200C per hour to achieve a convection outlet
temperature of 1200C. Preferably more burners are taken into operation at low firing rate instead
of firing one burner at higher firing rate.
Keep this arch temperature level for 6 hours.
At this point the forced draft operation can be switched over to balanced draft operation
according the instructions in section 4.3.6/D--Switch From Forced Draft Operation To Balanced
Draft.

Raise the arch temperature at a rate not exceeding 200C per hour to achieve an air pre-heater
outlet temperature of 1200C.
Keep this arch temperature level during 6 hours.

Raise the flue gas temperature in the arch to about 300-3500C at a rate not exceeding 200C per
hour. Operate as many burners as possible to achieve equal heat distribution. Monitor the air pre-
heater flue gas outlet temperature. If this temperature arrives in the range of 175-1850C then the
damper in the air by-pass duct should be commissioned to control this temperature. Monitor the
installed skin thermocouples closely
Keep the arch temperature at 3000C during 12 hours.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 189
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Examine tubes, tube supports, hearth and refractories for any interference with free thermal
expansion movements and remove any restrictions found.

After completion of the dry-out procedure, it is preferable to maintain the firebox temperature
over dew point (at approximately 650C) if the start-up is anticipated in the near future. Firing of
one or more burner pilots can be applied for this reason.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 190
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.3.6 START-UP

The following precautions are intended as an overall guide to proper operation, augmenting the
Plant's procedures.

A. Preparations And Venting


1. Firing rates should be kept under manual control during start-up, as the control system may be
subject to severe cycling during this period.
2. Check that pilot gas, fuel gas, fuel oil and atomizing steam are available at the required
pressures.
3. Check the fuel oil temperature in the vicinity of the burners (fuel oil circulation is operating).
Check if steam tracing is properly functioning. Check the fuel oil viscosity by taking a sample
and perform a laboratory analysis. Viscosity should be below 20 cP at operating temperature.
4. Check that no vent and waste gases can flow into the furnaces.
5. Open the pilot gas main valve and check the pilot gas pressure. If the fuel gas system is filled
with nitrogen, purge the lines to a safe location until fuel gas is present up to the valve.
6. Open the fuel gas main valve and check the fuel gas pressure. If the fuel gas system is filled
with nitrogen, purge the lines to a safe location until fuel gas is present up to the valve.
7. Check the pilot gas/fuel gas piping for leaks before proceeding. If leaks are detected, all fuel gas
valves should be shut off and the leaks fixed before lighting the burners.
8. Open the damper in the air pre-heater air bypass.
9. Close the flue gas bypass damper in the stack.
10. Check that the air dampers of the burners for settings.
11. Open the guillotines in the flue gas duct at the stack and in the combustion air duct at the air
pre-heater (see 5.3.2--Operating Conditions to Operation of the guillotines should be
performed). Verify if the concrete bars are placed in the guillotine slot to prevent air leakage.
12. Start the induced draft fan with closed inlet vanes.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 191
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

13. Start one of the forced draft fans with closed inlet vanes. Override the high combustion
chamber pressure limit. Close the shut-off valve/guillotine of the other fan to avoid air re-
cycling.
14. Adjust the air flow to approximately 50% of the design air flow by opening the inlet vanes and
purge the furnace and air pre-heater with air.
15. Switch the arch pressure control acting on the inlet vanes of the ID-fan from manual to
automatic. Close the flue gas damper gradually. Verify the adjustments to the inlet vanes on
basis of the required arch pressure. Monitor the power consumption of the fan to avoid a trip
due to maximum power constraint (cold air).
16. Keep the fans running for 20 minutes or longer.
17. During the fan commissioning all draft gauges at the heater and air pre-heater requires
verification on proper functioning.
18. Check and confirm with an explosion meter for absence of combustibles in the furnace. Carry
out all procedures required by the Plant Operating Practices.

Warning : If the heater is not sufficiently purged, an explosion may result causing serious damage
to equipment and possible loss of life.

For forced draft start-up open stack damper. Slop the ID-fan. Close the guillotines in the flue
gas duct at the stack and combustion air duct at the APEXTM (see 5.3.2--Operating Conditions---
Operation of the guillotines should be performed). Open the air by-pass damper.

B. Start-Up Of Pilot Burners

1. Balance the draft level (negative pressure) at the arch at approximately 5 to 7.5 mmH2O, by
adjusting the inlet vanes of the induced draft fan (balanced draft start-up) or open stack damper
fully (forced draft start-up).

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 192
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2. Once the combustion chamber pressure has been stabilized, the draft control and high pressure
alarm systems shall be re-instated.
3. Insert the portable igniter using the designated opening at the bottom of the burner wind box.
Verify if the air supply to the pilot as per requirement.
4. Open local pilot gas valve at the burner, ignite the pilot. Verify flame visually through burner
sight door.
5. Light pilots of all burners one by one. All pilots should be in operation period to start main
flames.

6. Adjust pilot gas back pressure and/or air inlet opening to the pilot to improve flame, if
necessary.
7. In case of restart of the main burners, furnace purging is only required when all pilots have
been extinguished. Before restart confirm that all pilots are still burning.
8. Consideration may be given to introduce the process flow (on turn-down) before igniting the
main burners. Alternatively this step can be delayed until furnace and tube metal temperatures
are comparable to the incoming feedstock temperature.

C. Igniting The Main Burners On Fuel Gas

1. Set the fuel pressure controller for about 40% liberation rate (see burner performance curves for
fuel gas pressure)
2. If fuel oil firing is not foreseen shortly after start-up with fuel gas, then a small, steam flow
should be routed through the oil gun of all burners for cooling purposes. Alternatively the oil
gun may be retracted from the burners.
3. Verify the combustion air pressure upstream the burner does not exceed 50 mmH2O.
4. Open local valve fully. Should the burner not ignite within 3 seconds, close valve. Allow at
least one minute before another attempt.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 193
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

5. Keep the need for even heat distribution in mind whilst proceeding to light multiple burners in
the burner circle. Once all burners are lighted and conditions stabilized, the heat release
rate/fuel gas pressure may be increased.
6. Verify if the arch pressure control acts on the inlet vanes of the ID-fan, when the flue gas
temperature to the ID-fan increases. The arch draft level should be maintained at between 3 to
8 mmH2O during the firing rate increase.
7. Do not operate the burners below the minimum firing rate shown in the burner data sheets. If
the heater needs to be operated below the specified minimum firing for all burners (i.e. dry-out
or high turndown), then some of the burners should be shut off. The remaining burners can be
operated at or above the minimum firing rate.

The maximum flue gas temperature increase at the arch should not exceed 300C per hour during
the initial start-up (see Dry-Out Procedure). For subsequent start-ups after 72 hours of normal
heater operation (fully dry-out condition) 500C per hour flue gas temperature increase can be used.
For dry-out, and for start-ups after major refractory repairs, follow the temperature increase rate in
the Dry-Out Procedure.
During the heating up period the process outlet temperature increase should not exceed 300C
per hour.

With all burners in operation, the combustion air quantity/flue gas oxygen level should be
controlled to between 4 to 6% for the start-up period. Observe the CO reading which should be
negligible at 10 to 80 ppm.

Warning : Never move the burner dampers, increase the combustion air flow, or shut off a burner
when the firebox is short of air; an explosion may result. Decrease the fuel rate in steps not to
exceed 10%, allowing the oxygen level in the firebox to stabilize between each step, until the
required excess air level is achieved.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 194
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

All changes in the heat release of the burners should be preceded by a firebox oxygen check.
When increasing the heat release of the burners, the excess oxygen level must be increased before
increasing the fuel rate. When decreasing the heat release of the burners, the fuel rate must be
decreased before decreasing the excess oxygen level.

Observe the flue gas temperature level leaving the air pre-heater. When this temperature has
reached 1850C, the air bypass damper should be closed gradually, in small steps, in order to keep this
temperature around 175--1850C.

Once the heater has reached a constant load level, set the arch pressure to approximately 3.0
mmH2O and the oxygen level in the flue gas to the design conditions (see point 6.28) by adjusting
the combustion air flow. Check the unburned combustibles (CO) reading which should remain
negligible at between 10-80 ppm.
Prolonged higher CO reading, at 100-200 ppm with the above oxygen level would indicate to air
mal-distribution, with one or more burners not receiving sufficient combustion air. By observing
the flames, the affected burner can usually be singled out through its longer visible (possibly even
smoky) flame. Check the burner damper settings of the burner. In case CO readings are still
beyond acceptable levels, increase the total air quantity to give 0.5 to 1.0% higher flue gas oxygen
reading. (see also 5.3.2—Operating Conditions---The burners are low-NOx type by means of staged
air supply)

At this stage the furnace firing control can be switched over to automatic.

Warning : If the burners are operated without a sufficient air supply, a build-up of gas may occur
resulting in an explosion. Care should be taken to assure more than sufficient air for combustion is
flowing through each burner at all times and to allow the same flow of combustion air to each
burner in operation.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 195
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

D. Igniting The Main Burner On Oil Firing

1. Open steam tracing valves and allow piping to warm up. Start fuel oil circulation and monitor
local oil temperature level in the return line. This should gradually rise to approximately 1700C
to obtain an oil viscosity of 20 cP or less. In case the oil type is more heavy then a higher
temperature should be used to achieve proper firing performance.
2. Open both burner atomizer steam and steam purge lines for one burner to warm up the oil gun
and to clean the internals.
3. Repeat this operation for each burner. Verify that all parts of the supply lines are free of
condensate. Check steam traps accordingly.
4. If the selected oil gun is at operating temperature (above 1700C) and the atomizing steam is dry
then the purge by-pass valve can be closed.
5. Set the fuel pressure control valve at an approximately 40% heat release setting (see burner
performance curve for the related pressure).
6. Set the steam/oil ratio differential controller at the burner between 1.75 to 2.0 bar.
7. Verify the combustion air pressure upstream the burner does not exceed 50 mm H2O.
8. Gradually open the local oil hand valve at the burner fully. Ignition should follow. Check the
flame visually. Adjust parameters to achieve proper combustion.
9. Repeat points of 5.3.6/D--Igniting The Main Burner On Oil Firing for ignition of the remaining
burners. Monitor flue gas temperature at arch and process outlet temperature for maximum
temperature rise.
10. If ignition still fails within 3 seconds, close hand valve. Open the purge valve to clean the oil
gun immediately.
Check the cause of the ignition failure. Below a few checkpoints are listed.
a. Oil is at too low temperature. Check oil re-circulation rate, steam tracing and steam traps.
b. Perform laboratory analysis on oil viscosity on the fuel oil to be fired.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 196
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

c. Atomizing steam is wet. Check steam traps. Blow steam through oil gun for a couple of
minutes toheat the oil gun.
d. Plugged steam or oil line. Verify presence of flow at flow meters.
e. Plugged oil ports or atomizer at oil gun. Retract oil gun.
In case of combination firing it is preferably to fire only a selected number of burners in a
symmetrical pattern. The remaining burners are fired on gas only. The advantage is to have the oil
firing at a higher liberation level relative to the oil firing turndown level. Firing at turndown level
requires close monitoring and higher excess air rates. This is not advised for continuous operation.
The remaining oil guns need a small flow of atomizing steam for cooling.

Follow points of 5.3.6/C--Igniting The Main Burner On Fuel Gas (from Keep the need to -to the
end of the section) for the general notes on firing main burners.

E. Switch From Forced Draft Operation To Balanced Draft

This operation is intended for start-up conditions or non-scheduled wash operations of the
APEXTM. The fuel to the heater should be switched to a sulfur free fuel to avoid acid dew point
problems as result of the warm-up of the equipment.

Open all guillotines in the flue gases duct at the stack and combustion air duct (see 5.3.2--
Operating Conditions---Operation of the guillotines should be performed…). The damper in the
by-pass duct should remain fully open.

Switch arch pressure control and air by-pass damper control to manual operation. This
implicates that the inlet vanes of the ID-fan and the stack damper can be operated independently.
The arch pressure should be monitored carefully to keep a negative pressure. Alternatively the high
pressure alarm of the firebox can be switched to alarm indication only. (no trip action)

Open the stack damper fully to achieve maximum draft.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 197
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Start ID-fan with closed inlet vanes. Switch arch pressure control to act on ID fan inlet vane
control. Reinstate automatic control. Monitor vane position and verify control action will push
vanes to its closed position.

Close stack damper gradually. Verify ID-fan inlet vanes opening when arch pressure exceeds its
set point value. Allow smoothly opening of ID-fan inlet vanes when dampers approach fully
closure position. Monitor the power consumption of the ID-fan and/or APH warm-up rate.

The APEXTM flue gases outlet temperature should be monitored to keep the warm-up rate
at approximately 80 - 100OC /hr. The damper in the by-pass duct controls the amount of air
through the air pre-heater. Pending the temperature of the flue gas to the APEXTM (either start-up
or normal operation) more combustion air through the air pre-heater is required to control the
warm-up.

When sulfur containing fuels are fired during the start-up of the APEXTM, then the warm-up
should be performed as quickly as possible to minimize acid formation. However higher warm-up
rates as indicated above are not advised because of possible material deformation in the APEXTM.

When the flue gases outlet temperature has reached 175OC, then damper control of the by-pass
can be reinstated.
Verify stack damper is closed fully. Normal operation conditions can be implemented (see
section 5.3.7-- Normal Operation)

F. Switch from balanced draft operation to forced draft

This operation is intended for maintenance of ID-fan or non-scheduled wash operations of the
APEXTM.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 198
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Switch arch pressure control to manual. This implicates that the inlet vanes of the ID-fan and the
stack damper can be operated independently. The arch pressure should be monitored carefully to
keep a negative pressure. Alternatively the high pressure alarm of the firebox can be switched to
alarm indication only. (no trip action)

Open inlet vanes position of the ID-fan slightly. Monitor the arch pressure. Switch arch
pressure control to dampers and reinstate automatic control. Dampers are still closed. ID-fan is on
manual control. Verify control action will try to push dampers to closed position, because of the
slightly higher arch pressure caused by the adjustment of the inlet vanes.

Close the inlet vanes of the ID-fan gradually. Verify opening of stack damper if arch pressure
control set point value is exceeded.

Stop the ID-fan. Verify air pre-heater flue gases outlet temperature control will push the air by-
pass damper to fully open position. Switch control to manual and keep by-pass damper in fully
open position.

Close the guillotines in the flue gas duct at the stack. Close the guillotines in the combustion air
duct at the APEXTM (see section 5.3.2--Operating Conditions---Operation of the guillotines should
be performe,)

Never cool down the APEXTM using a FORCED DRAFT FAN.


Open the access doors at the duct and air pre-heater when temperature is below 100OC.
Apply all safety regulations before inspection of internals.

6.3.7 NORMAL OPERATION

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 199
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

The following conditions must be checked at least once per shift when a continuous troublefree
operation is performed. More regular checks are required in case of varying conditions at process
side (feed change-over) or the fuel type is switched.

Confirm that the flame shapes are reasonably uniform.

Check that the negative pressure below the convection section is about 3.0 mmH2O gauge.
Check that the oxygen content of the flue gas remains in the range as given below.

Design excess air O2 in flue gas


%vol dry condition %vol wet condition
Fuel gas 10% 2.1 - 2.3 1.7 - 2.0
Fuel oil 15% 2.9 - 3.2 2.5 - 2.8

The O2 analyzer should be monitored to achieve above values. Reduction of excess air levels
should be performed at small steps and sufficient large settling times. The performance of the
flames should be monitored closely to keep all flames in the same shape. If a CO analyzer is
available, it is advised to check the CO content of the flue gas to assure each burner has full
combustion conditions. In case of combination firing at part of the burners the highest O 2 content
should be followed to avoid shortage of air at the oil firing burners.

If burners are out o service for maintenance/malfunction reasons it is advised to close the
burner air dampers of the specific burner. Check the air supply to the other burners to verify equal
distribution. The warm-up of the APEXTM should be performed in a slow manner to avoid
temperature or pressure excursions beyond the constraints. It is strongly recommended to keep the
maximum practicable number of burners operating, to provide even heat distribution for the tubes.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 200
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Check regularly the CO content of the flue gases. Should the reading exceed 100 ppm, check if
all air damper of the burners in operation.

If the CO content is still high, it is advised to raise the excess air level in the heater. Increase the
combustion air flow (inlet vanes at fan) in small steps (+0.3% oxygen at a time), if all burner air
dampers are set identically.
In case of oil firing, check the atomizing steam/fuel oil differential pressure.
The process turndown of the heater is limited to 77000 kg/hr. It is strongly recommended to
avoid excursions below this value. It is expected that the coke formation in the process tubes is
accelerated due to the resulting low mass velocity.
The heater has a two pass arrangement. Regular checks on the flow per pass and process outlet
temperature and skin thermocouple readings should indicate the fouling conditions of the tubes in
the heater.
Monitor and document the skin thermocouples readings. Due to fouling in the tubes it is
expected that the metal temperatures will increase. The applied P5 material has a limitation of
650OC. It is advised to decoke the tubes, when following conditions are present. The skin
thermocouples have reached a 635OC level at part of the tubes and the pressure drop over the coil(s)
has increased significantly. A 150C margin is included for measurement inaccuracy of the skin
thermocouples.

The flue gases leaving the air pre-heater should be maintained at 175OC or slightly above, when
firing sulfur containing fuels. Regular flue gas sampling at air pre-heater outlet should point out the
actual SOx in the flue gas for the present type of fuel firing. Monitor the skin-thermocouples closely
for the minimum metal temperature

The soot-blowers at the convection section should be operated periodically to remove the soot
and other deposits from the coils. The flue gas outlet temperature at the convection collector will
rise as result of the fouling. Operational experience and type of fuel should determine a suitable
time interval for cleaning. A convection section outlet temperature increase of 10--15OC or an once

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 201
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

per shift cleaning when oil firing is applied, are regularly applied methods to abate the fouling
phenomenon.

It is advised to perform regular checks on the formation of acid in the air pre-heater during the
first year of the unit operation, when operational experience is built up. This phenomenon is to be
monitored closely. Steady operation of the unit is critical for the expected lifetime of the applied
materials. A few temperature or pressure excursions beyond its material constraints may damage
the unit to that extent as would have been during a long period of normal operation.

The APEXTM can be cleaned on-line if the heater operations is shifted from balanced draft to
forced draft (see sections 5.3.6/E and 5.3.6/F). The stack damper should be used for arch pressure
control and the air by-pass duct for air supply to the burners. If this operation modification is
applied, then the guillotines at both air side and flue gas side should be closed to isolate the air pre-
heater. (see section 5.3.2--Operating Conditions---Operation of the guillotines should be
performed…,). It is advised to inspect the air pre-heater first after cool-down to record the degree
of fouling. The top part of the APEXTM can be cleaned with warm water sprayed by hose under
slightly pressurized conditions, the bottom block can be cleaned by the installed spray system. The
drain in the hopper should be opened before the start of the washing operation. The waste water
should be drained to safe location. The water may require neutralization due to the removal of
possible acid droplets at the APEXTM internals.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 202
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.3.8 SHUTDOWN

The transfer-line of the 410-F-03 heater is connected to the transfer-lines of heaters F-01 and F-
02. Idea of shutdown procedures considering the combination of these three heaters can be
obtained from earlier chapters/sections.

1. All firing controls should be returned to manual operation.


2. Reduce the feed rate to the turndown conditions.
3. Reduce the firing rate gradually, to lower the arch level flue gas temperature at a rate not
exceeding 1000C per hour.
4. The heater outlet temperatures shall be allowed to drop at a maximum rate of 3000C per hour.
5. Shut down burners one by one at suitable intervals to achieve above.
6. Lower the combustion air temperature by gradually opening the by-pass damper. The flue gas
air pre-heater outlet temperature may rise to 200OC.
7. Maintain arch draft level between 3 to 8 mm H2O by regulating the induced draft fan inlet
vanes and or the stack (flue gases) damper, during the air supply reduction of the forced draft
fan.
8. When the flue gases temperature in the arch drops below 300OC, the process feed circulation
may be stopped.
9. Purge the coils with sufficient quantities of steam or inert gas for removal of hydrocarbons.
10. Once all main burners are off, close the pilot gas valves.
11. Switch off the Induced Draft Fan, open the stack damper. Continue running one (1) Forced
Draft Fan with minimum inlet vane setting.
When the temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace drops below 200OC, the forced draft
fan may be stopped.
Open stack damper and access doors to ventilate the heater.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 203
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6.3.9 EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN OF F-03

The transfer-line of the 410-F-03 heater is connected to the F-01 transfer-line and the F-02
transfer-line. Idea of shutdown procedures considering the combination of these three heaters can
be obtained from earlier chapters/sections.

The general procedure given below covers most emergencies but it is impracticable to attempt to
cover all combinations and process conditions in these instructions.
In all emergencies action should be taken to make the unit safe as quickly as possible.

FURNACE FEED FAILURE : All main burners should be shut down automatically. If the feed
cannot be restarted within five (5) minutes, the coils must be flushed out with steam to reduce the
risk of coke formation in the tubes. The steam or inert gas flow may be stopped when the flue gas
temperature at the arch is below 4000C. However flow may possibly be continued to prevent back-
flow from transfer-line.

GENERAL ELECTRICAL POWER FAILURE : The heater should shut down immediately (see
Furnace Feed Failure).

GENERAL INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE : The heater should shut down immediately (see Furnace
Feed Failure).
FUEL GAS FAILURE : If the fuel gas pressure cannot be maintained, the gas supply should be cut
off. All local fuel valves are to be closed.

FUEL OIL FAILURE : If the fuel oil pressure/temperature cannot be maintained, the oil supply
should be cut off. All local fuel oil valves are to be closed. Open steam purge valves to clean the oil
guns immediately. If sufficiently cleaned, then close the purge valves such to allow a minimum
flow through the oil gun. Alternatively the oil gun can be retracted. In case and pilot gas and fuel

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 204
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

gas are still available, then the heater operation can continue on fuel gas only. If not, then heater
will be shut down.

ATOMIZING STEAM FAILURE : The fuel oil will be cut off. All local fuel oil/atomizing steam
valves are to be closed. The oil guns should be retracted for cleaning immediately. In case and pilot
gas and fuel gas are still available, then the heater operation can continue on fuel gas only. If not,
then heater will be shut down.
FURNACE TUBE FAILURE : For a minor tube leak, a quick controlled shutdown should be carried
out. Fires shall not be cut immediately, but should be reduced to a minimum. Process feed flow
rate should be reduced to approximately 50%. The feed to the effected coil should be replaced by
steam flow to prevent coke formation. A normal shutdown procedure should be continued.

FURNACE TUBE FAILURE : For a major leak or in the extreme case a tube burst, both process feed
flow and firing shall be stopped immediately. Smothering steam must be introduced into the
firebox by means of the purge/snuffing steam connections. The flushing (steaming out) of the coils
shall be delayed, as it may increase the flow of hydrocarbons from the leak into the firebox.

HIGH FURNACE ARCH PRESSURE : If the pressure in the firebox is positive, the main burners
should be shut down (see normal shutdown). In order to avoid nuisance trips it is advised to
implement a time delay of approximately ten up to 30 (10-30) seconds in order to compensate for
pressure fluctuations.

If practicable, try to avoid rapidly cooling down the furnace. 200OC per hour is the normal limit
for temperature reduction.
Further actions will depend on the specific situation.

6.3.10 DECOKING INSTRUCTIONS

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 205
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Hereafter guidelines are given for a typical decoking procedure. These should be treated as
guide line only and may be adapted to local regulations and operational experiences.

The design includes two plug type headers at the last tubes in the radiant section. For these
tubes a mechanical turbining is possible for a more rigorous cleaning of the coke at the tube inner
surface.

A spalling stage is possible, but should be executed under close monitoring. Excessive spalling
may cause plugging in the tubes. Cutting of the tubes is then required.

It is advised to decoke the two passes separately (in sequence) to permit close monitoring of the
decoking process in one pass. The other pass requires a cooling medium during the decoking.

6.3.11 INTERLOCK SYSTEM

1. During operation at maximum load both the FD fans will run at 50% process load. In
the event of tripping of one of the fans, as sensed by
a) Low current flow to any FD fan
Working fan will attain full process load and the suction damper of tripped fan will
close
automatically.

2. FO SUPPLY & RETURN / FG CUT-OFF

Any of the following condition will cut off FO /FG .


a) Low feed flow in the furnace coil .
b) High furnace coil outlet temperature (transfer line temperature).
c) Low air duct pressure .

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 206
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

d) Low FG pressure .
e) Low FO pressure . FOSUPPLY & RETURN / FG CUT-OFF

3 . In the event of failure of ID fan as sensed by :


a) Low current flow to ID fan .
b) High suction pressure to ID.
Stack damper will open automatically . If the stack damper fails to open within 30
seconds fuel oil and fuel gas to the furnace should cut off followed by tripping of FD
fans .

4. In the event of fuel cut off to furnace following actions to take place sequentially :
a) Stack damper will open .
b) ID fan will trip .
c) FD fan will trip .

5. In case of high furnace pressure , stack damper should open .If the stack damper fails to
open within 30 seconds fuel to furnace should cut off followed by tripping of ID fan .

Note: ID fan should be started with inlet vanes in closed condition..

6. In the event of very high temperature at ID fan suction , stack damper will open
automatically and ID fan will trip after stack damper is open . If stack damper fails to
open within 30 seconds fuel to the furnace should cut off followed by FD fans tripping
7. In the event of failure of both FD fans as sensed by :
a) Low current of both FD fans .
Fuel to furnace should cut off followed by stack damper opening and ID fan tripping .
8 . During turn down operation only one FD fan will operate . At such situation , failure of
working fan as sensed by low current flow , standby fan shall start automatically , suction

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 207
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

damper of the tripped fan close and that of standby fan will open simultaneously. If
stand-by fan does not start within 30 secs., it will trip furnace .
9. Each interlock is having individual by pass option with lamp indication available at main
control room .
10. Prior to trip value, alarm will be generated on DCS for all the cases .
11. Automatic damper opening and closing can be done from main control room .
12. All solenoid valves (other than stack damper ) are having reset facilities available at main
control room .
13. Parameters actuating interlock .are having indication at DCS available at main control
room .
14. Common emergency push button are provided at main control panel at control room
for all trips and stack damper opening even if the interlocks are in by-pass mode. In
addition, local emergency push button is provided 15 meter away from furnace inside a
break glass enclosure.

6.3.12 F-03 SOOT-BLOWING

Six no. of soot blowers of retractable type are provided in F3.

A. PRECHECKS BEFORE THE SOOT BLOWER OPERATION


(Local/Remote Manual/Auto Sequence)
1. Switch on the MAIN POWER SUPPLY.

2. Ensure that the RYB lights of 3 phase supply are available.

3. If one of the lights is not glowing ensure the supply through the VOLTAGE SELECTOR switch

RY, YB, BR. The voltage should be between 390 to 450 volts.

4. Switch on the PLC power supply in the PLC module.

5. Open the MAIN VALVE. When you press the button (green) the VALVE OPEN indicator will

glow after 10 to 11 seconds.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 208
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

6. Ensure COUNTER in ZERO position, all blowers in ‘HOME’ position, 230V supply available

and glowing and FAULT LAMP is not glowing.

7. If the FAULT LAMP is glowing, reset it through the ‘RESET’ push button. FAULT LAMP

should go off.

8. Put all the soot-blowers (or the soot-blowers of your preference) in “ON” position.

B. LOCAL OPERATION PROCEDURE

1 Put the SEQUENCE SELECT switch in ‘Not Select’ (NSEL) position.

2 Select the LOCAL/REMOTE switch to local. “LOCAL SELECTED LAMP” should glow.

3 Before going up near the blower ensure by resetting (FAULT LAMP is not glowing)

4 Switch on the individual blowers of interest module . Go near the soot blower that is to be

operated.

5 Press the START push button (green) in the blower of interest. The blower will go inside

furnace and retract automatically to HOME after full insertion.

6 By any chance if you want to retract, press the RED push button (retract), the blower will be

retracting instantly & will reach HOME position.

C. REMOTE MANUAL OPERATION

Points 1 to 8 of section A. should be complied with

1 Put the REMOTE /LOCAL switch to “REMOTE” position. REMOTE SELECTED lamp will

glow

2 Put the Sequence Selector switch to NSEL (not selected)

3 Check the fault indication lamp. It should not glow. If it is glowing press the RESET push

button, it will go off.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 209
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

4 Power supply of the blower which is of interest and to be operated, should be on.

5 BYPASS/AUTO/ MANUAL switch is to be in “AUTO” position.

6 Give a pulse to above switch clockwise i.e. towards the MANUAL side, the blower will start

insertion showing the particular RED lamp glowing. The switch will automatically return

to AUTO position through spring mechanism. After full insertion the blower will be retracting

automatically to the HOME position switching off the particular blower’s indication.

7 By any chance if you want to pull out the blower in the middle of insertion

“EMERGENCY RETRACT” push button is to be pressed. The blower will retract instantly

and the alarm bell will go on. Cancel the alarm by pressing “ALARM ACCEPT” push button.

8 Press the RESET push button after the blower reaches HOME position( the red lamp will go

off).

C. AUTO SEQUENCE OPERATION

Points 1 to 8 of section A. should be complied with

1 Put the REMOTE / LOCAL switch to “REMOTE” position. REMOTE SELECTED lamp will

glow.

2. Put the SEQUENCE SELECTOR switch to ‘SEL’ (sequence selected).

3. Check the fault indication lamp. It should not glow. If it is glowing press the RESET push

button, it will go off.

4. Power supply of the blowers which are of interest and to be operated should be on.

5. If you wish to bypass any of the blowers, you should do it by operating AUTO / MANUAL /

BYPASS switch to the BYPASS position. Even though bypassed, the respective blower’s

power supply should be on.

6. Press the SEQUENCE START push button.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 210
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

7. If more than one blower in sequence is bypassed, the SEQUENCE INTERRUPTED lamp

will be glowing after 1 minute . Reset the push button. The next blower which is ready (

not bypassed) will insert and automatically retract and will proceed to the next one, if any.

8. If soot-blowing in all six blowers are over then the “SOOT BLOWER SEQUENCE

COMPLETED” lamp will flash and the bell will go on. Alarm accept and reset push buttons

are to be pressed.

9. In “AUTO SEQUENCE” mode also you can retract, if there is any problem , by

pressing the EMERGENCY retract push button.

10. It is to be noted that the complete reset will be effective only after the completion of blowers

that are selected for auto operation.

After Completion of Soot Blowing The Following Should Be Ensured


1 Switch off the individual blower’s power supply.
2 Close the MAIN VALVE and positively ensure through the ‘VALVE CLOSED’ indication.
3 Switch off the MAIN POWER SUPPLY.
Note : The individual yellow lamps in the respective blowers and valves are for motor over-load
which are hooked up to FAULT INDICATION lamp at the PLC module. It should be reset with a
delay of 1 minute, if the FAULT INDICATION LAMP in PLC is due to ‘yellow lamps’( motor
overload).
Bypass The PLC During during Any Failure Of PLC To Operate Locally

Bypassing the PLC is not recommended. In case of emergency, points given under may be
followed (with full responsibility of IOCL) .
1. Please check the voltage “R” phase (control voltage) at terminal 3 of that particular soot-
blower.
2. If it is available after extending the line (“R” phase) by shorting the 3&5 (blower1), 8&10
(blower 2 ),13&15 (blower 3 ), 18&20 (blower 4), 23&25 (blower 5), 28&30 (blower 6), at JB-2,
terminal 5 of that particular soot-blower should get phase extension and “CF”(Forward

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 211
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Contact ) should pick up. If not, put a link between 4&5 of individual soot blowers. Now
the blower can be operated locally. If the “R” phase is not available at terminal 3, put a link
between 1&19 of that particular blower.

Cautions :
1. Terminal 3 connection from PLC T-3 to TB-3 of soot-blower-1 should be isolated before
carrying out point-3 of above.

2. Main steam valve should be opened to ensure the steam flow during blowing.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 212
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER-7

TASKS TO BE PERFORMED BY OPERATORS

7.1 Pump Operator

Pump Operation :
Check healthiness of running pump like the following:
Sl.No Observation Chapter 3 Action
1. a Low LO level on oil cup . Make up & ensure oil level in bearing.
LO color / contaminated with water / product Drain & replace it. Inform S/I or
maintenance
2. b LO leak from cup / bearing housing Inform PNE for attending the same by
maintenance
3. c Vibration / high bearing temperature Inform S/I. If abnormally high, C/O the
pump & inform S/I.
4. d Suction/discharge PGs not functioning Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
5. e Suction pressure low& pump load not increasing C/O pump, after informing to
PNE/Panel Operator.
6. f Bearing CW flow low Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
7. g High amperage of pump Throttle discharge after consulting
panel operator
8. h Uneven amperage of pumps running in parallel Adjust load by adjusting discharge
valve
9. i Seal flush cooler of hot pump leaking / CW line Inform PNE for attending it by
chocked maintenance
10. j Seal flush cooler-spherule leak  If leak is more, immediately
C/O the pump
 If leak is less, report to PNE for
attending it.
11. k Leakage from pump gland / seal Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance. Keep steam lancer if
required
12. l Heavy leakage from pump gland / seal Immediately C/O the pump & isolate
the leaky one. Inform Panel Opetator
& S/I , take the help of others.
13. m Seal quenching steam for hot pump is low / high Adjust the quenching steam flow rate
14. n Leak from suction and discharge flanges / valve Keep steam lancer & inform PNE for
gland etc attending it by maintenance

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 213
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

15. o Coupling guard is not properly fixed Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
16. p Abnormal sound from pump/motor Inform S/I for attending it by
maintenance
17. q Poor illumination in pump house Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
18. r Earthing of motor is not proper Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
19. s Seal quenching steam b/v gland leak Inform PNE for attending it by
maintenance
20. t Unit Start up/Shut down As per procedure, laid down in the
operating manual
21. u Emergency Handling As per procedure, laid down in the
operating manual
22. v LPG pump seal pot level low Inform PNE for suspected seal leak
23. w Check readiness of stand by pump in respect to proper line up (In case multi-service
pump), Proper warm up, shaft rotation, bearing CW flow, lube oil quality and seal
quenching steam flow is normal.
24. x Schedule change over of pumps as specified.
25. y Release of Pumps/Motors to maintenance following standard procedure.
26. Collection of routine & non – routing samples.

27. Checking of run down products samples as per schedule in normal operation and also
during unit start up and shut down.

28. Checking of any hydrocarbon leaks in the plant.


29. Off-site tank farm area jobs such as :
 Receiving hot oil in Tk.No.212/213 ex. AU-3/FPU-II Unit and continuous
supply to Udex for furnace Operation.
 Receiving slops ex AU-3 as and when required in Tk.No.214 and tank
preparation and processing in AU-3 Unit.
 Operation of Raffinate ( FGH feed tanks) tanks 209/210/211 as per
standard operation.
Release of tanks to M&I as and when required as per normal procedure
30. Logging of abnormalities and filling of pump house log book

31. During energisation and de-energisation of motor, motor to be checked by


switching ON along with S/S technician and subsequently TAGGING to be done

32. While getting pump strainers and seal flush coolers cleaned, complete isolation
and depressurization to ensured, and operator not to leave work place till

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 214
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

completion of job
33. Other jobs as and when asked by Shift In charge.

7.2 Field Operator

Sl.No Observation / Task Action


1. Check all unit rundown position Log in log book / display in board
2. Any change in product rundown to Update log book and display board
be informed to panel operator before
and after C/O
3. Check product colour Inform Panel operator for any abnormality.
4. Chemical dozing tank level becomes  Change over the tank with full one.
low  Top up / prepare solution in the empty
tank.
5. Chemical dosing tank level is steady  Check the performance of running
pump/motor
 If it not pumping, start the stand by pump
and observe change in tank level
 Check discharge PSV is popped up
 Report to PNE to attend it by maint.
6. Chemical dosing tank level is raising  Check whether the pump is developing a
required pressure or not
 If it is not developing, check discharge b/v
NRV passing
 Start the stand by pump, as per procedure
and observe tank level
 Report to PNE to attend it by maintenance
7. Preparation of Ahuralan solution:  Inform S/I to arrange to connect Ahuralan
(CI-corrosion inhibitor) drum.
 Transfer required amount of CI to tank
 Dilute with Naphtha (1:2 CI/Naphtha
ratio)
 Circulate solution for 3-4 hr.
 Adjust dozing to respective column top as
per requirement.
 Log in chemical register.
8. Preparation of Ammonia solution.  Take required quantity of DM water in
the tank.
 Dissolve one cylinder of Ammonia (40kg))
in it.
 Sprinkle water on ammonia cylinder for

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 215
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

fast condensation.
 When cylinder exhausted, mark it &
inform S/I to replace with maintenance
help.
 Log in chemical register.
 Adjust dozing to respective column top to
maintain PH, as per requirement
9. Preparation of caustic solution:  If fresh caustic tank is empty, line up the
tank & inform LPG S/I to start transfer
pump.
 After receiving required amount, inform
LPG S/I to stop the pump.
 Transfer required amount of fresh caustic
in the tank depending on the strength to
be prepared.
 Dilute / top up the tank with DM water up
to the required level.(Ammonia to DM
water Ratio= 3:7)
 Circulate the solution for 4 hrs.
 Collect the sample & inform S/I for
strength checking.
 Adjust dozing or replace spent caustic as
per requirement
 Log in chemical register.
10. Check PH of sour water. Adjust chemical dozing, if PH deviated
11. Water level in column over head Drain water. (Do not leave the place till draining
accumulator drum. is over)
12. All rundown temperature & pressure If any gauge is not working, inform to S/I.
to log.
13. Inlet / outlet TG / PG of heat Inform S/I to attend it by maintenance
exchanger / cooler / condenser not
working
14. Heat exchanger / cooler bypass valves Close the bypass valve after consulting S/I
are open
15. Heat exchanger and coolers As per procedure/checklist, heat
commissioning/decommissioning exchangers/coolers are to be
commissioned/decommissioned
16. Leak from floating head cover / Keep steam lancer & inform S/I to attend it by
flanges / block valve flange/gland maintenance
17. Excessive leak in heat exchanger Take assistance of others and bypass/isolate the
heat exchanger.
18. Abnormal change in HE inlet / outlet Inform to S/I

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 216
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

temperature
19. Abnormal change in HE pressure Inform to S/I.
drop.
20. Over head reflux drum pressure high Divert PCV outlet to flare by coordinating with
panel operator.
21. Any leak vessel & its piping, valves Inform S/I to attend it by maintenance
22. PSV passing Take stand by PSV inline. Isolate the passing PSV.
Inform S/I to attend it
23. Desalter desludging  1 hr in A – shift
 1 hr in B – shift
24. Desalter taking high amp- low  Check inter face level from tri-line
voltage  If level is more, inform panel to reduce level
 Or, do de-sludging for more time.
 Increase demulsifier dozing rate.
 Increase Mixer delta P.
25. Check brine color / oil in brine  Check inter face level from tri-line
 If level is low, inform panel to increase level
 Increase demulsifier dozing rate.
 Reduce mixing valve delta P.
 Inform PNE
26. Desalter brine is clear & demulsifier  Reduce dosing rate.
dosing rate is high
27. Desalter brine PH is high  Check the variation in stripper water PH
 Reduce caustic dosing to pre-desalter
 Inform to PNE/Panel operator about the
variation in stripper water PH
28. Liquid level in Flare KOD  Inform to panel operator
 Drain out liquid in CBD.
 If draining in OWS, Keep running water on it.
29. Defective pressure/temperature  Inform S/I to replace it.
gauge
30. Check proper tracing steam flow in  Inform S/I to attend if not sufficient.
Pre- fractionators & main
fractionators level instrument
31. Unit Start up/Shut down  As per procedure/check list, laid down in the
operating manual
32. Emergency Handling  As per procedure/check list, laid down in the
operating manual
 As directed by panel operator / shift in-charge
33. Any hydrocarbon leaks in the plant  Inform to S/I
 Keep a steam lancer at the location, if required

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 217
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

34. Fuel gas header pressure low  Increase oil firing by coordinating with panel
operator, if any margin exists.
 Adjust circulating refluxes to raise the preheat

35. Product / feed / gas sampling A per procedure product / feed / gas sampling to
be carried out

36. During energisation and de- motor to be checked by switching ON along


energisation of motor, with S/S technician and subsequently
TAGGING to be done

37. Other job As & when asked by shift in-charge.

7.3 Furnace Operator

Sl.No Observation Action


1. Furnace hazy, smoky burner.  If total furnace is hazy, ask to increase
combustion airflow from panel.
 If 1 or 2 burners are smoky, adjust the burners
by adjusting air registers, atomizing steam or
by stack damper.
2. COT is low Take more burners by consulting panel
operator.
3. Flame impingement  Adjust flame of particular burner.
 Inform S/I to attend the burner.
4. Skin temperature high at Check/adjust burner at that point. Inform S/I
particular point
5. COT & Skin temperature are high Reduce firing, if required cut off furnace
6. Dripping of oil from burner  Cut off oil, Flush with steam.
 If fire is there, extinguish with steam & keep
steam lancer there.
 Take the burner in gas firing.
 Inform to S/I to attend it.
7. FO return line is cold/congealed Open more return valve. Keep steam lancer on
return valve.
8. Convection zone / stack Do repeated soot blowing.
temperature high.
9. Soot blower not running/stuck up Switch off SB panel. Inform S/I to attend by
Maintenance
10. Oil / gas burner not getting lit Inform S/I to attend by Maintenance. Oil and

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 218
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

gas burner properly flushed and isolated before


releasing for cleaning
11. Local temperature, Feed inlet / Inform S/I to attend by Maintenance
outlet PGs & draft gauges are not
functioning
12. Hot spot in the tube or hanger Inform S/I
broken
13. Leak from flanges / valve gland Keep steam lancer on it. Inform S/I to attend
by Maintenance
14. Furnace-refractory bricks are Inform to S/I
falling down
15. PSV of soot blowing steam passing Ask to reduce steam pressure, if it is high.
Isolate the passing PSV & Take spare one in
line.
16. Stack damper / air register is not Inform S/I to attend by Maintenance
getting operated
17. Any hydrocarbon leaks in the  Inform to S/I
plant  Keep a steam lancer at the location, if required
18. VR not getting received  Inform PNE
 Check line up / its tracing steam
 If problem persists, line up RCO to surge drum
19. VR temperature high / low  Adjust steam to heater coil by furnace operator
20. Soot blowing of furnaces  In morning & evening shift.
 Inform panel man to open STD before starting
soot blowing
 If soot blowers are not functioning, inform S/I
to attend by respective maintenance group.
21. Raise in furnace arch temperature  Check stack damper opening
 Check for any air ingress inside the furnace
 Reduce the fuel gas consumption, if possible
 Adjust air register
 Adjust fuel oil burners

22. Check burner flame pattern  Adjust air, oil, steam etc wherever required.
 Check / keep close all peepholes. Inform S/I to
rectify the defective one.
 Check for any hot spot on the tubes. Report if
any.
 Check for any abnormality on furnace roof
(hole etc). Report to S/I for corrective action.
23. Check / record furnace draft  Adjust stack damper after consulting S/I

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 219
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

gauges wherever applicable.


24. Check / record furnace pass inlet  Inform S/I to rectify the defective PGs
& outlet pressure.
25. IFO tank  Check record IFO tank level
 Check healthiness of IFO pump
 If VR system fails, take IFO system in line (For
AU1/AU2)
 Line AU5 RCO to VR drum in case of VR
receiving fails from GHC
26. ID/FD fan Start/Stop  As per procedure, laid down in the operating
manual
27. Unit Start up/Shutdown  As per procedure/check list, laid down in the
operating manual
28. Emergency handling  As per procedure/check list, laid down in the
operating manual
29. ID/FD fan gear box lube oil top up  If lube oil level is low in gear boxes, top up
lube oil

30. ID/FD fan gear box lube oil  If leak is more, inform to PNE/Panel operator
dripping from lube oil cup/gear and take other FD fan in line. Incase of ID fan,
box inform to PNE/Panel operator and asked panel
operator to open stack damper and stop the ID
fan
 If leak is less, report to PNE to attend it by
maintenance
31.  ID/FD fan abnormal sound  If abnormal sound/ lube oil leak is severe,
from fluid coupling inform to PNE/Panel Operator and take other
chamber FD fan in line. Incase of ID fan, inform to
 Lube oil leak from fluid PNE/Panel operator and asked panel operator
coupling chamber to open stack damper and stop the ID fan
32. ID/FD fan abnormal sound from  If it is severe, inform to PNE/Panel Operator
motor and take other FD fan in line. Incase of ID fan,
inform to PNE/Panel operator and asked panel
operator to open stack damper and stop the ID
fan

 If not, go for frequent rounds till maintenance


crew look at the problem
33. ID/FD fan lube oil circulation  Compare local indication (temperature gauge)
temp. is high with DCS indication
 Check water circulation in lube oil cooler.
 If it is low, raise the cooling water

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 220
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

flow/Arrange for external cooling

 If stand by FD fan is available, take it in line by


coordinating with panel operator
 Incase of ID fan, stop ID fan by coordinating
with panel operator
 Report to PNE to attend it by maintenance
34. ID/FD fan lube oil cooler gasket  Report to PNE/Panel Operator
leak  If stand by is present, took other FD fan in line
immediately to avoid damage to
equipment/furnace tripping
 In case of ID fan, stop ID fan by coordinating
with panel operator.
35. ID/FD fan lube oil contamination  Check the lube oil quality in fluid coupling
in fluid coupling chamber chamber (water carry over)
 Report to PNE for any tube puncture in the
lube oil cooler
36. During energisation and de- motor to be checked by switching ON along
energisation of motor, with S/S technician and subsequently
TAGGING to be done

37. Cleaning of FO/FG strainers If strainer choked, change the filter and inform
to shift in charge to get it cleaned
38. Draft gauges healthiness Draft gauges to be get checked if any
suspicion arises
39. Other un expected job  As per guidance of shift in-charge

7.4 Panel Operator

Sl.No Observation Action


1. Desalter inter-phase level  Bring down the level by opening LDIC. If
high and amperage high required, open HIC.
 If water ingress is through crude, reduce DM
water injection.
 Inform crude control operator to drain water
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 221
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

from tank.
 Monitor column top pressure for any
pressurization
 As soon as level comes down, normalize
water injection.
2. Desalter pressure low, high  Check crude booster pump suction pressure
crude flow & pre-topping  Check the functioning of desalter pressure
column level going down controller
 Reduce jump over opening of furnace.
 Ask pump operator to start 3rd feed pump.
 Check desalter PSV for passing.
 Normalize jump over opening after
sometime.
3. Desalter effluent is not clear  Ask field operator to check the inter-phase level
from tri-line. If level is low & amperage is low,
increase level.
 Increase demulsifier dozing if required.
 If amperage & level are on higher side, ask field
operator to reduce Dp across mixing valve.
 If crude inlet temperature is too low, inform PNE to
arrange to increase it.
4. Voltage Is low & amperage  Stop DM water injection.
is high  Reduce inter-phase level.
 Ask field operator to check level from tri-line.
 Check effluent if level falls below 0.If crude starts
coming out, stop draining.
 Wait till voltage is normal. Resume water injection.
 Inform PNE to check from electrical angle by E/M
5. Desalter temperature too  Inform PNE.
high  If it is by particular crude, reduce T’Put after
consulting PNE.
 Check / close post desalter. Close all bypass if it is
opened.
6. Desalter temperature too  Inform PNE.
low  If it is by particular crude, open post desalter heat
exchanger bypass.
7. High salt content in desalter  Increase water injection rate, if it is low.
outlet  Ask field operator to increase Dp across mixing valve
& to increase demulsifier dozing.
8. Desalter tripped  Inform to PNE/sub-station to reset it
 If substation crew can’t identify the problem, inform

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 222
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

to Elect. Maint.
 In the mean while, reduce the DM water injection
 Keep a watch on desalter interphase level and
column top pressure
 If problem is not solved and unbearable situation
arises (raise in column top pressure and naphtha
coloration takes place), then unit to be kept in
circulation, as per procedure.
9. Brine water PH is high  Asked operator, to check stripper water PH
 Reduce caustic dosing to pre-desalter
 Inform to PNE about the variation in stripper water
PH
10. Brine water PH is low  Asked operator, to check stripper water PH
 Increase caustic dosing to pre-desalter
 Inform to PNE about the variation in stripper water
PH
11. High water content in  Reduce water injection rate, if it is high.
desalted crude  Ask PNE to reduce Dp across mixing valve.
12.  Maintain desalter outlet
salt content 1 – 1.7 ptb.
 Oil content in brine < 50
ppm.
 DM water injection 4
to 6 % of crude
 Desalter temperature
130 – 140 deg C
Fractionating column
13. Column level low  Check Level control valve malfunctioning. Reduce
rundown flow till level starts holding
 If crude (feed) flow is low, check feed pump. If pump
tripped, take stand by pump in line. Inform PNE /
substation to reset the tripped pump.
 If the pump not delivering proper pressure, ask pump
operator to change over the pump. Inform PNE to
clean the suction strainer of the pump.
 If battery limits feed line pressure is low, Inform
crude control for corrective action.
 Reduce T’put by reducing J/O opening / pass flow
 If crude flow is more then requirement, check
desalter PSV for passing.
 Normalize T’put after stabilization.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 223
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

14. Column level high  Check Level control valve malfunctioning. Increase
rundown flow till level starts holding / reducing.
 Inform PNE to check rundown tank line up in OMS.
 If bottom pump tripped, take stand by pump in line.
 Ask substation to reset the tripped pump.
 If rundown flow still restricts, reduce T’put till
normalized.
 If suction strainer of bottom pump is choked, take
stand by pump in line
 Check the desalter PSV
 Check the malfunctioning of any circulating reflux
c/vs
 In case of main fractionating column- check HSD,
SKO color. If colored ask to divert it in slop / or a
new low dip rundown tank.
 Incase of pre-topping column, ensure that sufficient
furnace feed flow is there in all passes. If not, cut off
the furnace.
 Check coking up of passes.
 Inform shift in charge for corrective action
15. Column bottom  Reduce reboiler / furnace COT.
temperature high  Optimize furnace pass flow
 Increase column bottom level.
16. Column bottom  Increase reboiler / furnace COT.
temperature low  Optimize furnace pass flow
 Reduce column bottom level to normal.
 Check desalter PSV
 Check any malfunctioning of circulating reflux c/vs
 Check water carryover with feed/reflux (in case of
stabilizer)
17. Column bottom pressure  Reduce column level..
high  Inform S/I to check level by instrument maintenance
18. Column bottom pressure  I
low  Check desalter PSV (for fractionating columns)
 Check any malfunctioning of circulating reflux c/vs
 Check water carryover with feed (in case of
stabilizer)
19. Column top temperature  Increase top reflux flow.
high  If flow limiting (For fractionating column) Increase /
adjust all pump around flow.
 If flow limiting (For pre-topping, stabilizer etc)

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 224
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

check reflux temperature. Inform PNE to reduce


reflux temperature by taking more condensers in line
or by lowering CW supply temperature from water
block.
 Where air cooler is there, switch on one or two air
coolers.
 Reduce T’Put or light crude processing (in case of
mix crude processing.
 Inform S/I.
20. Column top temperature  Reduce top reflux flow.
low  For fractionating column adjust all pumps around
flow.
 Check any malfunctioning of circulating reflux c/vs
 For pre-topping, stabilizer etc, checks reflux
temperature. If it is too low, inform PNE to increase
reflux temperature by isolating a condensers
 If air cooler is there, switch off one or two air
coolers.
21. Column top pressure high  If controller malfunctioning, take it on manual mode
& control manually. Inform PNE to attend it.
 If required, in some cases, open controller / PSV
bypass.
 Check any malfunctioning of circulating reflux c/vs
 Reduce COT / cut off re-boiler if column bottom
temperature is too high.
 If air fin cooler exists, switch off one or two air
coolers.
 If column level is full, bring down level either by
reducing t’put or increasing bottom product flow.
 Increase top temperature.
22. Product draw temperature  Adjust product draw flow (Increase or decrease) as
high or low per laboratory result.
 If product draw temp is low, check for flooding
 If flooding takes place, draw off more amount of
lighter product from the tray above the flooded tray.
 If product draw temperature is high, drop the
product from the top tray exactly above the dry tray.
23. Main fractionators column  Adjust Kero / HSD pump around flow / temperature.
flash zone temperature high  Adjust furnace COT if required.
/ low  Check desalter PSV (for fractionating columns)
 Check any malfunctioning of circulating reflux c/vs

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 225
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

24. Stabilizer feed temperature  Check control valve malfunctioning.


low / high  If required take the C/V on hand wheel.
 Inform PNE to attend it by maintenance.
 Check the stabilizer bottom temp.
 Check any raise in feed flow/reflux drum level
25. RCO yield  Maintain stripping steam flow/raise in reboiler temp.
maximum possible with respect to T’put.
 Recover maximum HSD and keep product quality ok.
 Raise COT, if any margin exists.
 Maintain low over flash. To minimizing RCO yield.
26. LPG recovery  Adjust reflux temperature 40 to 45 degC
 Adjust stabilizer bottom temperature so the reflux
ratio is maintained between 2 to 2.5
27. Furnace soot blowing  Open stack damper
 Take ID fan opening HIC in manual mode
 After opening stack damper, inform to furnace
operator for soot blowing
 After completion of soot blowing job (ensured by
furnace operator and himself), close the stack damper
 Asked the field operator to check the furnace.
 Take ID fan opening HIC in cascade with O2%
28. ID /FD fan start up/stop  As per procedure laid down in the operating manual
29. Unit start up & shut down  As per procedure
30. Emergency  As per emergency handling procedure.
31. Drum level low / high  Check controller malfunctioning
32. VR not getting received  Inform PNE
 Inform GRE/GHC
 If problem persists, line up RCO to surge drum
33. VR temperature high / low  Adjust steam to heater coil by furnace operator
34. Drum pressure low / high  Check vessel split range control valve/level
controller
 Take on manual mode
 Inform PNE to attend it by maintenance
35. Steam flash drum pressure  Isolate MP steam to flash drum outlet LP steam
high header if it is lined up.
36. Steam flash drum level high  Check controller malfunctioning
 Check about its line up in AU1 DM water tank.
37. FG header pressure low  If any margin exists in oil firing, increase oil firing
and reduce gas firing
 If not, consult S/I & RSM and line up LPG vaporizer
by field operator.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 226
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Maintain gas header pressure, as per requirement


38. LPG reflux drum boot water  Open boot water SDV
draining  After completion of draining (ensured by field
operator), SDV automatically gets closed.
 Counter check with DCS and field.
Quality Control
39. LPG weathering high / low  Decrease / increase stabilizer top temperature after
consulting PNE
 Check reflux ratio. If it not optimum, adjust
stabilizer bottom temperature.
40. SKO flash point low/ high  Adjust Kero stripping steam
 Adjust main fractionators top temperature as
applicable
 Adjust top CR flow
41. SKO IBP low/ high  Adjust H.Naphtha draw
 Adjust Kero CR flow
42. SKO FBP low/ high  Increase / decrease SKO draw
43. HSD flash point low / high  Adjust HSD stripping steam
 Adjust main fractionators top temperature as
applicable.
 Adjust HSD CR
 Increase/decrease SKO draw (if permissible), after
consulting PNE
44. HSD pour point low / high  Increase / decrease HSD draw
45. HSD 95% recovery low /  Increase / decrease HSD draw
high  Adjust HSD CR flow
46. Sour water PH is high/low  Reduce/increase ammonia injection to column over
head line
47. RCO Recovery is high (15-  If any margin exists in main column stripping steam
25%) (with respect to T’Put), increase column stripping
steam flow
 Raise COT, if margin exists.
 Raise HSD with draw rate by keeping the required
quality
 Keep minimum over flash flow
48. Product colored  Ask pump operator to check color at draw pump
vent.
 If it is colored at pump, ask instrument to check
fractionator bottom level. Taking RCO R/D
controller on manual mode, pump out more to
reduce level. Ask pump operator to check RCO

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 227
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

pump load, if required start 2nd pump.


 Divert the colored product to slop tank.
 If color is normal at pump, ask to check color at each
heat exchanger outlet. Identify & isolate the leaky
heat exchanger.
49. Logging of parameters  Any deviation to be informed to shift in charge
50. Monitoring of  Any alarm of high vibration of any rotary equipment
abnormality of rotating , High seal pot pressure of pump appears on DCS,
equipments pump/field and S/I to be alerted
51. DCS system Any DCS/PLC system alarm appears S/I and concern
ITE to be alerted
52. Gas detectors If any gas detector alarm appears, concern area
operator and S/I to be alerted
53. Pump change over Total attention t be given to concern parameters
while getting pump change over done
54. Exchanger hand over/take Clearance to be given for take over& hand over after
over adjusting the parameters(if required). Abnormal
change in any other parameter to be reported to S/I
55. Monitoring of furnace All critical parameters like skin temperature/ box
temperatures are to be monitored closely. Any
deviation to be informed to S/I. Heat load to be
adjusted to keep all parameters in within limit
56. Interlocks All Inter locks shall be kept in line, In case of
emergency and unit upset interlock can be
bypassed in consultation with S/I. Secondary
measures to be taken for bypassed interlocks.
Closed monitoring shall be ensured regarding
parameters which are related to bypassed
interlocks
57. Coordination with RSM/ In case of water ingression in crude RSM/GR
Offsite crude C/R to be contacted for action at their
end.
During product routing RSM/OMS(R) to be
contacted
58. Data preparation and Daily material balance and utility balance sheet
communication to be prepared as specified, The same to be
communicated to PNM/RSM/CPNM
59. Other job  As & when asked by shift in-charge.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 228
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 229
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER – 8

NORMAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURE

8.1 INTRODUCTION

In this section, procedure for normal i.e. planned shutdown is discussed. While shutting down all
process units simultaneously or any section of the process unit, care should be taken not to admit air
into the system until all hydrocarbon vapours have been removed.

Care should be taken for any sharp drop in temperature to avoid thermal stresses in piping and
equipment. All related process units, utilities and of sites should be kept informed well in advance
about the shut down planning. It is to be ensured that a slop tank and one crude tank having
sufficient space are available to receive the slop/off spec material. Closed blow down drum should
be emptied out and should be kept ready to receive hydrocarbons draining/flushing from
equipment. Flushing oil should be made available in adequate quantity and adequate pressure.
Ensure Passivation solution availability.

The following steps are involved for carrying out the normal shutdown safely:

 Preliminary preparation
 Throughput Reduction
 Bypassing of Desalter & decommissioning
 Discontinue chemical Injection
 Cooling of Furnaces
 Shutdown stabilizer
 Pumping Out
 Gas Oil Flushing
 Depressurization & Steaming
 Passivation Of heater tubes & Coking as per requirement
 Opening Of Equipments.

8.2 PRELIMINARY PREPARATION


The following prerequisites for normal shutdown are to be fulfilled.

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


(a) Top up SRGO in intermediate tank TK-212 for flushing. Pump Operator
Field Operator
(b) Ensure column drains are clear from down-stream of drain valves

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 230
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


up to open ends. Pump Operator

(c) Keep intermediate tank TK-214 empty for holding off grade Shift In-Charge
material during shutdown.
Shift In-Charge
(d) Inform FPU-I to prepare 125 M3 of passivation solution (2%
Sodium Carbonate & 0.5% Sodium Nitrate solution). Field Operator

(e) Ensure 300 NM3 Nitrogen availability from GRSPF for


Passivation of the heater tubes and transfer lines.
Shift In-Charge
(f) Keep the underground tank empty and ensure its inlet line from
equipments clear. Check performance of underground vessel
pumps H-18/H-19 and offer it to M/M for functionality.

(g) Inform OM&S to line up a separate tank for AU3 as to receive off
grade RCO, crude & slop oil & flushing oil during the shut down
procedure.

(h) Inform RSM, AU-I, AU-II, CRU, GRE, GRSPF, GHC, OM&S, Shift In-Charge
Crude Control, TPS, SS-4, Water Block and Laboratory about
shutdown timing.

8.3 DECOMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


1. Wide open the mixing valves at desalter inlet by manually
operating 3MV1001 & 3MV1002 so that steady desalted crude
pump suction pressure is ensured.
2. Raise desalter inter-phase level up to 80% and bypass the desalters Panel/
just before starting the throughput reduction. While raising the Field
inter-phase levels turn off the desalter (transformers) at 40% level. Operator

*Note- Get the desalters electrically isolated by SS-4. Then start


draining desalters. Inform CETP and RSM prior to this
3. Drain desalter in close blow down system(CBD). Desalter can be
kept filled with Gas oil and can be isolated after draining. Keep
desalter pressure around 0.3 kg/cm 2 when it is idle.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 231
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8.4 THROUGHPUT REDUCTION

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


(a) Stop imported crude processing, if any, and start reducing throughput Crude
in steps to the level of 4500 MTPD. Cont Opt.
Panel /
*Note-2. Make adjustments on all operating variables so that normal
pressure and temperature conditions are maintained.

(b) Line up to route E-2 Naphtha, K-4 bottom to General Naphtha/GOP Field Opt
Naphtha via AU1/AU4.

(c) During throughput reduction reduce hot stream flow through E-106 Panel/
reboiler as feed flow to K-4 reduces to maintain bottom temperature at Field Opt
K-4.
(d) Take furnaces F1, F2 on Natural draft & F-3 on forced draft. Panel /Furn.
Opt
(e) Reduce the throughput further to about 4000 MTPD in two hours
adjusting firing in furnaces. Panel/
*Note-furnace interlocks to be bypassed during T’put reduction. Furnace
Operator
(f) During throughput reduction, product shall go off. Route the product
as follows :
1. SK to SK or HSD as per colour Field
2. HSD to intermediate tank /OM&S Operator
3. E-2 naphtha, K-4 bottom to General Naphtha/GOP Naphtha via
AU1/AU4.
4. RCO to OM&S.

8.5 COOLING

JOB DESCRIPTION Action by

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 232
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action by


(a) Stop Kero and SRGO circulating reflux (when T’put is 4000 MTPD). Panel / Pump
Opt
(b) Start reducing F-1/F-2 /F-3 COT @ 40 0C per hour slowly to 300 0C.
Panel/
(c) At 300 C COT, cut off gas firing and close the individual B/V to Furnace
0

furnaces. Keep pilot burner on and depressurize gas header through a Opt
burner whose oil burner is still on. Get blinds inserted on FG lines to Panel/
F-1/ F-2 and F-3 after FG control valves for individual furnaces. Furnace Opt

(d) When K-1/K-2 bottom temperature comes to 240 0C, cut off stripping
steam to K-1,K-2,K-6A/B and K-3A/B & K-3C. Isolate 4-ata steam
PRC 3PC3205 and 3-ata steam PRC 3PC3701. Panel/
Field Opt
(e) Stop injection of all chemicals.

*Note-1. Stop Caustic injection pumps H-25/26 & isolate caustic injection
to desalted crude. Field
2.Stop Demulsifier injection pump H-29/29A & isolate the valve to crude Operator
inlet.
3. Stop Ammonia injection pump H-30/31 & isolate the ammonia
injection to overhead vapour lines of K1/K2.
4.Stop Corrosion inhibitor pump H-21A/B/C/D after stopping the
ammonia injection pumps & isolate injection to K1/K2/K4 vapour lines.
5.Isolate the vessels including cylinders & drums, which contain
chemicals. Depressurise & drain pumps including calibration pots.

(f) Bring the route H2/2A/2B/2C  HE trains  K-1  HE ckt  F-


1/F-2/F-3  K-2 on hot circulation after ensuring that RCO coolers
outlet temperature is around 50--55 0C and not above. For hot
circulation close battery limit isolation valve on crude line and
simultaneously open circulation line valves on RCO line. Field
Operator
(g) The firing in F-1/F-2/F-3 is gradually being reduced, E-1 and E-2
gasoline make shall start decreasing and feed to K-4 will come down.
Put K-4 on close circulation through thermo-siphon reboiler E-106
using pump H-14. Any excess material built up in K-4, route it to
General Naphtha. Also route E-2 gasoline to General Naphtha/GOP
Naphtha via Au1/Au4. Furnace/Pum
p Op

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 233
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action by


(h) Continue reduction of COT in all three furnaces and when the same Panel/Furnac
is 200 OC, cut off firing. Flush out each burner with steam soon after e Op
stopping oil. Keep the flue gas dampers and air registers open, and
keep the fuel oil return valves of each header crack open so that fuel
oil circulation through each side is still on.

(i) Purge the fireboxes thoroughly with steam for at least fifteen minutes Furnace Opt
in the furnaces. Field / Pump
*Note-Continue the circulation for about 2 hours after cutting off firing Operator
(cold circulation).

8.6 SHUTDOWN OF NAPHTHA STABLIZER (K4)

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


1. Inform LPG downstream unit about discontinuing LPG Shit In-
production Charge
2. During T’put reduction reduce hot steam to E-106 to maintain Panel/
bottom temp as the feed to K-4 reduces. Also reduction to Field Opt
F1/F2/F3 COT will further decrease the feed to K-4 column.
3. Decascade atmospheric reflux drum level controller (3LC3202) Panel Opt
from stabilizer feed controller (3FC3203)
4. Decascade stabilizer column top temperature controller Panel Opt
(3TC3603) from reflux flow controller (3FC3601). Increase top
reflux to stabilizer & cut off LPG R/D (3FX3604) from reflux
drum level controller (3LC3602).
5. Reduce the column top pressure very gradually by operating Panel Opt
3PC3601.
*Note-Care must be taken to reduce the pressure very slowly to
avoid lifting of heavy ends to the top and sudden release of heavy
components to fuel gas system, which may condensate in fuel gas
system afterwards.
6. Reduce further the heating medium to K4 bottom reboiler (E106) Panel Opt
by operating 3TC3605.
7. Pump out stabilizer top reflux drum liquid to stabilizer till reflux Panel Opt
pump looses suction.
8. Keep receiving feed to stabilizer till atmospheric column (K1) Panel /Field
starts operating on total reflux in course of shut down & then cut Opt
off feed to stabilizer. Close the isolation valve in the stabilizer
feed line.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 234
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


9. By utilizing the available pressure empty out the stabilizer bottom Panel /Field
to slops storage tank & maintain stabilizer bottom level. Keep a Opt
watch on run down steams, as it may contain lighter compounds,
which may create problem in slop tank.
10. To facilitate emptying out, top pressure control valve of the Panel /Field
column may be closed or loss of pressure can be made up form Opt
external FG supply. Heating up bottom contents can also be done
if necessary to build up pressure for this purpose. Care must be
exercised to prevent gas break through from stabilizer column to
storage tank due to sudden loss of level in stabilizer bottom while
emptying out.

11. Reduction in stabilizer column pressure, naphtha flow and Panel /Field
stabilizer bottom level will all indicate completion of the Opt
emptying out of the column. After emptying out, isolate the
column by shutting off valve on the inlet and outlet streams and
then depressurize slowly by releasing to flare through
depressurizing valve.
12. After depress rinsing, residual liquid in column, piping exchanger Field Opt
will be drained to CBD or OWS.
*Note- LPG should not be drained to CBD or OWS in large
quantity, as it may flash in the way.

8.7 PUMPING OUT

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By

(a) Empty out reflux vessels in respective columns Field / Pump


opt
(b) Stop cold circulation. Field / Pump
Opt
(c) Empty out K-1 with the help of H-41A/B/C to K-2 till pump loses Field/
suction. Pump opt
(d) Empty out K-2 with the help of H-11/H-11A/42 to Separate RCO Field / Pump
Tank in OM&S. Opt

* Empty columns till their bottom pump lose suction. Pump opt

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 235
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

8.8 GAS OIL FLUSHING

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


(a) Carry out gas oil flushing of crude and RCO circuits as follows. All
Operators
i. Gas oil from TK-212 Pump H-101 crude pump suction
preheat exchangers (crude side) with desalters bypassed K-1 up
to(100% level) H-41 A/B/C.

ii. H-41ABC F-1/F-2/F-3 K-2( 30 min for F-1, keep u/s b/v’s of
F-2/F-3 pass c/v’s closed and then 30 min in turns for F-2 & F-3 in a
similar manner)  [ F-1/F-2 Jump-over  K-2 (10 min) ].

iii. K-2 H-11/11A/42  RCO heat exchangers/T-16/A/B/C/D/E


coolers circulation line OM&S Tank

*Note-During gas flushing of crude & RCO line E1/E2/E4/K4 to be Field / Pump
emptied & depressurized. Opt

(b) Check the sample at RCO sample point near CBD vessel pit. If it is Pump
clear gas oil, route flushed gas oil through: Operator
i. RCO to OM&S
ii. RCO to FPU-I hot and cold
iii. RCO to FPU -II hot and cold
iv. IFO to AU-4 & Job-50

(c) Empty out K-1/K-2 till pump loses suction.

*Note- 1. The better the displacement /dilution of heavy oil from the All
system, the better and quicker will be the subsequent steam /water Operators
flushing of columns. Hence, this flushing should be properly done.

2. Bypass valve of all control valves including furnace pass flow C/Vs, heat Field/
exchangers and coolers in the system under flushing should be kept crack Furnace
open to flush out bypass loops also. Operator

8.9 DEPRESSURISATION AND STEAMING

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


(a) Get blinds from column vents and drains removed. M/M

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 236
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


(b) Get blind from furnace F-1 radiation section interconnection M/M /
removed and get hose connection done from this to drain the Furnace Opt
material. Do it for F-2 and F-3 also.

(c) Depressurise the columns K-1 into fuel gas system, then to the flare Panel/
system and finally to the atmosphere by opening column vent valves.
Field Opt
(d) Depressurise K-2 first to flare and then into the atmosphere through
vent valve. Field
Operator
(e) Pump out products from all vessels to minimum level till pumps lose
Field/Pump
suction and then drain out rest. Depressurise vessels to flare and then
Opt
to atmosphere.

(f) Close all overhead condenser (T-7A/B, T-8A/B/C/D, T-9A/B) inlet


Field
B/Vs.
Operator
*Note- Get Blinds from Purging /Service steam line of K-1/K-2/K-4 &
E1/E2/E4 removed & also from vent & drain lines.

(g) Keep F-1 pass flow C/V d/s B/V and bypass B/V closed. Start coil
All Operators
purging in F-1 only. Displace gas oil to K-2. Stop steaming in F-1.
Empty out K-2 by running H-11/11-A/H-42 till pump loses suction.
Start steaming of F-1 coil again. Check for any level builds up, empty
out K-2 after stopping steaming till pump loses suction. Open F-1 coil
drain B/V, start steaming of coil and continue steaming till clear
steam comes out from coil drain. Now start steaming F-2 coils and
displace gas oil to K-2. Empty out K-2 simultaneously by H-
11/11A/42 till pump loses suction. Continue steaming of F-2 coils till
clear steam appears from transfer line drain. Now start steaming F-3
coils and displace gas oil to K-2. Empty out K-2 simultaneously by H-
11/11A/42 till pump loses suction. Continue steaming of F-3 coils till
clear steam appears from F-3 transfer line drain and K-2 column

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 237
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


drain.

With the steam on, light pilot burners and main burner on each side of
the furnace (open gas to Unit valve) and maintain a COT of 2000C to
avoid condensation of steam inside the coils. Open service steam in K-1,
K-4, and stripping steam into K-2 and K-3A/B, K-3C & K-6A/B.

Note :

i. Keep K-1 bottom pumps (H-41A/B/C) suction valves closed and


Pump
discharge valves drains open. Due to passing of NRVs (if they are
Operator
passing) steam is expected to come out from the pump drains.

ii. Keep K-1 and K-2 vents full open and steam flushing should be
Field
regulated so as to maintain a pressure around 1 kg/cm2(g) in K-1 and
Operator
0.5 kg/cm2(g) in K-2.

(h) Keep furnace coil drain valves and transfer line vent valve open.
Furnace
When clear steam comes, put off firing in furnace. Depressurise fuel
Operator
gas line through burner and blind main gas line valve at battery limit.

(i) Proceed for passivation as per the procedure given under that head.
Once coil purging with steam is stopped, close K-1 bottom pumps
discharge valves to avoid loss of inert gas during passivation. Pump
Operator
(j) Carry out steam and air decoking as per standard
procedure.(Available in Chap.- 5.2.12 , 5.2.13 for F1/F2 & Chap.-
5.3.10 for F3) Panel/

(k) After emptying out all the vessels, columns, close all rundown block Furnace
valves and get all run down lines blinded as listed below: Operator

i. LPG Field
Operators
ii. GOP/General naphtha line to OM&S via Au1 & Au4 & also raffinate

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 238
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


ex UDEX line.

iii. Kero line to OM&S

iv. HSD/SKO after E-315

v. Cold RCO to OM&S (6”), Hot RCO to FPU-I and

FPU-II, Cold RCO to FPU-I & II.

vi. Gas away line at battery limit.

vii. Flare line (battery limit)

l) Drain out individual exchangers and other equipments into


underground vessel E-8 and prepare equipments for handing over to Field
maintenance as per standard procedure. Temperature of material Operator
being drained should not be more than 50-55 OC . Keep both shell
and tube side vents of exchangers open for proper draining.

m) Empty out underground vessel E-8 with the help of pump H-18 and
H-19 and give clearance to OMS to close RCO R/D tank valve
Pump
Operator

8.10 PASSIVATION OF F1/F2/F3

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


1. Line up Inert gas (IG) Ex CRU up to F1/F2/F3 passes Field Opt
2. After confirming that dry steam is coming from K-2 transfer line Field Opt
HPV, start taking IG & displace in F1/F2/F3 keeping only one
ring of HPV open.
*Note- Allow IG to come out from HPV for 15 minutes
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 239
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


3. Blinding of K2 feed entry in Presence of IG MM
4. Fill F1/F2/F3 coil with passivation solution one by one. Allow Field Opt
passivation solution to come out of HPV for 5 –10 minutes.
5. Let F1/F2/F3 coils soak with passivation solution.
6. Drain passivation solution exit F1/F2/F3 coil from coil bottom Field Opt
drain
7. If Needed steam spalling & coking to be as per procedure Field/Fur/
Panel Opt

*Note-
NORMAL STARTUP PROCEDURE FOR :

1.M&I – Follow steps from 6.2 to 6.10.

2.Bottle up condition- Follow steps from 6.2 to 6.9

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 240
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER - 9

NORMAL START UP PROCEDURE

INTRODUCTION

Start up and shut down are the most critical periods in operation of any process unit. It is then that
the hazardous possibilities for fire and explosion are highest. Start up and normal operating
procedures are described in this section.

The hazards encountered most frequently in start up and shut down of units are accidental mixing
of air and hydrocarbons and contacting of water with hot oil. Other hazards primarily associated
with start up are excessive pressure, vacuum and thermal/mechanical shocks. These can result in
flares, explosions, destructive pressure surges and other damages to unit as well as injury to
personal.

Fires occur when oxygen and fuel vapour or mists are mixed in flammable proportions and come in
contact with an ignition source. They may run out of control or touch off devastating explosive.
Pressure surge from unplanned mixing of water and hot oil may cause damage of equipment and/or
loss of valuable production.

Preparation for start-up begins with a complete review of the start-up procedure by the operating
crew.

Start up of the unit involves the following consecutive phases.


 Preparation of the unit
 Removal of air for the process systems
 Tightness testing to prevent leakage
 Backing in fuel gas to prevent air ingress
 Cold circulation for removal of water
 Hot circulation
 Bringing the unit on stream

9.1 PRELIMINARY PREPARATION

The following prerequisites for normal start-up are to be fulfilled.

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1 Check all the equipments for mechanical completion All Operators
2 Check that blinds are installed/removed as per master blind list except All Operators
for fuel oil and fuel gas lines, which will be de-blinded before furnace
firing

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 241
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3 Ensure that all PSV’s are boxed up properly & lined up as per P& ID All Operators
stipulation.
*Note- For K1 & K2 all PSV’s are to line up. All other column & vessel
at least one PSV is to be lined up.
4 All instruments should be in position and calibrated All Opt./IM
*Note- All Control Valve should be kept on Manual Mode as far
possible
5 Try out individual pumps without load, after routine check-up of the Pump
pump and the motor. Ensure correct direction of rotation of the Operator
motors. Keep all motors energized
6 All fire fighting equipments like fire extinguishers, steam hoses All Operators
should be in position
7 Commission all the utilities. Circulation water to be commissioned Field
keeping individual cooler/condenser isolation valve closed Operator
8 Flare, closed blow down, oily water sewer and flushing oil systems Field
are to be in operable condition Operator
9 All related agencies as detailed below should be informed about start Shift
up: In Charge
 TPS
 Water Block/CETP
 RSM/Fire Station
 GRE/GR Crude Controls/OM&S/GHC
 Laboratory
10 Surface drain of the Unit should be routed to OWS, and towards open Fur/Field
channel should be closed Operator
11 Area should be cleared of debris, scrap material etc All Opt./
Maint. Group
12 Commission steam to all steam tracers. All Opt./IM
13 Receive slop cut/ VR in unit fuel oil tanks VR drum/E-6/E-7 to keep Furnace
these full. Establish IFO circulation. Operator
14 Prepare caustic, ammonia and demulsifier solutions and keep the Field
same ready. Operator

9.2 AIR REMOVAL & PRESSURE TEST

Air from various equipment piping etc. is eliminated by steaming of various sections of the unit to
expel air can be carried out simultaneously or in a convenient sequence. The following basic points
should be taken care during steaming of the equipment systems:

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 242
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Cooling water to the condensers and product coolers to be isolated and


water should be drained out from the condensers, coolers etc.
(This is to avoid condensation of steam in large quantity in these equipment due to flow of
cooling media, i.e. cooling water. It may lead to frequent hammering in unit equipment)
 Keep waterside vents and drains of condensers/cooler opened.
 Keep instrument tapping like PT, FT etc. isolated from main process piping.
 Electric supply to the desalter should remain cut off.

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1 Keeping all vents and drains at columns, furnaces and HEs open introduce Fur/Field
steam at following locations: Operator
a) Crude pumps' common discharge line
*All the CVs bypass B/V to be crack opened to remove air from bypass
line.
b) Service steams for K-1, K-4, E-1, E-2 and E-4
c) Stripping steam to K-1, K-6A/B, K-2, K-3A/B and K-3C
*Note: 1.Steam to be introduced at a slow rate to avoid any damage to
column internals.
2. Vigorously steam for at least 4 hours and then shut off crude column
vent. Allow steam to vent from atmospheric column reflux drum
d) Purging steam to furnace coils
*Note: Pilot burners and if required gas burners can be lit to maintain
heater box temp around 200OC to avoid steam condensation and
hammering in furnace coils
e) Hoses at Heat exchangers
1.1 Open fire box purging steam and purge for at least 15 minutes. Fur/Field
Simultaneously get the blinds from fuel gas line removed Operator
1.2 Light all the pilot burners in F-1/F-2/F-3, one by one. For this, switch on Fur/Field
the igniter for 5 to 10 seconds and open pilot gas valve of the same. Ensure Operator
that the first burner gets ignited immediately, otherwise close the gas
valve, switch off the igniter and purge the furnace again
1.3 The low point drains of pipes and equipment should be kept open to Field
remove condensate. Operator
*Note- 1.During initial steaming, line rust etc. may frequently keep
coming and chocking the drains. Special care should be taken to ensure
that none of the drain points are chocked due to accumulation of foreign
material. High point vent should also be opened for air removal
2. No steam condensate should be allowed to accumulate inside unit
equipment.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 243
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

2 Pressurize K-1, K-4, E-1 and E-4 up to 1.0 kg/cm2 (g), and K-2, and E-2 up Field
to 0.5 kg/cm2 (g) for 2 hrs. Operator
3 Check all the columns, vessels from top to bottom for any leakages All Operators
(Including flanges, nozzles & instrument tapings). If any leaks observed
get it attended
4 Steam Following Circuits: Fur/Field
Operator
I. Crude pumps' discharge to K-1 bypassing desalters

Pump H-2/2A/2B/2C3PC3101
3TV3125AE102A/B(S)E103A(T)/E103B(T)HM3A/B(T) E104A/B(S))-*DS-O

3TV3125BE301A/B(S)E302A/B/C(T)E303(S)E305(S)-----------  DS-N
(Desalter is to be kept bypassed)

*3TV3102A/3TV3102B
E320(T)HM3E/F(T)HM3C/D(T)HM3A/B(T)-------- 3FC3110K1
 
E306A/B(T)E307(S)E308A/B/C(T)--------
* Note- Desalter air removal & pressure testing will be done separately by connecting steam hose to crude
outlet line.
II. F-1/F-2/F-3 to K-2
H-41A/B/C E317A/B (S)E309A/B/C (S)F1/F2/F3K2

III. SK, HSD and RCO run-down circuit-

SKO + Kero-1 R/D circuit-


PumpH-10/10AE303(T)3FC3111E301A/B(T)T-14AR/D
3FC3208 P-305A/B Pump

HSD + K-3A Nap + K-6A Nap R/D circuit-


Pump H-4/5AE306A/B(T)E305(T)E311(T)TC31313FC3135
E102A/B(T)E315(S)R/D
3FC3210P304A/B/C pump

RCO R/D circuit-


H-11/11A/H-42E09C(T)E309A/B(T)
HMA/B (S)HMC/D (S)HME/F (S) E320A/B (S)*
E308A/B/C (S)E302A/B/C (S)---HV1001B----
*HM3A/B ((S)E103B (S)/E103A (S)—HV1001A--------------------- R/D Hot T16/16A/B/C/D/ER/D
Cold

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 244
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

IV. CR-I to K-1 & CR-II (SKO), CR-III (SRGO) to K-2 circuit-

CR-II Circuit-
Pump P-302A/BE104A/B(T)3TC31303FC3502K-2

CR-III + CR-1 Circuit-


Pump P307A/B3TC3505E317A/B(T) E307(T)----K-2
E313(S)
K-1CR-1 CR-1K1
*Note- 1.Steaming is to be done in one direction & steaming to be
continued till last vent point temp reaches 1000C or till clear steam starts
coming out from all vents (clear steam venting for at least four hours shall
be an indication of fairly good air removal).
2. Eliminate air through all exchanger vent points and drain out
condensate from all exchanger low points.
5 Close all vents and adjust pressure to 0.5 kg/cm2. Field
Operator

9.3 GAS BACKUP

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1 Throttle steam and start backing fuel gas into system to E-1, E-2 and Field/Panel
E-4 (from bypass of C/V) & to columns from reflux drums Operator
*Note- Pressure surges during fuel gas backing-up should be avoided.
Ensure that all vents are closed and properly capped before FG back
up.
2 Stop steam completely and ensure no vacuum is generated Fur/Field
Operator
3 Stop main gas burners in all furnaces & keep all pilot burners on. Fur/Field
Operator
4 When gas starts coming from drains close all the drain valves. Field
*Note- All the drain points to be monitored and not to be left Operator
unmanned. As soon as gas comes from the drain close the drain valve.
5 Continue condensate draining (repeat every ½ hour) of system from Field
all low point drains till system is free of condensate. Operator
6 Ensure that system pressure does not exceed 0.5 kg/cm2 for K2 & E2 & Field
1.0 kg/cm2 for K1, E1, K4 & E4 Operator
7 Get all vents blinded/capped Field
Operator/M
M
8 Stop gas back to system & line up C/Vs to gas away/flare. Field
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 245
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

Operator

9.4 COLD CIRCULATION

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1 Commission all instruments, alarms and control valves & check the Panel
interlock wherever possible. Operator
2 Get one tank lined up at Crude Control exclusively for AU-3 Shift
In Charge
3 Line up equipments as follows: Field/Pump
Crude Tank  Crude Pumps  crude preheat Exchangers  Operator
Desalters with vents open.
4 Fill up desalters completely. Expel air from vents completely. Settle Field/Pump
water and drain keeping vent valve open. Again receive the crude Operator
and top up Desalter.
*Note- Keep Desalter in line as surge vessel. Desalter not to be
energised.
5 Keeping Desalters in line receive crude and fill up K-1 slightly below Field/Pump
100% level shown by bottom LC. Settle water and drain it from Operator
column bottom drain and H-41 A/B/C drains
6 Start H-41A/B/C, transfer crude from K-1 to E-317A/B E- All
309A/B/C F-1/F-2/F-3 (one by one in turn for 15 minutes each and Operators
then all) to K-2 for about 45 minutes and build up 70% level in K-2
and make up crude level in K-1 by crude pumps H-2/2A/2B/2C. Then
stop both crude pumps and K-1 bottom pumps. Settle water; drain the
same from K-1/K-2 bottom drains and H-41A/B/C as well as H-
11/11A/42 pumps drains
7 Close crude battery limit valve. Start H-11/11A/42 and pump through Field/Pump
RCO circuit, circulation line, crude pump suction, crude preheat Operator
exchanger trains to K-1. During this keep heat exchangers T-2C T-3
and E-308A/B/C RCO side drain valve open till crude comes out.
Settle crude in K-1 and drain- for 2 hrs (If required make up K-2 level
by running H-41A/B/C again).
8 Establish cold circulation as following All
Crude pump (H2/2A/2B/2C)  Crude preheat exchangers  K- Operators
1H-41A/B/C  E-317A/B E-309A/B/C  F-1 + F-2 + F-3  K-
2H11/11A/42 RCO heat exchangers/coolers  Circulation line
 Crude pump(H-2/2A/2B/2C)

9.5 HOT CIRCULATION


Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 246
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1. Open the shutdown valves on main fuel gas lines as per shutdown Panel/Fur
valve opening procedure given in interlock system, and light main Operator
burners as and when necessary to raise temperature in F-1/F-2/F-3.
2. Raise COT at the rate of 40OC per hour up to 120OC. Initial lighting of Panel/Fur
the burners should be evenly distributed and frequent checks are to be Operator
conducted since at the initial stage, burners may tend to get
extinguished.
3. When K-2 bottom temperature reaches 80OC and K-1 bottom Field
temperature slightly lower (~ 60OC), drain free settled water from Operator
columns. From time to time drain water from K-1, K-2, E-1, E-2
4. If at any stage vapour locking of K-1/K-2 bottom pumps occur remove Panel/Pump
it through vent coolers. Operator
5. Hold COT at 120-150 OC or bottom temp >100 OC for 4 hours. By Panel/Field
holding the temperature, the remaining portion of water from the Operator
entire circulating crude is expected to boil off in K-2 mostly and K-1
partly and shall get condensed in E-2 and E-1. Drain water from E-1
and E-2 at regular intervals.
*Note- At this points columns to checked from top to bottom for any
leakages
6. Raise COTs of F-1/F-2/F-3 at the rate of 40OC per hour and hold Fur
common COT at 200OC. Get column manhole/ heat exchanger covers Operator/MM
and flanges, condenser covers and flanges hot bolted. Take complete
round of Unit to see if any flange is fuming. Get it hot bolted.
7. Increase COT @ 40OC/hr up to 300OC Panel/Fur
*Note- Light oil burner in F1/F2/F3 as per requirement Operator
8. When level appears in E-2, drain out water thoroughly and start All Operators
refluxing in K-2. When K-2 pressure tends to go up, commission K-2
top PRC.
9. Hot bolting to be done again when COT reaches 300OC. Fur/Field
Operator/MM
10. When K-2 bottom temperature goes up to 240OC, open column bottom Panel/Field
stripping steam, after commissioning 3 ata steam header and Operator
thoroughly draining out steam condensate.
11. While going up on temperature, watch carefully the following:
a) Maintain the rate of rise of COT at a steady rate of around
40OC. This is important to avoid thermal shocks to equipments ALL Operator
and pipelines.
b) While on hot circulation, RCO cooler outlet temperature should
not be allowed to go beyond 50 - 55OC so that the crude feed
pumps do not get vapor-locked. Adjust cooling water as
necessary. In case of huge vapour lock, water hose can be used
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 247
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

on H-2/2A/2B/2C on temporary basis


c) Maintain minimum pass flow – 60m3/hr in 410-F-01,90 m3/hr
in 410-F-02, 10mt/hr in 410-F-03
d) Maintain maximum skin temp – 450 Deg C in 410-F-01/F-02 &
475 Deg C in 410-F-03.
Any possible leakage should be detected in time and immediate
remedial action is to be taken so that the same does not result in any
fire or any other emergency situations.
12. Once stripping steam is introduced at K-2 bottom open SRGO draw- Panel/Field
off TRC 3TC3505 manually and slightly, to avoid flooding in this zone. Operator
As level builds up in stripper K-3B, start SRGO (HSD) run-down pump
and route the off-spec product to intermediate tank-214.
*Note- At least 1 hour prior to stripping steam introduction to column
thorough condensate draining to be started & to be continued till
stripping steam commissioned.
13. When K-2 bottom temperature is above 250OC, take the Unit out of Panel/Field
hot circulation. This is done by taking in fresh crude and breaking Operator
the circulation, routing the RCO ex cooler to RCO R/D system
14. Flush circulation line with diesel Field
Operator
9.6 BRINGING UNIT ON STREAM

SrNo JOB DESCRIPTION ACTION BY


1. With the admission of fresh crude, start ammonia injection to K-1 Field
and K-2 overhead lines and caustic injection to desalter outlet at Operator
dosage commensurate with low throughput and also start Ahuralan
injection to K-1/K-2 overhead lines
2. In case K-6A/B is to be taken on line, water draining from the Panel/Field/
strippers through P-305A/B and P-304A/B (as per flexibility) pumps Pump
is to be done. Start the pumps. Start drawing heavy naphtha to K- Operator
6A and kero-I to K-6B by opening respective LCs. Commission CR-I
line and start CR-I to K-1 at a slow rate later when draw-off
temperature is going high.
3. Keep on raising the COTs till they reach the normal level. Panel/Fur
Operator
4. Open side-cut heavy naphtha-II draw-off TRC 3TC3506 to get Panel/Field/
required tray temperature. Adjust SRGO TRC also, to get Pump
required tray temperature. Withdraw Kero-II to maintain tray Operator
temperature. Start stripping steam to the strippers, if required, after
thorough draining of steam condensate. Start pump P-304 and
inject heavy naphtha to SRGO. Route products to intermediate
tanks.
5. Establish Kero-II CR when E-2 gasoline reflux flow goes up beyond All Operators
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 248
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

normal value as follows, keeping 3TV3130 fully open.


Pump P-302A/B E-104A/B 3TV3130K-2
6. Commission K-2 split range controller on E-2 Panel/Field
Operator
7. When continuous flow from E-1 and E-2 is available route it to All Operators
OM&S in MS pool via AU-4 or AU-1
8. Start P-307A/B SRGO CR pump and route hot stream flow to E-106 All Operators
through TV-3605 and slowly increase K-4 bottom temperature and
divert balance SRGO to K-1 bottom residue HE E-317A/B.
9. Commission K-4 bottom LIC and maintain level by routing bottom All Operators
material to MS pool by pumps H-14
10. With increase in temperature, pressure will start building up in K- Panel/Pump
4. Build up pressure up to 8.0 kg/cm2. Start continuous make up of Operator
E-1 gasoline to K-4 and route K-4 bottom to MS pool. Stop H-14 as
K-4 bottom naphtha shall flow by K-4 system pressure
11. Commission K-4 top PRC and divert gas-to-gas away system Panel/Field
Operator

12. As level starts appearing in E-4 drain water from E-4 and start K-4 Panel/Field
reflux pump H-15/15A. Adjust reflux flow and SRGO CR through Operator
E-106 to make on-grade LPG. Route on-grade LPG to OM&S via
caustic wash in GRE and K-4 bottoms to General Naphtha via Au-4
or AU-1/2 for reprocessing after bypassing cooler T-18A.
13. Get blinds inserted on all columns' vents, transfer lines' drains and Panel
columns' drains Operator/MM
14. Check products' colour frequently at sampling point and send the Panel/Field
first set of samples for laboratory analysis as soon as K-1/ K2 section Operator
stabilises. Make necessary adjustments, based on results reported by
laboratory
15. Route all products to regular run-down systems when results are Field
OK Operator
16. Start Ahuralan injection to K-4 overhead line Field
Operator
17. Get crude booster pump started at Crude Control and start raising Panel/Field
the throughput gradually, without upsetting Unit conditions Operator
18. Start demulsifier injection into crude, desalter current and DM Panel/Field
water injection into crude (take DM heaters on line), to bring Operator
desalter up to normal operation conditions
19. Drains and bleeders, which are not required for periodic routine Panel/Field
check-up or operation, are to be plugged off/blinded Operator/MM
20. Reprocess material in slop tank-214 at the earliest, so that the tank Panel/Pump
is always available for handling emergencies Operator

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 249
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

CHAPTER - 10

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

10.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES

Outlines of procedures to be followed in case of emergencies arising out of failures like power,
steam, water and heater tubes failures are given in this section. However, emergencies may be of
many more types than can be outlined in an operating manual. An emergency may call for quick
adoption of some alternative steps, reduction in T’put, sectional circulation or sectional shutdown,
complete unit circulation or complete unit shutdown, shutdown as per normal shutdown procedure
or emergency shutdown procedure etc. depending on the type, extent and duration of the failure.
Hence judicious spot decision is required to be taken. However, the general guidelines given below
are to be remembered while deciding and acting:

i. The product inside the heater coil should not get excessively heated, to avoid coke
formation.
ii. Heater coils should not run dry.
iii. Cut off oil firing and gas firing before putting off the pilot gas burners. Close the
unit limit gas and unit B/V and depressurize the gas line to flare line.
iv. Firebox purging steam should be opened immediately after cutting off pilot gas
burner.
v. Heater coil pressure must be lower than available steam pressure, when coil-purging
steam is opened.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 250
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

vi. If coil purging in F-1, F-2 and F-3 becomes necessary, no condensation of steam
inside the coils is permitted, since the last tubes are of stainless steel.
vii. The passivation solution should be prepared at the earliest, since the same may be
needed for passivation of F-1, F-2 and F-3 coils.
viii. Steam flushing of individual oil burners, is required to keep the tips free for
subsequent light up.
ix. Fuel oil BPC bypass valve is required to be opened in time, so that BPC pressure
does not exceed 6.0 kg/cm2.
x. No excessive pressure surge or level build up in columns, vessels etc. are to be
allowed. Attempt is to be made to avoid any safety valve popping.
xi. No off grade materials is to be allowed to go into on grade tanks. Hence, timely
closing of rundown valves or diverting product rundowns should be ensured.
Inform concerned sections about stopping/diversion.
xii. Crude feed line battery limit isolation valve is to be closed before establishing
circulation.
xiii. While on hot circulation, LSHS/RCO cooler rundown temperature should not exceed
50-55OC, to avoid feed pump losing suction. (Temp. is to be controlled by pinching
water to LSHS/RCO coolers)
xiv. While pumping out any material from the unit pump out temperature has to be low
enough.
xv. Timely closing of stripping steam isolation valves must be ensured, to avoid pressure
surges in the column or product backing up into steam line. Keep bleeders on the
steam lines, mainly on 3 Ata steam line opened to avoid back up of product.
xvi. Crude oil and LSHS circuits must be flushed with diesel at the earliest convenient
time to avoid congealing.
xvii. Proper vigilance in the plant to be observed by operating personnel to avoid near fire
or fire likes situations. Timely actions like blanketing by opening steam lancers may
help avoiding near fire situation to develop into a fire situation.
The major emergencies encountered are:
 Power failure
 Steam failure
 Water failure
 Instrument air failure
 Crude feed failure
 All utilities failure
 Failure of heater coils
 Failure of heater interlocks
 110V DC supply failure
 24V DC supply failure
 UPS failure
 US failure
 Fire in the plant

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 251
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

 Failure of Critical equipments (Pump, Exchangers, Coolers, Condensers etc) / important


control valves & critical process indication.
 Furnace Oil Failure

The general emergencies are being described hereunder:

10.2 POWER FAILURE


10.2.1 PARTIAL POWER FAILURE
Partial power failure may be due to power dip, cable fault/short circuit or fault in sub
station.

a. In case of power dip quickly identify the tripped equipments and restart the same. In
some cases resetting in the substation may be needed. Start the standby equipments and
call for help from SS-4. In case standby equipment also cannot be started, call for urgent
help from sub-station 4 and sustain operation, if possible, on reduced T'put and
downgrade products to off spec tanks. Normalize as soon as resetting is done.
b. Failure of supply to one set of equipments receiving supply from one common source
located in substation. Start all standby equipments immediately, and proceed as in case
(a).
c. Failure of supply to equipment due to cable or any other electrical failure related to that
equipment only. Start the stand-by equipment.

10.2.2 TOTAL POWER FAILURE


This may be due to:
i. Load shedding as per load shedding scheme,
ii. Overloading or tripping or malfunctioning of transformers or any other problem
with equipments common for supplying power to all equipments.
iii. Failure of supply from TPS, due to various reasons including possible cable fault.

EFFECTS OF POWER FAILURE


The immediate effects of total power failure are:

a. All motors will stop, resulting in:

i. No flow through heater coils. Hence possible overheating inside the coil,
resulting in coke formation. No flow through fuel oil circuit.
ii. No reflux to column top, which may result in top temperature and pressure
shooting up.
iii. Increase in vapour load from column top temporarily due to which reflux
accumulator’s levels may tend to go up. Some vessels safety valves may pop.
iv. No flow through heat exchangers, resulting in thermal shocks, which in some
cases may result in exchanger leakage and fire.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 252
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

v. No flow through pipelines and other equipments may result in leakages due to
thermal shock anywhere in the unit and thus may result in fire.
b. There will be no illumination in the plant (except emergency light).
c. DCS system may get affected as follows:

- DCS will be on battery back up for 4-6 hours


- If battery backs up also fails
- No indications of process variable in panel
- Screens will be blank
- C/V will go to fail safe position
- No controlling action
- Shutdown interlocks will be actuated
d. Heater refractory may get thermal shock. Refractory bricks may fall.

Such a total power failure may again be of short duration or long duration.
10.2.3 TOTAL POWER FAILURE SHORT OR LONG DURATION
Actions To Be Taken :
In case of a total power failure of short or long duration, proceed as follows:

JOB DESCRIPTION
Action By
1 Cut off heater firing completely. Since the fuel oil pump Panel/Furnace
has stopped with power failure, cut off gas firing by shutting Operator
off main gas valve at furnace. Close individual gas burners
valves. Close individual oil burner valves and flush out oil
burner guns with steam. Stop pilot burners. Open firebox
purging steam.

2 Close stripping steam to K-2 and K-3, by closing control Panel/Furnace


valves, isolation valves and bypass valves. Leave the bleeders Operator
open to avoid oil backing up into steam line.
3 Stop water to LSHS coolers to avoid congealing. Field Operator
4 Close discharge valves of all pumps. Pump Opt
5 Keep watch on pressure of vessels and release the same to Field Operator
flare whenever needed.
6 Check up throughout the unit area for possible near fire or All Operators
fire situations. Take immediate steps.

7 Unit to taken on cold/hot circulation. If possible, otherwise All Operators


keep the unit under shut down condition. After power
resumption unit to be started as per normal procedure.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 253
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

10.3 FAILURE OF ALL UTILITIES TOGETHER

Another probability is total power failure throughout the refinery, which will result in failure of
power, water, steam and air (since the circulating water pumps as well as the air compressors are all
electricity driven).

EFFECTS OF ALL UTILITIES FAILURE

a. All motors will stop, resulting in :

i. No flow through heater coils


ii. No reflux to column top, i.e. rise in top temperature and pressure.
iii. Excessive increase in vapour load from column top, resulting in popping of
columns' and vessels safety valves' popping.
iv. No flow through heat exchangers and pipelines, resulting in thermal shocks,
which may result in huge, smoke and fire.
b. There will be no illumination in plant/refinery area.
c. No cooling water flow will be available; thereby condensers, coolers and vessels will
also get subjected to thermal shocks. Also this will further increase the vapour load
in the overhead system, which will result in popping of safety valves in vessels and
columns. Also, there may be lot of hammering at various locations. Pipe rupture or
leakages can also take place
d. Alarm signals will not function. All instruments, including indications, will stop
functioning.
e. Heater refractory will get thermal shock and chances of bricks falling are there.

Action To Be Taken
JOB DESCRIPTION
Action By
1 Cut off heater firing completely. Shut off main gas line Furnace/Field
battery limit valve. Operator
2 Close individual valves on gas burner and oil burners. Purge Furnace Optr
oil burner tips momentarily with available steam.
3 Open all primary air ducts wide, to avoid any possible Furnace Optr
pocket formation inside the furnace. This operation may be
done after some time to avoid thermal shock.
4 Close stripping steam to K-1, K-6, K-6 and K-3 by closing Panel Field
control valves' isolating valves and bypass valves. Open Operator
bleeders in between to prevent oil backing up into steam.
5 Close discharge valves of all pumps. Pump Operator
6 Since a large number of safety valves may pop, ask to check Cru Field Operator
up and control liquid level in flare knock out drum.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 254
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

7 Release pressure from reflux vessels into the flare system. Field Operator
8 As soon as water supply is available, condensation and
cooling will start. Stop water flow to RCO cooler, to avoid Field Operator
congealing, watch for levels in condensers, which may or
may not rise abnormally, depending on the amount of
vapour still available.
9 As soon as steam supply is available, open purging steam into
heater fireboxes. Open small amount of steam into F-1, F-2 Furnace / Field
and F-3 coils, displacing oil into column K-2, in case power Operator
supply is still not available.
10 Survey the Unit conditions and find out possible time of
availability of power supply.
11 Reload the HM for DCS system on resumption of power.
Based on the Unit conditions and time lag before power is made I/M
available, decide on the further course of action which may be
any one of the situations mentioned earlier.

10.4 STEAM FAILURE


Effects Of Steam Failure Will Be As Under :
a. Atomising steam to oil burners will not be available. Due to improper atomisation,
the burners will initially be smoky and with further drop in steam pressure, there is
the risk of oil spraying in the hot surfaces of the furnaces (fire/ explosion hazard).
b. Stripping steam to K-1, K-6, K-2 and K-3 will not be available. If this is not isolated
immediately, oil may back up into the steam line.
c. Fire fighting and other utility steam will not be available.
d. No steam through steam tracers will be available. This is not of any immediate
consequences, but in case of prolongation of steam failure, RCO/FO lines may
get congealed.
e. No steam for mechanical seals of hot pumps will be available causing fire back-up of
HC on steam lines requiring stoppage of such pumps and isolation of steam lines.
If the steam supply is expected to be restored quickly, proceed as follows :
Action To Be Taken
JOB DESCRIPTION
Action By
1 Stop K-1, K-6 ( in case in line ), K-2 and K-3 stripping steam Field Operator
by closing control valves, isolation block valves and by-pass
valves. Open bleeders to avoid product backing up into
steam line.
2 Stop fuel oil pump, close individual oil burner's valves, Furnace Operator
momentarily purging the oil burners tips with available
steam. Close steam valves. Simultaneously close individual
gas burner valves and close gas line valves at TRC-s and at
battery limit. Open primary air ducts after some time.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 255
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

3 Reduce the t'put and bring the Unit on circulation as quickly


as possible. Continue with Feed pump--K-1-- K-2 All
circulation. Keep watch on RCO cooler outlet temperature,
which should not be more than 50--55OC.
4 Keep bleeders on steam lines open at suitable locations so
that possibilities of oil backing up into steam line get Field Operator
eliminated and condensate drains out easily on resumption
of steam supply.
5 As soon as steam supply is restored, open purging steam into
the fireboxes of the furnaces and after thorough purging, All
light up burners as required, and following normal start up Operators
procedure bring the Unit on stream, as quickly as
practicable. Thorough draining of condensate is to be done
before opening stripping steam.

10.5 WATER FAILURE


Effects of water failure will be :
1 No water flow through condensers and coolers. Columns' and vessels' pressure will shoot up
and refluxing into columns will suffer. Products' outlet temperatures and circulating reflux
2 temperature will rise abruptly.
3 Pump glands and bearings will not get the required cooling water, after some time.
4 Thermal shocks and hammerings at various locations are expected.
Action To Be Taken
JOB DESCRIPTION
Action By
1 Cut off firing infurnaces immediately. Stop oil as well as gas Furnace Operator
firing. Open firebox purging steam into all three furnaces.
Close each burner valves. Steam-flush the tips of oil burners
after closing the same.
Simultaneously reduce t'put quickly to minimum, say
3750MTPD. Panel Operator
2 Stop stripping steam to K-1,K-6 ( in case in line ), K-2 and K- Field Operator
3. Close control valves' isolation valves and bypass valves.
3 Establish K-1 -- K-2 circulation and allow the furnaces to
cool down. K-1 -K-2 circulation may require repeated All Operators
attention initially, due to higher temperature of circulation
in absence of water in RCO coolers. This may be done as
long as some water for pumps' bearing cooling is available. Field Operator
4 Watch columns' and vessels' pressures, excess being released
to flare system. Pump Operator
5 Stop all pumps before water pressure fall down to zero. On
resumption of water supply, depending on Unit conditions
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 256
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

at that moment, the Unit may be started up as per normal


start up procedure after proper checking of line-up.

10.6 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE

Instrument air is supplied to the Unit at a pressure of about 6.7 kg/cm 2(g) from the TPS
compressor house. It is taken to an air receiver E-11 and from there it is taken to the Unit. PRC
on this line maintains the supply pressure at 3 kg/cm2(g) in the header.

Each instrument is supplied with air at a constant pressure of 1.4 kg/cm2(g). In case of failure of
running compressor, when the other is under maintenance, air compressor at CRU/FCC is started
immediately. There may be time gap of about 5--10 minutes. Air receiver in the Unit can supply air
for this time interval. If due to some reasons, air supply cannot be restored within this period, then
the supply line header pressure will fall below 3.0 kg/cm2(g).

EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE

i. All heater FO/FG control valves will get closed, i.e. firing to heater will get cut off. Column
top
TRCs will open fully.
ii. Fuel oil BPC will open, resulting in drop of FO pressure.
iii. All FRCs will open fully, i.e. all levels will tend to go up.
iv. All LICs will open fully, i.e. all levels will tend to drop.
v. Main steam PRC will open fully.
vi. Stripping steam to columns will open fully.
vii. K-2 top PRC split range control valves will close from the make up side and will open to
the flare side. Rest all PRCs will open.
viii.E-1 and E-2 inter-phase level control valves will close.
ix. Three-way valves will line up in the following ways :
a. 3 TV3129 at P-301A/B discharge will line up flow towards E-313A/B keeping bypass
closed.

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 257
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

b. 3 TV3131 at E-311 tube O/L will line up flow towards E-102A/B keeping bypass
closed.
c. Bypasses of 3 TV040 and 3 TV3135 will close.
d. 3TV3605 at E-106 will open bypass. E-106 will not yet get any hot medium.
x. Pressure, flow, temperature indications will be available while level indications will not be
there.
xi. SOV will go to safe position.

Action To Be Taken

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


Proceed as follows :
1 If industrial air supply is still on, take industrial air into Field Operator
instrument air receiver, after thorough draining of
condensed moisture. Continue this draining by leaving the
drain valve crack open.
2 If industrial air supply is not readily available, or if Furnace Operator
instrument air supply is not expected to resume soon, cut off
heater firing completely. Open firebox purging steam and
steam flush individual oil burners after stopping the same.
3 Close stripping steam to K-1,K-6 ( in case in line ), K-2 and
K-3. Field Operator
4 Take column top TRC-s on bypass. Stop flows from E-1 to K-
4, E-4 to rundown by closing valves. The reflux pumps will All Operators
then be refluxing alone into the columns. By manual
adjustment of the discharge valves of the reflux pumps,
maintain a small flow of reflux into columns so that the top
temperature does not shoot up and the column pressures
remain within limits. Once top temperatures start dropping,
cut down refluxes to maintain reflux accumulators' levels.

5 Establish K-1--K-2 and K-4--K-4 circulations. Close All Operators


rundown valves and stop all pumps not connected with
heater circulation and column refluxing.
6 Maintain levels in vessels and columns. All Operators
7 In case air supply is not expected early, shut down the Unit All Operators
as per normal shut-down procedure. After establishing cold
circulation and cooling the system down adequately, all
pumps may be stopped. Unit may be started up as per
normal start up procedure when air is available. Flush RCO
rundown line with gas oil.
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 258
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

10.7 CRUDE FEED FAILURE


This may be due to crude booster failure, choking of suction strainer of crude booster, etc. Its
effects will be rapid loss of level in K-1, which if not tackled immediately, may result in K-1 bottom
pump losing suction. Chain effects would follow.

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


Proceed as follows :
1 Quickly and drastically reduce t'put, maintaining the Panel Operator
operating conditions. Take pass flow switch on bypass mode.
2 Check up with crude control station for possibility of
resuming of gravity flow immediately. If so, run the Unit on Shift In charge/
reduced t'put, till corrective action is taken at crude control Panel Operator
station.
3 If gravity feed arrangement cannot be made immediately,
bring the Unit on hot circulation, with routine care. All Operators
NOTE:
If K-1 bottom pump loses suction due to rapid drop in level in K-
1, cut off firing in F-1, F-2 and F-3 immediately. Open purging
steam in firebox and re-light when K-1 bottom pump takes
suction with F-1, F-2 on Natural Draft and F-3 on Balanced /
Forced Draft.
4 Continue with K1-K2 circulation. Maintain conditions of all All Operators
sections as close to normal as possible, if early resumption of
crude supply is expected.
5 If supply is expected to be delayed, reduce the COTs to 200OC All Operators
and circulate. Close stripping steam to K-1, K-6 ( in case in
line ), K-2 and K-3. If indefinite delay is expected, shut down
the Unit as per normal shutdown procedure.

10.8 FAILURE OF HEATER TUBES IN F-1, F-2 & F-3

The leakage may be a small one or may be major one. In case of a small leakage (say a small
flame, continuous or otherwise), it may be possible to bring the Unit down quickly, going through
the normal shutdown steps. During the process, keep constant watch on the extent of leakage and if
the same increases, emergency shut-down may be required.

10.8.1 SMALL LEAK

Action To Be Taken

Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 259
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III
.
Indian Oil 1st Sep,2016 0 1st Sep,2016
VOL-I: Addendum
Gujarat Refinery

JOB DESCRIPTION
Action By
Proceed as follows:
1 Reduce t'put and reduce firing in F-1, F-2 & F-3. Route the Panel /Furnace
products to off grade tanks. Operator
2 Cut off stripping steam to K-6 and K-3. When K-2 bottom Field Operator
temperature is around 240OC stop stripping steam to K-2
and when K-1 bottom temperature is around 180OC stop
stripping steam to K-1.
3 Leave some three or four burners in the furnace; continue Furnace Operator
firing at a low rate and open coil purging steam.
4 When steam comes out through leaky tube, or when fire at
leaky point remains extinguished for some time, cut off Furnace Operator
burners and open fire box purging steam immediately.
5 Proceed further with normal shut-down procedure. Proceed
in the remaining sections as per normal shutdown All Operators
procedure.

10.8.2 MAJOR LEAK


In case of major leakage, it may be remembered that the Unit has to be brought down quickly.
Also oil falling through heavy leakage may not necessarily get completely burnt, but may vaporise
after falling on hot surface, resulting in formation of possible explosive mixture, with the heat
available from hot refractories that may cause explosion. Hence fire must not be extinguished
before the oil is displaced with steam past the leaky point of the tube.

Action To Be Taken

JOB DESCRIPTION Action By


Proceed as follows :
1 Stop feed. Cut off all burners except 3 to 4 and immediately All Operators
open coil purging steam. Steam into the coil containing the
leaky tube should be put in such a way that the leakage does
not increase uncontrollably and the main column's safety
valves do not pop. Inform crude control station about
stopping of feed and ask for gravity line-up.
2 Shut off individual furnace fuel gas line's main valve soon as
all but one gas burners are put off, the line being Furnace/ Field
depressurized through the last one which should be at the Operator
same location as a lighted oil burner.
3 Once steam starts coming continuously through leaky point
of the coil, and fire due to oil spillage in the furnace fire box Furnace Operator
has got extinguished, cut off the remaining burners and open
Vol-I
Gujarat Refinery- Eco-friendly Refinery (Addendum)
Prepared By Approved By Issued By
Deepak Kewlani Kalyan Sarma Bhaskar Sen
AMPN CPNM SPNM Page 260
Document No.: JR:PN:OM:HGU2-01
Operating Manual for
Issue Date Rev. No. Rev. Date
JR AU-III<