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Euclides [Elementa

mathematica, propositiones
et diffinitiones librorum I-XV
edidit P. Ramus]

Source gallica.bnf.fr / Bibliothèque nationale de France


Euclide (0323-0285 av. J.-C.). Euclides [Elementa mathematica,
propositiones et diffinitiones librorum I-XV edidit P. Ramus].
1549.

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NOBUISSIMO PRWCIPI
Carolo Lotharingo Rhtmorum sir*
thitpiftopo Pttrm Rnmm
Vtromnndtm S,
dcmonftrationes afHrmantur! ab iis defnceps pcr«
fp!cu<3&euidcntcr conclufis, comp.exiones attas
connecluntur.totaqusdifciplinKdefcriptioitafi*
bi contuncla coputataqueeft: vtfivnam literam
iuoueiis.labatur omnia: nectamen quicquam cft,
qitod mouei i Jabive pofsit» Qnjmobrem mini mc
uirandumcft Pythagoram,iJlatonemque huius
gdnvratione difciptinac captos.maiusineadiui-
nmique qv.iddam deprehendifle: quam vthuma-
nis «cn!lu.!$ t'ibuindum arbitrarentur. Itaque in
anii^atamexceltetes notitias ab intelligetiai pri-
m.vhgcnitis & Ktcrnis excmplis infitas, & inge*
nsratas cre diderunt.eique propterea nomcn ipfum
; .'rtniii quafireminifcentia;,rccordationiscjuefvc
V: vl;js a*i:lio/dt)affinxerunt:quafi tantafcien-
tia non ab homincinueta,feddiuinitus in animis
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rerii paulatim rccrearctur.Vcrumenimucroquam
ionga obliuio, quam tarda recordatio ifta fuirtPri
miiilihomincs (vt Iofephusantiquitatisludaicaj
fcriptorait)Adamus,sethiis>Enns,Noeusvita;&
longtfsimaj&contempUtioni dedttifsim» bene»
ficio,in hanc rccordationem fncubuerunt:& nc a-
lia nouajobliuiontscaliginecircunfufa tcncretur,
duabusingetibuscolumsexaratam,dcfcriptamq}
adpofterimem tranfmifentnt. Hinc AEgyptii,
Graeci, ltati, StcuU, Arabes, Hifpani, Gcrmani,
GallijOmniumqueterrarum poputi acccptam ex-
coluerunt.atqueamplificarunr. Hmctot, tamque
«xcelletia ingeniaexcitari, Thaletis, Pythagor»,
Hippocratis,PIatonis,Eudox!,Ptolemei,Euclidis,
Arcnimedis, aliorumqi innumerabilium cceperdt.
*9
vidcticct adhutus mithematic* rccordationisb*
i)uscxcedificandum,totfabros,totarchitcctosa^
Jiiberioportuit, quia nonmodo non homo vnus,
aut anas vnasfed vix multa & hominum, & su-
tum milia ad conftituendam tam nobilis, tamque
prajftantisdoftrinajfcicntiamfufTiccrent.Quam.
obrem vtpubtica ftudia, ad hac cognittoncmam.
ptcxandam, non iotum induftria, quod afsiduefa.
cimus,fedetiamfacuttateltbroium,<5(Copia!uui
remus: curauimusexcudcndas mathcfas antiquo-
rumab Euclidecolte&as^femotis interprctunuV
commcntis ,& figuris: nonquddintcrprctesinv.
probemusifcd vt ncminem fumptus(qui in hos li-
bros antea maior erat,quam tcnues dilcctiu m for*
tun« fcrre polfent) impoftcruma* difccndo dctcr.
rcat.Siquidautemobfcunimfucrit,t6ge,commo.
dius viua pneccptoris intclligentis oratio,qulm
pi&a in librisinterpretfi manus cxpticabit.quod*
qne ad flguras attinet, magis Iaudabo difcipulum
inabaco& puluercfigurasftbidcmonftratasimt-
tantcm ,quamociofe cVinutilitcralienaspifturas
afpeclantem.Qujead temeritofcribcrc ncbis vi-
demur ,inquonon folum difciplinas & virtutcs
exceltentes admiramunfcd ctiam fingularem amo
rem tn honefta difciplinarum & virtutum promo-
uendarumftudiacognofcimus; Vate.
c. Cal, Febr. 1544*
s
Euclidis elementa
M^THEMsfTIC>sf.
Dijftnitio. I,

4
Rtfta linea,tft qua cx tqualhfitainttriacttfi-

SuptrficU!>tft qutlongitudinem latitudinim*


fttantumhabet.
6
Suptrficiti extrematfimt line&
7
Planafitptrficits,tft qu& cx *qua!i/uM inttr*
UcetlintM.
8
Vlanm angu!m,tft duarum lincarttm inplano
fifttangtntiumt& non In diretlo iactnt'mm,ad
dterutram inchnatio.

(^uando autem qu* angulum contintnt^tci^


hnf6fuwfnt9rewlinct0 angulm mtncupatmy
" *~ aitj
a
nvcnms
10
Cttm Verb refta iintafitptr reftam confiQem
Jintam,"\trobiqueangtdos ^qualts adinuicemfe*
cerittrttlm eft yterq, squalium angukntm Q> .*

(jit#/upctflat, rtfta !mta,perpendicitlaris Troo»


tatur,fitptr quatnfltttrit,
II
obtttfitsangu!m,maior tfl recto*
n
v4ctttm "\erb,minoreftre£io,
13
Terminm,efl qttodcuiufiptefinU efl,

Figuratfub a!iquo,ytla!iquibm ttrminlscom


prthenditur.

Ctrcidm ytftfigttra ptanalfnaUncacontenta


yts circunferentia appeUatttr, ad ab
quam yno
Jigno introrfitm mtdio exifttnte omnesprodtun*
tes lineajn ipfinfiptecircttUcircunfirtntiam/»••
cidentes,adtnuic€mfityttxqtta!es,
1*5
Centrttm "\trbt ipfim circuUfignu appcUatur»

Dimcties ciriitliyeft reSta ftxda itneapercen*


trum atla, &* ex T>tra<j;partein circttUcirciffi''
rcntt(tterminat4,qu#circutum bifariadiftftfeit.
IIB, /. 4
i8
.
Semkircu!m,tftfigura
^ quxfitb dimttitnte,&*
ta qux ex ipfi circuU circunfirtntia fitblata efl,
continttur,

Seclio circuU, tflfigura qns fib refta Itnea,


tycircuU circunfirtntia autmaioreautminorc
ftmicircuio continetur,
IO
Rcfiilinc* figur& ,fimt q\t& fiub retlU tintU
contincntur.
3.1
Trilaterafigur&,fiintqu6fitb tribm reftU
continenturtineU.
ti
Qtotdrilater6figur#, fitnt tjH* fitb quatmr
comprehendunturyetlU Imtiu

MultilaterAfigur&,funt qttsfitb piuribm>


quam quatuorfectU tineU comprehenduntttr,
24
Triiaterarumporrbfigurarum, &quiiaterum
tft triangulum fitb tribm tquahbm iateribm
contentum*
2$
Ififieies autem, efl quodfiib binUtantim 4«
qualibttslateribtiscontmetur*
a iijf
,.
nvcnms
26
Scatenum yerb, tft quodfiib tribm intquali*
btts lattribtvs continttttr,

^mplim trHattrarumfigurarum, rtftangu*


hm triJtgttlttm,tft quodrtttttm angttium habtt.

sAmbiygonium attttm, quod^btufitmangu-


hm habtt,
Ox^gon'u1ycrb,quodtreshabetacHtosangutos

QuadrilattraritattttmfigHraru, qttadratum
qttidtm, efl qttod 0* ^quilattriiac rcttagulu efl,
,3*
^ilttra partt longtm, tfl qmd rectangulttm
quidem,at ^qnilatcrum non efl.
33.
Rhombm, tfl qtts&jttilatera ,Jed reclangula
honefl,

Rhomboides yerb,tfl q\t& ex oppofito tatera 0*


angutos habens osquaies, neque <equilatera,neq:te
reCtangulaefl,
34
pMter hxc atttem, reliqua <juadrilatcra, tra~
pszlaappeUantur, '
LIB. L 5

paralleh, re$t* Iine6funt qu& in eodem exi*


ftentes ptano, &* ex ytraqueparte in infinitum
frodut?*,in nuUaparte concurrtmt,
PoQulata x,
^ib omnifigno in omne fignum, retlam //<•
neamducere,
2
Retlam lineam tcrminatam,m continuum rt*
tlumqucproductre,

Omniceiro &* intcruallo,circttium dtjcriberc,


4
Omnesangulos refhs,adinuicem tiquatcscjfc.

Stin dufo reftas lineas reSta linta incidcns,in-


ttriorts &* in eademparte angttlos duobm rettU
minortsficerit, retlas line&s in infinitum produ-
ftas concurrerc neceffe efl ad eapartes in quibm
anguli dttobmreftU minores exiflunt,
CommunesfinientU i.
Qu& eidem &quaiia,i& adinuicefitnt aqualia.
2
EtfiAquaiibm tquaiia ad'uciantttr,omnia't-
Yttnt &qualia,

"Btfi ab aqttaUbm dqualia auferantttr,qtt* rc~


EVCLIDIS
Unquuntur^quaUa erunu

Etfiintquahbm xqualia adiungantur, omn'i4


ertmtintqualta,

Ltpab inxqualibus 4tqualia auftrantttr, reli*


qua inxqualia erunt.
6
Qu&eiufdem dupliciajunt,adinuicemfitnt «c-
qualia.
7
Et qu& eiufdemfitnt dtmidium,
. . . aqualiafimt
adinuicem,
8
JEtoH&fibimetipfis comteniunt, tqualiafunt
adinmccm,

Totum/flfiMpartc maim,
IO
VH4re6t6line&,fuperficicmnonconchdunt.
Propofitio i.
Super data retla tinea terminata,triangu!um
ttquilaterttm conflituerc,
2
lAddatutnfigmm, dat& refitilineAtiquam
rettamlwamponere,
3
LIB, I. 6
DuabmdatisrecHstineUiniqualibm^maio»
riminori aqualem rettam tineam abfcinderc,
4
Sidtto triangttla dtto latera duobmiateribtts
tequaliahabuerint, alterumalteri, & angulum
angitlo &quahmfiib &qualtbm reftU lineis con-
tentitm,& bafin bafi &qualem habebut,&* tri^
angttium triangulo &qttum erit, ac reliquianguU
reltquisangulU aqttales erunt, alteralteri,fitb
qttibm aqualia laterafitbtenduntur.
S
Jjojceiium triangulortim qui adbafinfimt <m-
guii,adinuictmfitnt <squalcs.F.tproduclU aqtta*
IbmretlUiineU, quifitb bafifuntangnli, adin*
uiccm tquales ertmt.
6
Si triangulidm angttU tiquaies adinuicemfitc
rint,*qttales quoque angulosjubtendentia iatera
tqualia adtnuicem erunt.
7
Super cadem refta iinea duabtts cifdem retlU
iineUt alia du» ret~i# UncA dtquales, attera alteri
nonconflituentur, adaliudatquc aliudfignum,
adcafdempartes,cofdemfinesprimUret~iU iineU
pofiidentes,
8
Sibimtriangutaduo latera duohmlateribm
EVCLIDIS
alterum alteri&quatia habuerint, &* bafin qm*
que bafia>qualem,angulum quoque angufofiib <*
qualibm reftU tineU cotentuxqualem habebttnt,
9..
Datum angtttum reftilineum,bifariamficare.
10
Datam reftatineam terminata,bifariaficare.
n
Data refta linea,afigno in ca dato,rcfiam //«
neam ad angulosreftos excitare,
12
Supcf datam rcfitm iineam infinttam,k dato
fiztio qitodin ea non cfl,perpendicutarem reftam
iinemdeducere,
.13
refta lineafiiper reftam confiflcns /1-
Cum
neam,angfitosficerit,autduos reftos,autduobm
rectU Ajualcs efficiet,
14
Siadaliquam reftam tineamtatqtte adeimfi*
gnum duai refi& tinex^rion ad eafdempartes du~
fl^,ytrobiq(tedttobmr€ftUangulos<xqual€sfe"
ccrit,ipf#in direftu refta line& adinuicem erut,

Sidu&rtftti line$fi adinuicemficuerint,an*


gulosquicirca yerticemfitnt, tequos adinmcem
cjficient,
tlB\ /. f
1$
OmnU trianguli yno iatere produfto]exterior
angtttm ytrifque interioribm 0* ex oppofito,
tnaior efl,

1 OmnU triangttti duo anguli dttobm reftUJunt


minores, omnifariamfitmpti.
l8
Omnis trianguli maim latm ,fitb maiorian*
gulofitbtendittir.
19
OmnU trianguli maiorangulmfiib maiorita-
terefitbtenditttr,
20
OmnU tmguliduo quiftbetiaterafimuliun*
fia,retiquofitnt longiora,
21
Sitriangulid limitibmynimtaterU bin*re-
ft* line& tntrorfitm conflitttatur,qu£ coflituttn-
tur, retiqttU triagulibinU tatcrtbm minorts qui-
dtm erttnt,maiorcmqtte angulttm continebunt,
22
Ex tribm reftU lineU,qu&fiinttribm datU re-
ftis lineU <squalcs,triangulum coflrttere. Oportet
autem duo iatcrareliqtto effe maiora, quomodo-
cunqs aJfitmptaiquoniaomnU triagulibinalate-
ta quomodocttnqsaJpimpta,reliquofitnt maiora*
EVCLIDIS
23
\Addatam rtftam tincam,addattmquein ea
fignum,dato angulo refiilineotiqualemangtt-
ium reftilineum conflitttere.
24
Si bina trianguta, duo latera duobm tateribm
aqttalia habuerint,alterum alttri^ngttlttm yero
angulo makremfitb *quU reftU tineU contetum,
hafin quoquebafimaiorem habebunt.

Siduo trianguta, duo latera dttobm tatcribm


alterum attcri <squalia hibttcrint,bdfin yerb bxfi
maiorem, angulumq-^q^fiib aquatibmrsftU
tineU contcntum,angulo maiorsm habelntnt.
26
Si bina triangttta, duos angulos duobm angw
IU, aiterttm altcri otquates habuerint, yniimqttt
latmynilateriaquale> aut qttoddiquis adiacet
angultf, aut quodfitb yno aqualium angttlomm
fubtenditunreliquaquoqtte tatera reliqms lateri*
hm *qualia9 alterum alttri, &* reliquum angti*
tum reliquo angulo otqualem habebunt»
27
Siin binas reftas tineasreftaincidens iinea,
atternatimanguios aquos adtnuicemficerit,p4~
raUelaadinutccmipfiireftalineaerunt.
28
UB, f. S
Silnhinai reitas lineas refta tncidemtinea>
esttriortm angulum inttriori tyoppopto adeafi
dempartes aqualemfecerit^ attt interiores &* ad
tdfdtmpartes duobm reftis <tqttales,j>araUeU e-
nnt aainuicem ipfie rtfta linta,
29
InparaUetos reftas lineas refta incidem tinea,
(palternatim angulos adinuictm aquales, &*
exteriortm interiori & oppofito, &* adeafdem
fttrtcs *quaicm,& interiores,&* ad eafdempar-
m dttobm reftU aquales cfficit.

Qu& eidem refta iineaparaUeli ,&* adinui-
cemfuntparaUelL
31
Per datumfignum, data refi* UneAparaUc-
X

lum reftam iineam ducere.


32
OmnU triangtdi yno tatereprodufto,exterior
angulmbinU interioribtts&oppofito efl&qtta-
h.Ettriangulitrtsinteriorts anguli, hinUfitnt
teftUaqttales.
33
^Equas typaraUelos adeafdempartes^reft<t
tine&coniungentes,&* ipfk &quale$ typaraUeta
fimt.
34
EVCLIDIS
ParaUelogrammorumiocorum tateraqtttex
oppofito,^* anguli, aquatiafitntadintitcem,
dimetitnseabtfariamficat.
^
11
paraUelogramma tn eadembdfi,&* in eifdem
paraUclU exislentia,adinuicemfitntaqualia,

paraUelogrammain aquattbmhafibmy &in


eifdemparaUelU exiftentia, adinuicem funt &+
qualia,
37
Triangula in eadem bafi, &* in eifdemparaU
telis conflituta^tdinuicemfunt aqualia.

Triangttiain aquahbm bafibm, &*tn eifitem


paraUelU conflituta,adinuicemJunt aquatia.
,J9eadem
Trianguta &qttalidin baficofiituta,&
adedfdempartes,&* in etfdemfimtparallelU.

Trianguta aqualiainaqtialibm hafibmexi*
ftentia, &*adeafilempartes,&*in eifitem fint
jrdyaUclU.
4-'
SiparaUclogrammum&* trUngtttum eandem
hafin habuerint, in eifdemqitefuerintparaltelis,
trianguUparaUelogyammttm duptttm erit.
tm. t: $

Ddto tridngulo &qttate pdraUelogvammumco


ilittterejn dato angttlo reftitinco.
" 43
OmnUparaUetogrammteorttm quA circa di-
fnetientemfitntparalteiogrdmmorumfiippleme-i
tdyfibi intticemfimt dqttalia.
44
uid datam reftam linedm,dato tmngulo &
QxatepdraUeloprammumconftruereinadto an-
galo reftitineo.
4*
Ddto pdrdUelogrdmmo, <tqua!e pdraUeiogvant
mttm confiitttere in dato angttlo refiilineoi

Ex ddtarefia Unea qttddratumdefiribere.


47
In reftdngnlU tridngulU quddratttm
# quodd it
Urereftumangutumfitbtcndentefit,aquttm eft
qttddratUqu&fiuntex lateribm reftum angulti
cmtinentibm.
.48
Sitriangttliqttodab yno taterum quodratiyn
xquale fiterit eU qtt& rtiiquis tridnguli !dteribmf
qttddrdtUidngulmcoprehenfits fubreliqttU tridti
gutiduobmtateribm,reftmerit.
EVCLIDIS
EVCLIDIS
liberficttndm.

ParaUetogrammum reftangutum.
Omne paraUelogrammum ref\angulum%fub
dttabmreftum angutum comprehendtntibmre-
f\U UneUdiciturcontineri,

Qmdgnomon.
OmnkpardUelogrammi tocicorum, quacirca
dimetientem iUim fitnt pdraUetogrammorum,
ynumqttodque cttm binU fupptementUgnomon
yocetur.

Propofitio I.
Sifiierintbintrefta tinea,ficeturquc ipfiru
altera in quotcunquefigmenu,reftangutumco-
prehenfumfithduabm reftU UneU, aquum eft eU
qu& ab infefta &* quotibet fegmento reftangulis
comprthtndttntur,
2
Sirefta Uneaficetur ytcunque, quAptbtota
&* quolibet figmentorum rtftangula compre-
henduntur, aquaiiafitntei,quod ex tota eft,qua*
drato.
3
Sirtftalintd ficetur ytcunque/efangututn
LIB. IT, to
fiib totk &* yno figmentorum comprehenfitm,
aquum efteiquodjub figmentU comprebendi-*
turreftangulo,^* ciqtioaex pradiftj figmento
ftquddrdto»
4
Sireftdlinea ficetttr ytcunque9 quddratunt
qitodfit extota,deqiiitm eft qttadratis qttafiunt
txfigmentU, e$* ei quod bU fubfegmentU com-
prehenditurreftanguto.

Sireftd linea ficetur in aquatia &* non aqtta*


iid,reftdnguiumcomprehenfiim fub indtqualtbm
fiftionibm totim yhd cum quadrato quodd me-
dio fictionum ,aqtutm eftci quod d dimidiafit
madrato. .:
6
Sirefta
. tinea biftriam ficetttr, ddiicidturq; ei
dliquareftalineainreftum, reftangulum copre*
henfumfifb tota cum appofita &* appofita, ynd
cttm quadrato quodfitd dimidia,aquuefl eiquod
fit ex coniefta ex dimidia &* appofita tanquam
exynadefiriptoquadrato. »
f
.

7 !

Si refta ttneaficetur ytcunque, quod d tota


&* ab yno fegmentorum ytraque fiunt qua-
drdta, aqualia fitnt reftangttlo comprehenfobU
fitb tota &* difto figmento, &* ei qitodd rcliqttfr
EVCLIDIS \'""
figmentofitqitidrato.
o
Sireftalinea ficetttr ytcunque, reftangu*
tum comprehenfitm quaterfub tota &* yno fi-
gmcntorum cum eo qttodex reliquo figmento efl
quadratO) aquum eft ei qttodfit ex tota &* prt-
dtftofigmtntotanqitamab ynadefiripto qm*
drato.
9
Si refta lineaficeturin aqualia &* no aqua-
Iia,qua ab inaqualibm totitts figmetU fiitt qud"
drata,dupla fitnt eim quod ddimidia, &* eius
qttoddmediofiftionumfit,quadratorum»
10
Si refta iinea pcetur bifaridm,apponatur au+
tem ei quapiam refta lineain reftum,quod ex to
ta cum dppofita,&* qttodex appofita ytraqj qtta
drata,dttpia fitnteimquodex dimidta, &* eitts
qttodex adiacente dimidia &* adiunfta, tanqtit
ex yna dcfiriptorum quadratorum.
n
Datam reftam lineam ficdre, yt quod ex
tota &* alterofigmentocomprehenfiim reftan*
gutum, aquttmfit ei quodfit ex retiquo figmen-
toquadrato.
12
In obtufiangulU tridngulUf qttod ad obtufim
LIB. in. n
angttlumfubtendeielatere fit quadratum, maim
eft eU quafiunt ab obtttfitm angulttm comprehen
dentibm tateribm quddrdtmcomprehcnfi bisfuh
yno eorum,quifunt circa obtttfitm angulum, in
quodprotrafium cadttperpendicuiarU,&afjitm
pto extrinficm fitb perpendtcuiari ad obtttfum
angulttm.

InoxwoniUtriangulU, quodexacutttm an~


gutumjttbtendentefit qttadratum, minm eft eU
quaexacutttm angutum comprehendcntibm ia-
teribmfiuntq:tadratU,comprehenfi bisfitb yno
eorum qu&fitnt circaacutum angulttm in quod
perpendictttarUcadit,&*fitmptointm fitb pcr-
pcndicutariadacutumangutttm.
.14
Dato yeftilineo, aquumquadratum confli-*
tuere,

EVCLtDIS
Ubtrtertim.

Difftnitio 1.

AEquates circulifitnt, quorum dimcttentes


fitnt aqua!es,yet quorum qua ex ctntrU fitnt a-
quaies,
b iif
;
EVCLIDIS
2
JRefta linta circutum tangere dictiur,qua cir*
culttm tangens &* eiefta^circulumnonficat.
3
Circulififitangere adinuicem dicuntur, qtti
fifie intticem tangcntesfe non inuicemfecant.
4
In circulo aqualiter dtfiare dccntro rcfia li*
nea dicuntur, d
cum centro ineas perptndiculd
resduftajitnt aqttdtes. Magtsdutemdtftare di-
citurjn quam maiorperpendicularUcadit.

Seftio circuti, eftfiguracomprehenfafub re~


fia linea, &* circuttcircttnferentia%
6
SeftionUangutm, eftquifitb reftalinea,fy
circuli circunfirentia comprehenditut*.
7
Infefiione autem angulm eft,cum in circun*
firentiaJeftionUcotingitdtipodfignum, &* ab
co in refta ttneafines,qua bafis eftfiftionUj re*
fta iinea coniungttntur. Contentm autem angtt*
tmfitb coniunfiU reftis tineU eft.
8
Cttm yerb comprehendentesangulum refta ti
nea, atiquam Jufiipiunt circunfercntiam, in iU<t
4Pgutmeffedmmr%
^ ' LIB, III. 12
9
Seftor autem circult,efl
. . ad ccntrum cir~
• * citm

culi ftetcrit angutm,comprehcnfitfigura fitb an


-
gttlum comprehendentibm reftis lineis, & afi
fitmptafitb eUcircmfirentia.
io
Simites Jeftiones circu!i,Jitnt qtta angulos a+
quosfiifcipittnt,yelin quibm anguiifibiinuicem
fitntaquales.

Propofitio i.
Daticircuii, centntm inttenire.
%
Siin circuli circunfirentia dtto fuerintfigna
ytcunque contingtntia,ad eafigna applicata rc-
fta tihea intya ipfitm circulttmcadit.
3
Siincircutorefta tineaquadamper centrum
extenfit,quandamnon per cetrum extenfam re-
ftam lineam bifiiriamficuerit,&* adanguios re-
ftosipfdmdifpefiettetfiad angulos reftosipfam
diffejcetjbifariam quoqueipfimjecabit.
4
Siin circulo bina refiatineafifi inuicem fi-
cuerint,nonpercentrttmextenfa,fifiimticembi
fariamnonfecabmt,
h iiij
EVCLIDIS
Si bini drctiii fiefi inuicemficuertnt,non erit
eorttm idem centrum.
6
Siduo circulifi adinuiccm tetigerint, eorum
pon eft idem centntm.
7
Si in diametro circuli aliquod contingatfi-
pnumquodminime circulicentrumfit,ab eoqtte
figno in circttlum quxddm refia tinea proccddt,
maximaeritinqud centrum: minima >c;-o,«-
Uquaiaiiarttm yerbfimper propinquior ei qu&
per centrttm extenditur, remotiore maior eff.
Dtta dutem filitmreftalinea aquaics, ab eo*
demfigno in citcuium cadunt ad ytrdfque par»
tes tninimx.
8
Si extra ctrcutumfitfiipiatur aiiquodfigmm,
db eoquefigno adcircttlum dedttcantur refta li"
peaaliqua,qudrttmquidemynaptrcentm ex*
tenddtur,reiiquayerb ytcunqueiin connexdm
circunfirentidm cadentium rectarum lineamm
maxima efl qua per centrttm duftaefl. ^ilta^
Yitmdtttcm, fimper eiqtta per centrttm trdnfit
propinquiorfemotioremaioreft. Incuruam >c-
rb circunfertntiam cddentittmreflamm tined-
rttm minimaeft,quainterfignum &* dimctim*
LIB. III. 13
tem iacet: minimayerbpropinquior,fimperre-.
tnotiore minor eft. Vttaautetantiim refta tinea,
ab eofijwo cadunt aquales in ipfitm circttium, ad
ytrdfquepdrtesminima.
9
Siincircttlofiifiipidturfignum atiqttod, &
<tb eofigno adcircuium cadantplttres, qndm dttsi
rccta linea aquaies:fitfieptumfignum,centrum
ipfimeftcirculi.

Circulascirctilum inpturibtts duobmfignU


nonficat,
II
Sibiniorbes fe introrfum adinuicem tetige-
rintfitfiipiantttrque eorum centra; ad eorttmcen
trddppticata reftatinea 0* eiefta,in contraflti
circttlommcadit.

Sidttocirculififeadinuicem exterim tetige-


fint^dd centra eorumapplicata reftatinea,per
contaftumtranfiet.
'3
Circuimctrcttium non tdgitinpturibttsfignU
yno,ctfiextra,ttfiintmtangat,
14
tncircuio refta itneafitnt aqttales, qua a~
ftaiiterdiftantd centro, Etfi aqualiter diflant
EVCLIDIS
d centro,aquales adinuicemfunt.

In circulo,maximmquidem eft dimetiens: a-


tiarum atttemfiemperpropinquiorcentro, remo*
tioremaior.-

Qua d diametri circuti extremitdtedddngtt»


tos reflos ducitur,extra ipfum circttlum cddit,&*
in tocum intcripfam reftam lineam &* circun-
ferentiamtattera refta ttnea non cadet. efrfemi-
circuliangulmjomni anguloacutorefttlinto ma
ior tftireltqum atttem minor.

^4 datofigno, dato circttlo conftngentem re«


ftamlineamdttcere.
18
Sicircuium tctigerit aliqudrefta tinea.d cen"
tro atttem in contaftumconiunfta fuerit dtiqtta
rtfta Unea:coniunfta,ferpendicularU erit in con
tingente.

sicircttlum tetigeritatiqua refta tinea, d con*


tafttt autem ipfitangentiadanguios reftos refta
tinea auadam exciteturjn excitata erit centrum
circuii,
20
tn circnio angutm quiadcentrum, dujplm tft
LIB. III, 14
tim quiadcircunfirentiam, quando anguti can-
dem circunferentiam habuerint.
21
In circuto qtti in eodemfigmento fitntanguti,
ftbiintticemfitnt aquales.
22
In circulU quadritaterum exiftentium an*
gtdi qui ex oppofito, duobm reflis fitnt aqua-
tes.
23
Super eadem refta linea duafiftiones circu-
lorumfimilcs, &* inaqualcsnon conftitueturad
eafdemparteu
24
Super aquatibm reftU UneUfimiles circu-
lorumfiftiones conftitutafibi intticemfitnta*
quates,

Circutififtionedata, defiriberecircutum ctt«


imeftfiftio.
16
tn aqitatibm circulU aqualesanguti m aqua-
tibmcircunferentiUfubtenduntttr,etfi adcetrat
etfiadcircunferentias deduftifuerint,
17
Inaqualibm circults anguti quifuperaqua-
les circunferentmdedttcmtur,fibiinuicemfitnt
EVCLIDIS
aqttalts, etfiadccntra, etfiadcircunferentiasfitt
rintdedttfti.
28
In aqualibm circults aquales refta tinta^qm
tts circunfirentias aitfirtint: maiorem maiorttmi
norem autem minori,
29
In aqttattbm circulU^fib aqualibm arcunfi-
rentiU aqualts rtfta /ineafitbtenduntur.

Datam circunfircntiam,
. ,. . difim~
vifartam ,. .
dtre,
3r
Incircttloangttlm quiin.. fimicircuto cfi, re*
ftm efi: qtti autem in maiorifigmcnto/ninorre*
tto: qtti yerb in minorifigmento,mdior eft reft*.
Et infitjjcr angutmmaiorU figmenti, rtfh qtti-
dem maior eft: minorts autem figmenti angulus,

....
minoreftrefto,
3.2
Sicirctttum tetigerit aliqua
. refta tinea, dcon»
taftu atttem extendaturquadam rcfta linca cir-
ctilumdijpefiens, anguli qttos efficit adtangente,
aqttatesfitnt eU,quialtcmiin circulifigmcrU co*
fiftunt,angulU.
K

33
Super data rtfta linea defirtbcrefiftionem cir
LIB. nr: i?
t»1i,cdpitntem angttlum aquakmdato anguh
ntfdinto.
34
.
^4 ddto circuloffigmentifM abfimderc, capitns
wgulum aqualtm dato angulo reftilinto,
3*
Sim circulo dua rtftaltnta
. fi adinnictm fi«
mrint,reftdngtttum coprehenfiim fiib fiftioni-
bas ynim aquttm eftei,quodfiibfigmentU altc-
rittscomprthtnditur,rec%tngulo,

Si extra ctrctilttm fumaturfignualtquod, ab


toqi in circttlum cadant dua rtfta linta,&*earii
<tlteracirctttum difjfefiat,altet\t ycrbtagat:qitod
fub totadif]>efcente,&* extrinficmfitmpta inter
fignum &* cttritam circunfertntidm comprchcn-
dttur reftdngtttum,aquumeft eiyqtiodfit ex tan-
9tnte,qttddrdto.
37
Si extra circulttm fumdtttr fignum aliqitod,
&ab eofigno in circutttm dtta recta iinea ceci-
derint, &* earttm altera circuiitmficet,a!tera ye
ro cadatifit atttem qttodfitfitb tota dijpefiente,
(? extrinficmfiumptainterfignttm &* curttam
circunfirentiam,aqttdle eitquodfit ex cadente,ca
dtns circulum tano-et.
EVCLIDIS
E V C L I D I S
ItbtrquartM*

Diffinith h
TigutM rtftitinea infigttrareftilinta dcfiri-
hi dicitur, quando ynufquifqtte infiriptafigur*
angulm,ynumquodquetatm eim, in qita deftri*
bitur,tangitt
2 '
Figura autemfimditercirca figttram dejctibi
dicitur,qttando yniiquodqjlatm circumfiripta,
ynumqttenque angulueim^circum quem dcfiri*
hitur,tangtt.

Figurd reftitinea in circuto dcfiribi dicitur,


quandoynufiptifque angutminfiripta,circnli
circttnfirentiam tangit,
4
, . figuram reftiiineam dc*
Circulmyerocirca
fcribidiciturtquandocircttticircunfirentia >//«-
quenque eim,circum quam defiribitttr, angtdum
tangit.

Circulm autem infigura reftilinea defiribidi


citttr,qudndocirculi circunfenntia ynttmquod-
quelatm eim,in qttadefiribitur, tangit*
iiB. mr: 16

Tigttra yerb reftilinea circa circutit defcribi


dicitur, quado ynumquodqueiatmcircufiripta,
circuti circunfirentiam tangit,

... 7
Befta tmea tn circuh congrutre dicttur,quan-
do eim extrema in drcuUcircunfirentiam ca*
dtmt,
Propofith X,
In dato circttlo,datareftalineaminimema*
ioricircttUdiametro exiflentt\aquaiem reftamti
ntamcoaptare,
z
In dato circuto, dato tridngttto aqttianguhm
trianguhm defiribere,

Circa datum
.3
circulum, dato triangulo aquian
gttum trianguhm defirtbere,
4
Indatotriangulotcirculumdefcribere.

Circadatnm trianguhm, circuhm dejcri-


bcre.
6
tn dato circuto,qttadratumdefiribeye.
7
Circa datumcircuiu,quadratum defiribercl
EVCHDIS
8
In dato quadrato,circuhm defiribere,

Circa datttm quadratttm circtihm defhU


here.
10
tfifieles triangtthm confiitttere, habens *>.
numquenqite corttm quiad bafin fitnt,anTutoru
duplumreliqtti,

In dato circutofpentagonUm aquiiatentm &


aqtiiangtthmdefinbtre*

Circa datum circuhm,pentagonum aquiUte


rttm 0* aquiangtdum defirtbere.
*3
In dato pentagono aquitatero
, &* aquian?ttlo,
circulum defiribcre,
H
Circa datttm ptntagonum aqntldttrum &
aqmanguhm,circulum defiribere,

Indatocirculo,hexagenum aquilaterum&
aquianguhmdefcribcre.
16
Indatocirculo, quintidecagonum aqnilateru
&* aquiangulttm defaibcre.
tt& VI, *}
EVCLtDlS
Hberquintm,

Diffinith I.

eft
1>4ts, mignitudo mdgnitudinU, minormi*
hrU,quando minor mttitur maiorem,
.--. 3 ".•• •
Muttipiex autem,maiorminore,quando eam
vtttiturminor.

Bath,eflduarum magnitudinum ciufdcifige*


tttrU aliqUdttnm adinuicem quadam hdbitudo*

Proportioyerb,eflratiommidentit<ts.

Bationem habere adiriuicem magnitudinei


dicuntur, quapoffuntmultiplicatainuicem exr
cedcre*
-'.- ;
-
»«•••,... -.--;,
In eadem rdtionc magnitudines dicuntur ejfei
^.

pnma adficundam,&* tertia adquartam,quan*


doprima aquc*multiplicia,ficunda&*quari*
€qtt€ multiplicia iuxta quauts multiplicathnem
ytraque yjratsquc: yetyriH exceduntyyel ynJ
ttqHalesfyetynadeficiuntfumptaadinuicemt
A .7:
EVCLIDIS
Eandemautem habentes rationtmmagniiH^
dines,proportionale$ yocentur,
8
Quandoyerbaque muttipticium muttipttx
primi, excefferit muttiplexficundii multiptex
excefjerit multiplexquarti:tiic
autemtertpnon
primumadficundum,maiorem rathnemhabt**
rcdicctur,qtMm tertium adquartum,
9
u.
proporth antemtribmtermtriU minimaeft,

Qttando tres magnitudintsproporthnattsfie


rint,primaadtertiam,dupticemrathnem habt-
re dicetur, quam adficundam Quando autem

quatmrmagnitudinesproporthnalesfuerint,^
fimperordtnatimynaptm:primaadquamtdm
tripitcem rationem haberc dketur ,<pthnadft*
tundam,exquofutritproporthcxtenfa\
11
SimiiU rathnts magnitudines dicuntur, <tntc«
ctdtntia antcccdentivHt,&*confiquentiaconfi*
quentibm.
12
Permutdtarath, eflaccepmantecedentUad
antcccdcns,&* confiequcntU adconfiqutns.
«J3 V
.•
Comerfa ratio, eft acceptto
. confiqumts. tan*
^ LIB, VI 18
tptm ttntecedentU,admtecedem t<tnqtMm*id
wfiquenu
14
Compofitarath,eflaccepth antecedentUcum
cwfiquentcfimymm,adipfumconfequenSk

Diuifirath, eflaccepth exceffm quocxcedit


mttctdes ipfum confiquens, adtpfum confiqu^
16
ConUerfio rathnU ,eflaccepth antecedentii
dicxceffumepQ cxccdit antecedtns ipfumcom
fiqutns. *

-:;\r.,y.:,:t 17 ";.',.; r.V.-.:.


.;;•
\4Equa rath,eflpluribm
. exiftentibm magni* ..

tHdinibm,&*dlijseUaqualibmmultitudinccumr
du4bmfimptU,&ineademratione:qudndofite
ritficut inprimUmdgnitudinibm^primmn dd
yttimum ificin ficundis mdgmtudinibm pri-
rnttm ad yttimum.Velaliter,^iccepth extremo
rumperfitbtraftionemmedhrum,
-:->.- v-1*:^':-.v- i

Ordinataproportio, efl cumfueritttnteccdeni •

adconfequens,ficutantecedensadconfiquens:0*
confiqucns adrem aliam,ficut confiqucris ad
rtmaliam,
lf
,\..••
Inoydiriaia proporth, efl cumfuerit antel
cij "
EVCLIDIS
cedcnsadconfiqucnSfficutantecedem adconft*
quens: &* confiquens adrem aliam,ficut res alia
ad antecedem,
20
Extcnfdproporth efl, quandofueritficut an*
tcccdens adconfiquens ,ficdnteccdensddconft~
quensifucrit autem&ficut confiquemadrtm
aliamjicconfiquensadrematiam,

Perturbata autemproportio,efl mando tribtts


exiflentibm triagnitu iintbm,t^* aitU eU aqudli*
hm muititudine ffitficut quidem inprimUma*
gnitudinibm antecedens adconfiquens,fic infc*
cundUmagnitudinibmaritecedensadconfiques:
ficut dtttcm inprimis magnitudinibm confiques
adrem aliaritficinficiiduresatia adantecedens,
Propofitio 1.
Sifuerint quxltbet magnitudines quarumlibet
magriitudirium aqudlium riumcrofingutafingtt^
iaruaque multiplices ,quotuplex eflyriim yna
magnitttdo,totuplic€Scrunt&* omnes omnium.
t
Siprimaficundaaquefiterit muttiplex, &
iertia quartafueritauterit &* qjuintaficunda a*
qtte multiplex,&*fixta quarta, &* copofitapri-
ma &* qttinta ,ficundaaque multiptex erit, &*
tcrtia&Jextaquarta.
LIB, V. if
3
Siprimumficundiaquefuerit multiplex, &*
urttum quarti,fitmaturautcm aque muttipttcia
primi &* tertif, 0* aque Jumptorum ytyumaue
ytriufquc aque erit multipiex attemm quiJem
s
fecundt,aiterum autem quarii.
4
Siprimum adficundum eandem habuerit ra*
tionem,&* tertium adquartum, &* aqucmutti~
pliciapnmi&tcrtijaaaque multipliciaficun-
di O* quartiiuxta quaitts multiplicationem,ean^
dtm habebuntrationemfimpta adinuicem,
?
Si mdgnitudo magnitudinU aquefitcrit mut~
tiptcx,&* ablata abtata,&* reiiqua reitqua: erit
ntuttipiex,qmtuplex tota totim eft multiplex.
6
Sidua magnitudines duamm magriitudinum
ttqucfuerint muttiplices, tyablat* atiquaea-
rum aquefuerint multipfices, &* reliqua eifidem
yctaquatesfunt,yeiaqueipfarummuitipiices.
7
^(Equalesadeandem, candcmhabent rath"
ntmi&* cadem ad aquaies,
8
Inaquaiium ntdgnitudimm mahr,ad cadem,
ntdhrem rdthncmhabet,qi4&mminor:&*eadem
&?^.. _; ..9 tij
r: EVCLIDIS
'ndminorcm ] mahrem rathnem h*bet,quim ai
mtthrem.
9
QHaddcandem,candcmhahcritrathncm,fr
tmales adinuicemfuntx &*ddquas eadem, titdm
habetrathnem,ipfafitntaquates.
io
^ideandem,rationemhabentiumimaiortm
rathncm habcsjlta mahr efliad quam autem ««
dem maiorem rationem habet, &* ilta minor eft,

Iluaeidemfuriteademraihnes,0*adinHh
tcmjunt eadem*
11
Sifuerint quaiibet mdgnitudines proportith
pem habentes ,critficut yna antecedentiumad
ynam confiqucntiumfic omncs dntecedentesad
mnesconfiquentes,
*3
Siprimaadficundam, candem hahueritratb
nem,&* tertia adqttartam:tertia autem ad quar
tam,maiorem rdtionem habeat, qudm quintaad
fextamiprimd qttoque ddficundamfridhrcmU'*
tionctn habebit,qukm qttinta adfixtam.

Siprima adficundam,e<tndem habueritratio*


$em $ &tertiadd qHartam: prima yerbi tertia
LIB: vi zo
mhrfuerit: &ficunda, quarta major erit: etfi
tqtktlUtfqudlUxtfiminowiinor.

partes codem modo muttipticium,candemra^


thMm>h<tbcntfimptaadinuicem*

Siquatuor magnitudines proporthnalesfitc*


rint,&< yicifiimproportionateserunt.

SicompofitamagnttudinesproporthnatesfHc
tint,dtuifa quoqueproporthnales erunt.
18
Sidiuifamagnitudinesproporthnalesftterintl
compofita quoqueproporthnates erunt.

SifHeritficuttotumadtotumficahtatumad
<tb!dtum:0*reliqttttm adrctiquum erit,ficut to*
tmadtotm*
20
Sifuerint tres magnitudines, #* aiia etfdem
ftqualesnumerocumduabmfiimptU, &* in w-
demrathneiex aquali autemprima tertia maior
fuerit:&* quartajextamahrcrit: etfi&qualU,a-
qHdtU:ttfi minor,minor.
.
21
Sifuerint tres magnitudtnes, &* atia eifdem
aqttaies mmero cum dmbmfhmptU, &* \n ea*
EVCLIDIS
dem rathncfiteritdutemperturbata carumpn*
portio: ex aquati ytrbprim* tertiamaiorfuerit,
ep* quartafixta maior erit; etfiaquaiU, aqualk
ttfiminor%minor.
ti
qualtbct magnitudines,
Sifuerint &* aliaeifi
dem aquaies numero cumduahmfumpttsin ea*
dcmrathne,&*cx AyuaUm eadem ratione erut%
*3
SifucrinttresmagnitudineSidliaJHecifdema*
quaiesnumero cum duahmfitmptU in eadem rd«
tione zfiterit autcmperturbataearttmproporth,
0* ex aquali in eadem rationc erunt,
*4
Siprimum adficundum eandemhabueritrd*
thnem,&* tertium ddquartumthahueritautem
&* quintttm adficundum candem rattonem, &*
fextum ad quartum, e$* compofita primum &
quintum adficundum, candem habcbunt ratio*
nem,&*tcrtiHm@*fextHmd.dqHdrtum,

Siquatuor magnitudinesproportionalesfitc*
rint, mdximacarHm @* minima reliquU m*hm
reseruntt
IIB. VL n
EVCLIDIS
liberfixtm,

Diffinith i.
Similesfkurareftiiineafmt, qua & angutos
aquates habent ad ynum: &* qu* circa angulos
aqHatesfuntJateraproportionatia,
2
Reciproca autemfigurafitnt/ptdndo in ytra*
quefigura anteccdentcs 0* confiquentcs termini
rationalesfuerint,
3
Per extremam &* mediam . raihnem, rcfta /*•
nea diuidi dicitur,quandofmritficut tota adma^
imfigmentHmJicmaim adminm.
.4
^iititudo yniufiuiufquefigura, efl^yerticc
adbdfinperpendicHlarUdedufta,

Rdthexduabm rdtionibm,autexpturibm
conflare dicitur quando rationum quarititates
>
multiplicdtadUqtidm cjficiunt qudntitdtcm,
Propofitio I.
Triangula&paralleiogramma, quafitbco-
demfitnt"yertice,adfi imicemfunt yt bafis.
z '*
EVCLIDIS
Sitrtangutiadynumlaterum aftafuerita*
tiquarefta iinea pardUelm ,proportionaliterfim
cat ipfim tridnguli iattra:etfi trianguii iatera
proportionaliterfeftafuerint adfigmenta con-
nexa refta tinea, paraltelm ad reliquum eritip-
(imtrianguUtatm.
: 3
SitridnguUangutmbtfarUm
. ficetur ,difpe«
Jcens autemanguhmrefta lineaficucrit & bd?
fin , bafis figmentd eandem habcbunt rationem
reliquU ipfim tridnguU lateribm: etfibafis fig*
menta cadem habuerint rathnem reiiquU ipfm
trianguli latcribm, a yertice adbafin coriiunfta
reftatineahifariam dijpefiitipfim trianguli an+
gulum.
4
^iEquiangutorum triangtttorum proporttona*
.
tiafint latera, qua circum aquatcs angulos, &
fimitUJitnirdtionUqHaaqualtbm angulU latcra
fitbtenduntur.

Siduo trianguia,taterdproportiondliahabttc*
rint,aquiariguj<t triangula,&* aquales ha-
erunt
hebuntdngulosjfitb quibm eiufdem rationU iate*
rajubtenduntur.

Sibinatriangutaynumanguhm ynianguh

IIB. VI. 22
ajttaiem hahuerint, &circum aquates anguhs
Uteraproporthnalia,aquiangulatrunt triarigu-
ta,&* aquates habebunt angulosfttb quibm eiufi
demrdtionUUterafubtenduntur.
; ;"* T' ''*/ "
dngulum ynidngulo
-
St. bina triagutd ynum
aqttdlem hdbuerint, circum dutem dtios dngulos
IdterdpropQrtionatidireliquorHrriyerb ytrunque
fimutaut minorem,autnominorernrefto, aqui*
dnguta erunt triangula,&* aquales habcbjut ari*
guios,circumquosproportionaiiafuntiaterd.

Siin trianguto reftangulo ab dnguto refto in


bdfMperpendicuiarUdgatur,quaadperpendicu«
Idrem triangula,fimiliafunttoti&* ddinuicem.
9
Datd refta tinea,ordindtapdrtem dhfandere.
10
Datam reftam lineam nonftftm>ddtarefta
tineafiftafimiiiterficare,
II
Vuabm datUreftU ItneU, tertidmproportio*
vatcminuepire,
11
Tribm datUreftU lmeU,quartamproporthn4^
lemimenkt.
13
EVCLIDIS
.
DuabmdatU reftUtineU^mediamproportio:
\
mteminuenirjti.

*4Equalium,&* ynum yniaquatemhabtn-


tium angulum paraUetogrammorum, reciproca
Jftnttaterd,quacircum aquales dngulos:&* qtto-
rtttn,pdra!ielogr4mmorumynum angtihm yni
angulo aqHdlemhdbent{Hm>r<tcipro,cdJunt hte-
ra,qua circum aqudles dngutos,ed quoquejitnt a~
quatia.
' ' »*
.... &* ynum yni aqudlem hdben-
^iEqudtium,
tium anguhm tridngHtorHmt reciprocdfitntU*
teraiquacircHnp!Oquaiesangulos:0*quorumy''
mmyni driguhm aqualemhdbenttum tridn-
gutorHm,reciprocaJuntlatera,qua ctrcum aqud'
its angulos,eaquoquejunt aquatia.

Si quatuorrefia tineapmporthnalesfuerint,
quodfitb extremUcomprehenfumreftangtthm,
aquum efteiquodjitb medijs continetur reftan*
gulo.Etfifib extremU comprehcnfitm rtftangu-
lum aquumfueritei quod fitb medijs continetur
reftangttlo, quatuor refta tinea proporthnaUs
erunt.
17
Sitresreftatineaproportionalesfuerint,quod
tiB. Vi. 23
fib extremUcopreherifumro£tanguium,aquum
efl ei qttod d media quadrato.Etfiqmdpib extre*
mU continetur reftangutum, aquttmfuerit ei
qttod d medi<tqUadrato,tpJatres refia lineapro-
priionaleserttnt. .; v;
18 ;-—
,4 data reftalined, dftto reftittneofimile,fi-
miliierquepbfitufri reftitineium defiribere.

Similia trianguta,adinuicemin dupldjuntra*


tioneidterumfimiUrdthnU.^ \
r ''•;
20 ; y •..'
Simitiapolygonainfimilia trianguia diuidun-
tttr&* in aquaiia numero &* aqua ratione totU:
efrpotygonum ad polygdnum dupticem ratio-
nemhdbet^qnamfmiiU rdtionU latm,adpm'ttU
mhnUtatm. -
-...:«.'.. it
JQua eidemrefiilirieoJuntfimilia,fyadinui-
.

ctmjuntfimitid.
22
Si quatuor refta lineaproportionalesfuerint,
fy* dh eU reftilineafimiiiayfimititerque defiri-
pta, proportiondtia erunt. Etfiab ipfis refltlinea
proportionaliafuerint, ipfia quoque reftaitnca
proportiondiesernnu
2$
EVCLIDtS
IfEquianguia paraUeiogfamritaddinuicem
habentcompofifamexidttrihm*
4. ....>•.-'
v* :.
OmnU pdrdUelogrdmmhquactrca dimeticn*
.

temparaUelogrammafimiUafunttotif&ddin-
uicem, *,-.
Ddto reftilirieofimiic, &* atij4ato aquate, i-
demconftituere.
'- 26 -'
..
SipardUelogrdmmopdrdUelogfdmrr"ndufe-
.

rdtur ,fimile &* toti &*fimiliterpofitu: t, com*


munemarigulum hahens ei,circum eundemdi-
metientemefltoti.
tv '
••-.,
Omnium paraUelogrammorum cimmcdn*
.
-

dem reftdm lineamproieftorum, deficiftiumqtti


jpecie pdrdUelogrdmmUfimilibmifimiliterqtti
pofitU ei quodadimidid defiriptum eft,mdxi-
mum efl,quodk dimididproieftupdrdUeiogram-
mumfimiteexiftensfumpto.
28
iAdddtdmreftdm tineam daforeftitineoa-
*]ualeparaUeiogrammttm comparare deficiens
>
Jpecie paraUeiogrammofimiti dato toportet iam
datttm reftitineum, cui expedit aquum compa-
rare, non maimeffi eo,quodk dimidiacompard*
LIB. vii 24
tmfimitibm exiflcntibmfumptis,&* eim quod
a dimidta,&* cuiexpediifimiie deficere.
29
^iddatamreftamtineam ,dato reftitineo a-
qttateparaUelogrammum pratendere ,excedens
jpcciepdrdUelogrdmmumfimiledato.
.
30
Datam reftamlineam terminatam,per ex-
tremam acmediam rdtionemdiffefiere.
.31 .-7,777
In reftdngulU tridngulU
. quaabreffuman*
gttlum fibtendcnte laterejpecies,aquahefleU
qu£ah refiumangulum comprehendentibmfc
teribmfpeciebmfimtlibmfimilitcrqsdefiriptU.

Siduotriangulacomponanturad ynuman-
gulum, duptatera dmbmldteribmprppprtiona-
lia hdhentid ,ytfint eiufdcm rationU eprjutn la-
terd&*paraUe!a, reliqudipfirumtriangulorum
tdtcrainrefianilineamerunt.
H

tn aquaiibits circuits, anguiicandemhabent


rdtioncmipfiscircunfirentttsinquibmdeducun-
tur: etfiadcentra, etfiadcircttnferentmfuerint
dedufti,tum etiamfifioresadcentracpnfiituti.
EVCLtDlS ^
EVCLIDIS
liberfiptimm.

Deffinith r.
Vnitas, eflqudymmquodqueexiftens ymtn
dicitur.

2
tstumerm dutemycx ^nitdtihm compofita
multitudo.
'7

' y
Pdrs,efimmermmmerimtnormdiorU,qudn*
dodimetiturmdiorem.

Vdrtes dUtem,quando mn metitur.

Muttiptexyerb, mdhrminorefquando eutn


metiiurminor.
6
Vdrmmerm,efl quibifaridm dittiditur.
y.
impdr yerb, qui bifariam diuiditur', ytt
non
quiynitate differt apari.
8
Vdriterpdr mmcrm, efl quem pdr mmertts
metiturpernumerumpdrem.
9
LIB. Vlt. 2f
Vdriter autem impar, eft quem par nttmcrm
mctiturper imparcm nutncrum,
io
Impariteryerbpdr, efi quem impar numerm
dimetiturpernumerumparem.
ii
Impariteryerbimpar nttmerm, eft qucm im*
pdrnumerm metiturpcrimpdremnumerum,
U
Vrimtts numerm, eft queynitasfiold metitun
*3
Primt ddtnuicemfuntmmcri,quosynttasfi-
.
U dimetitur commttni menfird.
«
14
Compofitm numcrm,efiquem mmermdti-
qttUmetitur.
I*
Compofiii dutem ddinuiccm
. numerijunt^quos
mmerm atiquis communi dimentione metitur*

Numerm numemmultipUcare dicitur,quan-


do quotafitnt in ipfi ynitates, toties componitur
tnultipUcatm,&gignituraliquU.
*7
Quando autem hinimmerifefi adimiceni
multiplicantes, dliquemfecerint :faftm,pldnm
dppeUatunLdterd yerb iUim, muttipttcdntesfifi
" """"* """ d
EVCLIDIS -.
inuiccmntmeri,
i,
\ .,18....;.:. ^,-
Quando yerb tres nttmeri fifimuitiplicantes
ddinuicemficcrintdliquemfdftmjolidmappeL
Idturdatcra "ytrbiUim ,muittplicantesfcfiinui-
cem nttmeri.
-; I?
Quddratmnumerm efl, quiaque a^uatU,yel
^

quifitb dmbm aqudlibmnumcrUcontinctur.


20
Cubm ycrb,quiaque aqudlis aque,yeljub tri*
hmaqttaltbmnumcrUcontinctur.
21
Numeri proporthnalcsfint ,quando primus
ficundi,0*tertim quartiaquefuerit multipiexi
yelcademparsfreteadempartes.
22
Similesptaniefrfilidimmerifitnt, quipro*
porthnalia habentlatera.
23
Perfiftm nHmerm,eflquifitiipfimparttbm
efl aqttalts,
Propofitio I.
Si dmbmnttmerUinaqttdlibm expofitU,fib-
htto fimperminoreamaiore, reiiqum minitnt
mettdttirpraccdeiem, quodddffumptdftterity-
nitds,quiapmciptommerhprmiddimiceeruu
LtB. vtil i6
DuobmnumerU ddtU nonprirnU ddinuicem^
tndXimam eorum commttnemdimenfionemin*
tienire,
3 ;
TribttS nttmerU ddtUnon primis adinuicem^
ptaximam eorum comunem mefitram inuenirei
4.
OmnU mmerttSfOmnU nttmerimtnor mahrU
mtpars efi^ttttpdrtes.

St riumerm numeripdrsfiterit, &* diier dlte-


ritts eadempdrs, &*yterqtte ytriufque eadetH
pdrs erit,qttaynmynim,
6
Si mmerttS numenpartesfuerit, &* dlter dU
teritts eadem pdrtes, &* yterque ytriufque ea-*
dempartesentnt^quaynmynim,
7
Sinttmerm numeriparsftterit, qualis abiatm
ablati: &* reliqum reliquipars erit, qualis tottti
totim:

-•
8
St mmerm ntmeripdrtesfuerit, qua abldtm
ahlati:&* reliqum reliqui,eadempdrtes erit, qu4
totmtotim,
„.' »
EVCLIDIS
Sinumerm nnmeripdrsfuerit, &*altera!te-
rim cadcmpars: &* yicifitm qualis pars eft yet
pdrtes primm tertij^eademparserifyelpartes
ftcundm qiidrti.
io
Si numerm Mtmeripdrtesfiterit,&* atter alte*
rim eadempdrtcs: &* yicifiim qttapdrtes eflpri
mm tertij yetpdrs, eadempdrtes erit &*fecun-
dm qudrti,yet eddempdrs.
II
Sifueritficuttotmadtotum,fic abtdtmdd
dbtdtum:& retiqum ad reliquum eritficut totm
adtotttm.
12
Sifuerint quotcunque numtri proporthnales,
eritficut ynm dntccedentiumdd ynumfiqucn-
tiitfic omnes antecedetes ddomnes confiquentes.
.J3
Si qudtuor mmeriproporthnalesfuerint,
. &*
yicifitmproportionaieserunt.
J4
Sifuerint quiltbct
. numert, &* atij eifdem a-
quales nttmero cum duobmfitmptU,i<p* in cddem
rathne,&* ex aqudliin eadem rattoneerunt,

Si ynitas numcrum aliquem mettatur,pdrttcr


dtttem alter mmerm dlium quempidm mme-
LIB. VII. 27
rum mctiatttr :&*yicifiim pdriter ynit%ter-
tium numtrttm metietur,&*ficundm quartum'.
16
Sihini numcri multiplicdntesficyddintticem
fecerint atiquostgeniti ex eU,aqudles ddinuicem
trunt,

Si numerm duos numcros mttttiplicansficerit


dliquoiigeniti exeU,candem rationem habcbunt
quam muitiplicati.
18
Siduommerimmerumdliquemmultipiicdti
tts ffecerint dliquos tgeniti ex eU}edndem habe"
bunt rationem quam muttipiicantes.
19
Si quatuornumeriproporthnaUsfuerint,qui
exprimo &* quartofit, aqum efi ei qui exficttn»
do &* tertio. Etfiqui exprimo &* qttartofit
nu-
merm, aqualUfiterit ei qui exficundo &* tertio,
ipfiqudtuor mmeri proporttonales erunt.
20
Sttres mmeriproporthnalesftterint, quifub
txtremU, aquaiU esl ei qui a medio. Etfi qutfib
txtremU aquatUfuerit ei qui kmedio ,'tpfitres
mmeriproportionales erttnt.
21
Minimi mtmeri eandem rationem habentium
diij
EVCLIDIS
Yts, metittntur eandem rationem habentes aqttdt
titerimdhrmdiorem,minorminorem.
22
Sifuerint tres numeri, &*,dlij eiufdetn aquales
pumero cttm duobttsfitmptU^in eddem ratio-
neifucrit dutem perturbdta eorumproportio&*
cx aqudli in eadem ratione erttnt,
?3
Vrimi nttmen adinuicem^ntnimifitnt eandem
rdttonemhdbentittmeU*
24
Minimi numeri edndem rdtionem hdbentium
tUjprimi adinuicemfitnt.
?*
Si htnt numeriiprimi
. ddtnuicemfuerintfvnum
corttm meitens ddreiiquumpnmm eritr
26
Si hini nunmi dddliquem numewprtmifuc*
rint,&* ex eisgenitm ddeundeniprimm eritf

Si duo numeriprimi adinuicemfuerint^qiii ex


yno eorttmfit,ctdrettqttumprimm eritf
28
Sibini numeri adbinos numeros yterquedd
ytrunqueprimifuerint; &*quiex tisftnt,prh
ttti adinuicem ermt.
LrB^vii, 28
^Sibininumeriprimiadinuiccmfiterinti&*
mttttipiicans yterqttefiipfitmfecerit aliquos,qui
ex.cUfiunt, primi ddinuicem erttnt. Etfiqiitm
principiogenitos muitiplicdntesficerintatiquos,
0*iUt quoqueprimiddinuicem erunt,c^*fimper
circaextremoshoccontinget.
.3»
Si bininitmeri ypnmi ddtnuicemfuerint
. . ,&*
yterque ddytrunque ipfimprimm crit. Etfiy-
terque adynum ahquern eoruprimmfuerit, 0*
quiinprincipio mtmeri}primiddinuicem erttnt.
31
,
Omtnsprtmm nttmerm, ddomnem numertm
qucmnonmetitur,primmeft.
.32
SibiniriHmerimuiiipiicantesfiyddinuicemfi-
ccrint diiquemfaftumdutem ex eUmetiturali-
quU primm nttmerm ,&*ynum eorum qttiin
principiometietur.
33
OmnUcompofitm mmermfitb, alicttim
. . prinn
. .
numeridimenfionemcadit.
34
Omnts numtrm, dttt pnmm
. ed^aut eum ait*
quUprimm metitttr.
X
NttmerU ddits quibttfiunque, tmenire
. . mim^ ...
diiij
EVCLIDIS
psos eafitem rationes hahentium eU,

DmbmmmerUddtU, inuenirc quem mini-


ptum metiuntur mmtrum,
37
Silininumeri mmerum diiquemmenfifitc*
rint,&* minimmquifltb corum dtmenfionem ca
dit,eundemmetietur.
*8.
Tribm mmerU daits,inuenire
.
quem mini-
mummmerummeituntur.
.3?
,.
St mmerum attquts mmerm mettatur, mcn~
fits cognominatampartemhabebit metienti.
40
SinHmermpdrtemhdbHcritquamitbct,eum
fognomindtimmcrimctietHrpars,
4*
Numerum inu€nirc,quimimmm cxifleris ha-
\eatdatdipartcsa,b,c.

EVCLIDIS
Liberoftaum.

Propofitio i.
Sifiterint quitibee mmeri contthue propor-
tiondJes,€xtremi yerb tpfirumprimiadinHicctn
LIB. VIIL 29
fmint\minimi fint candem rathnem haben**
immeU.
2
Nttmtros inuenirc contime proportiomles
minimos, quos ordinauerit aliquts in data ra-
itone,

Sifuerint quilibet mmeri coimuc proporth-


m!es,miritmi eandemrationemhabentium eU,
tontm extremiprimiadinuicem erunt.
4
BdthnibmdatU quibufiunquein minimUn»
pterU, numerosinnenirccontinuc proporthndles
tninimosinddtUrdthnibm,

plani numeri adinuicemrathnem hdbei com-.


pofitamexlateribm,
6
SiJUerint quiiibct numericontime proporth-
nales,primmautemficHndumnonmetiatur, &*
alim mUmmUum metietur.
7
Sifkerint quiitbet numen. continue
. x proportto-
nales^primm autem extremum metiatur, fyfi*
cundumquoqttemetietur,

Si inter duos mmeros contime proporthnd-


m^,..
ZVCLIDIS
lctcicidcrint numeri^uotin eosceciderintnttme
ri,tot,*$*intereandcrathnem habenteseis con-
tintteproportionatcscadtnt.
9
Sibinimmtriprimiadinuicefuerint, &* /;;-
ter eoscontinueproporthnaiesceciderint nume-
ri,quot inter eos continue proporitonaics ccctde-
rintnumeri,totquoqueinter ytrunqtteeorttm ej*
ynitatem continueproporthndies cadent.
io
Siinterhinosmmcros &* ynitatem contimti
proporthnaiesnumeri cccidcrint, quot intery*
trunqueipfintm &* ynitatem continue propor^
tionales cccidcrint mmcri,tot%&* inter cos conti-
nueproporthnales cadcnt,
II
Duorum mmcrorum quadratorum^nmme-
dimproporthnalU eitmmerm. Et qttadrdtmdd
quadratum duplam habet rditonem, quim lattvs
adlatm,
J2
Dttorum cuborum numeroru, hini mcdij pro-
portionatcsfitntnumert\Etcuhusadcttbum tti-
plamrationem habet,quam tatm adlattts,
J3
Stfuertntquilibet
. .
numert . .
conttnuc .
proportto-
v<fles, 0*muUiflicans ynufquifquefiipfitmfi-
IIB. Vlth ^O
cmtaliqms, qmfiuntexipfis,proportionates e-
ritnt.Etfiqui inprinciphgenitos multiptican-
ttsfectrit dliqttos,&*ipfi quoque proporthnalts
erunt.

siqtiddrdtm nttmcrm quadratum mmertm


mtnfit* fuerit,&* idtm Utus metietttr. Etfila-
tmlatm mctictur, quadrdtm quadratttm me-
intur.

Sicubm nttmerm cubunumerum mcnfmfuc«


rit,&* latm latm metictttr, Etfilatm Idtm mcn~
fimfmrit,&* cttbm cubum metietur,
16*
Siqitadratmnumertts quadratttm numerum
menfitsnonfuerit,neqilatmlatm metietur. Etfi
tdtmiatm menfitmnonfHerit,neque quadratus
quadratummetietur.
*7,
Si cubus numertts cubttm mmcrtinon metia-i
tur,neqtte latus tdttts metietitr. Etfi idtm idtm 00*
metiaturfteqitecubus cnbum mctietur.
18
DttorumfimitiumplanorumnttmcrorHm, y-
nusmcdiusproporthnalU eft numertts. Et ptdnus
ddptdnum dttpldmhdbetrdthnem, qttdmfimtlU
rathrfts tatm adfimilU ratjonU Idttts,
EVCLIDIS
I*
DuorumfimtliumfilidQrum numerorum bini
medijproportioyidlesfimt mmeri,EtfiUdm adfi
tidumfimiietripidm miontm hdbtt,qudmjinth
iis rationU UtmddfimilU rationU latm,
20
Si binorum mmerorum ynm medim propor-
thnaiUfiteritmmerm^fimiles plani cruntipfi
mmeri,
21
Siduorummmerorum duo medij proportio-
nalcsJHcrint mmeri,fimUesfitidi fitnt ipfim
meri.
22
SitmnumericontinHeproporthmiesfiterint,
primmqucfittrit quadratm, & tertim quadra-
tmerit,
23
Si qudtuor mmeri contime proporthnalcs
fiterint,primmdutemcuimfuerit, 0* qudrtm
atbmerit.
24
Sihirii mmerirdtionem hdbuerint,qudm qud-
drdtm mmermadtptddrdtum mmerum/pri-
mm dutcmfueritquddratm, &*ficuttdm qua-
dratmerit.
LIB. tXl jt
& bini numeri adimicetn rathnem hdbue-
tintf quam cubm mmerm ad cubum mmc-
rum,primm autemcubmfuerit) efrficundmcH
bttscrit,
26
Similespldni mmcriddinuicem rationemha-
hnt%quam quadratm numerm ad qttadratumnts
tntrum.
27
Simitesfiiidinumeriadinutcemrathnehabet,
qHdmcubHsmmerus adcubummmcrHm.

EVCLIDIS
Libernonm.

Propofitio I.
Sibinifimilesplanimmerifi inuicem mul-
tiplicantcs,aliquemficerint:faftmex eU,qHadra
.
wcrit.
2
Sibinimmerimuicefifcmu!tipUcantes,qHd-
drdtumfecerintjimilesplanijiint.
3
Sicubm nttmerttsfiipfum muttipticdns ttlique
fccerit.faftm,cubmerit.
EVCLIDIS
4
Stcubusmmeruscfibttmnumcrftm mttltiplU
cans/ttiquemfecerit'faftus,cubus erit.
1
Sicubmmmerus numcrum aliquem mutti-
plicans, cubumfecerit, e$* multipttcatusctibus
trit*
6
Sinumemsfiipfiimmitlfiplicans,cubumftce*

/
rit,&*ipficubuseriti
" .*' ;' 7 ' '
Sicomptfitm numcrusfiumerum aliquemttl-
tipUcans,aliquemfec€rityfdfiusfilidttserit.
8
St ab ynitate quUibet nttmtriordineproportio
nalesfticrint,tertitts ab ynitate quadrattts efti<&*
ymmrelinqnentesomnesiquartus atttem ctibtts,
fybinosreltnquentes omncsifiptimusyerb c«-
busfiritul&quddratHS, efrquinque rciinqHcn*
iesomnes.
9
Si ab ynitate quilibet nttmeri confiquentcr
(roportionalesfiterint: qui yerb pofi ynitdtem
tptadratttsfuerif^reliquiomnesquadratieriiti
EtfiqHi$oftynitatemcttbusjuerit,<&* reiiqui o*
vmescubierHrit.
io
LlB. IX* £
Siab ynitate quihbctmmeri ordinatim pro-
pniiondUsfttcrintiquiyerbpoflynitatenQnfite
rit quddratus,tteq}d(iusyllits qttddratus crit,cx-
aptU terth ab ynitaic, 0* ynttm relinqtteiibtts
emnibuf. Etfiquipoitynitatemcttbttsnofuerit,
neqne alius yUus%cubus erit, exceptU quarto ab
Vtitdte,& binos rclinqttentibmomnibm.
n
Siab ynitdte quilibet numeri continuepro-
pirthmlesftt€ri\\t,tninormdhrem metitttr per
xUqucm praexiilentem inproporthnalibus nu-
mtris.
12
Siabynitatcquitibctn\mericontinuepropor
wndlesfuirintrfHQtprimQWtm numcrortm yl-
timum metictur9tot,&* euw* qui dpudynitatem
eftmetientur.
*3 77,7......;
Siab ynitateqnilibetmmetiordinatim
. . •
pro-
fortionalesfttcrint: qtit yerbpofiyriitatem pri-
musfuerif,maximumnuUus dlim nttieturpra-
ttrpraexiflenta inproporttonalth^ nttmerU.

Si minimum numeriipriminttmiirmenfifite-
rintjitiUtts aliusprimus mmertts ipfitffit meitetur
pmereos quiinprinciph mctiuntur.
*$'
EVCLIDIS
Sitres mmeri cvtinueproporthnaiesfiterini,
minimicdndem its habentiu*rationcm,biniquili«
het compofiti ddretiquumprimierunt,
16
Si bininumeriprimiadinuicemfHerint^jon c*
ritficutprimmddfccHndHm,jicfccHndmdddli+
quemdlium,

SiJmrintquilibetmmericoniinHeproportk*
i^teSfipfirHmauteritextrmiprimiadinutcefiiC''
rintt non eritficutprimm adficundum,ficytit*
mm dd aliquem atium,
i8
BinUmmerUdatU,confiderarefipofiibiieeft
cU tertiHmproporthnalemimenirc,
19
TribmmmerUdatis,confiderarefieftpoflibi-
te eU qudrtum inuenireproporthnaletn,
20
Vrimimmerifpluresfitntomni propofitd tntd
titudineprimorummmcrorum.
2t
Siparcs mmcriquitibetcompondntur, tottts
fareft.
22
Si impares numeri quilibct compondntur,fitt*
ritauttm mHltitudopar,totmpar eriu
LIB. IXt jj
«23„ }
Si impares mmert qitittbet componantur^nul
titudo autcm ipfirttmfUeritimpar, &*totm im-
fdrcrit.
24
siafdrinummpar aufiratur, rcliqumpar
erit.
2*
Sidpdrinumero imparduferatur,reliqum
. tm*
pdrerit.
26* './'V
Siab imparinumero imparaufiratur,rsliqum
parerit.
27
St ab impdrinumero par dufierdtHnreUqum
imparerit.
28
Si impar mmerm parem muliipltcdns > 4/1-
quemficerit:quigignitHrr,pdrefl.
V *>
Siimparmmermimparem mmerum multi-
^ltcansfeceritaliquvn:fitftm,imp<trcrit.
' 30
Stimpar numerm parem mmerttmmenfm
fiterit,&* eim dimidium metietur.
31
Siimpar mmermddmmerumdliqnempri-
? EVCLIDIS
mmfucrif,& adipfim duptumprimm erii.
32
^ihhdrio dttplomm ymifquifque^driterpdr
efltantum,
33.
Sintttnerm dimidium
. . . imparhabuertt,pariter
imparefttantum.
,34
Simmermn€queabindrioJiieritduptm,ne-
quc dimidium imparhabucrtt,pdriterparcfl,ep
pariterimpan

Sifucrint quilibet numeri continueproporth*


nales, aufirantur autem aficundo &* ylitmo a-
qualcsipfiprimo, erit ficut ficundi cxceffttsad
primum:fic yltimi exceffmad omnesfiipfum
pracedentes.
16
Siah ynitdte quiiibetnumericontinuccxpo-
.

fitifuerint in duplici proportione yCxquotottts


compofitm primmfucrit, &* totm in yltimum
multiplicdfm dliquemfecerit: quigignitHr,pcr-
feftmcrit.
tiB..x: 14
EVCLIDIS
Liberdecimm.

'Diffinitio I»

Commenfurabiles magnitudines dicifmr,qu44


tidem menfitrd dimetietur.
2

''.
incommenfurabiies dutem qttafuh mUim
cnmmunU menfura dimenfionem cadunt*
3
Refta tinea potentiacommenfitrabitesfinti
qHdndo qua \tb tpfis quadrata, cadcm area dimc-
tltUH
4 -
Incomritenjurabiles
. atitem, quando ea quaex
ijfis qitadrata, nulia drea commttnimenfitrd di-
metitur«HU expofitUindicdtttr^quodprbpofita
rtfta iineajm eft 4 qua &* cubitales, efrpalmh
e$*
digitales, dcpeddtesfitmuntur mcnfiira, ipfi
fint refta lineamuttitudineinfinitacommen*
firdbitcs e$* incommenfiirabiles. Commenfitra-
bilcs qttidem, autpotentia tdntitm, dutpotentid
& longitudinefimui. Incommenfiirabilesyerbj
m longitttdine tdntum, dttt longitttdine &*po*
tentidfimtil.
.

e i
EVCLIDIS
Vocdturmturipfi qmdemprofofitareftati-
ncd,ration*lts.
6
EtqHahuiccommenJurdbiles & tongitudint,
e$*potentid:&*potentidtantum,rathna!es.
...
.'
•.-.-. 7
• ,:-,..
Qua autem incommenfitrdbitesperytrtmqttt
^

hoc cftjongttudine e$*potcntia, irraitonates 4/N


peUantttr.
8
Etquod quidemJpropofita refta lineaqttd-
drdtum^aitondle.
9 '.
..
Et qua huiccommcnfHrdbilid,rdtiondlid,
io
Et quoddb incommenfitrdbili,irrdtionale.
II
Etquahuiccommenjtirabiliajrrationaliadi-
-
cttntur.
12
Et ipfirttm(fiquadratafuerintytatera:findH"
tem, alia quapiam refta linea ipfipetentes, a-
qudiidqueipfisqttddrdtddejcribemes, trrdthna*
lcsyoccntttr.
Propofith i.
Dttdhm magnitudtnibm inaqualibm expoft-
its ,fia maiori aufiramr mdim quam dimidtum,
LJB, X. 3$
&* eim quodretiftum efl maim quim dimidtum
idquefimperfiat,retmqtteturqiiadammagnitH-
domiiwminoremdgnitHdinecxpofitd*
.'. ',A._
_2;; ',
Si duabm magnitttdinihm
.*. .;;..•
..,..
inaqualibm expo-
.
,

fitUfubidtdfimptr minoreamahri»retiqua mi-


nimemetidturpraccdmtemJncommenfHrabil^s
truntipfawagnititdinefi
-,.-y.7- .'"3;-.-
"
Duabm magnitudinjbm commenfirdbilihm - >
. .

ddtU,maximamcarum CQmunem inuenire men-


firam*r .......'v.-.r
.-,. ..
..V,::i,-7 v,44v,
Tribm. magnitudinibm commenjurabtlibm
.. .
•..

ddits ,maximam carum communem tn\enfiram


menhre* *,,.......
.,,,a...
•7V\7.-.:,V_7-^-- .
.^. -^w ,

v
Commenfitrdhtles magnifudines, ddmmcem
miontm hahent9quam nttmerm ad numerum.
.•>=«••
:4'-; ..-,
Sibina mdgnitudnsesddimicemrdtiontmhd-
. .
facrint,qttdw mmermddmmerum9 commen-
firdbiies erunt ipjfa magnitudines.
: 7
Incommenfirabites magnitudtnes
. ddiriuiccm
rdthnem non habeni, quam mmerm adnumc-
rum.
^VV" " * eiiJ
EVCLIDIS
8
Si hina magnitudines ddinuicem rathnem
fton habuerint,quam ad
numerm mmerum, /»*
commenfirdbiies erunt ipfia magnitudines,
"• ' ' 9 "• ;. ;'t

'vdlongitudine commenfirabilibmreftU lintit


qyadrata, adinukem rdttoncm hdbent, qtum
quadratm numcrm adquadrdtum numertim.Et
quadrata ddinuiccm rdthnem hdbentjd, qum
' quddrdtmnumermadqitddratum nuriierumjt*
terk quoquehdbebuntlorigifttdinc commenfitrd'
bilta. ^iongitudine ybro incommenjurdbiltbtts
reclU iincU quddrdta,ddinuic€mrathnemmn
habentyquhnquddrdtmmmermddifiiddrAtHm
numerttm.Eiqtfadraidddiririicemrdtioricmmn
habentid, qukm quddrdtm mmerm ddquddrd*
tttm nttmertm, neque Idierdhabebmt tongttu*
4ine commenfirdbilid, ' ;'' ' "

Vropofita refla lineabinds reftas incommtn*


fiirdbilesinuenirelincds, dlterdm quidcmlongh
tudine tdntum,atterdm autem e&poieniidi
il
Siqudtuor mdgnitudines proporthnales fitt*
rint,prima autemficuhdafucrit commenfitrd*
hiiis, &* iertid quarta commenfurabitts crit: etft
frimdficHndaincmmenfurdbJtUfHerit,^
LIB. X. Tfi
tUquartaincommenfitrabilUerit.
12
Qua eidem magnitudini commenfirabilesl
(p* ddinuicemfint commenfitrabiles.

Sibina mdgnitudines commenfitrdbitesfuc-


Yint,dlterdqueedrtmmdgnitudinidticttiincom-
menfirdbilUfuerit,e$*rettqttdeidem incommcn
fitrdbilUerit.
.7 ." M'
;.•-- -
*
.7%
Siqudtuorreftahneaproportipndlesfuerint^
pottterttque primaficundd maimeoquodfitdb
tidtm longitudine comrnenfirdbtii, e$* tcriia,
QUdrid rridim poteritco quodfitdbeidem tongi-
tudilne commenfirdbiti.Etfiprimdficunda
md-
ius potuerit eo quod fit kb incommenfurabiliei-
dem longitudine, e$* tcrtja quarta maimpoterit
eo quodfitab eidem tongitudinc tncommenfu-
rdbiii. *

'" V-7"' 71*


Sibiria mdgnitttdines
. commenfurdhilescom-
pofitafiterint, ejp* tota ytriqueipfimmcommen
firdbitts erit. Etfitota yni edrum commenfird-
bitUfuerit9(&* qua iri principio migmtudtnes
commerifurdbiteserHnf.
16
Sibina magnitudines incommenfitrdbitescom
V ""*r e ihj
EVCLIDIS
pofita fitcrint, &* tota yirique ipfttrUm incom*
menfurabiiU erit. Etfitota yni ipfitrum incom-
tnenfitrdbilUfuerit ,e$* quainprincipiomagm-
tHdinesJMcommenfurdbiieserunt.
J7
Sifuerint hina refta tinea inaqualeS, qudrta
dtitempdrtieimquodex ritinori aqtttim ntdiori
compdrdtum fuerit deficieris fiecie a quddrdto,
ejpincommenfitrdbilid ipfitm diuifirii tongitU'
dine,mdior minorimdimpoterit eo qttodfit exfi-
hi longitudirie commen/uYabdi.Etfimdhrmino*
repoterit to qtiodfit afibicbmmcnjurabililongt-
iudine qudrt^yerbpdrti eimqttoda ritinbri a*
*.

qudte maibri cdmpardturit,deficiensfji'cciea qua^


drato,e^incommenfirabtliaiongiiudtne iffirri
diflribuct. ; . ' ^.
*: / V''7 'reftalmeairiaqu'dies\
l 877. '"""'^V'
Sifiterint bina qttdrta
atttemparti eim quodfitexminore aquittri dd
ntdiorem compdreturdeficiensfpecied quddrdto,
efrper incoritmenfitrabi/idipfim diuifiritlon-
gitudine, mdhr minoreptdim poteft eoqttodfit
exfibiincommerifirdbiUlongitudiric.fyfimdior
piinbremaim potuerit eo quodfii exfibiihcom-
menfurabili: quarta autemipfimquodfiiexmi*
pore aquum,ad maiorem compdratumfiterit de*
ficiens ffeciea quadrato, in incommerffimbilk
LIB. X.' 37
pbilongttHdineipfimdiJpefiit.; *

i9 •
'
• --
Sub rdthndltbm longitudine commenfirdbi*
libm reftU linets iuxtd dliqkem pradiftoriim
modorum comprehenfitritreftdngutum rationa*
leefl.
.
"' '-.- •;-':" v
v\
20 -
,"':;-'- •'''"'y-
Sirathnale ddrdtiondlem comparatumfue*
ritjdiitudinem efficit rdthridlem&riiritmjurd-
bilemque ciddqudmcompdrdiHrtdrigitudine." <

Sub
V
....2£7.
...,..,.,•.
... rdthndhbm poientid tdriiitrifcommerifit-
rdbilibm reflis lirieU com^reherifimreftdrigri-
lum irrdthndieefl) iUudquepWensirrdthriiilU
eft,yocetur<juemcdid.
:::.- :::;:>r .:>:;: ,zrr'ri ^
Mcdidddrdtiondlemc^^a^k\t*uiti^lht]^it
efftcifrathtMterii)'& Vtirit^n^t^n^rt^itt^'^
qudmcomparaturlongitudinc.. A»wi,t
".. *3
"
_ ... , ... nJ
WamediacoritmenfirahiiU^dideft.y
:',:;.:;-Vj>v^?4;VVt ' '77;"'!!
Suh mediis longitudine coriitkenfirdbijifcm
reftts lineis comprehenfim reftdrigftittrri^riie"-'
dittmeft.
7 %s '•
' '
Stth mediUpotentiatantftm commenfitubitf-
i
EJfCUDIS
hmreftU lineUcomprehenJum refhtngulum,dui
rathndlcjdHtmediumcft.

Medium nonexccdit medium rdthnati.


.77 .27. .-..",
Medias
..',-..-..;
. inueriirepotentidtantitm commenfi*
rdhitestrathnate comprehendemes.
28 "-
-:r\. .V.. ,,...,..
lAedidScorriperirepotentiatdntumcommen-
.
fiirabiles,mediHmcomprehendentes.
2?
Comperire binas, rdtiotutespotentfdtdntum
...
commenfitrabiles $>f maior [minore maimpoflit
coquodfit ex commcnfirdbiiifibiipngitudine.
7"'V 3° v.v v '.7'.,.
Comperire hinas rdtioridtes potentid tan-
iuris commenfirdbiles,yt mdhrx minore maim
pofifieo quodfit dfibitongitudine incomrnehfk^
rdbtti. " \
. - . t. ..'.'...•..'.. %,j.,:
3. - •. •

Comperirehinds medkspotenitdtdntumcom
menfurabiles rdtiondle comprchendentes, yt
nimrminore mdim poflit eoquodfit dfibi lon-
gitudinecommenfirdbiit.
>..v .,7- - ^.
^^
,

Inttenire duas medias potentidtdntumcom-


™mfe4fyf<$ 0mprehmdentes^tmd-
IIB. #. 38
iorminore maim pofiiteb quodfitexfibi conv.
menfitrdbiti.

Inuenire hinas rcftas lined* potentia incom-


menfttrdbiteS; conficientesconfldium ex qttddrd-
its qtiadb ipfisrdthndleiqttodyerbjub ipfis,me-
dittm.
" ;•-v :
; 34 V'/"" ;. -,.
Bindsre&dsiincdspotentidincommenfirdbi-
.

tcs,efficientes compofitum exitsquadb ipfisfunt


quddrdta medtumiquodycrbfitv ipfis rdthndte,
comperire.
VV: ' V 3*
Vu';'
Comperirebindireftds tiriedspotentidincom-
tntnfirdbiies, ejficientescofhpbfitHmex edrum
quddrdtU mcdium:e$* quodfitb ipfismedium,ejp
infitper incomm&fiMbitt> comfofito exedrurit
quddrditst tvn,
?*..-,, •
...binarditonalesptfferiiidiahtumcmmen-
" Si .
fitrdbilescompofit&fuermtytQtdirrditQmlUeft,
yocetHr<\ueexbinUnomimbm.
;
7"V7 "7V": 377^-7 ' ' 'TV
^Sthtnamediapoteritta ianttm commerifurd-
bilescompofitaff&irifydftonalccomprehende^
tes, totairrathndiU efl, yocdturdHtemex hink
frimmcdiU*: '"r"" - : * ^
;v
c>
)' ; BVCLIDIS
58.
••>":
Sibinamcdiapofentid taritum commenfira-
hiles compofitafiterint,mediumcomprehendcn-
tes, tota irrdthnalU efl, yocdturdutem ex bints
ficunddmediU.
v-7'- V----V' 39 -v;.,. --. .,,,,
Si hina rcfta tineapotentid incommenjura-
hiles compofitafUtrintfConficientescompofitum
exqifddrdtU quadb ipfis ratipna(c i quodautcm
fibJpfismediunhtptdreHdiineairrationaiUeft,
yocaturautem.maior.
7 40 v.
Sihina refta lineapotenitaincommenfura-
hiles cmpofitafwrinticjfiaentes compofitum
quidemexcdrim^ttadraits medtum: quodye-
ro Jithipfisrdtforidle,, tota reftaJined irrdth*
nalisefiiyocdtufrM
potens. !
\
4, ]
Sibmarec^atmeapottntia^
. .
tcs. cptnpofitafiterinttefftcientts compofitum ex
quadrdtUme^iumtqupdlifrbfihipfis tne*
earum
dium,&*infuper incommenfurabtle cotnpqfiio
ex edrum quddrdtU, tota reftd iined irrationalis
efljy^caturautenthin^dpbtenm^^
^..,,.;:4V77V42V'7;;,V-'
£ua ex binU nominibttt, ddymm duntdxat
£l& & '&
fignum diuiditur in nomina.
43
Ex binUmediUprima, dd ynum duntaxatfi-
gnumdittiditurinnomind*
.
44
Ex binUficundd mediis, ddlfnumduntdxdt
ftgrtumdiuiditurinnomind.
v -,4*
. ad ynum duntdxdtfignum diuiditur
Mdior,
innomind,
4<5
Edtiondlcmedtumquepotens,adynumdun-
tdxdtfignum difiinditur in nomina.
47
Binapotem media, adynum duritaxatfi-
gnttmdiuiditurinnomind.
Binomiorumdiffinitio i.
Vropofitd rdtiondli,ex binifqtte nominibm difi
itmfta innomind, cttim mmenmaimmimre
maim pofiit eo qubdfit exfibi tongiiudinccom-
menfitrabilitfimaim mmen> ipngitudine com*
menfurdbiiefuerit.expofttardthndlijtotdyocc*
turexbinUnominibmprimd.

Siyerbnomen vrnnm tongitudine comtrien-


firabiiefucritexpofita rationdliprocatur ex hi-.
nUnominibmficundd* '"'/
EVCIIDIS
3 —-
Si dutem neutrum ipfirum mminum
;-..«..:..
comen*
fitrabite longitudine fueritexpofita rdtiona!is
yocdturexhinUnomiriibmtertid.
4
EttrfitS idmfi friaim nomeri, numre mdim
pofliteo quodfitafibi longitudineincommenfit-
rdbilitfiquidem tndim nomen expofita rdtiondli
Ungitudine commenfitrdbilefuerit, yocdtitr ex
hinUnominibmqudrtd.

Sjyerbminm,quintd*

SiyerbncutrHmJextd.
Sextptur exifientibmficfumptU reftUtinelf}
ordiridfordindtim trei primxs, ex quibm mdior
tninoremdimpdtcfteo quodfit exfibicommen-
fitrdbilhficHndds yerb reliquas tres ordinatimfi-
militer, qudrum maibr minore maimppfiitto
qHodfitexfibiincommenfiirabiii, eo qttiatfonte-
titcommenfitrdhiie incommenfitrabiit.Etinfi-
perprimdm,exqudmdimmmenexppfitardit<r*
ttdti commenfitrdbiteefl. Sccunddm dutem ex
qudminm,quonidm rurfm conteritmdim mino-
re,dumcontinetmaim.Tertiamyerb,cuimheu*
trum nominum expofita rdttondti eftcommen-»
prdbtie.In itsque ordinatim tribmfmilittrpri*
vtTmpradiftificundi ordints qudrtam appetlans
ficundam yerb quintdm,dc tertiamfixtani.
4?.
:.
InumireexbinUmminibmprimdm*

Comperireex
..49..
hints mminibmficunddm.

InuenirccxbinUnominibmtertiam*

Inuenire exhinUmmimbmqHdrtkm.
52.
Inuenire cxhinU mminibm tyiintdnu
».
Inuemre ex
• ,..
btnts .# >
mmtntbmfixtam.
*4
SidreotdcomprehenddtHrJuhrdtiondti, dCex
btnUmminibmprimd, quadreoldmpotefl irra-
tionaiU efl,ex binUmmimbm yocatd.
S*
SidreotdcomprehenJdfHtritJuhrdthndti, e&
ex binUmminibmficundd,drcoldmpotem irra-
tiondlts eft,yocdfurquebin'tsexprima mediU.

Sijuperficiesfitb rdthndU ,e$*ex hinUmmi-


nibtts tertid comprehenfifHerit,fuperficiempo-
tmsirmhndlUefl,dppeUdtHrJH€exbinUficun-
ddmediU.
0 EVCZIDIS
V-VV :'-v.
-57"-: .- .;
Si dreotdfih rdthndtt, dc exbints qudrtdno-

,
fninibmcomprehenfdfiterit, ipfimdreoldmpo-
t€nsirrathnalUeft,yoCatHrquemahr.

Siareola compnhendaturjub rathnati, ac ex


hinis quinta mmiriihm, areotampotensirrath-
nalts eft,appeUdtd rditonaletme^Hmquepofensl

Siareotd comprehendaturJfibraitonali,&* cx
hintsfixtd mmtnibm, dreoldmpotens irrdttom-
Its efl,dppeUdtd biridpotens medid.

Qua <tb ex hints mminibm <td rdthndlem


compdrdta latitudo, efficitex hints mminibm
primdm. ,-• /
-,• '
....->-.
;.-./;
;'.
.61-
Quaab ex hinU mediUprima ddrdtionalem
compdrdtd Idtitudo, efficit exhinh nominibm
ficundam.
-7V" ..>-.-,B
fc.-V.VV,-
.........
.Quaab ex hinU ficunda mcdiU ddrdthna-
.

lemcomparatdiatitudo,ejficit ex hinUmmini-
hmteritdm.
7, ^/,,,,,,- '

Qmtexmdioreddrdthndtmvtompardtdtd
titHdo,e]ficit cx hinis qudrtdmmminibmt
ZIB. X 4t
64
Quaex rdtiondti, mediumquepotenteddrd-
tionalem compdrdta latitudo, ejficit ex binti
quintam nominibm.
«1
Qua ex hina media potente adf rationatem
compdrdta tatitudo, efficit cx binis nominibm
fixtam.

Eiquaexhinis nominibm tongitttdine com-


menfitrdbtlUjpJa quoque ex hinis nomtnibm eft,
ac in ordine eddem.

Eiqua exbinis mcdiis longitttdine commen-


firabttU,e$* ipfk ex hinis eft mediU,e$* in ordinc
eadem.
68
MaioricommenfitrabiiU, eadem quoqsmahr.

Xdtionatedcmediumpotenticommenfirdbi-
IU,&* Cddem raitonale,ac mediumpotens efi,

Bindpotentimedium commenfirabilU, bina
potenseftmedid.
7r
JUtiondlidc medium compofitU,qudtuorfiunt
irrdthttdles,qH6ex binis nomimbm ,qu& exbi*
EVCIIDIS
nisprimd mediis mdior ,dcrationdic mediumque
potens.
?2
BtnU medtis,.. ddtnuicemincommenjurdbilibm
. .
compofitis, reiiqua dua irrdtiondlcsfiunf, qua ex
hinUficttnda medtU, e$* qtta bindpoteris efl me-
did.
73
•,
Starationali rationalis dttferdtur, potentid
tdntitm commenfurabilU exiftens toti, retiqtid
irrationaiU eft,yocdturdutem apotome.
74
,.
Sidmediaattfiratttrmediapotetiatantumto*
tifiibfiflens commenfurdbilis, cum totd yerb ra-
tiondle comprehendens reliqtta irrdthndits efl,
>
yocetttr yero media dpotomaprimd.
7*
Siamedia medid dttfiratur potentia tdntum
toti commenfiirdbilUfiibfiJlens,e$*cumtotd mc-
dium comprel)endenstretiqttdirrdtionatU efl,yo*
ceturdutem mediaficttndd dpotoma.

Si k refta linea reftd ttned duferdtur potentia


totifibfiftens incommenfitrabilU,cumtota yerb
ejficiens quoddh eUfimut rationdle: quod yerb
fitbipfismdiuiri,reUqudimtiondiUtft,dppeUa-
turjuemimr*
UB\ x: 42
/ 77
^ tinea refta tmed dufirdturpotentta
& rft w#rf
toti fibfiflens incommenfurdbiiU, efr cum tota
efficiens conflatum qutdem extpfintm quadratk
mediumiquodyerb hisfib ipfisrationate,retiqua
irraitonalU eft, yocatttr dtttem cum rattonaii
mediumtotttmeffictens.

Si a refta tinea refta linea fitbLtafueritpo-


tentia totifubfiflensincommenfiirdbilU,e$* cum
tota efftciens coflatum ex ipfitrttm quadratU me-
diumiquodycrb hisfitb ipfis medittmjnfuperip*
firttm quadrata incommenfitrabiiidei quod bts
fith ipfis,reiiqudirrdtiondiU efl, dppelidtttr dutem
cum medio medium totum efficiens.
79
^ipotoma yna tdntttm congruit reftalinea
rationdlUypotentid tdntum toti fitbfiftens com-
menfurdbilU.
80
Media apotoma prima yna tdntum congrutt
rtftdiinedmedidjpotentia tantum totifithfiflens
commenfitrdbifts, e$*cum totd rdtiondte com-
prehcndens.
81
Media dpotomaficunda yna tdtum congruit
refta tinea tnedia, potentia tantitm toti com*
fii
EVCIIVIS
menfiirdbHU,e^*cumtotdmedium comprehen-
dcns.
82
Mimriyndtdntumcongruit rcftd tinedpo-
tentid toti incommenfirdbilUjitbfiftens,efficiens
cum totdcompofitum excdrttm qttddrdits rdth-
ndlcquodlrerb hUfitb ipfis,medium.

Efficicnticum rdthndti mediumtotumyna


tantum congruitrefid tinea,potentt'a totiincpm-
menfirabilU fitbfiftens, e$* cum totd efficiens
confldtum qttidem ex ipfirum quadraits medtum
quodyerb bUfith ipfispationale.
84
Efficicnticum medio medium totum,yna tan*
titm congruit refta iintd potentia incommcnfit-
rabilU totifitbfifiens, & cum totd efficiens con-
fldtum ex ipfirum quddrdtis ynedium: & quod
hUfith ipfis medium, e$* tnfiperincommenfitrd-
hite conflatttmexiUquaab ipflseiquod hisfiib

vfpotomdrumdifftnitio 1.
Siquidem totd expofitarditonaiilongttitdi*
riecommcnfitrdhilUfnerit, dppeltdtur apotome
frimd.
2
*Si y<rb congruem commenfurabiiUfuerit
i
ZIB. X. 4^
hngitudine expofitardtiondli>fccHndddppclld-
turdpotome.
3
Sidutem neutra commenfitrdbilUfiteritex-
pofitardtiondli tongitudine, tertiddppeUaturd-
potome.
4
Si quidemtota comtnenfurdbitUftieritexpo-
fita rationati longitttdine, dppeUdtur apotome
quarta.

Siyerbcongruens,quinta.
6
Siautem neutrafextd.
^
r
Inuemreprtmamapotomen.
26
Inucnireficundam apotomen.
87
InHemrctertidmapotomem
. .
88
Inuenirc qudytdm dpotomen*

Inuenire quintdmdpotomen.

Imnirefixtdmdpotmm,

fy
EVCIIDIS
Sidreotdcomprchenddturfib rathnali e$* a-
potomeprima,quaareoiampotefiapotomeefl.
92
Si areola comprehenfi fitcritfib rathnali e$*
apotomcficttnda, qua areolampotefl media dpo-
tomeefiprima.
93
Sidreoldcomprchenddturjubrditondlt
. .&
d-
potome tertid, qua drcotdmpotefl, media apoto-
me eflficttnda.
p4
Siareola comprehendaturfob rathndli es*
quarta dpotome,qua areotampoteft,minorefl.

Si areota comprehendatur fib rationali e$*


quintaapotome, qua areolampoteft,eflqu& cum
raitondlifnedium totttm confictt.

Si areold comprehenddtur fib rdthndli & d~


potomefextd, qttadrcoUm poteft,eftqttacum
medio mcdium totum efftcit.
97
Qua db dpotome adrdtiondiem compdrdtd
latitudo,primamefftcitapotomen.

Qttaamedia dpotomeprima adrathndlcm


compdrdtdIdtitudofccunddm ejficit dpotomtn.
LIB. X. 44
99
Qua a media dpotome ficundd adrationatem
compdratd Idittudojertidm dpotomen conficit.
ioo
^4minori adrathnalem compardta tdtitudo,
efficit qudrtdm apotomen.
ioi
u4h eaquacttmrdthndli mediumtotum effi*
cit ,adraitonalcm latitudo compardta, quintam
ejftcitapotomen.
102
^ibeaqttacttmmediomcdium totttm efficit',
ddrdtionalcm compardtd ldittudo,efftcitfixtam
dpotomen.
IO3.
Quaipfidpotoma tongitudinc efi commenfit-
rdbitU,dpotomeefl,es*mordineeddem.
104
Media dpotomacommenfordbilU,mediadpo^
tomacft,e$*inordineeddem.
105.
MinoricommenfitrabilU,minoreft.
106
Cumrationatimediumtotum efficienticoni-
tnenfirdbitU, &* cddem cttni rditondh mtdium
tjMmefftcicnsefl.
107
• /» «...
EVCIIDIS
Cum mcdh medium totttm efftcienti com-
fnenfitrabilU, eddem cum medh medium to-
e$*
tumefftciensefl.
108
oirdtiondti, mtdia abiatd, reliquam areotam
potens,ynd dttdrum irrathnaliumgignitur, yel
apotomeyelminor.
109
*4mcdio, rationalifiibldto, alia dua irrdtio-
ndlesfittnt, yd media apotomeprimd ,yd cum
rdtiondiimediumtotttm efftciens.
Ho
~4medio,medio ablato incommenfitrabilito-
titre!iqua dua irrdthnalesfiunt ,yelmedia apo-
tonteficundd/yetcummedio medium ejftcicns.
III
^4potome,non efteadem ei qua ex binis nonit-
nibm.
112
^rathndliddirrditondlem edm quaexbi-
nU nominibm dppofitd Idtitudoffficitdpotomtn,
cuim nomina commenfurabiiia fitntnominibm
cim qua ex binis nominibm eft, e$* in eadem ra-
tione:e$* infitper apotome quagignitur, eundem
habebitordincm eiqua ex hints nominibm eft.
113
xdrdthndU dddpotomen compdrdtd tdtitudo,
IIB. X. 4$
tfftcit edm qu& ex binis nominibtts, cuim nomi-
ndcommenfitrdbitid fitntipfimapotomes nomi-
nibm, &* in eddem rathne: es* infitpcr qttagi-
gnitur ex binU nominibm /tpfidpotomaeundem
obtinet ordinem.
114
Si artola comprehenddturfubapotome,e$* ea
qua ex binis nomintbm, cuim nomiria commen-
Jurdbiiidfint/tpfim dpotomesnominibm: ejpin
cddem rdtione,quaareoiampoteftrationalUeft.

^imedia infinita'trrationaiesfiunt,e$*nttUa
yUi eorum quaprim efl eadcm.
M
Minoricommenfirabi!U,mimr eft.
H7
Cum rditondti medium totum ejficienticom-
mcnfordbitU, cumrationalimedittm totttm effi-
cienseft.
Il8
Propofitum mbUfitoftendere ,quodin qua-
draits figurU incommenfordbilUeft dimetiens
iateritongitudme.
EVCLIDIS
EVCLIDIS
Liberyndecimm.

Diffinith i.

Sotidum, eft quodlongitttdinemjatitudinem,


&*crdflitudinem habet. Solidi ycrb termintts
Juperficieseft.
2
Eefta linea adplanum refta eft, quando ad
omnes cotingentes ipfim reftds iincas e$* infob-
ieftoptano exifteritesjreftosejficit angulos.
3
Ptanum adplanumreftumefi, quando com-
muritfigmento ipfirum pldnorum dd angutos
duftareftatineainyno ipfirumplanorum, re-
Uquoptanoadangulosreftosfucrint.
' .4. -
Ptani. ddpidnttminctindtio
. feflcomprehenfio
anguli dcutifibiUquadd dngulos reftoscom*
munifigmento ducunturadidemfignum in y-
troqueipfirumptdnorum.

PidnumddptdMminclindridicitur,efrdite-
rumddatterHm^quandopradiffiincUndmmm
dngHlifibiinHicemaqudlesfuerintt
IIB. XI. 46
PardUelaplana,fitnt qu* contaftum mn<c"

...
mittttnt.
7
Simtles filidefigxra ,fitnt qttafobfimihbm
.

p!anU,aqualtbm mttltitttdtnecomprehenduntur.
8
Similcsfilidafigura ej?* aqttdtes,fitnt quafiib
fimtltbm planU mttltitudine e$* mdgnitudine a-
qudlibm comprehenduntur.
9 /
v4ngulmfiUdm,eftfobplurihttsdudhmlineU .
fifiadtnuicemtangentibm,e$* non exifteneibm
in eademfuperficieadomnes iineas inclinatio.
^iliter.
Solidm angulm, eft qui fib piuribm dttobm
planU angulis comprehenditur, mn exifientibm
in eodemplam,ad ynumfignum conftitutU.
10
PyramU, eflfigurafilidaplanUcomprehenJa
ab ynoptano adynumfignum conftituta*
II
Prifind, eflfigurdfilidaplanU comprehenfit,
quorum duo qua exoppofito aqudlid&fimilid
fiintpdrdUeld,reliqudyerbparaUelogrammd.
iz
$phara,cftquandofimicircutimanente dime-
tientecimmuflmfimhircHiminfiipfomwr*
EVCLIDIS
fits reuotuitur ynde inccepit, circumaffumptafi-
gura.
13
*4xUffhara,efl manens refta linea quam cir-
cumfimicirctttm yertitur*
*4
Centrumjphara,efl iUudqiiodefrfimicirculi.

Dimetiemjphara,efi refta quaddm lineaper


ccntrum dftd, e$* terminatd ex ytrdque pdrte
fob ipfimjpharafoperficie.

Conm,efl quando reftanguti tridnguti ma-


nenteym eorum quacirca reftum angutum ta-
tere circunduftum triangulum in idem rurfm
yndefimpfiratexordium circttnuoiuitur, ca afi
fomptdfigurd.Etfimanemrefla iinea aqttafue-
rit,reUqua qua circttm refium circundufta, re-
ftdgutm erit conm.Siyerb minor, kmbtygonim.
Siatttemritaior,oxygonim.

*4xUconi, eftmanens quadamrefta linea


quam circumtriangHlum yertitur. Bdfis autem,
eft circulmfob circundufta refht tinea dejcri-
ptm.
18
CytindrM/eftquadoreftdngHUpdrdUeto^
LIB. Xi: 47
mtmanenteyno eorum quacircumreftuman-
gulum latere circunduftum paraUelogrammiin*
idem yndefimpfit exordiumfieterit, eddffum-
ptdfigurd.

uixU cylindri'eft mdnens qttaddm reftd ttriea


qudm arcumparaUetogrdmmum yertitur. Bafis
dutemcircttii qui fobiUquaexoppofito circttn-
duftts tdteribmfont defiripti.
20
Simites coni 0* c$lindri,font quorttm axes e$*
dimctientesbafiumfitntproportionales.
21
Cubm, eflfigurdfilidafiibfix quddrdits con-
tentalatertbm.
22
Oflacdrum, eflfigurdfiliddfoh ofto aqudli*
hm e$* aquilaterU contenta tridngutU.
23
Dodecdedrum, eflfigurdjoliddfub duodecim
quinqudngulU aqudlibm &* atptiidterU e$* aqui-
dngulU comprehcnfa.
24
IcoJdedrum,eflfigurdJoiiddfoh yiginti tridn*
gutU aqudUbm &* aquildterts comprehenfi.
Propofith 1.
R.tf\almcapdYtem\nfibiefiopUno>pdrtm
EVCLIDIS
yerb infublimi effe,efl impofitbile.
2
Si bina refta lineafiddinuicemficuerint, in
ynofitntpldno,e$* omne tridngutum in ynopid
no exiftit.
3. ;
Sihindptdndfiddinuiccmficuertnt, commu-
riis corumfiftio nfld iined eft.
4
Sireftd fmcd dudbtts reftU UneUfi ddinuicem
dtffefientibmin communififtione ddreftos dn-
gulosfteterit, e$* ddcdrundemp/dnumdddngu-
losreftoscrit.

Si reftd lincd tribm reftU ttneUfi ddinuicem


tdngenitbm, ad dngulos reftos in communicon-
tdftu exttterit jpfatres reftalineain ynofunt
piano.
6
Si hina refta linea in eodem piano adanguks
rtflosfuerintfparaUclaeruntipfarefta linea.
7
SifuerintbinareftatincapdrdUcta,dffumd-
.
turquein ipfirum ytraque contingentidfignd>
adipjdfignd connexd reftd ttneain codemefl
ptdno cumipfispdrdUelU.
LIB. Xf. '4g
Sifuerint bina refta linea paraUeta, attera
autem ipfirumpldno alicHiadangHtosfiteritre-
ftos,e^*retiqud eidemptano dddngulos reftos
erit.
9
Qua eidem refia UneapdrdUela, neceidcm it%
eodem exifleiespidno, ddinuicemfontpdrdUela.
io
Si hina refta lineafifi inuicem tdngentes ad
9
hinas reftds linedsfije inuicem tangentes, in eo-
dem nonfuerintplano, aquates angutos comprc-
hendent.
II
^ddtofigminJitblimi,ddfitbieftumptdnum
perpendicutdremlinedm ducere.
iz
o4ddtopidm, a datoque incofigm dddngu-
tos reftos reftam lincdm conflituere.
*3
*4beodemfigno,adidemplanum binarefta
lineadddngulos reftos non conjlituentur adeafi
dmpdrtes.
H
u4dquaplana eadem reftd iinea refla eft,pd~
rdUeidJitntipfkpiand.

&bina rcfta tineafiimmm tangentcs *4


EVCLIDIS
hinas refidstinetsfiinuiccm tangentesfiterint^
non tamenineodcm piano exiftentes,pdrdUeld
fitnt qua ex ipfis ptana.
16
Si hinaptanaparaUctafiib plano altquo diffi-
<5tafttcrint,communesipforumfiftioncsparaUc-
tafint.
X7
Sihina refta UneafitbparaUelUptanUfeccn-
tur/tn eafdem rdthnesficdbuntur.
18
Sirefta lineaptano alicttiaddnguiosfucritre-
ftos,e$*omnid quaex ipfit pldnaddidempld-
num dddnzulos reftos erunt.
I?
Si bindptdndfifieinuicem
. dijfejcentid ,ptam
dticui dddngulos reftosfiterint,&* ipfirum com-
munis fiflio ddidem ptdnum dddngutos reftos
crit.
20
Sifiiidm angttlmfobtribm ptanis compre-
hendatur,duo reltquo mahresfont quomodocun-
quefofiepti.
-

21
OmnUfilidm angutm ,fitb rninm quatuorre*
ftUdngHlUplaniscomprehenditur.
22
LIB. XX. 49
Sifuerinttres dnguiipldni, quorum hinireti-
quofint mdiores quomodocunquedffttmpti,com-
prehenddntdutem ipfis aqudies reftaltnea,ex
connexUcircdoquates reftas iineas tridngulum
conflitttieflpoflibile.

Extribtts dngulUplants, qmrttm duo qttomo-


docunque fitmpti fint reliquo mdiores ,filtdum
dngulum conficcre, oportetidm tpes qudtuorre-
fttsejfeminores.
24
SijotidumfobpdrdUetU ptanU comprehenda-
tur, qtta ex oppofito ipfimpldna, aqudlia &* pd-
rdUelogrdmmdfont.
2j
SiJolidumpdrdUetepipedumpldnofecetur,pd-
rdUeto exiflente eU qtta ex oppofitoptdnU, eritfi-
cutbdfisddhdfin^ficfitidum ddfilidum.
26
^iddatam reffdm tineam ,adfignumquein
edjdatojoiido anguto aquumfitidum dngulum
conflitHcre.

%x ddtd reftd lined, datofolidoparaUetepipe-


dofimite e^*fimiUtcrpofitumfiltdumparaUelc*
pipedumdefirtberc.
28
EVCIIDIS
SifihdumpdraUelepipedumplamfeceturptr
diagonios eorum qua exoppofitoplanorumjipfum
filtdumfccabiturab ipfipiano bifitriam.
29
Sttper eadem hafi, &*fibcadem altitudine
filtdapdraUelcpipcdaconfiftcnita, quorumflan^
tcs fitper eifdcmfint reftts iincis, imitcem fint
aquatid.

Supcr eadem bafi txiftentiafilida paraUelc-
pipcdayep*fibeadem altitudine qmrumfldntet
nonfuntfttpereifdem reftts iinits, inuictm fimt
aquatid.
31
Superaqualibm bafibm filtda paraUelcpipe*
daexifienihty e$*fiib eadem altitudine,inuicem
fitnt aqualia.
32
Sub eadem altitudine exiflentiafihda parallc»
lepipedd,adinuiccmfitntftcut bcfis.

Simitia filidaptraUetepipeda, adinuicem in


tripliciraitonefitnt eiufdem rationU iaterum.
.34
^iEqualium foiidorum paraUeicpipedorum
reciprocafont bafis dititttdinibm. Etfilida pa*
raUciepipeda, quorum hdfis altitudinibmfint
ZIB. XI. 50
i'eciproca>fiintaqua!id.
3*
Sifitcrintbiniangulifp!aniaqHdlesfiiperqHO*
ntm yer.ucibmfiiblimesreftalineafleterint, a-
qiutes angnlos comprchcndentes cttm iis ju*in>
principh reftis tmtUalterum altcri, infitblimi-
bitsdtttem contingantcontingcntiafigna ,e$*ab
cifdemad plma in qtiibm fitnt qui tn principh
angtiUperpfdicttldresaftaftttrintidfaftis autem
fignis fib perpendicttldribm inptdnis adcos qui
inprinciph anguli conittnftafuerint refta linea
aqttos angulos cumfiiblimibm comprehendcnt.

Sttres refta lineaproportionalesfiterint,ex


ipfistrtbm reftis lineUfiUdumpdrallclcpipcdum
aqttttm eft eiquodexmcdiafitfiltdopardUelepi-
pedo aqttitatero quidem, aquiangulo autempra-
difto.
37
Siqttatttorrefta Itnea proporthnalcsfiicrint,
e$* quaexipfis fioiida paraUclcpipedaftmiliafi-
miltterque defcripta proporthnalia erunt. Etfi
quaextpps filidaparaUelepipedafimiliafimiit-
tcrque defiriptd proporitonalidfucrint,e<pipfd)
quoquereftaUneaproporthndlcs erunt.
58
Sipianum adpldmm reftHmfuerit, kfigno
EVCLIDIS
autem in dltero ptanorum exiftentemaitmtm
planumperpendicitlarUfutrit, in commnniipfi-
rumplanorHm fifthne cadit ipfit perpcndiculd*
riu
3*
SifiUdtparallelepipedieorum qua ex oppofito
pknorttm latera bifariamfiftafttcrint, cxtenfii*
queftterintptrfiftiones ptana, communU ipfi^
rumptanorumfcftio^filidiparaUetcpipedidh
metiem hifariamfi adtnuicem difpefient.

Siftterint binaprifinatafitb aquU altitudini-
hm, e$* alterum qttidem bafin pdrdUeiogrdm-
mumhabttcrit7a!terum atttem triangu!tim,du-
plum aiitemfucritpdraUelogramum ipfim tridn*
guli,ipfitprtfmdta aqualia erttnt.

EVCLIDIS
Libcr dttodecimm.

Propofith I,

Qua in circulU multangulafigitra adinuicem


fehabentyficut qua ex dtmetientibm quadrata.
2
Circultfifi adinuicem hdcntficutqtia ex <//•
mtienttbmquddrdta.
LIB. XII. jt
3
Omriu pjramis tridngularembdfinhdhenft
diut^imrinbinASp^vdmidcsaftM0*fimilt$in^
uicem triangukrtt btfithabentes, efrfimifa ia-
ti* 0* m binaprifmdtd «qnalia, et ipja bimpnfi
mmmdhrifint, qttdm dimidiumtcfim yw*
mijift
4
Sifiierinthtnaspyrdmidesfib eadem altmHi-m
nedrimgutdret bdfis hdhentes%diuifa yerbfitcrit
ytraweipfirum inbims pyramides adimicem
aqttahs epfimites toti, efrinbind prifimma-
qtttlid, e^*in ytraqne faftarum pyrdmidutn is
mQdmfimperfiruetur,eritficttt ynim ppiMmi-
dis bdfts ddalteriwpyrdtnidUbafinfic qms it% V*
napjramidcprifinata omniaadeaquain ttttr*
pyramideprifinma <sque ntttltiplicia.

Sttb eodcm fdfiigh pyramidesfitbfifimtes,


tmngttUremquebafin hdbentes, ddinukmfifi
hdbentftemhdfis.
6
Sub cddem ttltitHdine Mramidcs exifientes%
muttdngttldfijtte httfis hdlcntes,adintiiccrnftf%
habcntftctttldfeu
7
Ommprifhut tridngtildrembdfin hahens^di*
EVCIIDIS
mdimrin trespyramides ,fibiinmcem aquM tri-
dngutarcsbdfis habemes.

Stmiiespyramidcs, tridngularcsbafhs haben-


tes, in tripUctfitnt rdthneeiufdem rationU late-
rum.
9
*4Eqttaliump3iramidHm,&*triangularts ba-
fishabentium% reciprocafitnt bifit dltitttdini-
bm. Etpyramides ,tridngulares bdfiihdbentcs,
quarum reciprocafint bafis ycritcibm ,fitnt a-
qttdleu
10
OmnUconm, cylindritertidpdrseft eandcm
tidtmbdfin hdbenits^ aqudlefaftigium.
II
Sub codemfdftigh exiftentes coni e$* cytindri,
ndinutccmfifi hmentficuthdfis.
12
Similes coni &* cylindri, ddfi inuicem ih tri-
ptdfitntrdthncficut dimttienitum dd bdfis.

Si cyUndrttsptdnoficetur,pdrdUeto exiflenti
eU qtta ex oppftto piants, eritficut cytindrm dd
cylindrumJtcaxU dd
dxem.
1.4*
Ifc aquditbm bdfibm exiftentcs corti & cytin-
titi XIIT. 53
drirfdinmccmfifthdemficutfitftigid,

^fEqitdlittmconortim&cylindrortim, reci*
procafitnt hafis yerncibus. Etconi e> cytindri^
quorum reciprocs finx bafis ycrticibm ,fitntdi*
qttales.
16
Binis orbibmcwtm idem centrum exiftenti-
bm, in mdhri orbe tnultangHlum aqutldterttm
e$*parilaterum infcrtbere, mn tangemem or*
bemminoreminfHpeficic*
l7.
BinU JphdrUcitcmt idem centrum cxiftcn*
tibm, in mdhrifpharafdidum polyhedrum in-
firibere,mn Ungen\ffhardm minorem infk*
perficie.
18
Sphara ddimicem in tripUcifitntrdthncprQ-
priorHmdimetitnMm*
A
EVCIZIXIS
tiberdtcsmttttertim*

trofofith 1]

Sirefta iinea extrema&tncdid rationefi^


tttHr»mdwfigrt\tntm ddmtttcmtotiu$<limi~
EVCIIDIS
didm, quintHplumpoteft eim quodcx totim <fi«
midia.
2
Sireftd linedfii ipfimfigmento quincuptum
pQtucrit, dupla pradiftifigmcnti cxtrema, e$*
medid rationediffefta,maimfigmentum reliqua
eftpars eim qtta tnprincipio refta iinea.
3
Si refta lined media e$* extrema rationefice-
tur,minmfigmcntumadmittens dimidiam ma-
iorUfigmentitquinatplumpotefteim quod amc-
didmaiorUfigmentifit quadrati.
4
Sircfta linea extrema,mcdt\tque rathneficc-
tur, quod ex tota, &* quodex minorifigmento
ytraque quadrata, triplafiunt eim quoda maiori
figmentofit quddrdto.

Sirefta hnea extremd ejp medtd rdttonefice-


tur,dpponaturquc eidem aqualts mahrUfigmen*
to,totarefta linea extrema e$* media rattonefi-
catur, e$* maimfigmentum eft eaquainprinci-
ph reftatincd.
6
Sireftd linedrdtiondlU, extrema efrmcdia
rdtionefiftdfueritiytrunquefigmentorumirrd*
thndleefl,appeliatHrqHCdpotomf>
UB.7CIU yj
7
li qumqttdnguli aquildtert, trtsdnguh ordina-
tim,aut non ordindtim, aqualesfuerint, aquian-
gulttm eritipfitm quinquangulum.

Siquinquangult aquitaterii&* aquiangutibi-


nos ordinatim an^utos refta linea expliciunt%
&* mcdia raitonefifi inuiccm difpe-
extrcma
fient ,e$*mahra carttm figmenta iffim quin-
qudnguli laterifintaqualia.

Sifixdnguliefrdecdgoni tdtmin eodem cir-


cuto dcfiriptortimcompondntur,totdreftdiinet
extrcmd &* media ratione ficdtur, &* ntdim
figmcntum efl ipfimfixdnguli idtm.
io
Si in circuto quinqttdngutum aquitdterum de-
firiptumfuerit,ipfim quinqudnguU latmpoteft
efrfexanguUefrdecdgoni idtmin eodem circulo
dejcriptorum.
II
Si in circuio rdthndlem hdbente diametrttm,
quinquangulum aquilatertiminfiribaturtquin-
•qudnguUldtmirrdtiondle efl, dppelidturque mt-

12
AmcircutotriangHlHm aquildterHm defiri^
EVCIIDIS
ptumfucrit) ipfim tridnguti tdtm potentia tri*
ptum efl eim qua ex centro circuli.
«3
Pyrdmidem conflituere,ej?*
. datafphara com
-
prehcndcre, e$* dcmonftrdre quodtpfimJphara
dimctiem potentid, fifqudliter efttdterk ipfim
pyramidm
H
Oftdhedrum conflrHere,e$* ddtafpharacom-
prehendcre ca qudpyrdmidem,oflendereque qttbd
ipftmfphara dimctiens potentia tatertstpfim 0-
ftahedridttplmefl.

Cubum conflruere, ejp*datafbhara compre-


hcndcre ,yei ca qudprim, oflendcreque quodip-
fiitsjpharadtmcticm potentia triptmeftlaterU
ipfimcubi.
16
Icofihedrum conftrucrc,e$* datajphara com-
prehendere, qua e$* diftasfiguras: oftendereque
qubdipfim icofithedritatm irrathnale efl,appci-
htitrqueminor.
17
Dodccahcdrum conflruere] efrdataJphara
comprehendere, qua efrpradiftdsfigurdsioflen-
dereque mbd dodecahedri idtm imthmU tft\
&dppeUdtHrdpQtome.
IIB, XIIII, 54
i8
latera quinqueftgurarHm cxpomrc%e$* adin-
uicemcomparare,

EVCLIDIS
libcrdccimmqttdrtm.

Procemium.

Bdftlidcs Tyrim Protdrche cum ^tlexdn*


dridmpetiijfetjpdtrijuenoftro ob Mathemdticds
difiiptinMfdmtUdrUfitbftitiffet,cum eo, ipfipe-
ftilentia tempore,diH yerfitm efl. Et quandoque
diftutiendo id qitodab ^fpoUoniofiriptum eft de
dodccahedri e$* icojaedriin eademjphara defirL
ptorum compdrditone ,e$*qudm inter fifigura
huiufmodi hdhedntrdtionem(yidcbdtHr mnque
^fpoUonimhacreftemtnime confiripfiffe) ipfi
yerb enucicdntes(qitemddmodumpdtermemdi-
cebdt)perfcripfirdnt. Ego yerbpofterim dlium
comperi ttbrumdb ^ipoltonio confiriptttm, qui
reftecompleftebdtureim qttod obiiciebdtur de-
fnonflrdtionemxgduiflfuntinqudmimydldein
problemdttsinddgatione.Jibsfpollonio nanque
ediftum yidetur communiter conflderare: mm
fic circunfertur. Qupdyerb a nbbU rurfm Ubo -
rioficonJcriptHmytfHmefl,caqtta cxcommen^
MVCIIDIS
tdthne deprchcndi, tibi difcutienda effecenfii
propter eam quain omnibm difiiplin'ts% &*in
Geometridpracipuepromothnem adhibetur,yt
prompte ea qua dicentur,poflU iudicdrejtumpro-
ptcrbeneuolentidm ergdpdtrem,tHmob amorem
erganos. Benigneigiturdudies cdQuatibi trdde-
mm. Sedtempm tam efloprooemto fitperfedere,
&* conftrufiionem exordiri.
Propofith I
Quaexcentro aticuim circuli inpentagoni
tdtmin eodem circuio defiripti pcrpendicutdrU
aftd,dimidid eflfimu! ytriufque, &* eim quaex
centro,ep* eim qua decdgoni in eodem circulo de-
firiptu

Idem circulm comprehendite^dodecdhedri


quinqudngulum, e$* icofihedri tridngulum in
cddemfphara defiriptorum.

Sifuerit pentdgomm aquiidterum efr aqui*


angulum, e$* circitmipfitm circulm, efr ex cen*
troperpendkuUrU inynum tdtm dftdfuerit,
qHodtrigeficsfitbymldterum&perpendicHtd-
ri,aquum eflipfim dodecdhcdrifuperficieh
4
Hoc demonflrdto oftendendumefl^ quoderit
yt dodccdhcdrifiperficies ddicofihtdri fuperfi*
UB. xv: H
citmfic cnbildtm adicofihedriIdttts.

EVCIIDZS
liberdecimmqmntm.

propofith I.

In ddtocubopyramidadefiriberel
z
In ddtttpyramideoftdhtdrum defcriberi.
$
tnddtocubooftdhcdrum defiribere.
4
In ddto oftdhedro cubumdefcribere.
$
In ddto icofdhedro dodecdhedruminJcriberA

FINIS.
P^IEISIXS:
ExcttdebdtThomas Richdrdm.
?5 49«