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GAS POWER SYSTEM

Dr. Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Gas power systems - working fluid remains a gas
throughout the cycle, i.e., no change in phase.
System analysis – use air-standard assumptions.
The gas power systems are presented in two parts:
Part 1: Internal Combustion Engines
Otto Cycle
Diesel Cycle

Part 2: Gas Turbine

2

Contents – Part 1  Learning Outcomes and Introduction  Carnot Cycle  Air-Standard OTTO Cycle  Air-Standard DIESEL Cycle  Air-Standard DUAL Cycle 3 .

Learning Outcomes • To describe the various internal combustion engines for power generations. • To evaluate the performance of gas power cycles. • To develop simplifying assumptions applicable to gas power cycles. • To analyse the energy conversion for power production of internal combustion engines. 4 .

Introduction Idealisations commonly used in power cycles:  Ideal cycle ( vs real cycle)  No friction (i..e. no pressure drop)  All expansion and compression are quasi- equilibrium  Heat transfer from pipes are negligible  Changes in kinetic and potential energy is negligible 5 .

Carnot Cycle • P-V and T-s diagrams 6 .

• Processes occur within reciprocating piston-cylinder arrangements. Internal Combustion Engines • ICE refers to reciprocating engines commonly used in land transport. Otto Cycle is the ideal cycle for the SI Engine – Compression-ignition engine (CI engine). • Two principal types: – Spark-ignition engine (SI engine). Diesel Cycle is the ideal cycle for CI Engine 7 .

Internal Combustion (IC) Engine Terminology • TDC • BDC • Stroke • Bore • Valve • Displacement volume • Clearance volume • Compression ratio • MEP • SI • CI 8 .

Important Terms Compression ratio. r Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) Vmax VBDC Wnet r  MEP  Vmin VTDC Vmax  Vmin 9 .

Internal Combustion (IC) Engine 10 .

Internal Combustion (IC) Engine 11 .

Power 4. 1. Exhaust 12 . Four-Stroke The piston executes four distinct strokes within the cylinder for two revolutions of the crankshaft. Compression 3. Intake 2.

Pressure-Volume Diagram 13 .

Air-Standard OTTO Cycle • An ideal cycle • Working fluid is air • Assumed as closed system • Operates as 4-stroke cycle • Heat addition at constant volume (replaces the combustion process of the actual cycle • Heat rejection at constant volume (replaces the exhaust stroke) 14 .

Air-Standard OTTO Cycle Comprises of 4 internally reversible processes Process 1-2: Isentropic compression of the air Process 2-3: Constant-volume heat transfer to the air Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion Process 4-1: Constant volume heat rejection 15 .

OTTO Cycle Analysis Writing the energy balance equation (closed system) for each processes: q  w  pe  ke  u Assuming change in kinetic energy and potential energy can be ignored. the processes can be expressed as: w12  u 1  u 2 w34  u3  u4 q23  u3  u 2 q41  u1  u4 16 .

OTTO Cycle Analysis The internal energy value can be obtain from the isentropic process relationship: k 1 T2  V1     T2  T1 r k 1 T1  V2  k 1 T3  V4     T3  T4 r k 1 T4  V3  Where: k  c p cv V1 V4   compressio n ratio  r V 2 V3 17 .

the efficiency can be expressed as: cv T4  T1    1 cv T3  T2    1 T4  1 Since.  th .OTTO Cycle Recalling from second law of thermodynamics: Wnet Qin  Qout Q q    1  out  1  out Qin Qin Qin qin For constant-volume processes of the Otto cycle.Otto  1  r k 1 18 . Thermal Efficiency . T2  T1 r k 1 and T3  T4 r k 1 T4  1 r k 1 1 And finally.

in kJ (c) The thermal efficiency (d) The mean effective pressure. T1 = 290K. Determine: (a) The heat addition. V1 = 400 cm3. p1 = 1 bar. in bar 19 . in kJ (b) The net work. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 2200 K and the compression ratio is 8. Exercise 1 At the beginning of the compression process of an air-standard Otto cycle.

Air-Standard DIESEL Cycle • An ideal cycle • Working fluid is air • Heat addition occurs during constant-pressure process when piston is at TDC • Comprises of 4 internally reversible processes – Process 1-2: Isentropic compression of the air – Process 2-3: Constant-pressure heat transfer to the air – Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion – Process 4-1: Constant volume heat rejection 20 .

P-v and T-s Diagrams of Air-Standard DIESEL Cycle 21 .

DIESEL Cycle Analysis Writing the energy balance equation (closed system) for each processes: q  w  pe  ke  u Assuming change in kinetic energy and potential energy can be ignored. the processes can be expressed as: w12  u1  u 2 w34  u3  u4 q23  h3  h2 q41  u1  u4 22 .

DIESEL Cycle Analysis The internal energy value can be obtain from the isentropic process relationship: k 1 T2  V1      r k 1 T1  V2  k 1 k 1 T4  V3  r      c  T3  V4  r Where: k  c p cv V1 V4   compression ratio  r V2 V3 V3  cutoff ratio  rc V2 23 .

the efficiency can be expressed as: cv T4  T1    1 c p T3  T2  T1 T4 T1  1   1 kT2 T3 T2  1 1  rck  1  And finally. Thermal Efficiency .Diesel  1  k 1   r  k rc  1  24 .  th .DIESEL Cycle Recalling from second law of thermodynamics: Wnet Qin  Qout Qout qout    1  1 Qin Qin Qin qin For constant-volume processes of the Otto cycle.

Exercise 2 The pressure and temperature at the beginning of compression of an air-standard Diesel cycle are 95 kPa and 300 K. the pressure is 7. At the end of the heat addidition. respectively. (a)The compression ratio (b)The cutoff ratio (c)The thermal efficiency of the cycle (d)The mean effective pressure 25 . Determine.2 MPa and the temperature is 2150 K.

Air-Standard DUAL Cycle • Approximate the pressure variations of actual internal combustion engines • Working fluid is air • Heat addition occurs in two step during a constant- volume and a constant-pressure process when piston is at TDC • Comprises of 5 internally reversible processes – Process 1-2: Isentropic compression of the air – Process 2-3: Constant-volume heat addition and – Process 3-4: Constant-pressure heat addition to the air – Process 4-5: Isentropic expansion – Process 5-1: Constant volume heat rejection 26 .

P-v and T-s Diagrams of Air-Standard DUAL Cycle 27 .

DUAL Cycle Analysis Assuming change in kinetic energy and potential energy can be ignored. the processes can be expressed as: The isentropic compression w12  u 2  u1 The heat addition q23  u3  u 2 and q34  h4  h3 The isentropic expansion w45  u 4  u5 The heat rejection q51  u5  u1 28 .

Exercise 3 An air-standard dual cycle has a compression ratio of 9. Determine. At the beginning of compression. p1 = 100 kPa and T1 = 300 K. The heat addition per unit mass of air is 1400 kJ/kg. (a)The temperature at the end of each heat addition process (b)The net work of the cycle per unit mass of air (c)The thermal efficiency (d)The mean effective pressure 29 . with one half added at constant volume and one half added at constant pressure.