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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide

The RST Working Group


"Design of bituminous mixtures "

Under the supervision of

Jean-Luc DELORME,

Chantal de la ROCHE,

Louisette WENDLING

September 2007

Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées


58, bd Lefebvre, F 75732 Paris Cedex 15
Jean-Luc DELORME
Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de l’Est Parisien
Chantal de la ROCHE
Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées
Louisette WENDLING
Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées d’Autun

This report was compiled from the documents produced by and with the participation
of the "Design of bituminous mixtures" working group, coordinated by Mr. Jean-
Luc DELORME. Below is the list of working group members:
Yves BROSSEAUD, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées
Yves GANGA, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de Clermont-Ferrand
René HIERNAUX, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de Saint-Quentin
Jean-François LAFON, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de Toulouse
Francis MOUTIER, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées
Claude ROGER, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de Strasbourg
Patrick VAN GREVENYNGHE, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées
– d’ Aix-en-Provence

Also providing valuable assistance with this publication were:


Chantal de la ROCHE, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées
Florence PERNOT-MOREAU, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de l’Est
Parisien
François TRAVERS, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées
Louisette WENDLING, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées d’Autun
Nicole VERCHERE, Laboratoire Régional des Ponts et Chaussées de l’Est Parisien

Preface contributed by:


Jean-Michel PIAU, Technical Director for Pavements and Road Safety, Laboratoire
Central des Ponts et Chaussées
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Preface –

Preface

LPC Bituminous mixtures Design Guide

Jean-Michel PIAU

This guide is intended to collate and set forth the knowledge accumulated by
France's Ministry of Public Works' Scientific and Technical Network (RST) in the field
of designing hot bituminous mixtures.
It provides a description of:
⎯ the bituminous mixtures design method used by RST; and
⎯ the rules of practice and expertise introduced in asphalt mix design studies,
for the purpose of efficiently obtaining materials capable of meeting a series
of predefined specifications.
This document has been compiled with an educational aim of transferring knowledge
and standardizing methods currently applied within the various Ponts et Chaussées
laboratories.
It would be beneficial however to expand the document scope over the near term by
contributions from the world of industry to give rise to the publication of a "French
method for road material design". This effort would allow covering the entire range of
techniques implemented throughout France capable of being shared among our
European and international partners.
We felt it appropriate to use this guide's introductory section to recall the main
objectives inherent in bituminous mixtures design methods and then to explain the
predominant constituents based of a streamlined formulation, making it more
straightforward to grasp long and complex processes that often imply developing
such methods. It then becomes easier to understand the diversity of methods in use
across the world. Highlighting the key stakes involved and the breadth of this topic
still to be explored also serves to justify the permanence of research resources
allocated to improving and optimizing mix design methods.
Along the same lines, a number of preliminary considerations will be provided below
on another aspect of this "bituminous mixtures design" focus; these concern more
specifically the mix design studies actually being conducted.

–3 –
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Preface –

The objectives behind a road material design method in the laboratory are basically
of three types. The impetus lies in deriving and proposing materials that are:
⎯ capable of being successfully implemented on a jobsite,
⎯ capable of resisting the loads induced from the rest of the project works,
⎯ capable of satisfying the structural durability or wearing requirements of
pavements, as specified by project developers.
The quality and relevance of asphalt mix design methods exert a strong influence on
user safety, as well as on the durability and maintenance costs associated with the
particular infrastructure.
Yet these methods remain valuable tools for innovation, by virtue of providing guides
for the development and improvement of experimental materials and creating the
means for evaluating performance at an early stage and at relatively low cost.
Generating a mix design method entails a long and complex process that requires
considerable back-and-forth between field and laboratory over an extended period of
time; broadly speaking, this approach is more heavily dependent upon the (cultural)
context of pavement design methods and product standardization / classification.
Bituminous mixtures design methods rely upon three cornerstones, all highly
correlated and interdependent.
The first pertains to the set P of physical, chemical and mechanical properties
considered as necessary and adequate for determining the aptitude of constituents
and mixes to form proper road materials.
The second cornerstone is the set E of tests and testing methods used in order to
measure these properties.
The third cornerstone is the set V of threshold values to be reached or not
exceeded, depending on the properties required of the project structure over its life
cycle; these are to be included in the specifications issued by project developers.
Among the first set P , it is important to distinguish between magnitudes Pc
applicable to constituents and magnitudes Pm applicable to mixes. Within the latter
category, distinction must also be drawn between magnitudes Pv of the volumetric
type, such as the concentration modulus and void content, and performance-related
mechanical or physical magnitudes Pf , of the empirical or intrinsic type, such as
rutting resistance, fatigue resistance and stiffness modulus.
Historically speaking, these methods were typically based on Pc and Pv properties,
i.e. more likely to yield direct and ready-to-use design rules; they are referred to as "
compositional recipe" guides.
Subsequent methods sought to integrate, without completely overlooking the initial
approaches, an increasing number of performance-related magnitudes, closer to
properties that were directly representative of material behavior within structures, yet
more complicated to assess and incorporate into the actual design.
The rising importance assigned today to material recycling or reuse techniques in
road construction and maintenance, which has served to broaden component
diversity, merely strengthens the need for performance-related design methods that
focus directly on the bituminous mixtures.

–4 –
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Preface –

The selection of tests and testing methods E associated with parameter


measurements P again offers many degrees of freedom in determining design
methods. This trend is even more pronounced given that set E also includes the
choice of specimen preparation methods, which often differ from one country to the
next1. It should nonetheless be pointed out that for properties P relating to European
standardization, a major step forward has recently been taken by mandating a single
type of test and testing method2.
The third cornerstone comprises the ranges of acceptable values V associated with
variables P , given the selected tests E and the particular use sought for the
materials. Making such a selection engenders considerable reflection, which typically
invokes a preexisting reference derived over time and based on a comparison drawn
between field observations and design methods. For standardized materials, set V is
organized by material category, which serves to combine the target specifications for
the variables found in set P homogeneously and consistently. The application of
corresponding product-based standards then enables streamlining project developer
specifications.
Let's also point out herein that depending upon the precise needs expressed in the
asphalt mix design3, several levels of total or partial method application are generally
defined; these would correspond with the implementation of subsets {P ' ,E ' ,V '}
composed within the {P,E,V } triad.
Mix design studies lie within the scope framed by the methods actually used, which
tend to focus on generating materials that satisfy the specifications stipulated by the
project developer, through manipulating design variables under supervision of the
project's general contractor. Yet many other situations could also warrant the creation
of design test specimens.
When designing a new hot bituminous mix, set F containing designer degrees of
freedom usually pertains to:
⎯ the broad choices for the mix's mineral phase (filler, fines, sands,
aggregates), depending on project constraints and location;
⎯ choice of binder (type, hardness);
⎯ the eventual introduction of admixtures (e.g. enhancers);
⎯ choice of particle size distribution; and
⎯ binder content.
In symbolic terms, a mix design problem entails solving the following program:

1
Example: Depending on the country, distinction can be drawn from among four major specimen
preparation methods; using a plate compactor, compaction with the gyratory shear press,
compaction by impact (rammer) or vibration.
2
Beyond a certain number of properties, for which the corresponding tests are deemed equivalent.
3
Design of a new material, periodic formula verification, …

–5 –
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Preface –

Find F such that P (F , E ) ∈ V


with:
F = Design parameter values
E = The tests and test methods employed (including specimen preparation)
V = Intervals (potentially semi-infinite) of the required performance values
P (F , E ) = Material responses, as derived according to values F with tests E

The designer's craftsmanship enters into play through minimizing the number of
laboratory tests (i.e. the number of designs undergoing testing), thereby yielding a
solution to this problem.
Designer expertise is often primarily implicit, based on extensive personal experience
and in-depth knowledge of road materials and of their sensitivity, in qualitative (and
sometimes quantitative) terms, to design parameters.
Yet most of these rules, some of which had been intentionally built on the basis of
multi-faceted experimental programs4, are now understood and help stimulate
learning of the mix designer's trade. The core of the present document will lay out
these rules in detail.
In contrast, the actual techniques used for solving asphalt mix design problems, as
regards the current discussion, and introduced by material designers have for the
most part remained implicit.
In returning to the overview presented above, it can simply be stated that approaches
rely for the most part on iterative "progressive" methods built from a qualitative5, or in
∂P (F , E )
some instances quantitative, knowledge of the sensitivity matrix , thereby
∂F
ensuring a suitable correction of design parameters from the standpoint of narrowing
the discrepancy between the current P (F , E ) value and the target interval V . If need
be, this approach could be adopted when developing computer-aided design
software.

4
Example: The RST study entitled "Multi-year Fatigue Plan for Bituminous mixtures".
5 ∂P
A qualitative knowledge of the sensitivity matrix entails knowing the algebraic sign of matrix
∂F
components and in some instances more than their simple orders of magnitude.

–6 –
Table of Contents

PREFACE ........................................................................................................................... 3

TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS........................................................................................... 11

RÉSUMÉ ........................................................................................................................... 14

ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... 15

1 GENERAL REMARKS – BASES OF THE METHOD ........................................... 17

1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................ 17
1.1.1 The various mix design approaches.................................................................... 17
1.1.2 Type testing procedures applied in France ......................................................... 19

1.2 Presentation of this document ............................................................................... 19

1.3 Test protocols in application .................................................................................. 20


1.3.1 Gyratory compactor ............................................................................................. 21
1.3.2 Water resistance sensitivity................................................................................. 22
1.3.3 The wheel tracking test (large device)................................................................. 23
1.3.4 Stiffness testing ................................................................................................... 23
1.3.5 Fatigue resistance ............................................................................................... 25

1.4 General remarks on bituminous mix components ................................................. 25


1.4.1 Aggregates .......................................................................................................... 26
1.4.2 Binder .................................................................................................................. 27
1.4.3 Additives.............................................................................................................. 30

1.5 Useful definitions and relations for type testing ..................................................... 33


1.5.1 Binder content ..................................................................................................... 34
1.5.2 Richness modulus K............................................................................................ 34
1.5.3 Percentage of voids or compacity ....................................................................... 35

2 TYPE TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURES ................................................... 41

2.1 Prescription relative to mix components................................................................ 42


2.1.1 Specifications regarding added fillers................................................................. 42
2.1.2 Specifications regarding fillers contained in the mixture .................................... 43
2.1.3 Specifications regarding fine aggregates or all-in aggregate (0/4, 0/6)............... 43
2.1.4 Specifications regarding coarse aggregates ....................................................... 44
2.1.5 Specifications regarding additives....................................................................... 47
2.1.6 Specifications regarding binders ......................................................................... 48
2.1.7 Specifications regarding reclaimed asphalt......................................................... 49

2.2 Specifications regarding mixture composition ....................................................... 51


2.2.1 Grading................................................................................................................ 51
2.2.2 Binder content and Richness Modulus................................................................ 52

–7 –
2.3 Preparation of test specimens ............................................................................... 53
2.3.1 Density measurements........................................................................................ 53
2.3.2 Procedure for reheating and incorporating mix reclaimed asphalts .................... 54
2.3.3 Mixing .................................................................................................................. 55
2.3.4 Compaction of test specimens ............................................................................ 55
2.3.5 Test specimen sawing and bonding .................................................................... 55
2.3.6 Test specimen conservation................................................................................ 55
2.3.7 Test specimen void percentage .......................................................................... 56

2.4 Execution of type testing ....................................................................................... 56


2.4.1 Choice of test typing level ................................................................................... 56
2.4.2 Level 1................................................................................................................. 57
2.4.3 Level 2................................................................................................................. 60
2.4.4 Level 3................................................................................................................. 60
2.4.5 Level 4................................................................................................................. 61
2.4.6 Additional tests .................................................................................................... 62

2.5 Formula verification ............................................................................................... 62

2.6 Type testing procedure length and required quantity of materials......................... 63

2.7 Summary of test characteristics and methods....................................................... 64


2.7.1 Asphalt mixes ...................................................................................................... 64
2.7.2 Very thin asphalt concretes ................................................................................. 66
2.7.3 Soft asphalt concretes......................................................................................... 67
2.7.4 Hot Rolled Asphalt............................................................................................... 68
2.7.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt........................................................................................... 69
2.7.6 Porous Asphalt .................................................................................................... 70

3 MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE.................................................................................. 73

3.1 Component selection............................................................................................. 73


3.1.1 Aggregates .......................................................................................................... 73
3.1.2 Binder .................................................................................................................. 79
3.1.3 Additives.............................................................................................................. 81

3.2 Relationships between binder properties and mix properties................................ 83


3.2.1 Penetrability and ring and ball temperature......................................................... 83
3.2.2 The SHRP criteria ............................................................................................... 83
3.2.3 Origin of the bitumen ........................................................................................... 84

3.3 Initial composition by type of material.................................................................... 85


3.3.1 Asphalt Concretes for base course – Grave-Bitume AC-GB and High
Modulus AC-EME ............................................................................................... 85
3.3.2 Thick layer mixtures for surface or binder course – AC-BBSG, AC-BBS,
AC-BBME ............................................................................................................ 90
3.3.3 Porous asphalt mixes – PA-BBDr........................................................................ 92
3.3.4 Thin asphalt mixes – AC-BBM, BBTM and mixes for UTLAC (BBUM) ............... 95
3.3.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt - SMA................................................................................ 98

3.4 Composition adjustments ...................................................................................... 99


3.4.1 Effect of mix variables (general remarks) .......................................................... 100
3.4.2 Effect of dimension D ........................................................................................ 100
3.4.3 Effect of granular proportions ............................................................................ 100

–8 –
3.4.4 Discontinuity ...................................................................................................... 100
3.4.5 Incorporation of rounded particle aggregate ..................................................... 101
3.4.6 Percentage of fillers........................................................................................... 101
3.4.7 Percentage of bitumen ...................................................................................... 101

3.5 Gyratory Compactor compactibility study ............................................................ 101


3.5.1 General remarks................................................................................................ 101
3.5.2 Percentage of voids vs. number of gyrations .................................................... 102
3.5.3 Percentage of voids at a given number of gyrations ......................................... 103
3.5.4 Percentage of voids at 10 gyrations: v10 ............................................................ 104
3.5.5 Percentage of voids at 1 gyration: v1 ................................................................. 104
3.5.6 Slope K1............................................................................................................. 104
3.5.7 Pseudo shear stress τ ....................................................................................... 105
3.5.8 Test precision .................................................................................................... 106
3.5.9 Correction of mix composition ........................................................................... 106

3.6 Mix performance.................................................................................................. 110


3.6.1 Resistance to permanent deformation on the LPC Wheel Tracking Tester ...... 110
3.6.2 The Duriez test (Method B of EN 12697-12) ..................................................... 114
3.6.3 Stiffness modulus .............................................................................................. 116
3.6.4 Fatigue .............................................................................................................. 121
3.6.5 Texture .............................................................................................................. 122
3.6.6 Ancillary tests .................................................................................................... 123

3.7 Practitioners' advice ............................................................................................ 124


3.7.1 Effect of mix design factors – Summary ............................................................ 124
3.7.2 Practical tips for the mix designer ..................................................................... 125

4 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LABORATORY AND FIELD RESULTS ............ 127

4.1 Percentage of voids measured with the Gyratory Compactor (GC) .................... 127
4.1.1 Experimental objective ...................................................................................... 127
4.1.2 Results .............................................................................................................. 128
4.1.3 Comments ......................................................................................................... 131

4.2 Large device wheel tracking test ........................................................................ 132


4.2.1 The studies conducted in France ...................................................................... 132
4.2.2 Colorado study .................................................................................................. 134
4.2.3 Ranking of mix rutting behavior ......................................................................... 135

4.3 Stiffness modulus test ......................................................................................... 136


4.3.1 Experimental objective and procedure .............................................................. 136
4.3.2 Results .............................................................................................................. 137

4.4 Fatigue test.......................................................................................................... 140


4.4.1 Experimental objective and procedure .............................................................. 140
4.4.2 Results obtained................................................................................................ 140

4.5 Synthesis of the relationships between laboratory and field results .................... 142

5 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................... 143


Bibliography..................................................................................................................... 144
Appendix A: List of normative references required for the type testing phase ................ 149

–9 –
Appendix B: EN testing standards - EN 12697 series: "Asphalt mixes"
Use recommendations................................................................................ 154
Appendix C: Equivalence table between TLext and Bint .................................................... 159
Appendix D: Main test precisions .................................................................................... 160
Appendix E Summary table – Specifications and recommendations for each type
of material................................................................................................... 162
APPENDIX F ................................................................................................................... 164
Appendix G Glossary ...................................................................................................... 175
Index .......................................................................................................................... 197

–10 –
Table of illustrations
Figure 1: Gyratory Compactor – MLPC Type 2 ....................................................... 21
Figure 2: Gyratory Compactor – MLPC Type 3 ....................................................... 21
Figure 3: Large-device wheel tracking test ............................................................... 23
Figure 4: Detail of the rut depth measurement ......................................................... 23
Figure 5: Complex modulus testing machine - MLPC 3MC ..................................... 24
Figure 6: Adjustment of the displacement sensor..................................................... 24
Figure 7: Rheologically-controlled testing machine .................................................. 24
Figure 8: Specimen set-up........................................................................................ 24
Figure 9: Fatigue test in 2-point bending on trapezoidal specimens......................... 25
Figure 10: View of quarry face.................................................................................. 26
Figure 11: Screening-crushing.................................................................................. 26
Figure 12: Penetrability test ...................................................................................... 30
Figure 13: Ring and ball temperature test ................................................................ 30
Figure 14: Example of extraction on Trinidad Lake (Venezuela) .............................. 32
Figure 15 : Examples of colored asphalt mixes ........................................................ 33
Figure 16: Volumetric approach to developing an asphalt mix ................................. 36
Figure 17: Connecting, non-connecting and occluded voids .................................... 37
Figure 18: Summary diagram of the various type testing levels ............................... 57
Figure 19: Small-scale rutting tester model operating in air...................................... 70
Figure 20: Cross-section of a Grave-Bitume AC-GB mix.......................................... 85
Figure 21: Cross-section of a AC-BBSG ((Asphalt Concrete Béton
Bitumineux Semi-Granular)) .................................................................... 90
Figure 22: Surface appearance of a AC-BBSG (Asphalt Concrete Béton
Bitumineux Semi-Granular) ..................................................................... 90
Figure 23: Cross-section of a Porous Asphalt .......................................................... 92
Figure 24: Surface appearance of a Porous Asphalt (PA-BBDr) .............................. 92
Figure 25: Cross-section of a Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM) .................... 95
Figure 26: Surface appearance of a Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM).......... 95
Figure 27: Cross-section of an SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) .................................... 98
Figure 28: Surface appearance of an SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt).......................... 98
Figure 29: Nomograph for calculating mix stiffness modulus values ...................... 119
Figure 30: Example of GC variability in the percentage of voids obtained onsite ... 129
Figure 31: LCPC Fatigue Carousel......................................................................... 132
Figure 32: Results obtained with the Large Device wheel tracking Tester -
Study of laboratory rutting...................................................................... 133
Figure 33: Results obtained with the Large Device wheel tracking Tester -
Study of rutting on plant-produced mixes .............................................. 133
Figure 34: Behavior of mixes on the LCPC test carousel, evolution of rut depth
submitted to a single large wheel (F = 42,5 kN, V = 40 km/h) ............... 134
Figure 35: In situ core sampling.............................................................................. 136
Figure 36: In situ sawing......................................................................................... 136
Figure 37: Variability in stiffness modulus on in situ extractions (site no, 1) ........... 137
Figure 38: Variability in stiffness modulus on in situ extractions (site no, 2) ........... 137
Figure 39: Laboratory-worksite correlation: Stiffness modulus at 15°C
(0,02 sec or 10 Hz) ................................................................................ 139
Figure 40: Summary of fatigue test results by sample preparation
protocol (preliminary design, laboratory verification, onsite
extractions) ............................................................................................ 140

–11 –
Table 1 – Typical filler characteristics for asphalt mixtures....................................... 43
Table 2 – Specification on fines from fine aggregate or all-in aggregate or
(in their absence) from mixed fillers ........................................................ 43
Table 3 – Indicative minimum characteristics of coarse aggregates : Mechanical
strength and production characteristics .................................................. 46
Table 4 – Accepted values of D vs. type of mixture.................................................. 47
Table 5 – Reclaimed asphalt characteristics vs. reuse rate...................................... 51
Table 6 – Overall limits of target composition ........................................................... 52
Table 7 – Minimum Binder content and richness modulus values ............................ 53
Table 8 – Test specimen characteristics .................................................................. 56
Table 9 – Specifications relative to the void percentage........................................... 58
Table 10 – Specifications relative to water resistance .............................................. 59
Table 11 – Specifications relative to the wheel tracking test..................................... 60
Table 12 – Specifications relative to the stiffness modulus....................................... 61
Table 13 – Specifications relative to fatigue resistance ............................................ 61
Table 14 – TYPE TESTING Required material quantities – Approximate testing
durations................................................................................................. 63
Table 15 – Types of tests for asphalt mixes ............................................................. 64
Table 16 – Type of tests for BBTM (very thin layer asphalt concretes) .................... 66
Table 17 – Type of tests for soft asphalt concretes .................................................. 67
Table 18 – Type of tests for Hot Rolled Asphalt ....................................................... 68
Table 19 – Type of tests for the Stone Mastic Asphalt material................................ 69
Table 20 – Type of tests for the porous asphalt........................................................ 70
Table 21– Suggested bitumen grade by mix type..................................................... 80
Table 22 – Initial AC20 or AC14 Grave-Bitume A C-GB and High Modulus
Asphalt Concrete AC-EME grading curve............................................. 87
Table 23 – Initial AC10-EME grading curve.............................................................. 87
Table 24 – Typical initial binder content of AC-GB and AC-EME
(richness modulus) ................................................................................. 88
Table 25 – Initial AC-BBSG, AC-BBS and AC-BBME grading curve ........................ 91
Table 26 – Initial BBSG, BBME and BBS richness modulus and binder content...... 92
Table 27 – Initial PA-BBDr grading curve ................................................................. 93
Table 28 – Initial Porous Asphalt (PA-BBDr) binder content (Richness modulus) .... 95
Table 29 – Initial AC-BBM and BBTM grading curve................................................ 97
Table 30 – Initial AC-BBM, BBTM and mixes for UTLAC (BBUM) binder content .... 98
Table 31 – Initial SMA grading curve........................................................................ 99
Table 32 – Initial SMA binder content ....................................................................... 99
Table 33 - Composition effect on Gyratory Compactor test results ........................ 109
Table 34 - Composition adjustment in order to correct Gyratory Compactor
results ................................................................................................... 110
Table 35- Effects of mix design factors on % rutting............................................... 113
Table 36 - Practitioners' advice - Enhancing rutting resistance .............................. 113
Table 37 - Typical © values (in MPa)...................................................................... 115
Table 38 - Practitioners' advice - Duriez test results adjustment ............................ 115
Table 39 - Fatigue - loss of linearity relationship .................................................... 121

–12 –
Table 40 - Adjustment to average texture depth..................................................... 123
Table 41 - Practitioners' advice – Mix refinement [for a given type of mix] –
Summary of the effect of mix design factors......................................... 124
Table 42 - Site conditions ....................................................................................... 128
Table 43 - % of void measurements – Comparison of laboratory compactor results
(design, verification) with onsite results (Gyratory compactor, bulk density
(MVA) measurement using gamma-densitometry) ............................... 130
Table 44 – Comparison between the field behavior of material mixes and the
acceptance or rejection criterion according to French specifications .... 135
Table 45 – Test repeatability and reproducibility values ......................................... 160

–13 –
LPC Asphalt Mix Design Guide
- Résumé/Abstract -

Résumé

Manuel LPC d’aide à la formulation des enrobés

Jean-Luc DELORME

Chantal de La ROCHE

Louisette WENDLING

Le manuel LPC d’aide à la formulation des enrobés est destiné aux laboratoires qui
mettent au point des mélanges hydrocarbonés.
La méthode de formulation fait appel aux caractéristiques des constituants, à la
tenue à l’eau, au pourcentage de vides à la Presse à Cisaillement Giratoire, à la
résistance à l’orniérage, au module de rigidité et à la résistance en fatigue.
Les exigences normatives nécessaires à la réalisation d’une épreuve de formulation
sont synthétisées dans la deuxième partie. Elles tiennent compte de l’expérience
française et de l’application des normes européennes.
La partie consacrée à la mise au point des mélanges est fondée sur l’expérience du
réseau LPC, exprimée à partir des résultats d’un groupe de travail, elle comporte des
recommandations pour optimiser les caractéristiques du matériau.
Ces recommandations s’appuient sur des cas concrets, sur des plans d’expérience
spécifiques ou font appel à des références bibliographiques.
Les relations entre les caractéristiques de laboratoire et celles obtenues sur chantier
proviennent de travaux de recherche LPC réalisés sur les matériaux structurants. Ils
permettent de faire la relation entre une population de résultats de laboratoire et une
population de résultats de chantier sur les pourcentages de vides à la Presse à
Cisaillement Giratoire, l’orniérage, le module et la résistance en fatigue des enrobés.

–14 –
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- - Résumé/Abstract -

Abstract

LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide

Jean-Luc DELORME

Chantal de La ROCHE

Louisette WENDLING

This LPC Mix Design Guide is intended for road research laboratories assigned to
design bituminous materials mixes
The mix design methodology is based on component characteristics, water-sensitivity
testing, void content assessments using gyratory compaction, resistance to
permanent deformation, stiffness and fatigue resistance.
Normative requirements by type of test will be summarized in the second part taking
into account the French experience and the European standardization.
The part of this report devoted to the actual mix design is based on the experience of
a working group from the LPC network and includes recommendations for optimizing
material characteristics. Such recommendations are based on practical cases,
specific experiments or bibliographical research.
Relationships between laboratory characteristics and jobsite characteristics have
been established from LPC studies on structural materials; they serve to correlate a
dataset of results obtained in the laboratory with another set obtained on the jobsite,
with respect to void content, by means of gyratory compaction, rutting resistance,
stiffness and fatigue resistance.

–15 –
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– General remarks –

1 GENERAL REMARKS – BASES OF THE METHOD

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 The various mix design approaches

Design methods for bituminous mixes have been developed over the past forty years
in order to satisfy the latest requirements issued by road builders and engineering
companies. Rising traffic loads, along with the integration of safety, comfort,
durability, maintenance and user nuisance considerations, under given climatic
conditions and within a defined technical context (design and dimensioning of
pavements layers), has incited increasingly-complex material design approaches.
Asphalt mix design becomes even more sophisticated in improving one
characteristic, while changing the composition exerts a negative influence on another
characteristic. One well-known example is that an increase in binder content has a
beneficial impact on fatigue resistance, yet diminishes rutting resistance.
The properties sought for a given bituminous material depend on the intended layer
of application. For bases and base-courses, whose role is to distribute loads over the
supporting soil without incurring excessive deformation, the overlay course must
basically be stiff, fatigue-resistant, resistant to permanent deformations and relatively
compact. For a wearing course in direct contact with traffic and aggressive climatic
agents, emphasis is placed on: durability with a high resistance to water action,
resistance to permanent deformations, and especially on the search for satisfactory
surface characteristics (roughness, rolling noise, photometry, etc.). Furthermore,
depending on the specific design case, the wearing course must be compact enough
to protect the lower layers from water infiltration, yet open enough to enable water to
drain. The characteristics sought are multifaceted and sometimes contradictory.
This topic has been addressed in a variety of ways and depends heavily on the local
context. A state-of-the-art assessment of asphalt mix design procedures across
various countries was produced within the scope of a RILEM technical committee
work program [Rilem Report 17, 1998] and distinguished six design methods:
1. "recipe ",
2. empirical testing,
3. analytical computations,
4. volumetric method,
5. performance related testing, and
6. fundamental testing.

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The (cookbook) recipe method relies upon local experience a known composition,
which has already yielded satisfactory results under a given set of use conditions
over long periods of time, is reproduced. The application of such cookbook recipes
could, on occasion, be supplemented by a handful of tests stemming from empirical
methods.
The most widespread method employing empirical tests is known as Marshall's
method [ASTM DI-559-60T]. Specimens are compacted according to established
operating procedures, and mechanical test results are compared with observed on-
site behavior.
The analytical method is based on component properties and a mix model for both
calculating the percentage of voids and estimating material performance. This
method has been developed primarily in Belgium.
The volumetric method consists of deducing the respective proportions, expressed in
volume terms of the granular skeleton, the bitumen and the available volume
(percentage of voids) of a compacted specimen under previously-established
conditions; this allows determining mix behavior without conducting any additional
mechanical tests.
The performance related method that calls for conducting tests on the basis of
material properties makes use of simulation techniques, directly correlated with the
target property; such is the case with the rutting test, run like a traffic simulation.
The so-called "fundamental" method comprises tests whose results may be directly
used as input data into material design models. This would specifically pertain to
dynamic modulus or fatigue resistance values.

European standardization of hot bituminous mixtures has served to formalize and


summarize the principles behind this classification, by means of distinguishing
between two approaches: "empirical" and "fundamental".
The empirical approach contains the "recipe" or "prescriptive" phase (to a rather
considerable extent), the "volumetric" phase, the "empirical testing" phase and,
where applicable, "performance related" tests.
The fundamental approach encompasses a scaled-back "prescriptive" ("prescription")
phase, a "volumetric" phase, "performance related" tests and "fundamental" tests.
The two approaches cannot neglect a descriptive section devoted to constituent
characteristics, especially aggregates, given that the properties targeted by the
fundamental tests are not always sufficient to satisfy the desired set of requirements.
Mix design work is performed on materials either recomposed in the laboratory or
extracted directly following fabrication at the plant.
Two phases can in fact be distinguished under the heading of material mix design:
type testing, and refinement or optimization of the mix design formula. Type testing is
typically performed according to a formalized protocol since it often serves as the
basis for contractual relations, whereas the formula optimization phase (mix design)
relies upon the experience of the mixtures designer.

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European standardization clearly distinguishes type testing, which lies within the
regulatory domain to substantiate "EC" branding policy, from non-codified formula
optimization (mix design).
Some design methods contain both the testing part and the optimization part. Such is
the case for example with both the Marshall method, which actually predicts a
possible optimization (based on the percentage of voids, stability and creep), and the
"Superpave" method (optimization of the percentage of voids and binder content, as
a function of expected traffic).

1.1.2 Type testing procedures applied in France

The type testing procedure applied on French roads is defined by appropriate


standards; it has been characterized by an approach based to the greatest extent
possible on asphalt mix performance. For structural type materials, it may be
classified within the "fundamental" approach. For other material types, the approach
is qualified as empirical, as intended in the European standardization, even though it
involves “performancerelated" testing. The recipe method is not used herein. In
contrast, volumetric considerations have been taken into account by means of the
gyratory compactor: this test serves as the focal point of the method since it is used
for all types of hot bituminous mixtures (with the exception of mastic asphalts mixes,
which remain beyond this document's scope of application). Type testing is
conducted with materials prepared in the laboratory representative of the planned
jobsite and that expose performance thresholds.
Type testing imposes specifications on the components, and especially on the
aggregates. It relies upon tests on the gyratory shear press, water resistance, rutting
resistance, stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance.
The mix design method is entirely dissociated from type testing and has not been
codified.
The approach based on this principle has been practiced for the past thirty years; it
was first formalized in a series of SETRA-LCPC technical documents and then in the
French standards. The current European standards, which are replacing the French
standards, do not challenge this principle.

1.2 Presentation of this document

This asphalt mix design guide has been drawn up from the conclusions forwarded by
the working group introduced in the preface. This effort was complemented, in
particular for Part 4, by results from research conducted within the framework of
specific LCPC programs (Research topic CH15: Design of the hot bituminous
mixtures).
In this introductory part, the operating principle behind the tests selected will be
briefly recalled, along with the set of definitions and relationships necessary for
conducting type testing or bituminous mixtures design. Other definitions have been
included in the glossary, see Appendix F.

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Part 2 is devoted to type testing, which is fully defined within the standard reference.
Test standards associated with applicable reference systems have been listed in
Appendix A, and the list of current standards in effect is provided for asphalt mix
components (aggregates, bitumen), preparatory tests, the actual tests,
methodological references stemming from either the specific standards derived or
general standards.
Depending on the level of requirements, the sample contains a varying number of
tests with thresholds ranging in severity depending on material use and type. Yet
these test results are always accompanied by requirements issued on the
components, particularly the aggregates. Part 2 offers a summary of the existing
inventoried requirements, at times shared among different documents. European
standards are taken into consideration in this part. The list of European standards
with their French correspondence will constitute Appendix B, along with pertinent
application recommendations and comments. When European standards give rise to
modifications, all relevant chapters will be highlighted.
The objective of Part 3 is to lay out the formula optimization and adjustment methods
in practice throughout France's Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) research network.
Indications will be given regarding the choice of constituents and test result
interpretations, especially those from the gyratory shear press, in order to derive a
mix that fulfills all target characteristics. Recommendations will be provided for
adjusting the asphalt mix composition whenever test results on a given study mix are
not satisfactory. This part has been written using the results from specific
experimental campaigns or as a means of transmitting the practices set forth either
by experts working with the laboratory network or in bibliographical references.
Part 4 focuses on pertinent laboratory-worksite correlations.
Since the type testing specified in works contracts is conducted entirely in the
laboratory, it proves essential to ensure that the "industrial" production of road
overlays on site enables obtaining equivalent characteristics at the worksite. This
chapter will discuss the results generated within the scope of research project CH15:
"Design of hot bituminous mixtures", for the percentage of voids with the gyratory
compactor, stiffness modulus and fatigue resistance values.

1.3 Test protocols in application

The primary tests used for type testing will be outlined below. The French and
European reference standards are listed in Appendices A and B, respectively.
These tests have given rise to precision experiments in order to determine their
repeatability r and reproducibility R.
Repeatability r and reproducibility R measures have been summarized in
Appendix D.

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1.3.1 Gyratory compactor

Operating principle: The hydrocarbon mix, prepared in the laboratory, is set, bulked
and brought to the test temperature (approx. 130° to 160°C) within a cylindrical mold
150 or 160 mm in diameter. A 0,6-MPa vertical pressure is then applied on the top of
the specimen. At the same time, the specimen is slanted slightly at an angle on the
order of 1° (external) or 0,82° (internal) and submitted to circular movement. These
various actions exert a compaction by means of kneading. The increase in
compactness (i.e. via the decrease in percentage of voids) vs. the number of
revolutions can then be observed.
Interpretation: For a given number of gyrations, to be determined depending on the
type of mix, the nature of aggregates and the application thickness, the materials
designer is able to predict the percentage of voids on site. In the case of very thin
wearing courses, this test focuses more on estimating the macro-texture than the
compacity.

Figure 1: Gyratory Compactor – Figure 2: Gyratory Compactor –


MLPC Type 2 MLPC Type 3

The test is highly sensitive to mix design factors, such as "friction" of the granular
skeleton (angularity) and binder content.
This test also serves to detect and assess the risk of rutting.

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Thanks to the speed offered by this means of testing, the gyratory compactor proves
a highly-valuable instrument for the materials designer.
Moreover, it enables detecting the type of changes that go unnoticed during more
common tests conducted on aggregates. The gyratory shear press makes it possible
to verify formula consistency over time.
Specifications are applicable to all types of bituminous mixtures; they stipulate a
range of void percentages to be respected for a given number of gyrations.

1.3.2 Water resistance sensitivity

Water resistance is at the bases of the bituminous mixtures durability. It used to be


measured by means of the Duriez test, within the scope of French standardization
practices. However, the European standardization includes two different procedures
indirect tensile test and direct compression test derived from Duriez test.
Those two procedures give equivalent results, however the repeatability
reproducibility of the direct compression test (Duriez test) are about twice better the
ones of the indirect tensile test.

1.3.2.1 Direct compression test (Duriez test)

Operating principle: The hydrocarbon mix is compacted in a cylindrical mold


undergoing double-effect static pressure. A group of specimens is conserved without
any controlled temperature immersion (18°C) or relative humidity immersion, while
the other group is held immersed. Each specimen group is then loaded under simple
compression.
Results interpretation: The ratio of resistance following immersion to dry resistance
yields the water resistance value for the mix. Dry resistance represents one approach
to describing mechanical characteristics, while compacity constitutes a
complementary indicator to the gyratory test.

1.3.2.2 Indirect tensile test

Operating principle: Cylindrical specimens are either produced with the gyratory
compactor or cored from plates. A group of the specimens is conserved without
immersion at room temperature, while the other portion is held immersed after
extensive degassing during 70 hours at 40°C. Each specimen group is then loaded
under diametric compression at 15°C.
Test interpretation: The ratio of the resistance post-immersion to the dry resistance
yields the mix's water resistance.

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1.3.3 The wheel tracking test (large device)

Operating principle: The test specimen here is a parallelepiped plate 5 cm or 10 cm


thick, depending on whether the application thickness of the mix happens to be less
than or greater than 5 cm. This plate is submitted to a one-wheel traffic load
(frequency: 1 Hz, load: 5 kN, pressure: 0,6 MPa) under severe temperature
conditions (60°C).
Test interpretation: The depth of deformation produced when the wheel crosses over
the bituminous mixture is measured vs. the number of cycles. Test specifications
pertain to a rut percentage at a given number of cycles, which in turn depends on the
type of material and its classification.

Figure 3: Large-device wheel tracking test Figure 4: Detail of the rut depth measurement

1.3.4 Stiffness testing

Operating principle: Asphalt mix stiffness is determined by either a complex modulus


test (sinusoidal loading on a trapezoidal or parallelepiped specimen) or a uniaxial
tensile test (on a cylindrical or parallelepiped specimen). The load is applied over a
domain of small deformations, through controlling time or frequency, temperature,
and the loading law.
Test interpretation: The modulus (stress-strain ratio) is computed for each basic test.
Using the time-temperature equivalence, the modulus master curve is plotted at a
given temperature. This depiction provides information on bituminous mixture
behavior over a broad load or frequency time spectrum.

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The test specification pertains to the modulus at 15°C and a frequency of 10 Hz or a


loading time of 0,02 sec.

Figure 5: Complex modulus testing machine - Figure 6: Adjustment of the displacement


MLPC 3MC sensor

Figure 7: Rheologically-controlled testing Figure 8: Specimen set-up


machine

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Fatigue resistance

Operating principle: A trapezoidal specimen is submitted, at a set temperature and


loading frequency, to an imposed deformation. When the stress applied to maintain a
constant deformation is halved, the specimen is considered damaged at the
corresponding number of loading cycles.
Test interpretation: On a lg/lg graph, the various couples (loading level, number of
cycles until reaching damage) may be presented on a fatigue line.
6
Once 10 cycles have been completed, the loading threshold read on the line is the

Figure 9: Fatigue test in 2-point bending on trapezoidal specimens

1.4 General remarks on bituminous mix components


Bituminous mixes are composed of a mix of aggregate particles whose size varies
between 0 and D (mm) and a hydrocarbon binder. Additives may be included in this
mix in order to improve performance. The final mix, once compacted and cooled,
features a nonzero void content, which serves to enhance product performance.

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1.4.1 Aggregates

Figure 10: View of quarry face Figure 11: Screening-crushing

1.4.1.1 Fillers
The fines content (i.e. passing the sieve 63 µm) of a bituminous mixture is generally
a combination of added filler in small proportion and a majority of fines coming from
fine aggregates (or all in aggregates 0/4).
The added filler may stem from solid rocks: limestone filler is used extensively. Other
materials also get employed, such as cement, quicklime, activated filler (mix of
limestone fines and hydrated lime), hydrated lime, fly ash, cement fillers and slates.

1.4.1.2 Fine aggregates 0/2 and all in aggregates 0/4


Crushed 0/2 fine aggregates with a fine content of 18% and crushed 0/4 all in
aggregates with a fine content of 10% to 14 % are mostly often used for the road
construction. The particle size distribution (grading) of a mix with fine aggregates
(and/or all in aggregates 0/4) and coarse aggregates from different origins might
therefore display anomalies (discontinuities or lumps).
Fine aggregates with totally round particles are also used in order to improve mix
workability.

1.4.1.3 Coarse aggregate


Coarse aggregate (d/D) constitute the "backbone" of the hydrocarbon mix. As such,
their composition, angularity and shape all serve to influence, at least in part, both
mix stability and the surface characteristics of surface courses. Moreover, their
mineralogical nature exerts a direct impact on the mix design: some materials (basalt,
granite, gneiss) are more difficult to compact, while others exhibit an absorbent
characteristic (basalt, slag, dolomitic limestone), which must be taken into account

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when deriving binder concentration. The mineralogical nature and state of cleanliness
also influence bitumen-aggregate adhesion.

1.4.1.4 Particle size distribution curves


The ultimate granular material is obtained by mixing various granular fractions (d/D)
entering into the composition. Each fraction is characterized by a particle size
distribution that indicates the passing percentages through the range of standardized
sieves6. The particle distribution curve or grading curve is characteristic of the final
material.

1.4.2 Binder

The binder may be either a pure, modified or special bitumen (hard, pigmentable,
colored bitumen, or regeneration binders), or a synthetic binder. In the absence of
other data, bitumen mass density is set equal to 1,03 Mg/m3.

1.4.2.1 Pure bitumen

This category comprises the range of standardized paving grade bitumen according
EN 12591 and those special bitumens distinguished by “hard” grade according
EN 13924, and low thermal susceptibility bitumens.

1.4.2.2 Modified bitumen

Modified bitumen materials consist of bituminous binders whose properties have


been modified through the use of a chemical agent, which when introduced into the
basic bitumen modifies the chemical structure and physical and mechanical
properties. This category of material has been codified in EN 14023, which remains
more of a description than any actual performance-based classification.
These bitumens are prepared prior to application within a specialized unit. The
chemical agents employed include natural rubber, synthetic polymers, sulfur and
other organic-metallic compounds. The primary chemical agents used to modify
bitumens are :
• The Thermoplastic elastomeric polymers
SBS (Styrene Butadiene Styrene)
SIS (Styrene Isoprene Styrene)
SB (Styrene Butadiene)
SBR (Statistical copolymer)
• Thermoplastic plastomeric polymers
EVA (Ethylene vinyl acetate)
EMA (Ethylene methyl acrylate)
EBA (Ethylene butyl acrylate)
PIB (Polyisobutylene)
• Latex
6
The base series of the sieve is composed of the following elements (in mm): 0,063; 0,125; 0,250;
0,500; 1; 2; 4; 8;16; 31,5.

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Polychloroprene
SBR rubber
Natural rubber
Crumb rubber

Elastomer-modified binders:
Physical mixes are to be distinguished from elastomeric bitumens obtained by means
of cross-linking.
Physical mixes are typically heterogeneous to a scale of several micrometers. The
fineness of the elastomeric bitumen structure will exert a direct influence both on the
stability of the asphalt mixture and on its physical properties over the entire
temperature range.
Cross-linked elastomeric bitumens exhibit a structure resulting from a dual form of
extremely fine links, on the order of one micrometer. This reaction is irreversible.
Cross-linked elastomeric bitumen displays higher tensile strength and stiffness and
increased ductility in comparison with the initial binder.
Elastomeric bitumen modification induces differences in rheological behavior. In
comparison with pure bitumen, BmP SBS at low temperature exhibits lower modulus
values, hence greater flexibility; this situation becomes reversed at high
temperatures. For a given bitumen sample, this modification in rheological behavior
depends on both polymer nature and content.

Plastomer-modified binders:
Ethylene copolymer bitumen (EVA, EMA and EBA):
At low polymer content (< 5%), the modification in material properties is due primarily
to the increase in asphaltene concentration within the bitumen phase. In this case,
the choice of the base bitumen is predominant.
At high polymer levels, the polymer component is plasticized by a fraction of the
maltenes found in the bitumen and the choice of polymer influences binder
properties. A decrease in penetrability coupled with a strong increase in ring and ball
temperature can be observed.
Ethylene – polybutylene (PIB) copolymeric bitumens:
The addition of PIB in road bitumen materials serves to lower the vulnerability to cold
weather.
The joint use of PIB and EVA enables improving simultaneously the behavior at both
high and low temperature.
With the exception of PIB-EVA binders, copolymeric bitumen mixes are rarely stable
when stored (except for content levels < 3% EVA and binders with low asphaltene
concentrations). It thus becomes necessary to stir or remix the binder.

Rubber bitumen:
Non-storable rubber bitumen:
Produced using a crumb rubber obtained by means of grating both natural and
synthetic rubber, rubber bitumen displays an elastomeric characteristic, along with

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significant viscosity at high temperature and considerable flexibility at low


temperature.

Storable rubber bitumen:


Produced using ground worn tires from trucks and cars, heavy oil and a synthetic
elastomer, rubber bitumen displays extreme elongation upon failure at low
temperature.

1.4.2.3 Pigmentable bitumen

This category of bitumens is obtained from untreated material samples and


characterized by a very low asphaltene content. The grades are the same as with
conventional road bitumens.
The material is colored by means of metallic oxides at an approximate mass
concentration of 2,5% to 6% of the total mixture.

1.4.2.4 Synthetic binders


These binders are obtained by mixing petroleum and petrochemical fractions without
asphaltenes. They appear as a thin transparent film, which makes it possible to retain
the natural hue of the aggregate; moreover, they can be colored by adding 2%
pigments.

1.4.2.5 Bituminous binders with mineral loads

These ready-to-use binders are obtained as a plant mix using pure bitumen and
mineral loads, e.g. lime. Binder content differs from bitumen content.

1.4.2.6 Agrochemical binders

These binders are made from vegetal matter without any petrochemical byproduct.
The result is transparent and may be colored. Its applicability is currently undergoing
evaluation.

1.4.2.7 Kerosene-proof bitumen


These bitumens have been specially designed to withstand the risk of dissolution due
to kerosene losses on parking surfaces and on airport strips/runways. They may be
applied in the composition of airport asphalt concretes.

1.4.2.8 Rule for bitumen mixes


It may prove useful to conduct certain tests on the basis of recomposed
bitumens with known penetrability or ring and ball temperatures (e.g. for
a rutting test using a bitumen with a preset ring and ball temperature
value).

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Penetrability:
100 x log P = a log P1 + b log P2
where a and b are the respective proportions of 2 bitumens with
penetrability values of P1 and P2.
Ring and ball temperature:
100 T = a T1 + b T2
a and b are the respective proportions of 2 bitumens with ring and
ball temperatures T1 and T2 (in °C).

Figure 11: Penetrability test Figure 12: Ring and ball temperature test

1.4.3 Additives
Additives are intended to improve asphalt mix properties. They may be introduced
either into the formula at the time of mixing or directly into the bitumen tank.

1.4.3.1 Adhesion enhancers


In order to improve the reciprocal affinity between binder and aggregates while
ensuring durability, adhesion enhancers may be employed. This category of additive
pertains essentially to tensioactive nitrogen compounds derived from fatty acids
(e.g. amines, polyamines…) with a bitumen concentration of approximately 0,3% to
0,6%. The lime or limestone fines, with concentrations reaching 1% bitumen, can
also be used as such adhesion enhancing agents.

1.4.3.2 Polyethylene

Origin: cable waste material, crushed milk bottles, polyethylene films, new
polyethylene.

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Polyethylene wastes often consist of a mix of high-density and low-density


polyethylene. During melting at temperatures of around 130°C, polyethylene gets
partially combined with bitumen. The concentration tends to lie between 0,4% and
1% of the aggregate quantity. The proportion of polyethylene with respect to bitumen
can thus vary from 20% to 66%.

1.4.3.3 Polymers

Polymers assume the form of pellets incorporated during the mixing stage.

1.4.3.4 Crumb rubber and 2/6 rubber aggregates

Incorporated into the formula upon mixing, the rubber is partially combined with
bitumen. The manufacturing temperature is greater than that of pure bitumen, with
the mass density of rubber being 1,15 g/cm3.

1.4.3.5 New fibers and recycling


Fibers can be mixed in with the binder either as a preliminary step, or introduced into
the dry mix, or following incorporation of the bitumen.
Depending on the type of fiber, the laboratory preparation procedure must be
adapted while respecting the mode of industrial addition.
Various types of fibers are used with this configuration:
Glass
These are inorganic fibers with a length of between 100 µm and 10 mm, and a
diameter on the order of 5 µm to 6 µm.
The choice of surface treatment influences the induced properties. Typical
concentrations amount to around 0,8% with respect to aggregate quantity. Their
mass density equals 2,5 g/cm3 and their theoretical specific surface area is 0,3 m2/g.
Cellulose
This is a natural fiber with a length of between 900 µm and 1,1 mm, and a diameter
on the order of 15 - 50 µm. It may be pre-mixed in the form of pellets with a maximum
concentration of 0,3% of aggregate quantity. Mass density equals 0,9 g/cm3 and the
theoretical specific surface area reaches 0,16 m2/g.
Rock fibers
This category of mineral fibers features a length lying between 200 µm and 2 mm,
and a diameter in the range of 3 to 5 µm. Mass density stands at 2,7 g/cm3 and the
theoretical specific surface area at 0,6 m2/g.
Polyester
These fibers are synthetics with a length of between 600 µm and 1,2 mm, and in
some instances may even reach 6 mm. They can withstand temperatures of up to
220°C, with a concentration on the order of 0,6% of the aggregate quantity.
Composite
These fibers stem from recycled products, e.g. automobile parts.

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1.4.3.6 Natural bitumens and asphalts

Purified Trinidad bitumen:


Purified bitumen is extracted by means of refining; it contains a mineral portion and
features a mass density in the neighborhood of 1,40 g/cm3, a penetration at 25°C
between 1 1/10 mm and 4 1/10 mm, and a ring and ball temperature greater than
90°C. (The "soluble" bitumen exhibits a standard penetration of 3 to 12 1/10 mm and
a ring and ball temperature of between 68° and 78°C).

Figure 14: Example of extraction on Trinidad Lake (Venezuela)

50/50 Trinidad powder


This asphalt mix is composed of 50% purified Trinidad bitumen and 50% limestone
filler.

Gilsonite®
Gilsonite is a natural hydrocarbon that assumes a 0/2 form, with a mass density of
1,05 g/cm3, a standard penetration of around 0 (1/10 mm) and a ring and ball
temperature greater than 150°C. The concentration extends from a few percent to
10% of the dry aggregates.

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1.4.3.7 Pigments
The pigments used in road mix techniques are mineral pigments that prove stable
when exposed to mixing temperatures and light. The most widespread would be the
following metallic oxides:
- red, yellow or gray iron oxides,
- light yellow lead chromate,
- green chrome oxide,
- blue cobalt oxide,
- white titanium oxide.

Figure 15 : Examples of colored asphalt mixes

1.5 Useful definitions and relations for type testing

Most definitions are listed in the glossary found in Appendix F. Only those notions
essential to type testing have been discussed below, along with the useful
relationships between parameters. When necessary, the European names
corresponding with the magnitudes derived below will be indicated for each definition
provided in Appendix F.

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1.5.1 Binder content

For the former French standards contained in the series NF P 98-130 to 98-141,
binder content is TLext, which represents the ratio of the binder mass to the dry
aggregate mass, expressed as an external percentage. For this reason, the binders
contents of the examples given in the present guide are usually expressed in terms of
TLext.
Bitumen mass
TLext = 100 ×
Dry aggregate mass
The EN "product" standards included in the series EN 13108 impose the value tlint,
which is the ratio of binder mass to the total mix mass, expressed as an internal
percentage.
Bitumen mass
tlint = 100 ×
Dry aggregate mass + bitumen mass

tlint and TLext are correlated by the following equations:

100 × tl int 100 × TLext


TLext = tlint =
100 − tl int 100 + TLext

Appendix C contains a table of equivalences between binder contents.

1.5.2 Richness modulus K

The richness modulus K [Duriez, 1950] is a value proportional to the conventional


thickness of the hydrocarbon binder film coating the aggregate. K is independent of
the density of the granular mix; it is correlated with external binder content via the
following equation:
TLext = K × α 5
Σ

where Σ is the specific surface area, expressed in square meters per kilogram,
determined by the relation:
100 Σ = 0,25 G + 2,3 S + 12 s + 150 f with:
G the proportion of aggregate particles greater than 6,.3 mm
S the proportion of aggregate particles included between 6,3 mm and
0,250 mm
s the proportion of aggregate particles between 0,250 mm and
0.,063 mm
f the proportion of aggregate particles less than 0,063 mm
α a correction coefficient relative to the density of aggregates

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α = 2,65 / ρG, with ρG being the mass density of aggregates in grams


per cubic centimetre.
It is still possible to use the richness modulus, while using tlint, the equations
being then:
100 × K × α 5 Σ ⎛ 100× tlint ⎞
tlint = ⎜⎜ ⎟
(
100 + K × α 5 Σ ) K= ⎝ 100 − tlint ⎟⎠

and α5Σ

NOTE: This calculation is not applicable whenever the mix contains special fines or additives, such as fibres.

1.5.3 Percentage of voids or compacity

1.5.3.1 Definitions

Percentage of voids
The percentage of voids, or compacity, of bituminous mixtures constitutes a very
important parameter in the field of bituminous mixtures design. Material properties
depend in fact on the respective volumes of the granular skeleton, the binder
(ultimately including additive volumes as well) and "free" air, called percentage of
voids or void content
The percentage of voids under conditions of imposed compaction – in general using
the gyratory compactor – is the leading requirement during mix preparation. This
requirement matches the characteristics sought on site: texture, durability (water
resistance, fatigue resistance, rutting resistance), etc. For this reason, specimen
preparation is closely associated with percentage of voids requirements.
In order to verify in situ that the expected characteristics actually correspond well with
the properties observed in the laboratory, measurement of the percentage of voids
proves to be one of the key points for verification.
Volumetric composition
The volumetric composition of a mix has been represented on the diagram in
Figure 1, in conjunction with the following notations:
Apparent volume VT:
This amount is the total specimen volume.
It is dependent upon the chosen measurement method, especially the inclusion of
specimen surface irregularities.
Void volume Vm:
This value represents the volume of the asphalt mix's pores and interstices.
Solid volume Vr:
This amount encompasses the volume of aggregate, bitumen and additives with the
exception of voids, pores and interstices. It is generally expressed in percentage
terms with respect to the apparent volume.

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Voids in Mineral Aggregates - VMA


This quantifies the space available within the granular mix and represents the sum of
volumes occupied by the free bitumen and the air voids. It is also expressed as a
percentage with respect to apparent volume.
Bitumen volume Vb:
This corresponds to the total bitumen volume within the mixture.
Bitumen volume absorbed by aggregates (vba):
This volume of bitumen penetrates into the aggregate pores. The absorption process
depends on aggregate porosity; it may be evaluated from the deviation between the
mix's actual computed mass density and actual measured mass density (see
Section 1.5.3.2).
Volume of free bitumen vbl
This is the bitumen volume that does not penetrate into aggregate pores.
Vb = vba + vbl
Voids filled with bitumen VFB
This parameter, measured as a percentage, is the ratio of binder volume to void
volume of the granular skeleton and gets incorporated into certain design methods in
order to ensure a sufficient volume of mastic (binder + filler) within the mineral
skeleton.
Voids in mineral
aggregates VMA

Void volume Vm

volume of free bitumen


vbl Bitumen volume Vb
Bitumen volume absorbed
by aggregates vba

Aggregates volume Vg
Apparent volume VT

Solid volume Vr

Figure 16: Volumetric approach to developing an asphalt mix

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– General remarks –

The distribution of voids within the mix, figure 17, allows to distinguish
interconnecting voids whose geometry enables associating two faces of a pavement
or of a sample . This type of void is sought in the case of porous asphalts. The
geometric complexity of such voids, with respect to the possibility of internal fluid
flow, is called "tortuousity".
Non-connecting voids open onto one face yet are blocked at the other end. During
measurement of the bulk density, depending on the method employed, they may be
taken into account or not, or perhaps only in part, within the volume selected for the
computation.
Occluded voids are not accessible.

Non connecting
voids
Connecting
Voids
Occluded voids

Figure 17: Connecting, non-connecting and occluded voids

Maximum density
The maximum density may be directly determined on the mix according to
Standard EN 12697-5 using Method A with water, in which case it gets
denoted MVR.
It may be calculated from component mass densities obtained by means of various
methods (water, solvent, paraffin oil) and would then be denoted MVRc, based on
the following formulas:

Aggregate mass + Bitumen mass


MVRc =
Vg + Vb

Case of an external binder content TLext:

100+TLext
MVRc =
%G1 %G2 %Gn TLext
+ + .... + +
ρg 1 ρg 2 ρgn ρb

Case of an internal binder content tlint:

100
MVRc =
%G1 %G2 %Gn tl int
+ + .... + +
ρg 1 ρg 2 ρgn ρb

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where %Gi are the mass percentages of granular fractions and ρgi their respective
mass densities. It should be pointed out that in the formula corresponding to the case
TLext, %G1+%G2 +…+ %Gn = 100, whereas in the formula corresponding to the case
tlint, %G1+%G2 +…+ %Gn = 100 - tlint.
ρb is the mass density of bitumen.
The MVRc value depends on the method chosen for measuring the mass density of
components and in particular that of aggregates. If aggregate mass densities are
measured by methods using fluids, whose viscosity enables penetrating into grain
porosities (water, solvent), the MVRc value may be overestimated. This method is
also employed to determine the quantity of bitumen absorbed. When aggregate mass
densities are determined using a paraffin oil whose viscosity lies near that of the
bitumen, the calculation method and direct measurement yield similar results.
Bulk density
Bulk density is derived from the ratio of the sample mass to its apparent volume. This
apparent volume may be determined by means of geometric measurement (MVA) or
hydrostatic weighing, with or without paraffin EN 12697-6) depending on the material
voids content (MVa). The bulk density can also be assessed using a Gamma bench
measurement: MVaγ (EN 12697-7).
Percentage of voids and compacity
The compacity and percentage of voids are derived from both actual mass density
measurements MVR and bulk density measurements MVA (MVa or MVaγ), using the
following relations:
C% = 100 x (MVa or MVA or MVaγ) / MVR

v% = 100 [1 - (MVa or MVA or MVaγ) / MVR]

1.5.3.2 Relations between parameters

Voids content and compacity


Compacity C% and the percentage of voids v% are correlated by the following
equation:
100 = C% + v%

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Volume of voids in mineral aggregate VMA

Case of an external binder content TLext:


⎛ 100 × ( MVR × ( 100 − v )) ⎞
VMA% (or air voids and free bitumen) = ⎜⎜100 − ⎟⎟
⎝ ρg( 100 + TLext ) ⎠

⎛ ( 100 − v ) × MVR ⎞ ⎛⎜ TLext ⎞


⎟⎟
ρg − ⎜ ⎟ × ⎜1 −
⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎝ 100 − TLext ⎠
VMA% =
ρg
Case of an internal binder content tlint:

tl int
VMA% = v + × MVA
ρb
Volume of bitumen absorbed by aggregates (vba)

⎛⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞
vba = 100 × MVa ⎜⎜ ⎜ ⎟−⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎝ MVR ⎠ ⎝ MVRc ⎠ ⎠
MVRc is the mix's computed MVR.
If the mass density measurement of aggregates is performed according to the French
standard P 18-559 (i.e. measured using paraffin oil), the volume of bitumen absorbed
would be zero, hence vba = 0.
Percentage of voids filled with bitumen (VFB)

Vb%
VFB = 100
VMA%
where Vb is the volume of binder expressed as a percentage.

Case of an external binder content TLext:

TLext × MVR × ( 100 − v )


Vb% = × 100
( 100 + TLext ) × ρb
Case of an internal binder content tlint:

MVA
tl int ×
ρb
VFB = × 100
VMA

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tlint × MVA
ρb
VFB =
v + ⎛⎜ tlint × MVA ⎞⎟
⎝ ρb ⎠
with:
tlint "internal" binder content
TLext "external" binder content
MVA bulk density of the specimen
ρb density of the bitumen
v percentage of voids
ρg density of the mineral skeleton

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2 TYPE TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURES

On the basis of a set of components (aggregates, fines, bituminous binders, mineral


or organic additives), deemed representative of applicable materials, a series of
laboratory tests is conducted to describe the behavior of a bituminous mixture. The
specific tests have been chosen depending on the type testing level (from 1 to 4, the
level 0 doesn’t include tests), required by the contract, potentially along with
additional tests. This type testing level typically depends upon: the type of mixture,
the position of the bituminous mixture layer in the pavement, its thickness, projected
traffic levels, any special loadings (road ramps, interchanges, local temperature), the
particular objective for applying this layer, the kinds of layers positioned beneath, and
the scope of the given road-building works.
A test protocol containing a sensitivity study may be required in order to verify that
despite compositional variations in the mixture, the targeted characteristics will
indeed be obtained.
Type testing protocols have been stipulated in normative prescriptions included in
former French product standard series NF P 98-130 through NF P 98-141, as well as
in the general standard NF P 98-150-1 Bituminous mixtures, constituents, type
testing, manufacturing, application and control. Most of these prescriptions are
compatible with the current European product standards (EN 13108 – 1 to 7 and EN
13108-20 type testing) and have been included in the national foreword of the French
version. In order to benefit from the experience gained on French bituminous
mixtures types, taking into account the EN standardization, the designation of the
bituminous mixtures types addressed in this Guide includes the EN designation
followed by the French one. The most used products are listed and described in
appendix F. Appendix E provides a summary table listing all specifications and
designations based on the French experience, by type of mixture. For example for
asphalt concretes AC according to EN 13108-1 (EB in the French version of EN), the
following materials are addressed:
• AC-BBSG (Béton Bitumineux Semi-Grenu)
• AC-BBME (Béton Bitumineux à Module Élevé)
• AC-BBS (Béton Bitumineux pour chaussées Souples à faible trafic)
• AC-BBM (Béton Bitumineux Mince)
• AC-BBA (Béton Bitumineux Aéronautique)
• AC-GB (Grave-Bitume), Empirical and Fundamental
• AC-EME (Enrobé à Module Élevé).
And in the same way, for the other types of materials:
• BBTM (Béton Bitumineux Très Mince)

7
The base series of the sieve is composed of the following elements (in mm): 0,063; 0,125; 0,250;
0,500; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 31,5.

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• PA-BBDr (Porous Asphalt – Béton Bitumineux Drainant)


Note that some of the prescriptions used to be normative in the former French
standardization system. They now become informative as a French choice in the EN
standards.
The objective of this part of the guide is to compile the set of prescriptions, including
the informative French choice, relative to: the components used, mix composition,
test specimen preparation, and key material performance parameters.
The used references are the following:
- Aggregates according EN 13043 and Standard XP P18-545, which is the
French application guide for EN 13043,
- Reclaimed asphalt according EN 13108-8,
- Binders according EN 12591, EN 13924 and EN 14023,
- Bituminous mixtures, according EN 13108-2, -5, -7,
- Type testing, according EN 13108-20,
- Conditions concerning specimen preparation according test standards from
series EN 12697.
At the end of this chapter, the requirements of European standards for initial type
testing are presented in the form of summary tables.

2.1 Prescription relative to mix components

For some properties of the product undergoing qualification, due to the absence of a
reliable enough method for identifying properties within the mixture, component-
based prescriptions are imposed. Such is especially the case for durability properties
when exposed to traffic, during the fabrication and implementation phases, as well as
for surface characteristics.

2.1.1 Specifications regarding added fillers

The specifications issued on fillers have been set forth in Standard EN 13043.
Among them, the following merit attention:
- Particle size distribution: lower limit and maximum range with the 0,125 mm
and 0,063 mm sieves
- Harmful fines MBF (methylene blue test [EN 933-9])
- Voids of dry compacted filler V (Rigden void index [ EN 1097-4])
- Stiffening power Delta Ring and Ball ∆R&B [ EN 13179-1]
- Additional prescription focusing on the Blaine specific surface [ EN 196-6],
meant to characterizing consistency of filler production.
The two typical categories of fillers for such applications have been summarized in
Table 1 below.

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Table 1 – Typical filler characteristics for asphalt mixtures

Particle size criteria Harmful


Stiffening properties
Sieve size (mm) fines

2 0,125 0,063 (Rigden)


MBF, in ∆R&B, in
V, in
g/kg °C
%
Passing Passing Range Passing Range

8 to 16
≥ 100 85 to 100 ≤ 10 ≥ 70 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 28 to 38 denoted ∆R&B8/16
MBF10 V28/38

2.1.2 Specifications regarding fillers contained in the mixture

Product standards also contain specifications relative to either the fines from fine
aggregate or mixed fillers (i.e. fines taken from fine aggregate and added fillers). The
fines from fine aggregate or mixed fillers are extracted by means of dry sieving with
the 0,125 mm sieve. These specifications have been recalled in Table 2. In the mixes
produced at the plant, the fines for the most part stem not only from a fine aggregate
with filler, but also from fine-particle aggregate at the surface of coarser aggregates
and the fines produced by means of aggregate attrition during both the drying and
mixing phases. Consequently, the fines from crushed aggregate must comply with
Standard EN 13043, whose specifications are included in Table 2.
An additional restriction pertains to the use of filler containing calcium hydroxide,
which content must not exceed 1% within the mixture.
Table 2 – Specification on fines from fine aggregate or all-in aggregate or (in their absence)
from mixed fillers

MBF (Rigden)V ∆R&B


Characteristic
in g / 1000g in % in °C

Specification ≤ 10 28 to 38 8 to 16
EN 13043 MBF10 V28/38 ∆R&B8/16

2.1.3 Specifications regarding fine aggregates or all-in aggregate (0/4, 0/6)

The fine aggregates used herein are either 0/2 (as defined in Standard EN 13043),or
0/4 all-in aggregate, for the majority of asphalt mixes. For AC-GB (Graves-bitume -
dense asphalt concrete for base course), high modulus asphalt concrete (AC-EME)
and “soft” asphalt concretes used on flexible pavements with low traffic loads (AC-
BBS), the 0/6 fraction is acceptable.
The fine aggregates 0/2 are sorted into category GF85 according to Standard EN
13043. They display 100% passing at the 4 mm sieve and between 85% and 99% at
the 2 mm sieve. This set of characteristics corresponds to the code "a" defined in
Standard XP P18-545, which is the French application guide for EN 13043.

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The 0/4 and 0/6 all-in aggregates are of category GA85 (passing 100% at 2D, 98-
100% at 1,4D, and 85-99% at D).
The tolerances applied to the particle size distribution of both fine and coarse
aggregate must respect the specifications associated with category GTC10 (±5% at D,
±10% at D/2, ±3% at 0,063 mm).
The harmfulness of fine and coarse aggregate must be either MBF10 (as measured
on the fines from fine aggregate) or MB2 (as measured on the 0/2 particle sizes)
which is considered more severe than MB F10.
The fines content from fine aggregate generally lies between 12% and 22%. Fine
aggregates from category f16 or f22 can also be used, but in all cases, the fines
content from fine aggregate must be specified through a declared value.
The minimum angularity of fine aggregates (EN 933-6) is determined when the
mixture is intended for surface courses. In general, this would apply to the categories
ECS35 or 38, except in the case of “soft “ asphalt concrete AC-BBS (asphalt concrete
used on flexible pavements with low traffic loads), for which ECS30 is accepted.
For the other asphalt mixtures (used for the binder or base courses), angularity is not
specified in the case where a wheel tracking test has been called for in the type
testing protocol.
Limiting the inclusion rate to just 10% of fine aggregate with round particles (declared
ECS < 30) is accepted for the asphalt concrete for surface and binder course ( “Béton
Bitumineux Semi Grenu” AC-BBSG), asphalt concrete for airfields (Béton Bitumineux
aéronautique – AC-BBA), “soft” asphalt concrete (Béton Bitumineux Souple AC-BBS)
and High modulus asphalt concrete for surface and binder course (Béton Bitumineux
à module élevé – AC-BBME) categories.
For asphalt concretes, a maximum value of fine aggregate friability (EN 932-3) is set
at 40 for a 0/4 and at 45 for a 0/2. These specifications are not included any more in
the product standards, however, they may be relevant and then can be verified.

2.1.4 Specifications regarding coarse aggregates

2.1.4.1 Physical requirements (Mechanical strength) and production


characteristics

Both the minimum mechanical strength values and minimum production


characteristics of coarse aggregates depend upon the position of the layer for which
the mix is being designed as well as its thickness for surface courses.
Production characteristics deal with grading, shape and fines content.
Concerning the grading characteristics, the category GC85/20 [passing to D sieve
between 85 % and 99 %, passing to d sieve between 0 % and 20 %, 100 % to 2 D
sieve, 0 % to 5 % to d/2 sieve] is generally retained. For gap-graded mixtures,
category GC85/15 may be necessary [passing to d sieve between 0 % and 15 %,
instead of 20 % and for single size coarse aggregate D/d, where D/d < 2, which is the
case for gap-graded mixtures used in surface course, passing to D sieve between 90
% and 99 %, 100 % to 2 D sieve, 0 % to 5 % to d/2 sieve]

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The percentage passing at mid-size sieve [D/1,4], shall be between 25 % and 80 %


for base course materials, and between 20% and 70% for binder and surface course
materials, with in both cases, a tolerance on the typical grading of ± 15 %, declared
by the producer, that means categories respectively G25/15 and G20/15.
The shape of coarse aggregate is determined in terms of the flakiness index FI. FI25
is the generally retained category. For very thin layers intended mixtures, category
FI20 may be necessary.
The fines content of coarse aggregate is measured by the percentage of passing at
0,063 mm sieve. Category f1 is used [≤ 1 % at 0,063 mm sieve], for common uses
and category f0,5 for very thin layer intended materials.
An overview of these characteristics is given in table 3.

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Table 3 – Indicative minimum characteristics of coarse aggregates :


Mechanical strength and production characteristics
The minimum values, as indicated in bold characters, extracted from Standard EN 13043,
correspond to classifications either less than or equal to the minima transposed from the former
French aggregate standards. The italic values correspond to the French application of aggregate
standards as described in XP P 18-545.

Mechanical strength
Type of use EN 13043 Production characteristics
XP P 18-545

LA40 MDE35 GC85/20


Lower base layer (1) G25/15
LA40 MDE35
FI25 f1

LA30 MDE 25 GC85/20


Upper Base layer (1) G25/15
LA30 MDE 25
FI25 f1

Thick binder layer LA30 MDE 25 GC85/20


(≥ 5cm) LA30 MDE 25 (1) G20/15
FI25 f1

LA25 MDE 20 GC85/20


Thin binder layer (AC-BBM) (1) G20/15
LA25 MDE 20
FI25 f1
LA25 MDE 20 GC85/20
Thick surface course and
lightweight airfield pavements
PSV MDE 50 G20/15
LA25 MDE 20 (1) FI25 f1
GC85/15 (gap-graded grading)
Thin surface course (BBTM LA20 MDE15 GC85/20
and Porous Asphalt PA-BBDr) PSV50(2) G20/15
and heavy airfield pavements LA20 MDE15(1) FI20 f0,5

(1)
With any potential application, when justified and given an explicit justification within the materials contract documents, a
maximum compensation of 5 points between the LA and MDE characteristics (see XP P 18-545). For example:
⎯ an aggregate with LA = 25 is deemed compliant with [LA20, MDE15] if it exhibits an MDE value of 10
⎯ an aggregate with MDE = 20 is deemed compliant with [LA20, MDE15] if it exhibits an LA value of 15
⎯ an aggregate with MDE = 18 is deemed compliant with [LA20, MDE15] if it exhibits an LA value of 17

(2)
For a number of unique points, it becomes necessary to predict the PSV53 (declared) value, or even the PSV56 value.

2.1.4.2 Particle size distribution

For coarse aggregates, the usual grading fractions are: 2/4, 2/6, 4/6, 4/10, 6/10
and 10/14.
For mixes intended in applications as road base, the fractions 2/10, 6/14, 6/20, 10/20
and 14/20 may also be used.
The possible D values for each type of mixture are displayed in Table 4.

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Standard EN 13043 imposes using the base series + series 2 sieve or the base
series + series 1 sieve. It is common practice to opt for the base series + series 2
sieve.
Table 4 – Accepted values of D vs. type of mixture

Asphalt mix D, expressed in mm

Asphalt concrete for surface and binder course


(AC-BBSG)
High modulus asphalt concrete for surface and
binder course (AC-BBME)
10 - 14
Asphalt concrete for surface and binder course
for airfield (AC-BBA)
Thin layer asphalt concrete A or B type
(AC-BBM type A or B)

Graves-bitume (Asphalt concrete for base)


14 - 20 (2)
(AC-GB)

High modulus asphalt concrete for base course


10 - 14 - 20 (2)
(AC-EME)

Thin layer asphalt concrete C type


10
( AC-BBM type C)

Very thin layer asphalt concrete (BBTM), Porous


6 - 10 (1)
asphalt (PA-BBDr)
(1)
It is possible to use the 8-mm sieve (European standard).
(2)
It is possible to use the 16-mm sieve (European standard).

The type A thin layer asphalt concretes (AC-BBM type A) are characterized by a
discontinuity between 2 and 6 mm, while the type B (AC-BBM type B) are
characterized by a discontinuity between 4 and 6 mm. The type C (AC-BBM type C)
mix designs are of a continuous grading.

2.1.4.3 Angularity

The angularity of coarse aggregates exerts a sizable impact on the surface course
with respect to texture, which is why this characteristic must always be taken into
account for mixes designed with this purpose.
The angularity of coarse aggregates is measured in accordance with Standard
EN 933-5 guidelines. The aggregates derived from crushed rock are considered to lie
in category C100/0.
Coarse aggregates from alluvial deposit extraction for use on surface courses must
be of category C95/1. For some “soft” asphalt concretes types (AC-BBS) submitted to
low traffic levels, coarse aggregates of category C50/10 could also be employed.

2.1.5 Specifications regarding additives

No distinct specification has been incorporated into the standards.

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The term additives encompasses adhesion agents – for which the potential
degradation when exposed to temperature has been indicated [NF P 98-150-1] – as
well as organic and mineral additives intended to modify the physical and mechanical
characteristics of asphalt mixes. It has to be pointed out that according to EN 13108
series, only constituent materials with established suitability shall be used. The
establishment of suitability shall result from one or more of the following: European
Standards, European Technical Approval (ETA), specifications for materials based
on demonstrable history of satisfactory use in asphalt. Evidence shall be provided on
their suitability. This evidence may be based on research combined with evidence
from practice.
In the European asphalt industry, it is common practice to use additives like inorganic
or organic fibers, pigments, waxes, etc, which are not covered by European standard
or ETA. The European product standards allow the use of those materials.
It should be pointed out that the content of an adhesion agent is equal to the mass of
the agent as a ratio of binder mass, expressed as an external percentage or per-
thousand. The content of additives (other than adhesion agents) may be expressed
as the additive mass as a ratio of dry aggregate mass, expressed as an external
percentage or as a ratio of mixture mass, expressed as an internal percentage.
Additives are to be incorporated at the time of the mixing operation.

2.1.6 Specifications regarding binders

For all asphalt mixes, the choice lies between paving grade bitumen, in compliance
with EN 12591, polymer-modified bitumen and special bitumen, with the objective
being to derive the prescribed level of mix performance.
In the case of prescribed polymer-modified bitumen performance, no codified
specification is in fact available. The standard EN 14023 is confined to just a single
classification.
Nevertheless two types of polymer-modified bitumen are usually specified according
to a minimum plasticity interval, defined by difference between the softening point
and Fraass temperature, and the level of maximum Fraass temperature.
The first criterion shows degree of modification, high degree for class 4 > 75°C and
low degree for class 6 > 65°C. The second criterion depends on local climate conditions, for
example class 5 (Fraass temperature < -10°C) or class 7 (Fraass temperature < -15°C).
With respect to hard grade bitumen, these specifications have been included in the
standard EN 13924. The French recommended binders in the National annex are
10/20 with a ring and ball range from 60°C to 76°C and 15/25 with a ring and ball
range from 55°C to 71°C. The supplier shall declare a reduced softening point of ±
5°C around the central point. The resistance to hardening using RTFOT test is class
2 (mass variation < 0,5%, increase of softening point < 8°C, remaining penetrability >
55%).
In the case of recycled mixes and for recycling rates over 10% for surface courses
and over 20% for binder courses and bases , it has been stipulated in EN 13108
series that the added binder is a pure bitumen, which makes the level of penetration
P or the softening point TR&B resulting from the combined binder well adapted to the
desired end use. The mixture rules can then be applied to penetration as follows:

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lg(P) = a lg (P1) +b lg (P2)


where a and b are the respective proportions of binders, P1 being the penetration of
the binder recovered from the reclaimed asphalt and P2 the penetration of the added
binder.

TR&Bmix = a TR&B1 +b TR&B2


where a and b are the respective proportions of binders, TR&B1 being the softening
point of the binder recovered from the reclaimed asphalt and TR&B2 the softening
point of the added binder.
When natural asphalt is added, it shall comply with Annex B of EN 13108-4
requirements. Two categories are defined: High ash and Low ash content. For the
first category, the penetration at 25°C, shall be between 0 and 4 1/10 mm, the
softening point between 93 and 99 °C, the solubility between 52 and 55%, the ash
content between 35 and 39% by mass and the density between 1,39 and 1,42 g/ml.
For the second category, the penetration at 25°C, shall be between 0 and 1 1/10 mm,
the softening point between 160 and 182 °C, the solubility greater than 95%, the ash
content between 0 and 2% by mass and the density between 1,01 and 1,09 g/ml.

2.1.7 Specifications regarding reclaimed asphalt


These specifications are described in EN 13108-8.
The reclaimed asphalt is designated by the abbreviation RA preceded by the asphalt
particle size designation U and followed by the aggregate size designation d/D in
mm. U is the smallest sieve size in mm trough which 100% of the asphalt particles
pass. For RA, d will almost invariably be 0. D is the larger of:
- the sieve M/1,4, where M is the smallest sieve with 100% passing,
- the smallest sieve with 85% passing.
The reclaimed asphalts are classified in terms of foreign matter content. Usually the
category used is F1 corresponding to materials containing less than 1% of group 1
foreign matters (cement concrete, bricks, cement mortar, metal) and less than 0,1 %
of group 2 foreign matters (synthetic materials, wood, plastics).

The reclaimed asphalt capable of being reused exhibit an apparent U (particle size of
reclaimed asphalt) value of less than or equal to 35 mm.
The upper sieve size D of the aggregate in reclaimed asphalt shall not exceed the
upper sieve size D of the mixture to be produced. The aggregate properties of the
reclaimed asphalt shall fulfill the requirements for the aggregate for the mixture
(history may be accepted).
When using more than 10 % by mass of the total mixture of reclaimed asphalt for
surface courses or more than 20 % for other courses, in which only paving grade
bitumen has been used, and when the binder added is a paving grade and the grade
of the bitumen of the mixture is required, the binder shall conform to the following
requirement:
Penetration or softening point of the binder in the resulting mixture, calculated from
the penetrations or the softening points of the added and the recovered binder from
reclaimed asphalt shall meet the penetration or softening point requirements of the
selected grade. Either the penetration or the softening point has to be considered.

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The calculation is described in Annex A of each standard from EN 13108 series and
in clause 2.1.6.
When the feedstock contains mainly reclaimed asphalt with paving grade bitumen,
reclaimed asphalt are categorized as P15, if the binder of each of the sample is at
least 10 1/10 mm and the mean penetration of all samples is at least 15 1/10 mm or it
is categorized as S70 if softening point of each of the samples is not greater than
77°C and the mean softening point of all of the samples is not greater than 70°C. For
other reclaimed asphalt category Pdec or Sdec means the mean penetration or the
mean softening point of all samples.
It would be beneficial to distinguish the reclaimed asphalts of various sources from
those that have undergone a generally complete identification (either by testing or by
history) with respect to binder content and homogeneity, as well as the residual
properties of the recovered binder and aggregate characteristics.
It is acknowledged that reclaimed asphalts from the first category may be used at a
rate of 10% in mixes not destined for surface courses.
Reclaimed asphalts belonging to other categories may be recycled as wearing
course components and, depending on the specific circumstances, at higher
recycling rates.
For both porous asphalts, PA, and very thin layer asphalt concretes, BBTM, however,
the inclusion of reclaimed asphalts is not recommended. For thin asphalt concretes
of the A or B type, as a default precaution reclaimed asphalts are not authorized.
The French standard application guide includes a table about the reuse rate of
reclaimed asphalt versus the use and the degree of knowledge of the material, this
table is coming from the former French Standard XP P98-135 Reclaimed asphalt.
The reclaimed asphalt characteristics to be identified for reuse purposes have been
summarized in Table 5 below:

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Table 5 – Reclaimed asphalt characteristics vs. reuse rate

Type of layer Reuse rate (%)


Use in the pavement

10 subject
Surface course 0 0 (1) 30 40
to

Binder layer 10 20 30 40

Base course 10 20 30 40

Binder content Range Unspecified ≤ 2% ≤ 1%


Penetrability
1/10 mm ≥5 ≥5
Residual
Information on reclaimed asphalt components

Penetration
Asphalt characteristics
range Unspecified
– ≤ 15
binder (penetration or
Softening point) R&B °C ≤ 77 ≤ 77
R&B range – ≤8
Passing at D 80 - 99 85 - 99
Range ≤ 15 ≤ 10
Particle size Range of
distribution 2-mm Unspecified ≤ 20 ≤ 15
passing

Aggregates Range of
0,063 mm ≤6 ≤4
passing

For example
Category Unspecified LA20,MDE20
Intrinsic
characteristics
Angularity – C90/1
(1)
If the average external binder content of the reclaimed asphalt exceeds 5,5%, it is then considered that the mix is an
asphalt concrete whose aggregates have been selected on the basis of minimum criteria in the vicinity of the criteria
sought for the recycled material. Nevertheless no limestone aggregate should be used as surface course.

2.2 Specifications regarding mixture composition

2.2.1 Grading

The particle size distribution curve is not specified in the French standard.
Nevertheless overall limits of target composition are required (grading envelope) for
0,063 mm, 2 mm, D and 1,4 D sieves. Pertinent specifications have been listed in
Table 6.

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Table 6 – Overall limits of target composition

0,063 mm sieve 2-mm sieve D 1,4 D


Asphalt mix passing passing,
in % in % in %
in %
AC10 2,0 to 12,0 10 to 60 90 to 100 100
10 to 50
AC14 0,0 to 12,0 10 to 60 for 90 to 100 100
airfields
10 to 50
AC20 0,0 to 11,0 10 to 60 for 90 to 100 100
airfields

BBTM6A 7,0 to 9,0 (11) 25 to 35 90 to 100 100

BBTM6B 4,0 to 6,0 15 to 25 90 to 100 100

BBTM10A 7,0 to 9,0 25 to 35 90 to 100 100

BBTM10B 4,0 to 6,0 15 to 25 90 to 100 100

PA-BBDr 2,0 to 10,0 5 to 25 90 to 100 100

2.2.2 Binder content and Richness Modulus


In the former French system, the binder content was based on the concept of
“Richness Modulus”, whose approach is close to the thickness of the bitumen foil and
which makes the requirement independent from the grading curve of the mixture.
In order to conform to EN 13108 series which doesn’t deal with this concept, the
requirements have been translated in “binder content”. In the case of empirical
approach, a Bmin value is given for each type pf material, in the case of fundamental
approach , the minimum binder content is fixed at 3,0%.
Nevertheless, to keep for reference this concept, the richness modulus is mentioned
in parallel with the minimum binder content in table 7.

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Table 7 – Minimum Binder content and richness modulus values

Minimum binder Minimum richness


Asphalt mix content % modulus
Empirical Fundamental K
AC10-BBSG Bmin5,2 3,0% 3,4
AC14-BBSG Bmin5,0 3,0% 3,2
AC10-BBA C (Continuous) Bmin5,4 3,0% 3,6
AC14-BBA C (Continuous) Bmin5,2 3,0% 3,5
AC10-BBA D (Discontinuous) Bmin5,2 3,0% 3,4
AC14-BBA D (Discontinuous) Bmin5,0 3,0% 3,2
AC10-BBM Bmin5,0 - 3,3
AC14-BBM Bmin5,0 - 3,2
PA6-BBDr class 1 Bmin4,0 - 3,4
PA6-BBDr class 2 Bmin4,0 - 3,2
PA10-BBDr class 1 Bmin4,0 - 3,3
PA10-BBDr class2 Bmin4,0 - 3,1
BBTM6 Bmin5,0 - 3,5
BBTM10 Bmin5,0 - 3,4
1 -
AC-GB class 1 (Bmin3,4) --

AC-GB class 2 Bmin3,8 3,0% 2,5


AC-GB class 3 Bmin4,2 3,0% 2,8
2
AC-GB class 4 - 3,0% 2,9
2
AC-EME class 1 - 3,0% 2,5
2
AC-EME class 2 - 3,0% 3,4
2
AC10-BBME - 3,0% 3,5
2
AC14-BBME - 3,0% 3,3
Note 1: GB1 was not considered in the last version of French Standardization.

Note 2: Due to the fundamental approach, the minimum binder content is not specified. 3% is a bottom rate of the EN 13108-1
for all types of asphalt concretes described by the fundamental approach.

2.3 Preparation of test specimens

2.3.1 Density measurements

The maximum density ρmv (MVR in French documents) is measured directly on the
mixture (hot-mixing of 1,5 kg, in compliance with the formula) using the "A" method
"with water" described in EN 12697-5 (average of 3 replicas). This method is the
reference method in EN 13108-20 for the void content determination of the
specimens and for the gyratory compaction test.
This method offers the advantage of being implemented on the total mixture, which
allows reducing the number of tests to be performed, in comparison with the

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calculation method based on the maximum density of each granular fraction. When
refining the mix design, in the aim of varying component proportions, the method may
be practiced on each one of the granular fractions, after mixing with a known bitumen
concentration. The maximum density ρg of the granular fraction, mixed in at a
bitumen content of TLext or tlint, is thus given by the following relations:

MVR MVR(100 − tlint )


ρg = ρg =
TL ⎛ MVR ⎞ tl
100 − MVR int
1 + ext ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟
100 ⎝ ρb ⎠ ρb
where ρb is the maximum density of the binder.
The MVR derived according to this approach serves as a basis not only for
calculating the void percentages of specimens submitted to evaluation within the
scope of this type testing, but also for conducting in situ measurements.
In the former French system, the maximum density of aggregates was measured in
accordance with the standard P 18-559 using paraffin oil featuring a viscosity close to
that of bitumen during the mixing operation. The maximum density MVR of the
mixture could then be calculated by applying the following formula (binder content is
“out” of the mixture):

100+TLext
MVR =
%G1 %G2 %Gn TLext
+ + .... + +
ρg 1 ρg 2 ρgn ρb
where %Gi are the granular fraction percentages and ρi their respective maximum
densities.
This method, which was mandated in the "product" standards, makes it possible to
overcome the notion of absorbed bitumen for aggregates displaying a certain amount
of porosity. Moreover, by making reference to a single method for determining MVR,
the subsequent measurements of void percentage can be more easily compared.
A joint USIRF (French Road Industry organization) / RST (French state Laboratories)
working group has demonstrated that a very strong correlation was found between
MVR measured directly on the mixture with water and that calculated using the
paraffin oil-based method for each of the garnular fractions.

2.3.2 Procedure for reheating and incorporating mix reclaimed asphalts

The European standard addresses the incorporation of reclaimed asphalts; once


pulverized, the reclaimed asphalts are weighed to within 0,1%, at the prescribed rate
levels:
⎯ Case of reclaimed asphalts reheated prior to incorporation at the plant: they are
reheated up to the recommended temperature ± 5°C, by means of a hopper
fitted with ventilation, and then placed in an oven at the designated preparation
temperature for 2,5 ± 0,5 hours.The hopper must be periodically shaken in
order to avoid excess pressure buildup.

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⎯ Case of reclaimed asphalts not reheated prior to incorporation at the plant: they
are reheated to 110 ± 5°C, by means of a ventilated oven, for 2,5 ± 0,5 hours. It
is possible to overheat the unmixed aggregate compared to the standard
temperature vs. reclaimed asphalt concentration.
When using paving-grade bitumen, mixing times get increased by 1 min.

2.3.3 Mixing

The mixtures are produced in accordance with EN 12697-35. In the EN standard, the
added filler is included either with the aggregates or after introducing the bitumen. It
is customary to opt for the former.
As opposed to the specifications listed in the former French standard, the European
standard does not address the overheating of aggregates if the mixer has not been
equipped with a thermo-regulated tank.

2.3.4 Compaction of test specimens


For water resistance tests, specimens are either compacted using the gyratory
compactor or in the form of cored samples extracted from plates produced using the
slab compactor. However, when using EN 12697-12, part B (Duriez test), it is
necessary to compact specimens using double static compression described in part
B, in order to compare the obtained results with the former NF P 98251-1 (Duriez
test).
For mechanical tests, the plates are also generated with the slab compactor, as
specified in EN 12697-33, at a targeted level of compacity. The use of a plate or
plank at the completion of compaction, in order to improve the state of the plate
surface, is not allowed since the impact on the wheel tracking test result has already
been shown.

2.3.5 Test specimen sawing and bonding

Cylindrical or trapezoidal test specimens are sawn and bonded as prescribed in the
standard NF P 98-250-3 guidelines. This point has not been addressed in the
European standards.

2.3.6 Test specimen conservation

For the ITSR water resistance test, specimens must undergo a minimum storage of
16 hours between specimen production and the beginning of conservation.
For a wheel tracking test, it is necessary to set aside at least 2 days between the end
of compaction and preparation on the rutting tester (EN 12697-22).
For a fatigue or stiffness test, the time lag between coring or sawing and test initiation
amounts to between 2 weeks and 2 months.

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2.3.7 Test specimen void percentage

The test specimens intended for use in either wheel tracking or mechanical tests
(stiffness or fatigue) must satisfy a number of specifications concerning void
percentages.
The void percentage may be determined on the slab using a gamma bench, as set
forth in standard EN 12697-7 through a three-level operation. Should such a set-up
not be available, void percentages are to be measured using the geometric method
either on the slab for wheel-tracking tests or on the samples for stiffness or fatigue.
Common values are listed in Table 8 below.
Table 8 – Test specimen characteristics
Wheel tracking tests
Fatigue / stiffness modulus
(large device)
Slab
Slab
Void percentage thickness Void percentage
thickness
(%) (mm) (%)
(mm)

AC-BBSG and AC-BBME 100 5 to 8 120 5 to 8


AC-BBM class A 50 7 to 10
AC-BBA (except AC10-BBA D) 100 4 to 7 120 4 to 7
AC10-BBA D 50 4 to 7 120 4 to 7
AC-BBM class B or C 50 8 to 11
AC-GB class 2 100 8 to 11 120 7 to 10
AC-GB class 3 100 7 to 10 120 7 to 10
AC-GB class 4 100 5 to 8 120 5 to 8
AC-EME class 1 100 7 to 10 120 7 to 10
AC-EME class 2 100 3 to 6 120 3 to 6
BBTM10 50 9 to 16
BBTM6 50 16 to 22
The bulk density of the two
specimens used to measure the
rut depth shall not deviate by
more than ± 1% of the mean
bulk density

2.4 Execution of type testing


Depending upon the intended use, the type of asphalt mix and loadings,
requirements may differ. For this reason, type testing is divided into several levels
extending from 0 to 4, and complemented for certain materials or uses by additional
tests.

2.4.1 Choice of test typing level


Level 0, which has been introduced into the French foreword of the standards and
also in NF 98-150-1 corresponds to a description of the mixture according to grading

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and binder content, that means without any further test. It is used for mixtures
intended to non-trafficked areas.
The other various testing levels vary from the simplest (level 1) to the most thorough
(level 4), with the higher levels always encompassing the requirements addressed in
the lower levels.
A description of contents for each level along with the reasons behind the
corresponding choice will be provided in the following sections 2.4.2 through 2.4.5.
The level 0, without test is not described.
According the definitions of EN 13108-1, level 0, level 1 and level 2 are relevant of
the general + empirical approach and level 3 and level 4 of the general +
fundamental one.

Level 4
Niveau
Level 4 Fatigu
Fatigue

Fundamental
General +
Niveau
Level 3
Stiffness
Modul
modulus
Level 2
Niveau
Wheel
Orniérage
General +
Empirical
Level 1 tracking
Niveau
Gyratory compactor :
Level 0 Water resistance

Figure 18: Summary diagram of the various type testing levels

2.4.2 Level 1

The mixture must be able to satisfy a full range of void percentages for use in the
Gyratory Compactor test (see Section 1.3.1) as well as the water resistance
threshold (Section 1.3.2).

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Except for non trafficked areas, this level would be common to all testing protocols. In
the case of applications at low loading rates, level 1 may be sufficient without the
need for any further test. The water-sensitivity is measured according EN12697-12,
method B in compression.
Remark: For some materials, a void percentage requirement at 10 gyrations for the
Gyratory Compactor test needs to be met. This requirement has been addressed in
the European standards, yet merely from the standpoint of an "empirical"
specification with respect to wheel tracking resistance. It is then not allowed to
specify, at the same time, both rutting tester results and the void percentage after 10
gyrations as it is considered as an over-specification.
Table 9 – Specifications relative to the void percentage

Gyratory Compactor specifications


after n gyrations
Number Specification after
Type of mix
of Void percentage 10 gyrations (%)
gyrations (%)
(n)
AC10-BBSG 60 5 to 10 Vmin5- Vmax10
≥ 11 V10Gmin11
AC14-BBSG 80 4 to 9 Vmin4- Vmax9

AC10-BBME 60 5 to 10 Vmin5- Vmax10


≥ 11 V10Gmin11
AC14-BBME 80 4 to 9 Vmin4- Vmax9
BBTM6 class A 12 to 20 Vmin12- Vmax20
BBTM6B 21 to 25 Vmin12- Vmax25
25 _
BBTM10A 10 to 18 Vmin10- Vmax18
BBTM10B 19 to 25 Vmin19- Vmax25
AC-BBM class A 6 to 11 Vmin6- Vmax11
AC-BBM class B 40 7 to 12 Vmin7- Vmax12 ≥ 11 V10Gmin11
AC-BBM class C 8 to 13 Vmin8- Vmax13
40 20 to 25 Vmin20- Vmax25
PA-BBDr class 1
200 > 15 Vmin15
_
40 25 to 30 Vmin25- Vmax30
PA-BBDr class 2
200 > 20 Vmin20
AC10-EME class 1 < 10 Vmax10
80
AC10-EME class 2 <6 Vmax6
AC14-EME class 1 < 10 Vmax10 _
100
AC14-EME class 2 <6 Vmax6
AC20-EME class 2 120 <6 Vmax6
AC14-GB class 2 < 11 Vmax11 >14 V10Gmin14
AC14-GB class 3 100 < 10 Vmax10
AC14-GB class 4 <9 Vmax9

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Gyratory Compactor specifications


after n gyrations
Number Specification after
Type of mix
of Void percentage 10 gyrations (%)
gyrations (%)
(n)
AC20-GB class 2 < 11 Vmax11
AC20-GB class 3 120 < 10 Vmax10
AC20-GB class 4 <9 Vmax9
Surface:
Vmin3- Vmax7 > 10 V10Gmin10
3-7
AC10-BBA C 60
Binder:
Vmin4- Vmax8 > 11 V10Gmin11
4-8
Surface:
Vmin3- Vmax7 >10 V10Gmin10
3-7
AC14-BBA C 80
Binder:
Vmin4- Vmax8 >11 V10Gmin11
4-8
AC10-BBA D 40 5 to 9 Vmin5- Vmax9 >9 V10Gmin9
AC14-BBA D 60 5 to 9 Vmin5- Vmax9 >10 V10Gmin10

Table 10 – Specifications relative to water resistance

ITSR (I/C)
Type of mix (%)
Method B in compression

AC-BBSG ITSR70
AC-BBME ITSR80
AC-BBA surface course ITSR80
AC-BBA binder layer ITSR70
PA-BBDr ITSR80
BBTM ITSR80
AC-BBM ITSR70
AC-EME ITSR70

ITSR70
AC-GB

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2.4.3 Level 2

This level comprises the Level 1 tests (Gyratory Compactor and water resistance)
and adds a wheel tracking, or resistance to rutting, test.
Table 11 – Specifications relative to the wheel tracking test

Specification,
Type of mix Class Number of cycles in % rutting
(large device)
1 ≤ 10% P10
AC-BBSG
2 30000 ≤ 7,5% P7,5
AC-BBME
3 ≤ 5% P5
1 ≤ 10% P10
AC-BBA 2 10000 ≤ 7,5% P7,5
3 ≤ 5% P5
1 3000 ≤ 15% P15
AC-BBM 2 10000 ≤ 15% P15
3 30000 ≤ 10% P10
BBTM10 1 and 2 ≤ 15% P15
3 000
BBTM6 1 and 2 ≤ 20% P20
2 and 3 10 000 ≤ 10% P10
AC-GB
4 30 000 ≤ 10% P10
AC-EME 1 and 2 30 000 ≤ 7,5% P7,5

2.4.4 Level 3

This level contains the Gyratory Compactor and water resistance tests of level 1, the
wheel tracking test of level 2, and includes the step of characterizing the mixture's
stiffness modulus.
The stiffness test has been specified within the context of major road-building works
and whenever the targeted layer is involved in the structural function of the
pavement. This level means that the product is considered in the Fundamental
approach of EN standard. The stiffness value at 15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02s is directly used
in the structural design models.
Due to their main characteristic, the type testing of AC-GB class 4, AC-BBME and
AC-EME mixes must imperatively comprise a stiffness test. For other bituminous
mixtures, which are subject to be empirical or fundamental, it may be required.

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Table 12 – Specifications relative to the stiffness modulus

Stiffness modulus at 15°C,


Type of mix Class 10Hz or 0,02 sec
(MPa)

AC-BBSG 1 5 500 S5500


Fundamental Approach 2 and 3 7 000 S7000
1 9 000 S9000
AC-BBME
2 and 3 11 000 S11000
AC-GB 2 and 3 9 000 S9000
Fundamental Approach 4 11 000 S11000
AC-EME 1 and 2 14 000 S14000

5 500 S5500
1 and 2
AC-BBA
Fundamental Approach 7 000 S7000
3

2.4.5 Level 4

This level encompasses the Gyratory Compactor and water resistance tests from
level 1, the wheel tracking test from level 2 and level 3 stiffness modulus
characterization of the mixture; it is duly completed by a determination of fatigue
resistance.
As level 3, this level is relevant of the Fundamental approach.
The fatigue test is to be specified in the case of large-scale jobs and once the
targeted pavement layer is submitted to fatigue. The ε6 value is directly used in the
structural design models.
AC-BBME and AC-EME are of course relevant of the fundamental approach. For
other bituminous mixtures, which are subject to be empirical or fundamental, it may
be required.

Table 13 – Specifications relative to fatigue resistance

Fatigue specification,
ε6 10°C, 25 Hz
Type of mix Class
Annex A – 2 points trapezoidal

AC-BBSG ε6-100
1 to 3
Fundamental Approach
1 ε6-100
AC-BBME
2 and 3 ε6-100

AC-GB 2 ε6-80

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3 ε6-90

4 ε6-100

1 ε6-100
AC-EME
2 ε6-130

1 ε6-130

AC-BBA ε6-115
2
Fundamental Approach

3 ε6-100

2.4.6 Additional tests

- For porous asphalts, EN 13108-7 contains a specification on the vertical or


horizontal permeability according to EN 12697-19; the values extend from 0,1 mm/s
to 4 mm/s for both the horizontal permeability Kh and vertical permeability Kv. The
drainage tests (EN 12697-18) are also addressed in this standard. The specifications
focusing on the abrasion test for porous asphalt mixes (EN 12697-17) are considered
as not relevant.
- For mixes used on airfield runways/taxiways, the resistance to the effect of fuels
can also be prescribed (EN 12697-43), as can the resistance to deicing fluids
(EN 12697-41).

2.5 Formula verification

This step is to be performed to validate an existing formula if the asphalt mix design
has been performed at least at level 1 of the type testing routine. The material origin,
particle size distribution curve and bitumen content are all considered to remain
unchanged.
For aggregates however, it is distinctly possible that shape variations for example,
imperceptible using typical means of measurement (bulk density, particle size
grading curve, etc.), exert a significant impact on material behavior.
The verification protocol consists of conducting the most selective type of tests
possible in order to detect these changes or, instead, to verify the persistence of
characteristics inherent in the studied mixture.
The most common test is that using the Gyratory Compactor. The selected criterion
is the identity of the entire curve at ±1,5%. As a general rule, this criterion is sufficient
for confirming that the mix design has not been altered by major changes. The other
characteristics (wheel tracking resistance, stiffness modulus, etc.) are thus
considered to be valid provided the bitumen used matches that of the reference case.
Any change in bitumen must trigger a new verification of these characteristics.
It could be worthwhile to measure, in specific cases, the characteristic targeted for
verification: e.g. wheel tracking resistance on a mix specially designed for this
purpose, by means of the stiffness modulus for a material with a high modulus.

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2.6 Type testing procedure length and required quantity of materials

Performing a type testing protocol requires a good ten days or more for level 1, with
60 kg of materials and roughly a month to reach level 4, with a total material supply
weighing 400 kg.
The amount of time needed for the tests level by level are indicated in Table 14; the
estimations shown have been derived by assuming the measurement of the
maximum density according EN 12697-5 method A in water and the compression
test (method B of EN 12697-12) for water resistance.
Table 14 – TYPE TESTING
Required material quantities – Approximate testing durations

Duration Total
Quantity of duration
Level Test name
material Test
Preparation and (including
ancillary operations preparation)

Maximum density of 5 kg for the


Preparation 1 day drying + test 2 days
the mixture mixture

Identification of Particle size 3 kg per particle 1 day drying + test 2 days


components analysis size fraction

ITSR test
20 kg (Φ 80 mm)
Method B in 8 days drying + mixture + test 10 days
40 kg (Φ 120 mm)
1 compression

Gyratory Compactor 30 kg 1 day drying + mixture + test 2 days

Total - Level 1 40 - 60 kg 12 days


Wheel tracking 2 plates
sample production +
2 50 kg 30,000 cycles - 3
storage + V% + test 7 days
Large device (2 Slabs) days

Total - Level 2 110 kg 15 days


Modulus by direct 3 temperatures sample production +
tensile test 80 kg 3 or 4 loading times coring/storage + V% 21 days
4 days + bonding + test
(Annex E)
3
1 temperatures sample production +
Complex modulus 80 kg 1 frequencies sawing/storage + V% 18 days
1 day + bonding + test

Total - Level 3 200 kg 21 days

sample production +
4 Fatigue 200 kg 15 days sawing + storage + V%
+ bonding + test
25 days

Total - Level 4 400 kg 30 days

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2.7 Summary of test characteristics and methods

The selected tests and testing procedures included within the scope of the type
testing of asphalt mixes found in EN standards have been laid out in Standard EN
13108-20, " Material specification - Type testing". They will be displayed in the
following tables by family of mix. The highlighted procedures correspond to the most
widely practiced at the present time.

2.7.1 Asphalt mixes

These are listed in the standard (EN 13108-1) and encompass the types AC-BBSG,
AC-BBME, AC-BBS, AC-BBM, AC-BBA, AC-GB, AC-EME.
Table 15 – Types of tests for asphalt mixes

Characteristic Testing method Observations


Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen When type testing is performed with
content laboratory-made materials, the
(prescriptive)
bitumen content considered is the
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
quantity of bitumen incorporated into
content by ignition
the mixture. On the other hand, when
testing is conducted with materials
extracted from the plant, the binder
content of the mix is determined by
using one of these methods.
Grading - Particle size EN 12697-2, Particle size Method not employed in the case of
distribution (prescriptive) distribution type testing performed in the
laboratory (see above).
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of Specifications on the void percentage
voids filled by bitumen and void characteristics of pertain specifically to measurements
voids in mineral aggregate, bituminous specimens conducted on test specimens within
void content Vmax ≤ 7% Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
the scope of a type testing procedure.
For example, the void percentage of
(prescriptive) density), Method B, dry
impact-compacted "Marshall"
saturated surface
specimens must be determined in this
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum manner.
density - MVR), Method A in
water
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of See above.
voids filled by bitumen and void characteristics of
voids in mineral aggregate, bituminous specimens
void content Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
7 < Vmax < 10% density), Method C, paraffin-
(prescriptive) sealed
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
density - MVR), Method A in
water
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of See above.
voids filled by binder and specimen void percentage
voids contained in the Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
granular skeleton, void density), Method D by
content Vmax ≥ 10% dimensions

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Characteristic Testing method Observations


Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
bulk density - MVR), Method A
in water
Void percentages by EN 12697-31, Gyratory This test standard includes a
Gyratory Compactor test determination of the void percentage
Compaction(prescription) based on measurement of the
specimen height, which makes this
method applicable.
Sensitivity to water EN 12697-12, Sensitivity to Method B (compression test) shall be
(performance-related) water used in France, even the result is
noted ITSR.
Resistance to abrasion EN 12697-16, Method A
caused by studded tires
(performance-related)
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-22, small device,
deformation Method B in air at a specified
(performance-related: for temperature
roads(a))
For asphalt mixes designed
for axle loads < 13 T
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-22, large device, in This reference corresponds to the
deformation air at a specified temperature LPC device and set-up. In selecting a
(performance-related: for temperature of 60°C and a number of
roads(a)) cycles equal to 3000, 10000 or 30000,
the specifications are identical to
For asphalt mixes designed those of the former French standard.
for axle loads ≥ 13 T
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-34, Marshall test The resistance to wheel tracking is
deformation characterized empirically (by creep)
(performance-related: for using the Marshall test and not the
airport runways/taxiways(b)) wheel tracking test for airport-
designed asphalt mixes.
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-25, Triaxial
deformation (performance- compression test
based)
Stiffness modulus EN 12697-26, Stiffness All procedures for determining the
(performance-based) modulus stiffness modulus are considered to
be equivalent. Nonetheless, these
specifications address moduli at
15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02 sec. Some
equipment is not capable of yielding
stiffness modulus values for these
loading times or frequencies.
2-point fatigue EN 12697-24, Fatigue Appendix A describes the fatigue test
(performance-based) for resistance – Annex A in 2-point bending as compatible with
the design of pavements the design method applied in France.
derived from 2-point fatigue The specifications at 10°C / 25 Hz are
identical to those cited in the former
reference.
4-point fatigue EN 12697-24, Fatigue
(performance-based) for resistance – Annex D

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Characteristic Testing method Observations


the design of pavements resistance – Annex D
derived from 4-point fatigue
Resistance to the effect EN 12697-43, Resistance to This specification is applicable to
of fuels (performance- fuels asphalt mixes used on airfields
related: for airport runways)
Resistance to deicing EN 12697-41, Resistance to This specification is applicable to
products (performance- deicing products asphalt mixes used on airfields
related: for airport runways)
a
For asphalt mixes used on pavements and other traffic thoroughfares / roadways, with the
exception of airport runways/taxiways.
b
For asphalt mixes used solely on airport runways/taxiways.

2.7.2 Very thin asphalt concretes

These material specifications have been listed in Standard EN 13108-2 and are
solely intended for the BBTM type (French acronym for very thin asphalt concrete).

Table 16 – Type of tests for BBTM (very thin layer asphalt concretes)

Characteristic Testing method Observations


Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen When type testing is performed with
content laboratory-made materials, the
(prescription)
bitumen content considered is the
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
quantity of bitumen incorporated into
content by calcination
the mixture. On the other hand, when
the testing is conducted with
materials extracted from the plant, the
binder content of the mix is
determined by using one of these
methods.
Particle size distribution EN 12697-2, Particle size Method not employed in the case of
analysis type testing performed in the
(prescription)
laboratory (see above).
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of Specifications on the void percentage
voids filled by binder and specimen void percentage pertain specifically to measurements
voids contained in the Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
conducted on test specimens within
granular skeleton, void density), Method B, dry
the scope of a type testing procedure.
content Vmax ≤ 7% saturated surface For example, the void percentage of
(prescription) Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum impact-compacted "Marshall"
density - MVR), Method A in specimens must be determined in this
water manner.

Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of See above.


voids filled by binder and specimen void percentage
voids contained in the Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
granular skeleton, void density), Method C, paraffin-
content 7 < Vmax < 10% sealed
(prescription) Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
bulk density - MVR), Method A

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Characteristic Testing method Observations


in water
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of See above.
voids filled by binder and specimen void percentage
voids contained in the Apply EN 12697-6 (apparent
granular skeleton, void bulk density), Method D by
content Vmax ≥ 10% dimensions
(prescription) Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
density - MVR), Method A in
water
Void percentages by EN 12697-31, Gyratory This test standard includes a
Gyratory Compaction Compactor test determination of the void percentage
based on measurement of the
(prescription) specimen height, which makes this
method applicable.
Sensitivity to water EN 12697-12, Sensitivity to Method B (compression test) shall be
(performance-related) water used in France, even the result is
noted ITSR.
Resistance to abrasion EN 12697-16, Method A
caused by studded tires
(performance-related)
Mechanical stability - EN 12697-22, Large model, in This reference corresponds to the
air at a specified temperature LPC device and set-up.
OPTIONAL
This characteristic has not been listed
for CE Marking, but does appear in
the product standard, and can thus
be used as a specification.
Resistance to the effect EN 12697-43
of fuels
(performance-related)
Resistance to deicing EN 12697-41 Resistance to
products (performance- deicing products
related

2.7.3 Soft asphalt concretes

These are listed in Standard EN 13108-3.

Table 17 – Type of tests for soft asphalt concretes

Characteristic Testing method Observations


Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen cf. comments in table 15.
content
(prescription)
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
content by calcination

Particle size distribution EN 12697-2 Particle size cf. comments in table 15.
analysis
(prescription)

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Characteristic Testing method Observations


Void percentage EN 12697-8, Determination of
specimen void percentage
(prescription)
Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
density), Method B, dry
saturated surface
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
bulk density - MVR), Method A
in water

2.7.4 Hot Rolled Asphalt


These specifications are listed in Standard EN 13108-4.
Table 18 – Type of tests for Hot Rolled Asphalt

Characteristic Testing method Observations


Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen cf. comments in table 15.
content
(prescription)
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
content by calcination
Particle size distribution EN 12697-2 Particle size cf. comments in table 15.
analysis
(prescription)
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8, Determination of
voids filled by binder and voids specimen void percentage
contained in the granular
Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
skeleton (prescription)
density), Method A, dry
condition
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
bulk density - MVR), Method A
in water
Sensitivity to water EN 12697-12, Water resistance
(performance-related)
Resistance to abrasion EN 12697-16
caused by studded tires
(performance-related)
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-22, small model,
deformation (performance- Method A in air and Y cycles
related)
Stiffness modulus EN 12697-26
(performance-related)
Resistance to the effect of EN 12697-43
fuels (performance-related: for
airstrips)
Resistance to deicing EN 12697-41
products
(performance-related: for
airstrips)

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2.7.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt


These specifications are listed in Standard EN 13108-5.
Table 19 – Type of tests for the Stone Mastic Asphalt material
Characteristic Testing method Observations
Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen cf. comments in table 15.
content
(prescription)
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
content by calcination

Particle size distribution EN 12697-2, Particle size cf. comments in table 15.
analysis
(prescription)
Void percentage, including EN 12697-8
voids filled by binder
Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk density),
(prescription) Method B, dry saturated surface
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
density), Method A in water
Void percentages of EN 12697-31, Gyratory This test standard includes a
Gyratory Compactor Compactor test determination of the void
specimens percentage based on measurement
of the specimen height, which
(prescription) makes this method applicable.
Binder drainage EN 12697-18, Drainage test
(performance-related)
Sensitivity to water EN 12697-12, Water resistance Indirect tensile method or method B
(performance-related) using compression.
Resistance to abrasion EN 12697-16
caused by studded tires
(performance-related)
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-22, small model, in air
deformation (performance at a specified temperature
related)
For Stone Mastic Asphalt
mixes designed with axle
loads < 13 T
Resistance to permanent EN 12697-22, large model, in air This reference corresponds to the
deformation at a specified temperature LPC device and set-up.
(performance-related: for
roads(a))
For Stone Mastic Asphalt
mixes designed with axle
loads ≥ 13 T
Resistance to the effect EN 12697-43
of fuels (performance-
related: for airstrips)
Resistance to deicing EN 12697-41
products (performance-
related: for airstrips)

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Figure 19: Small-scale rutting tester model operating in air

2.7.6 Porous Asphalt

These specifications are listed in Standard EN 13108-7 and encompass BBDr


(French acronym Bétons Bitumineux Drainants for porous asphalts).

Table 20 – Type of tests for the porous asphalt

Characteristic Testing method Observations


Binder content EN 12697-1, Soluble bitumen cf. comments in table 15.
content
(prescription)
and EN12697-39, Bitumen
content by calcination

Particle size distribution EN 12697-2, Particle size cf. comments in table 15.
analysis
(prescription)
Void percentage EN 12697-8, Determination of
specimen void percentage
(prescription)
Apply EN 12697-6 (bulk
density), Method D by
dimensions
Apply EN 12697-5 (maximum
density - MVR), Method A in
water
Void percentages by Gyratory EN 12697-31, Gyratory This test standard includes a
compaction Compactor test determination of the void
percentage based on
(prescription) measurement of the specimen
height, which makes this
method applicable.

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Characteristic Testing method Observations


Permeability (performance- EN 12697-19, Laboratory-based
related) permeability test
Sensitivity to water EN 12697-12, Water resistance Method B(compression test)
(performance-related) shall be used in France, even
the result is expressed as ITSR.
Bitumen - aggregate affinity EN 12697-11, Binder -
(performance-related: for airport aggregate affinity, Part C: Static
runways/taxiways) method
Binder drainage (performance- EN 12697-18, Drainage test
related)
Mass loss (performance- EN 12697-17, Abrasion test The "Cantabre" test (deemed
related) not pertinent for specifications
purposes).
Resistance to the effect of EN 12697-43
fuels (performance-related: for
airstrips)
Resistance to deicing EN 12697-41
products (performance-related:
for airstrips)

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3 MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE


The procedure employed to design material mixes has not been codified. The focus
herein relies upon meeting the requirements identified from the type testing stage
described in Part 2. The mix design process begins by selecting the set of
components: aggregates, fines, binder, and additives. In some instances, these
components may be imposed by the contracting party. Knowing the characteristics of
mix constituents is critical as of the initial mix design phase and will also prove useful
for all subsequent mix adjustments/refinements should test results not comply with
specifications. The procedure entails adjusting the mix composition using the
Gyratory Compactor test, complemented afterwards by the set of tests stipulated for
the particular testing level in correspondence with the chosen design. This procedure
has been laid out in the diagram below. The sections that follow will detail these
various stages in association with the recommendations issued by practitioners.
Change in
component(s)
Selection of components

Design of the
prototype mix composition Adjustments of the
particle grading curve

Gyratory Compactor
test no
yes

Type testing

3.1 Component selection

3.1.1 Aggregates

3.1.1.1 Fines and added fillers


According EN 13043, fines and added fillers are characterized after a dry sieving with
a 0,125 mm sieve by a voids of dry compaction test (Rigden Void Index), by a ∆TR&B
test and by the identification of the methylene blue value MBF.

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Choice
The added filler is not, in all instances, definitively chosen at the same time as
establishing the mix design. In some regions, the added filler stems from just a single
source, thereby simplifying the procedure. While several different plants may able to
accommodate supply needs, the mix designer must be provided an identified set of
samples and then select a "feasible" supplier. The mix composition can also be
produced using the same kind of "average" filler under all conditions.

Type
Fine limestone aggregate tends to be predominant as a choice of added filler, yet
other filler types may be used as a replacement or complement by virtue of their
specific properties. For instance, cement may be used as a replacement for the
limestone filler, yet it would be preferable to limit its concentration to just 3% or 4%.
Beyond this threshold, cement hydration in the mixture can exert influence on the I/C
ratio (Duriez test corresponding to method B of EN 12697-12); moreover, cracking
problems may arise as well.
Calcium hydroxide (quicklime) is introduced into the mix in order to prevent the so-
called "soup" phenomenon from appearing; such a phenomenon can be observed
during mixing as water gets held by porous aggregates. It would be worthwhile to use
calcium hydroxide (quicklime) for improving the level of water resistance; in addition,
its concentration would need to be limited to 1% (due to the risk of swelling), and
precautions to avoid inhalation would need to be taken.
The active filler is a mix of limestone fines and calcium oxide (slaked lime), which has
the same use properties as quicklime.
Slaked lime gets added as a drainage retardant on porous asphalts (PA-BBDr). Its
concentration of between 10% and 25% lime, as compared to limestone filler, allows
obtaining a mastic whose ∆TR&B increases by 4°C to 7°C with respect to the ∆TR&B
value of the base filler.
Slate is introduced for its extremely high stiffening power (i.e. a ∆TR&B of more than
38°C, a methylene blue value of around 0,3 g / 100 g, a Rigden Voids Index in the
neighborhood of 45%, and an absorbent power lying near 26).
Should fly ash from coal-fired power plants be used, it would be advised to monitor
mass density values as these may fluctuate. The additives are composed of hollow
spheres and their absorbing power varies widely.
Similarly for cement fillers, which are industrial by-products, the methylene blue value
needs to be verified.

The effect of the presence of ultra-fine particles on the properties of mastic and
asphalt mixes is not well known. An experiment focusing on a specially-prepared
limestone filler with an increasing proportion of ultra-fine particles did not conclude
the presence of any significant effect on ∆TR&B.

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Mastic
The combination of bitumen and filler within a hydrocarbon mix gives rise to a mastic
whose properties will influence a portion of mix characteristics. Said properties are
basically evaluated via the ∆TR&B value. High ∆TR&B values tend to enhance rutting
resistance, and excessive values of ∆TR&B could constitute a cracking risk.
Voids in dry compacted filler (Rigden Void Index) v: High Rigden Void Index
values generally imply a rise in binder content (also in richness modulus), so as to
yield a volume of free bitumen equivalent to that obtained in a readily-available
material.

Harmfulness

Example – Effect of clay content on mix characteristics:


The inclusion of clay into the fines of a crushed aggregate for the purpose of experimentally
increasing the methylene blue value (bentonite, kaolinite, illite) has induced the following effects on
the characteristics of a mix (AC-BBSG, AC-GB):
– Rise in the percentage of Gyratory Compactor voids (+ 2 for VB = 2g/100g)
– Decrease in rutting depth (2,3 mm for VB = 4g/100g)
– No visible effect on the I/C (r/R Duriez test) ratio (at 7, 14 or 28 days)
– Significant stripping of mortar even after 7 days, as I/C drops 0,10 to 0,25 points
Keep in mind that the studied mix was artificial. Transposing results to commonly-used mixes is not
always straightforward.
[LPC Report No. 14]

3.1.1.2 Fine aggregate


The criteria relevant to sands or fine aggregate that serve to influence asphalt
mixtures are as follows:

Particle size distribution (grading) curve


Special consideration needs to be given to hollow curves with a very small fines
content that hinders mix compactability.

Angularity
The angularity of fine aggregate exerts a major impact on the mixture's rutting
resistance.
The characteristics of how crushed aggregates are produced even when derived
from solid rocks can heavily influence mix characteristics. Aggregates could display
chipped edges due to processes involving recycling, grinding, etc. Their internal
friction thus drops considerably and might alter mix stability. This problem could
ultimately be revealed through the fine aggregate flow coefficient of the test
described in EN 933-6. A visual inspection using binoculars remains the most
effective means of detection for a well-trained eye.

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Example – Effect of angularity (with solid rock):


In two AC14-BBSG samples containing approximately 30% fine aggregate of the same origin, yet
from different production facilities (these fine aggregates differ by 6 seconds when submitted to the
flow test), it was found that:
Ground solid rock => wheel tracking test result: 8% after only 1000 cycles
Crushed solid rock => wheel tracking test result: 5% after 30000 cycles
[Corté et al, 1994]

Whenever the percentage of voids for a mix becomes excessive, the inclusion of a
small proportion of totally rounded fine aggregate serves to reduce this percentage.
The following limitations must nonetheless be noted: the use of fine totally rounded
aggregate on a road pavement is strongly discouraged, while application of this type
of fine aggregate must be confined to road mixes submitted to very limited risks of
rutting. The suggested concentration is held to 10% for asphalt concretes for surface
courses and must not exceed 20% for base courses.
The effect of low angularity may, in some instances, be compensated by using a
"hard" grade binder when the mix is being applied as a base course or foundation. It
is still advised, in all cases, however to ensure stability of the granular skeleton.

Resistance to fragmentation or to wear (Hardness)


Whenever physical characteristics differ among the mix's various granular fractions,
the softest aggregate may undergo attrition. One illustration would be the frequent
case of finding a soft sand along with harder coarser aggregates. Some distinctions
might be limited to just a single category. The converse (i.e. harder sand with softer
coarse aggregates) could not be accepted for application as a wearing course.
Should the origin of the fines fraction be different from that of the coarse aggregates,
it would be necessary to submit the fines to a friability test, Vss = 40 for a all-in
aggregate 0/4, and Vss = 45 for a fine aggregate 0/2.

3.1.1.3 Coarse aggregates


The set of criteria relative to coarse aggregates that serve to influence bituminous
road-building materials are as follows:

Type of rock
Frictional materials: Materials are said to be "frictional" when the percentages of
voids observed on Duriez test specimens (Method B of EN 12697-12 is derived from
Duriez test) lie close to values recorded in situ, whereas the Gyratory Compactor
indicates a lack of workability (as translated by an excess in voids on the order of 4-
5%) for the specified number of gyrations.
This phenomenon has been observed with certain basalts, granites and gneiss.

Workable materials: Materials are said to be workable if, despite exhibiting high
angularity, their standard particle size distribution leads to a small percentage of
voids.

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Porous materials: These materials absorb, through their inherent porosity, a portion
of the bitumen and engender mixing difficulties. This phenomenon has been
remarked with basalts, slag and dolomitic limestone. The level of absorption can be
measured by means of lacquering the aggregates with bitumen and then recording
the maximum density (MVR) value both before and after lacquering.
Evolutive materials: This category of materials displays alterations in characteristics
over time and, for example, would comprise steel slag and LD dross.

Example – The case of dross from the Fos-sur-Mer "LD" steel mill:
These aggregates are of artificial origin.
They have been used:
– for several years in the form of 0/4 all-in aggregate, to adjust angularity on overly-
workable mix designs (AC-BBSG, AC-BBM, BBTM); and
– much more recently in the form of coarse aggregates, as an alternative to aggregates
with high CPA values[ Former test for PSV : PSV= 100CPA + 1,5] (0,5 to 0,6), which
prove to be rare and expensive in the region around Fos-sur-Mer (south of France).
Their mass density level is quite high (3,1 to 3,7 g/cm3).
These materials are steelmaking by-products contained in "LD" converters, which serve to transform
hematite pig iron into steel. Prior to application, they undergo the following treatments:
1. Metal removal;
2. Crushing to 0/2 mm;
3. Bulk storage for a period ≥ 1 year in order to slake nearly all of the quicklime contents;
4. Screening.
This procedure is presumed to cancel the effects produced by aggregate swelling when hydrating
the lime contained in the original materials.
The literature on this topic and procedure is vast.
[CTPL publication, CRR Study Series]

Shape
Aggregates shaped too much like cubes could lead to excessive workability. The
flakiness Index FI should, as a preferred value, lie between 10 and 15.

Example – "Shape" effect of a coarse aggregate on mix behavior:


Effect on void content: AC14- GB containing 4% (out) bitumen (Solid rock N - crushed)

% voids after 100


Flakiness
gyrations
2/14 fraction
AC14-GB
3,7 5,8

9,5 8,9

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Effect on wheel tracking: AC14-BBSG containing 5,7% (out) bitumen,


Solid rock C - ground – Solid rock N - crushed

Rut depth (in mm) Rut depth (in mm)


Flakiness
after 1000 cycles after 3000 cycles
2/14 fraction
AC-BBSG AC-BBSG
Deformation too high
3,7 15
to be measured

9,5 9 18

Angularity
This characteristic influences mix stability and affects the material's surface
characteristics.

The "type of aggregate" parameter could produce an effect 3 to 4 times greater than that of the
"bitumen grade" parameter with respect to rutting.
[AAPT 1988, v 57]
An additional 7°C over the bitumen R&Β would be needed in order to compensate for "poor
angularity".

Aggregate processing mode


The type of crusher used and its mode of operations affect, for a given crushing ratio,
both the shape and aspect of aggregate edges. Mix performance (i.e. wheel tracking
and compacity), as a consequence, also gets affected.

Example – Effect of crushing mode on a alluvial AC10-BBSG from the Durance:


(1) Tertiary Gyratory crusher
(2) Vertical anvil axis
(3) Vertical pebble box axis

Angularity- Angularity- Gyratory


Crushing Rutting at
fine coarse Compactor Rutting - after
Crushing mode ratio 3000 cycles -
aggregate aggregate 60 gyrations 30000 cycles
Rc % rut depth
(flow time) (flow time) Void %
Gyratory
39 124 4 9,8 3,2 5,7
crusher

Anvil axis 37 122 4 9,7 3,2 5,4


Deformation too
Pebble box axis 33 106 4 6,7 10,8 strong to be
measured

[Mines and quarries, October 1996, Volume 78]

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Other characteristics
A high coefficient of dilatation weakens the mix at low temperature… [RGRA 753, p. 52]

To shade the material or to complement the use of both light and colored binders in
an effort to obtain a more distinct hue, specially-colored aggregates may be chosen
(these choices would include the fine aggregate component).
Light-colored aggregates are sometimes employed to: reduce the "black body" effect
of mixes, lessen pavement heating, and thereby lower the risk of rutting. Such
aggregates can also be used as a surface layer in tunnels to limit the need for
additional artificial lighting.

As an illustration, the introduction of quartzite (white) instead of the more conventional diorite (gray)
has resulted in an observed drop of between 2°C and 5°C (between normal and exceptional
summertime conditions) within the first centimeter of pavement. The associated use of a light-colored
binder gives rise to a further 3°C decrease.
[Light-colored asphalt concretes on the Paris ring road, RGRA 735, p. 57, December 1995]

3.1.2 Binder

3.1.2.1 Origin
The origin of the binder used on a road-building site is not always known when
designing the material mix. To conduct the Gyratory Compactor test, since bitumen
origin does not affect the result, it is possible to implement the same grade bitumen
as that specified for the works. In order to characterize a mix based on the water-
sensitivity test by compression, as well as on the wheel tracking test and a
determination of the stiffness modulus or fatigue resistance, the origin of the bitumen
used will influence ultimate test results. Should the specified bitumen be unavailable,
it would be appropriate to use either a "feasible" bitumen or a "standard" bitumen
very familiar to the mix designer. Once the actual "project" bitumen is effectively
known, an estimation of the alteration introduced needs to be carried out.

3.1.2.2 Type of bitumen


The choice of bitumen must enhance the attainment of required product
performance. Some performance measures have been included in the type testing
protocol conducted on the mixtures (i.e. water resistance, rutting resistance, stiffness
modulus, fatigue resistance), yet others are not directly expressed via test results
(material aging, oxidation, "top-down" cracking, etc.). A series of empirical
specifications based on more conventional tests can then be developed.

Paving grade bitumen


To better prevent against cracking risks under severe traffic and climatic loading
conditions, it would be advised to select the softest grade compatible with rutting
resistance-based requirements. For purposes of illustration, the following tendencies
may be considered (from the French Standard Mix Application Guide).

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Table 21– Suggested bitumen grade by mix type

Type of mix Loading Suggested grade

35/50
Mixes for wearing courses AC-BBSG,
AC-BBM, BBTM, PA-BBDr and AC- Heavy 50/70 (airfield pavement NS3)
BBA materials 20/30 may be used for class 3 of AC-BBSG
and AC-BBME
50/70
Mixes for wearing courses AC-BBSG, 70/100 at higher altitudes, and in continental
Light zones and airfield zones submitted to lighter
AC-BBM, BBTM and AC-BBA materials
loads (NS1, NS2)

Mixes for base courses /


35/50
foundation layers

Lower thermal susceptibility bitumen


This category of pure bitumen has been specially produced and features a
penetration at 25°C that corresponds with the standardized grade (e.g. 35/50 or
50/70), yet whose ring and ball temperature typically exceeds the standardized limit
for the corresponding grade. The Fraass temperature is also lower than that of
similarly-graded pure bitumen samples (≤ -15°C). They are used in particular for
improving the rutting resistance properties of materials.

"Hard" bitumen
This category of pure bitumen is obtained by means of a direct refining process and
displays a penetration of less than 25 1/10 mm. Two categories 10/20 and 15/25 are
defined according to EN 13924. The French recommendation for the ring and ball
temperature is between 60°C and 76°C for 10/20 and between 55°C and 71°C for
15/25. The Fraass temperature (out of the French recommendation) lies near 0°C
(from +3°C to -8°C). The mixing temperature exceeds by approximately 20°C that
associated with conventional bitumen mixes. The primary application of this type of
binder relates to the EME high-modulus materials. The hardness of this type of
bitumen can induce brittleness at low temperature; it would thus be advised to use
such mixes along with thermal protection when employed in harsher climates.

Modified bitumen
Modified bitumen materials are bituminous binders whose properties have been
altered by the introduction of a chemical agent that, added to the basic bitumen, acts
to modify both the chemical structure and physical and mechanical properties. In all
cases for such materials, precautions must be taken to avoid the risk of instability,
creaming and sensitivity to thermal loading history.
Section 1.4.2.2 provides a description of the main types of modified bitumen. The
shortfall in performance-based specifications on these materials necessitates the
systematic assurance that use of such a binder serves to obtain the desired mix
performance, hence the quality of modified bitumen and, consequently, the resultant
mix properties are not solely dependent upon polymer content. Moreover, it should
be pointed out that for modified binders, the ring and ball temperature does not

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constitute a relevant criterion when it comes to evaluating asphalt mix behavior at


high service temperatures.
Modified binders are basically used in surface layers in both BBTM and BBDr
materials. The ultimate application is what distinguishes the various modified binder
families for individual supplier-specific uses. Some products have been the topic of
Technical Guidelines, published by the SETRA Highway Engineering Agency, which
sets forth use conditions and performance levels obtained on reference jobsites.

Pigmentable bitumen
This category of bitumen and the resultant mixes show greater susceptibility to
temperature than materials containing "normal" bitumen. Such components are
reserved for more urban type applications or one-off uses intended to render lane
indications more easily legible.

Synthetic binders
Synthetic binders display a number of behavioral differences in comparison with
conventional bitumen, namely:
- their susceptibility to temperature may be very different from that of a similarly-
graded standardized bitumen; and
- their mixing temperature must be indicated by the supplier; it may vary on the
order of 15°C with respect to that of a pure bitumen of the same consistency.
Their range of application overlaps with that of pigmentable bitumen.

Bituminous binders with mineral loads


These ready-to-use binders are obtained from plant mixtures of pure bitumen and
mineral loads, e.g. lime. Binder content differs from bitumen content, and the
objective herein tends to focus on "stiffening" the mix.

Agrochemical binders
These binders are made from vegetal matter without any petrochemical byproduct.
The result is transparent and may be colored. Its applicability is currently being
assessed.

3.1.3 Additives
Section 1.4.3 provides a comprehensive description of the primary additives.

3.1.3.1 Effect of type of additive

Polyethylene
This additive is intended to improve the level of rutting resistance and increase the
stiffness modulus; it partially associates with the bitumen.
The concentration level typically lies between 0,4% and 1%, with respect to
aggregate quantity. It should be remarked that polyethylene at the melting point plays
the same role as bitumen. A standard concentration of polyethylene thus serves to
decrease the binder concentration of the reference material by some 0,15%.

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Similarly, the increase in fatigue characteristics observed when adding polyethylene


is solely correlated with the corresponding rise in binder quantity.

Example – Effect of polyethylene concentration (from cable waste) on rutting resistance


Test conducted on a AC14-BBSG mix containing 32% finely-crushed aggregate,
initially leading to 15% rutting after 3000 cycles
NOTE: The mix's bitumen content has been lowered by 0,15%, in comparison with the reference mix,
to account for the addition of polyethylene.

Polyethylene concentration Rut depth after 30,000 cycles


(%, with respect to the dry aggregate) (mm)
0,5 9
0,8 5
1,1 4

[Experiment conducted on aggressive loads, No. 3, Fatigue Carrousel]

Polymers
These additives are intended to decrease the effect of binder susceptibility.

Fine rubber crumb fraction and 2/6 rubber aggregates


These additives contribute to improved cracking resistance, in addition to damping
the impact from tires.

New and recycling fibers


Incorporated at the time of mixing, these fibers act like a bitumen reservoir once in
the mix; they can either increase bitumen content, without raising the risk of rutting
(added to BBTM and SMA mixtures), or avoid drainage problems (for PA-BBDr).
Depending on the type of fibers added, the mode of laboratory preparation must be
adapted while continuing to respect the mode selected for including this additive in an
industrial setting.
The fibers may be mixed to the binder either as a preliminary step or introduced into
the dry mix or perhaps after incorporation of the bitumen.

3.1.3.2 Natural bitumen and asphalts


This category of additives is to be used as a substitution for directly-distilled bitumen
in order to obtain a stiffer mix by means of a combined binder hardness and added
filler effect.

3.1.3.3 Pigments
The concentration of pigments depends on the desired effect, aggregate color and
type of bitumen. For a light-colored synthetic binder, this concentration lies on the
order of 0,5% and can rise as high as 2%. With a pigmentable bitumen, the
concentrations are higher, reaching the neighborhood of 2,5% to 4%. This case is
generally limited to use of the color red.
It would be necessary to consider the pigment concentration like fines within the mix.

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The product is then incorporated into the dry mixture prior to adding the bitumen.
The mix's mechanical characteristics, especially water resistance and if applicable
rutting resistance, are to be verified. Oxides can actually influence binder-aggregate
adhesion and the choice of associated bitumen (either pigmentable or synthetic) can
influence rutting resistance.

3.2 Relationships between binder properties and mix properties

3.2.1 Penetrability and ring and ball temperature

The test of penetrability at 25°C is correlated with stiffness of the mix at service
temperatures. The stiffness modulus of bitumen may be deduced from both the
penetration test at 25°C and the ring and ball temperature, by means of the Van der
Poel abacus (see Fig. 29).
Ring and ball temperature is an effective indicator of the binder's contribution to
rutting resistance. This criterion loses its relevance however for modified binders.

Example – Effect of ring and ball temperature


On 3 types of asphalt mixes, a 7°C rise in the ring and ball temperature of a bitumen allows
increasing tenfold the number of cycles leading to a given rutting depth.

3.2.2 The SHRP criteria


The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) set up in the United States has
sought to define the relationships between binder characteristics and mix
characteristics. The tests conducted on binders have been aimed at ascertaining
rheological aspects. The binder performance – mix performance relationships are the
current focus of research efforts. A few of these relationships have already been
published, yet their pertinence for French mixes still needs to be verified.

SHRP criteria and tests conducted on asphalt mixes


According to the SHRP, rutting resistance is effective if G*/sin δ > 1 kPa (for new binder) and
> 2,2 kPa (for binder having undergone RTFOT).
This relationship is not always verified with the LPC rutting tester.
In contrast, the criterion G*/sin δ > 3.8 kPa leads to low rutting rates [RGRA 730].
The SHRP criterion relative to fatigue resistance is expressed as: G*sin δ < 5 kPa (RTFOT + PAV).
A verification on AC10-BBSG mixes serves to confirm this trend, although the correlation is not very
strong. Sin δ does not contribute any more than G*, and ε6 is not directly correlated. The slope of the
fatigue line enters into consideration.
Cold resistance: The SHRP criteria are: S(60) < 300 MPa and m > 0,3 (with the doubt over whether
either of the two criteria is being met: a tensile deformation test at failure > 1% is thus conducted).
The criteria selected in France are: temperature isomodulus I G*I = 300 MPa for a 1000 s loading
time and slope m. Correlation with the theoretical brittleness temperature proves to be strong.

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3.2.3 Origin of the bitumen


Both the origin and processing mode for bitumen materials may exert a significant
influence on mix characteristics. Some test results depend heavily on these
parameters – a few examples have been provided below:

ε6 and the origin of bitumen


The fatigue resistance ε6 measured by the deformation test required on mix specimens with bitumen
featuring the same characteristics, yet of different origins, varies between 88 µdef and 150 µdef, all
other parameters being held the same.

[Statistical study of the effect of asphalt mix composition on material fatigue behavior,
F. Moutier, BL, No. 172, p. 40]

Relationships between the stiffness moduli for both binder and mix
On any given mix, relationships between the stiffness moduli of both the binder and mix (containing
modified binders) of the type lg (E*) = 0,71 *lg (G*) + 3,04 have been established.
[RGRA 739, p. 22]

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3.3 Initial composition by type of material


Depending on the set of requirements and available materials, the mix designer
determines a composition that corresponds to an initial targeted particle size
distribution curve, as well as a bitumen content and, ultimately, the proportions of
admixtures.
This initial composition is established in accordance with knowledge derived from
previously-studied mixtures, initial mix design curves, mix family ranges and binder
content (or richness modulus) values while incorporating the effects of additives and
the absorbing power of fillers on binder content.
The initial compositions (particle size distribution curve, binder content) by type of
material will be discussed in the following sections and listed in the summary table
presented in Appendix E and in Appendix F.

3.3.1 Asphalt Concretes for base course – Grave-Bitume AC-GB and High
Modulus AC-EME

Figure 20: Cross-section of a Grave-Bitume AC-GB mix

3.3.1.1 Remarks concerning mix components

Aggregates
For some of the fines from basalt aggregates, crushed slag and highly-acidic granite,
either active fillers or hydrated lime needs to be used.
Most hard limestone sand generates a high level of workability: the percent passing
the 2-mm sieve on the AC-GB particle size distribution curves must be reduced to
approximately 30% or else the wheel tracking test would have to be considered.
Some of the natural fillers from fine aggregate are noxious despite being able to
satisfy cleanliness specifications. As an example, dolomite leads to water resistance
problems, as do certain forms of tuff, even though the methylene blue value seems to
be adequate.

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The amphibolites-gneiss and a number of porphyries yield low I/C (r/R) ratios
(whereas amphibolite-diorite ratios are very strong).
For the AC-EME and AC-GB mixes, it is possible to correct for the angularity effect
through bitumen hardness and concentration. The durability however has not been
established.
The hard limestone materials make it possible to obtain high readings of compacity,
even with moderate binder content. This high compacity, coupled with relatively low
binder content, has resulted in increased stiffness modulus values.
For some granite materials, water resistance still needs to be verified.

Bitumen and additives


For Grave-Bitume AC-GB:
As a general rule, 35/50-grade pure bitumen is used. Grade 50/70 may also be
employed for convenience sake, for example at stationary mixing plants.
In mountainous regions or in the case of low-level loadings (as intended by the Mix
Standards Application Guide), implementation of the 50/70 grade is indeed possible.
On the other hand, a grade above 70/100 must not be used.
Within specifically-designated zones (traffic > T0 [more than 750 lorries per day],
channeled traffic flows, slow speeds < 40km/h, a ramp inclined at over 5%), it is
advised to select the 20/30 grade or a special bitumen with low thermal susceptibility,
should the desired result not be reached with a 35/50 grade.
Adding polyethylene to bitumen-aggregate mixes does not seem to be beneficial
(rarely justifiable given current mix designs).
For High Modulus Asphalt concrete mixtures AC-EME:
These are most often produced using an hard-grade bitumen as stipulated by
EN 13924 and in conjunction with 10/20 or 15/25 grades. The recommended
characteristics for this type of binder are as follows:
- standard penetration: 10 to 25 1/10 mm; and
- ring and ball temperature: between 62°C and 72°C, or even 80°C.
The 20/30 grade may be acceptable along with other grades (35/50 in particular),
combined with admixtures (e.g. natural bitumen) or polyethylene.
Polymer-modified bitumen serves to increase the value of ε6.
The addition of 0,7% polyethylene within a 35/50-based mix offers a potential gain of
approximately 20% in stiffness modulus.
The presence of fibers exert little influence on modulus values.

3.3.1.2 Composition of the granular mix

Particle size distribution curves tend to be continuous. It is possible to introduce


discontinuities into the [4/6] or [6/10] distribution curve. Discontinuities typically have
little impact on material characteristics. Should the curve show coarse granularity
(percent passing 2-mm sieve on the order of 28%), it would be necessary to raise the
filler content to about 7,7%.
Table 22 presents the initial grading curves for AC20 or AC14 Grave-Bitume AC-GB
and High Modulus Asphalt concrete AC-EME mixes. The French foreword of EN

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13108-1 also calls for the possibility of producing a AC10-EME, whose corresponding
initial grading curve has been listed in Table 23.

Table 22 – Initial AC20 or AC14 Grave-Bitume AC-GB and High Modulus Asphalt Concrete AC-
EME grading curve

D = 20 mm or 14 mm
Sieve passing, Typical range of variations
in mm
Minimum Target value Maximum
6,3 45 (50 for 0/14) 53 65(70 for 0/14)
4 40 47 60
2 25 33 38
0,063 5.4 6.7 7.7

Table 23 – Initial AC10-EME grading curve

D = 10 mm
Sieve passing, Typical range of variations
in mm
Minimum Target value Maximum
6,3 45 55 65
4 52
2 28 33 38
0,063 6,3 6,7 7,2

3.3.1.3 Bitumen content

The bitumen content at the beginning of this study is taken from Table 24 or
calculated from the specific surface area of the mix, the maximum density (MVR)
value and the minimum richness modulus associated with the standard. For
information, the previous “external binder content” is also mentioned in table 24

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Table 24 – Typical initial binder content of AC-GB and AC-EME (richness modulus)

AC-GB2 AC-GB3 AC-GB4 AC-EME1 AC-EME2


10 or 10 or
D in mm 14 20 14 20 14 20 20 20
14 14

Binder content Bmin 4,0 4,0 4,5 4,4 4,7 4,6 4,0 4,0 5,4 5,3
for ρ = 2,65 g/cm3

Binder content Bmin 3,9 3,9 4,3 4,2 4,5 4,4 3,9 3,9 5,2 5,1
for ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

Typical target of
2,5 2,8 2,9 2,5 3,4
richness modulus K

External binder
content TLext for 4,0 4,0 4,5 4,4 4,7 4,6 4,0 4,0 5,5 5,4
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

3.3.1.4 Experimental results


A sample of experimental results capable of influencing the mix designer is given in
the following study:

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Influence from type of aggregate and rheology of hard bitumen on the properties of hot asphalt
mixtures used as a pavement base course and foundation layer
P. Bauer - S. Glita - P. Chaverot - J.M. Michou - P. Perdereau - Y. Vincent
Eurasphalt & Eurobitume 1996. 4.050

Bitumen characteristics

Units Mixelf 10/20 15/25


Before After Before After Before After
RTFOT RTFOT RTFOT RTFOT RTFOT RTFOT
Penetrability at
1/10 mm 15 10 13 10 21 13
25°C
Ring and ball
temperature °C 68 73,5 69 75 62 72

Constant richness modulus: 3,65; AC14-EME - type 2; particle size distribution curve ~ constant
Aggregate characteristics: 4 origins: D; Q; C; SC (SC is an alluvial material)

Results from Gyratory Compactor testing


Aggregate D Aggregate Q Aggregate C Aggregate SC
Slope K 3,65 3,44 4,12 3,27
Voids calculated for 1 22 21 23,9 19,4
gyration % V1
Voids at 100 gyrations % 5 5,1 4,8 4,2
V100

Results from wheel tracking tests


60°C, 30,000 cycles: rutting depth less than 5 mm, regardless of binder and aggregate, except for
aggregate SC (6 to 8 mm).

Stiffness modulus test in direct tension


10°C, 0.02 sec: The stiffness modulus exceeds 20000 MPa.
Aggregate origin induces a 20% variation (Mixelf bitumen).
(increasing trend C -> SC -> Q ->D)
Bitumen origin leads to a 10% deviation for aggregate C (15/25 -> {10/20 & Mixelf}) and an 18%
deviation for aggregate D (15/25 -> {10/20 & Mixelf}).

Complex modulus test


15°C, 10 Hz
Aggregate origin produces an 18% deviation (Mixelf bitumen) (C=SC=Q->D)

Fatigue test
No "aggregate" effect

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3.3.2 Thick layer mixtures for surface or binder course – AC-BBSG, AC-BBS,
AC-BBME

Figure 21: Cross-section of a AC-BBSG Figure 22: Surface appearance of a AC-BBSG


(Asphalt Concrete Béton Bitumineux Semi- (Asphalt Concrete Béton Bitumineux Semi-
Grenu) Grenu)

3.3.2.1 Remarks concerning mix components

Aggregates
For some fine aggregates from basalt aggregates, crushed slag and certain highly-
acidic granite materials, either mixed fillers or lime must be employed.
Most hard limestone fine aggregates provide for a good level of workability: the
percent passing 2 mm on the AC-BBSG or AC-BBME grading curves must be
reduced to approximately 30% (or even less).
Some natural fillers from fine aggregate are noxious even if harmfulness
specifications have been satisfied. For example, dolomite (cleanliness of sands with
an sand equivalent rating ≥ 70, the blue value (stain) ≥ 2 g (i.e. approximately MBF ≥
2,000 g/kg)) leads to water resistance problems, as do certain forms of tuff, despite a
blue value that lies on the order of 0,8 g.
The amphibolites-gneiss yield poor I/C (r/R) ratios for the watersensitivity, while the
amphibolite-diorite results are quite strong.
The brittleness of the fine aggregate would provide an indicator of the contribution
from fines towards rutting resistance.
The angularity of fine aggregate affects mix stability.
It is advised to be cautious of ground fine aggregate and fine aggregate (or all-in
aggregate) output from crushers with a revolving floorplate. The shape of mineral
particles could make the mixture more sensitive to rutting.
- Granite: water resistance requires verification.
- Basalt: binder content to be adapted to better account for eventual absorption.
- Limestone: coarse limestone aggregates are not permitted for use in wearing
courses (on the national highway network).

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- Angularity and shape: the angularity of coarse gravel influences texture, as does
the coarse aggregate shape. An overly regular shape would be deleterious and is
to be avoided.
The flakiness index FI must preferably lie between 10 and 15.
For a AC14-BBSG mixture:
A percent passing of 34% with 2 mm sieve conducted at a texture in situ at ATD =
0,4 mm.
A percent passing of 28% with 2 mm sieve conducted at a texture in situ at ATD =
0,7 mm.
Binders and additives
For a AC-BBSG mixture, the following is used:
- 35/50 grade pure bitumen in the case of heavy loadings and altitudes lower than
500 m, or a 50/70 grade in more typical cases and eventually a 70/100 grade in
mountainous zones with harsh climate (categories advised in the Standards
Application Guide); and
- special bitumen with low thermal susceptibility, or a polymer-modified bitumen for
specific loading conditions (ramps, intersections, bus lanes). Adding 0,5% to 0,8%
polyethylene serves to improve rutting resistance (in particular for the purpose of
obtaining a Category 3).
A AC-BBS (“soft flexible asphalt concrete for low trafficked pavements) mixture is to
include:
- 50/70 or 70/100 paving grade bitumen.
For a AC-BBME mix, the following are used:
=> 35/50 grade bitumen, potentially combined with additives;
=> "hard" bitumen, but not from 10/20 category, whether modified by polymers or not.

3.3.2.2 Composition of the granular mix


The initial particle size distribution curves for AC-BBSG, AC- and AC-BBME are
given in Table 25. It should be pointed out that the AC-BBS mix comprises a wider
range of application thicknesses (4 to 12 cm) than both AC-BBSG and AC-BBME.
This difference could lead to targeting a higher percent passing value at 2-mm sieve
(capable of reaching 40%).

Table 25 – Initial AC-BBSG, AC-BBS and AC-BBME grading curve

Percent passing Typical values Typical values


sieve, in mm D = 14 mm D = 10 mm
Target Target
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
value value
10 78 97
6,3 47 52 58 45 57 68
4 47 52
2 25 31 35 27 34 39
0,063 6,3 6,8 7,2 6,3 6,7 7,2

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3.3.2.3 Bitumen content

Bitumen content at the beginning of this study is taken from Table 26 using the
maximum aggregate density equal to 2,65 g/cm3or to 2,75 g/cm3, or calculated from
the specific surface area of the mix, the maximum density (MVR) and the richness
modulus as done in the former French standard. The former external binder content
with a maximum density of 2,75 g/cm3, characteristic of an average French value, is
also mentioned.
To complement this input, Appendix C provides the correspondence table between
external and internal binder content, calculated for an identical mass density of
2,65 g/cm3.
Table 26 – Initial BBSG, BBME and BBS richness modulus and binder content

AC10- AC14-
BBSG, BBSG, AC10- AC10- AC14- AC14-
AC10- AC14- BBS1 BBS2 BBS3 BBS4
BBME BBME

Binder content
Bmin for 5,5 5,2 5,3 5,7 5,2 5,0
ρ = 2,65 g/cm3

Binder content
Bmin for 5,3 5,0 5,1 5,5 5,0 4,8
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

Typical target
of richness 3,5 3,3 3,4 3,7 3,4 3,1
modulus K

External binder
content TLext for 5,6 5,3 5,4 5,8 5,3 5,0
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

3.3.3 Porous asphalt mixes – PA-BBDr

Figure 23: Cross-section of a Porous Asphalt Figure 24: Surface appearance of a Porous
(PA-BBDr) Asphalt (PA-BBDr)

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3.3.3.1 Remarks concerning mix components

Aggregates
The aggregates consist for the most part of solid rock.
Should granite be used, the level of water resistance needs to be verified.
The Los Angeles value becomes very important in avoiding compaction-induced
fragmentation.
Polish Stone Value, PSV, plays a key role in improving the skid resistance
parameter.
The flat coarser aggregates are also exposed to the effects of fragmentation.
For each d/D fraction, controlling the tails of the d curve proves determinant to
obtaining the desired percentage of voids.
Some guidelines call for introducing 1% quicklime in order to incite greater
adhesiveness. The use of slaked lime is intended to stiffen the mortar as a means of
avoiding drainage.

Binders and additives


The binder may be either a 50/70 or 35/50 grade pure bitumen or a polymer-modified
bitumen.
With the polymer-modified bitumen, it would be necessary to increase the
concentration by 0,4%.
The recommendations on extra binder concentration are not unanimous. Some
research favors systematic reliance (at a rate of 0,3%).
For the water-sensitivity test, the I/C (r/R) ratio is not always an accurate indicator
(due to the risk of aggregate fragmentation during the compaction by compression of
specimens as in a Duriez test).
Additives are primarily intended to lower the risk of drainage. Fibers (cellulose, glass
or rock) are introduced at a rate of 0,3%.

3.3.3.2 Composition of the granular mix

The initial PA-BBDr particle size distribution curves are specified in Table 27. The
drainage capacity of the mix is affected by the percentage passing the 2-mm sieve.

Table 27 – Initial PA-BBDr grading curve

Sieve size
Porous
D, Gap-graded 6,3 mm 10 mm 2 mm 0,063 mm
Asphalt
in mm fraction (%) (%) (%) (%)
(PA-BBDr)
0/10 2/6 13 13 ± 2 3,5
Category 1
0/6 2/4 10 10 to 13 3,5
0/10 2/6 8 8±1 3,5
Category 2
6/10 2/4 5 5±1 3,5

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3.3.3.3 Bitumen content

Bitumen content at the beginning of this study is taken from Table 28 using the
maximum aggregate density equal to 2,65 g/cm3or to 2,75 g/cm3, or calculated from
the specific surface area of the mix, the maximum density (MVR) and the richness
modulus as done in the former French standard. The former external binder content
with a maximum density of 2,75 g/cm3, characteristic of an average French value, is
also mentioned.
To complement this input, Appendix C provides the correspondence table between
external and internal binder content, calculated for an identical mass density of
2,65 g/cm3.

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Table 28 – Initial Porous Asphalt (PA-BBDr) binder content (Richness modulus)

Category 1
PA10-BBDr1 PA6-BBDr1
(%) (%)
Paving grade bitumen: 4,6 to
Binder content Bint for an Paving grade bitumen: 4,4 to 4,8
4,9
aggregate mass density Fibers: 5,1 to 5,5
Fibers: 5,2 to 5,8
ρ = 2,65 g/cm3 Rubber: 5,6 to 6,0
Rubber: 5,9 to 6,15

Binder content Bint for an Paving grade bitumen: 4,4 to


Paving grade bitumen: 4,2 to 4,6
aggregate mass density 4,7
Fibers: 4,9 to 5,2
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3 Fibers: 4,9 to 5,5
Rubber: 5,3 to 5,7
Rubber: 5,6 to 5,8
Richness Modulus K 3,3 3,4

Binder content TLext for a Paving grade bitumen: 4,4 to 4,8 Paving grade bitumen: 4,6 to 5
granular mix mass density Fibers: 5,1 to 5,6 Fibers: 5,3 to 5,9
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3 Rubber: 5,7 to 6,1 Rubber: 6 to 6,3
Category 2
PA10-BBDr2 PA6-BBDr2
(%) (%)
Paving grade bitumen: 4,4 to
Binder content Bint for an Paving grade bitumen: 4,2 to 4,6
4,7
aggregate mass density Fibers: 4,9 to 5,2
Fibers: 5,2 to 5,8
ρ = 2,65 g/cm3 Rubber: 5,3 to 5,7
Rubber: 5,9 to 6,15
K 3,2 3,1

3.3.4 Thin asphalt mixes – AC-BBM, BBTM and mixes for UTLAC (BBUM)

Figure 25: Cross-section of a Thin Layer Figure 26: Surface appearance of a Thin Layer
Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM) Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM)

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3.3.4.1 Remarks concerning mix components

Aggregates
The observations forwarded above for the porous asphalt (PA-BBDr) mixes would
also apply Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM), Very Thin Layer Asphalt
Concrete (BBTM) and Ultra-Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (UTLAC or BBUM) families.
By lowering the percent passing at 2 mm, porosity increases as does the mean
texture depth (MTD).

Binders and additives


The binder may be either a 50/70 or 35/50 grade pure bitumen or a polymer-modified
bitumen.
The Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM) family of mixes often contains pure
bitumen.
When rutting resistance is targeted, it is advised to select a bitumen with enhanced
thermal susceptibility and to add polyethylene or use a modified binder.
BBTM mixes are produced with either pure or modified bitumen and without providing
objective selection criteria (the texture loss test, which had been listed in the previous
version of the standard, did not offer distinctive insight on this particular point).
The use of cellulose or glass fibers in BBTM mixes is intended to improve the
(empirical) quality of the mortar.

3.3.4.2 Composition of the granular mix


The initial particle size distribution curves for Thin Layer Asphalt Concrete (AC-BBM)
and BBTM are provided in Table 29 below. The texture and open appearance of
these mixes are influenced by the percent passing the 2-mm sieve.
Types B and C of the AC-BBM family are rarely applied, yet they adapt well to flexible
pavements submitted to light traffic loads.

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Table 29 – Initial AC-BBM and BBTM grading curve

Gap-graded
Sieve percent passing
D fraction 14 10 6,3 4 2 0,063
AC-BBMA 10 2/6 97 35 30 - 32 6,5 - 7,2
Not advised ⇒ 14 2/10 97 35 35 7,2
AC-BBMA 14 4/10 97 35 35 7,2
AC-BBMA 14 2/6 97 67 35 34 7,2

AC-BBMB 10 Continuous 97 53 53 38 10
AC-BBMB 14 Continuous 97 75 50 50 35 10
AC-BBMC 10 Continuous 97 53 53 38 7,2

BBTM,
10 2/6 30 25 - 35 5,5 to 6,5
Category D
BBTM,
6 2/4 30 28 - 35 7,0 to 8,0
Category A
BBTM, 10 2/6 25 18 - 25 5,0 to 6,0
Category B 6 2/4 25 20 - 25 5,0 to 6,0

Gap-graded
Sieve percent passing
fraction 14 10 6,3 4 2 0,063
BBTM, 10 Continuous 30 25 - 35 7,0 à 7,5
Category A 6 Continuous 30 30 - 35 7,0 à 8,0
BBTM, 10 Continuous 25 18 - 25 5,0 à 6,0
Category B 6 Continuous 25 20 - 25 5,0 à 6,0

3.3.4.3 Bitumen content


Bitumen content to start the mix design, is calculated from the specific surface area
of the mix, the maximum density (MVR) value and the minimum richness modulus.

Table 30 below presents internal binder content (according to EN Standard) with a


maximum density (MVR) of aggregate 2,65 g/cm3 for AC-BBM, BBTM and mixes for
UTLAC (BBUM); the external binder content (application according to former French
Standard) with a maximum density (MVR) of aggregate of 2,75 g/cm3, is also
mentioned.

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Table 30 – Initial AC-BBM, BBTM and mixes for UTLAC (BBUM) binder content

AC10- AC14-
BBTM10 BBTM6 BBTM10 BBTM6
BBM A BBM A
Class A or D Class A Class B Class B

Binder content Bint for


a granular mix mass
density 5,4 5,2 5,6 – 6,05 6,05 – 6,5 4,5 – 5,4 5,4
ρ = 2,65 g/cm3

Binder content TLext


for a granular mix
mass density 5,5 5,3 5,7 – 6,2 6,2 – 6,7 4,5 – 5,5 5,5
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

0/10 UTLAC (BBUM) 0/6 UTLAC (BBUM)

Binder content Bint for


a maximum aggregate
4,95 – 5,7 5,7 – 6,2
density ρ = 2,65 g/cm3

Binder content TLext


for a maximum
aggregate density 5 – 5,8 5,8 – 6,4
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

3.3.5 Stone Mastic Asphalt - SMA

Figure 27: Cross-section of an SMA Figure 28: Surface appearance of an SMA


(Stone Mastic Asphalt) (Stone Mastic Asphalt)

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3.3.5.1 Remarks concerning mix components

Binders and admixtures


SMA generally contain fibers. It should be remarked that with the inclusion of fibers,
the mix design that yields bitumen content on the basis of richness modulus is not
considered valid.

3.3.5.2 Composition of the granular mix


The initial particle size distribution curve for SMA is indicated in Table 31 below.

Table 31 – Initial SMA grading curve

D 10 8 6.3 4 2 0.063

25 11
10 92 57 - 62 39 - 44 30 - 34
(20 to 35) (5 to 13)
SMA
27 12
8 100 96 73 40
(20 to 40) (5 to 14)

3.3.5.3 Binder content and fiber content


The bitumen content at the beginning of this study is shown in Table 32 below,
calculated in two ways:
- internal binder content (according to EN Standard) with a maximum density
(MVR) of aggregate equal to 2,65 g/cm3;and
- for information, external binder content (application according to former
French Standard) with a maximum density (MVR) of aggregate of 2,75 g/cm3,
characteristic of an average French value;
To complement this input, Appendix C provides the correspondence table between
external and internal binder content, calculated for an identical mass density of
2,65 g/cm3.
Table 32 – Initial SMA binder content

SMA 10 SMA 8

Binder content TLint for a


maximum aggregate 6,8% 7,2%
density with 0,3% cellulose fibers with 0,3% cellulose fibers
ρ = 2,65 g/cm3

Binder content TLext for a


maximum aggregate 7% 7,55%
density with 0,3% cellulose fibers with 0,3% cellulose fibers
ρ = 2,75 g/cm3

3.4 Composition adjustments


Based on the standard grading curves defined for each material, the mix designer
seeks to obtain the percentage of voids specified for each product (see Table 9). For

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this step, the mix is typically submitted to the Gyratory Compactor test (or another
designated test). If the expected result is not the one ultimately obtained, the mix
designer must modify the composition, which requires understanding the effect of
composition variables.

3.4.1 Effect of mix variables (general remarks)


The mechanical characteristics of the mix stem from the combined effect of internal
friction on the granular skeleton, binder content and binder characteristics (including
the additives eventually introduced).

3.4.2 Effect of dimension D


If D were to be increased, the richness modulus (and thus binder content) would
have to drop.
With all other parameters held unchanged, by increasing D, the percentage of voids
in the mix decreases.
As the D value of the mix rises, it becomes easier to obtain a stable material, yet
attention must then be paid to the risk of segregation during placement.

– Example –

A AC10-BBSG mix with 5,6% bitumen is equivalent to a AC14-BBSG with 5,4% bitumen.
A AC10-BBSG with 5,6% bitumen leads to a percentage of voids at 60 gyrations V60 = 9%, while a
AC14-BBSG with 5,4% yields a characteristic percentage of voids at 80 gyrations V80 = 4%.

3.4.3 Effect of granular proportions


With greater granular fractions, mix design setting becomes facilitated.

For a 0/D mix with 10 mm < D < 20 mm, the percent passing at 2 mm can display
one of the four following cases:
• > 35% percent passing at 2 mm very high curve: mortar content is in excess
within the granular skeleton and stability relies solely upon the mortar.
• 30 to 35% percent passing at 2 mm high curve: the mortar fills nearly all inter-
aggregate space. The mortar plays a key role in overall mix characteristics.
• 25 to 30% percent passing at 2 mm average curve: coarsely-graded design.
Mortar influence is attenuated due to effect of the granular skeleton.
• < 25% percent passing at 2 mm low curve: the mortar exerts a secondary
influence, with mix stability obtained by means of inter-aggregate setting.

3.4.4 Discontinuity
A discontinuity (gap-grading) within the particle size distribution curve leads to an
increase in workability along with a drop in percentage of voids, although the rutting
risk rises as a result.

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– Example –
A AC14-BBSG or a AC14-BBM with a continuous curve yields a rut depth of 3 mm at 30000 cycles.
The rut extends to 4 mm with a 2/6 discontinuity and to 10 mm with a 2/10 discontinuity.

Should the material be used as a thick layer, it would be preferable to apply a gap-
graded curve with a relatively low threshold, e.g. 25% at 2 mm.

3.4.5 Incorporation of rounded particle aggregate


The inclusion of rounded particles, generally limited to 10% for wearing courses,
serves to increase mix workability while reducing the percentage of voids. On the
other hand, the risk of rutting naturally rises quite considerably as a consequence.
This type of mix formulation is not be used on roads submitted to heavy traffic loads.
For AC-EME or AC-BBME however, blunt-edged materials, and in particular fine
aggregate with totally rounded particles, may be used to enhance compacity, with
binder stiffness serving to reduce the risks of rutting. Yet when employing such an
approach on surface materials, the durability over time may be compromised.

3.4.6 Percentage of fillers


Fillers, in combination with bitumen, make it possible to fill the inter-granular voids.
As total filler percentage increases, the percentage of voids in the mix will drop, but
the mastic will harden. The optimal value lies between 6,5% and 7,5% for average
curves and typical bitumen contents.

3.4.7 Percentage of bitumen


Bitumen, when combined with fillers, plays the role of lubricant for the granular
skeleton and thus enables compacting the material. Beyond an optimal content, its
function is limited to filling voids in the granular skeleton. As the percentage of
bitumen increases at low bitumen content levels, the stiffness modulus rises as well;
whereas with higher bitumen content, this modulus tends to fall.
As the percentage of bitumen increases, the inter-granular mastic film becomes
denser and thicker, which makes for improved fatigue and water resistance, with the
downside being that rutting resistance decreases.
These trends have been laid out under very general conditions. In practice, certain
mix component characteristics can modify expected behavior. As an example, it
would be necessary to incorporate the effect of absorbent materials (porous
aggregates, fibers).

3.5 Gyratory Compactor compactibility study

3.5.1 General remarks


The test is conducted on a composition (test interpreted in isolation) or on an
experimental design (2 or 3 different granular compositions) containing, for example,
a 5% deviation in the fine aggregate concentration.

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This test is to be interpreted in two ways; first, it seeks to verify the type testing
criteria (v% at 60, 80, 100… gyrations as specified vs. the thickness of the layer
under consideration) in comparison with the standard, should one exist.
Secondly, the test is intended to make use of the entire set of data available to
predict one behavioral aspect of the mix or another.
The Gyratory Compactor test is quite sensitive to: granular composition, including the
fines fraction; angularity of the mineral skeleton; and binder content.
Upon completion of the Gyratory Compactor tests, the mix designer must be able to
introduce enough elements to establish both the particle size distribution curve and
binder content.
The primary parameters to be interpreted are the following:
percentage of voids vs. number of gyrations;
percentage of voids at a given number of gyrations;
percentage of voids at 10 gyrations;
percentage of voids at 1 gyration;
slope K1; and
pseudo-maximum shear stress.

3.5.2 Percentage of voids vs. number of gyrations


The evolution in compaction using the gyratory compactor, v% = f(ng), was studied at
the same time on a full-scale compaction bench [Moutier, 1977; Bulletin de liaison
LPC, Special Issue V, p. 173-180]. This compaction bench contained an axle capable
of being loaded up to 50 kN per wheel, with tire pressure varying from 0,3 to
0,9 MPa. Production was routed through a reduced-scale mixing plant and placement
handled by a small finisher.
The experimental design focused on three thickness ranges: 4 cm, 8 cm and 12 cm.
For each of these ranges, three different mix designs were introduced:
– in 4-cm thickness: AC10- BBM with rounded fine aggregate, AC14-
BBM (2/10 and 4/6 gap-graded) (solid mineral aggregates N);
– in 8-cm thickness: "coarse" AC14-BBSG; "semi-coarse" AC14-
BBSG, discontinuous AC14-BBSG (solid mineral aggregates N); and
– in 12-cm thickness: AC20-GB2 with aggregates from three different
solid rock origins: microdiorite, quartzite and alluvial deposits.
Experience has shown that percentage of void trend curves vs. number of gyrations
and vs. number of compactor passes are quite similar. On the v%= f(ng) and
v%=f(np) graphs, with a semi-logarithmic scale for the number of gyrations or
compactor passes, the evolution is nearly linear.

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A sigmoid model (S-shaped) was applied to the v%=f(ng) curve in order to deduce extreme clamping
behavior at a very high number of gyrations (curve asymptote). This model is relevant for the range of
materials tested (AC-BBSG, HRA, AC-BBM). The compacity of the granular skeleton submitted to
high energy levels tends to a limit, denoted C∞; this compacity value is greater than those obtained at
typical gyration thresholds (< 200) and suggests that even for very angular mixes, an additional
"clamping potential" remains over and above current specifications. Such potential can be realized
during exceptional climatic or traffic conditions.
Modeling of Gyratory Compactor results - Assessment of ultimate compaction threshold,
F. Moutier, Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Conference '96

3.5.3 Percentage of voids at a given number of gyrations


Comparing the percentage of voids measured on specimens generated from the
studied plates for a "standard" compaction mode (approximately 16 passes) with that
derived using the gyratory compactor by direct geometric measurement has
demonstrated that: for mixes applied in 4-cm thickness, the corresponding
percentage of voids was obtained at 40 gyrations; and for 8-cm thick mixes, 80
gyrations were required to reach this void level. Experimentation conducted on 12-cm
thick material samples proved less conclusive. The 40-gyration relationship for the 4-
cm material (AC-BBM and PA-BBDr ranges) and evaluation at 80 gyrations for
materials spread over 8 cm (AC14-BBSG or AC14-BBME) initiated adoption of the
French specifications. Following a few extra experimental findings, this relation was
generalized: 25 gyrations for 2,5-cm thick BBTM; 60 gyrations for AC10-BBSG or
AC10-BBME spread 6 cm thick; 100 gyrations for AC14-GB or AC14-EME ( high
modulus mixes) applied approximately 10 cm thick; 120 gyrations for AC20-GB or
AC20-EME applied approximately 12 cm thick. These percentage of void ranges,
associated with gyration number vs. layer thickness, have become laboratory
specifications, aimed at predicting the percentage of voids attained on the jobsite.
The predictive capacity of the percentage of voids parameter at n gyrations had been
analyzed as part of a survey entitled: "Gyratory compactor testing assessment" within
the LPC research network [Ballie, Delorme, Hiernaux and Moutier, Bulletin de liaison
LPC, Issue no. 170]; this work showed that the value identified in the laboratory
tended to be somewhat pessimistic for the Grave-Bitume AC-GB and AC14-BBSG,
evenly valued for AC10-BBSG and more optimistic for thinner mixes. These relations
depend on trends tied to: material mix design (e.g. cessation of the use of rounded
materials), mix production mode (drum mixers), and type of spreading and
compaction (vibratory compactors). Such factors need to be incorporated whenever
the value targeted for a jobsite is deduced on the basis of a laboratory-determined
percentage of voids.
A study on crushed bituminous aggregate, high modulus mixtures and semi-coarse
bituminous concretes has been carried out (see Section 4.1) in order to verify the
correspondence between the percentage of voids measured: on laboratory materials
(representative of worksite conditions), on materials extracted from onsite mixing
plants using a mobile gyratory compactor, and onsite by means of gamma-
densitometers. With the exception of one site where production uncertainties led to
under-compaction, the average results obtained at each stage were for the most part
similar (maximum deviation: 1,4%).

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3.5.4 Percentage of voids at 10 gyrations: v10


The percentage of voids at 10 gyrations represents the state of the material
submitted to very weak energy. The kind of mix that when exposed to such weak
energy yields a low percentage of voids would actually display excessive workability;
it is likely that this result stems from weak internal friction of the granular skeleton,
wherein lies the potential risk among more ordinary mixes (AC-BBSG, AC-GB, etc.)
of offering only limited resistance to rutting. This risk gets taken into account in the
specifications on certain products, whose threshold has been set lower (9% to 14%).
Such a criterion was selected within the scope of EN standards, yet due to its
empirical relation with rutting resistance cannot be imposed at the same time
(overspecification).

3.5.5 Percentage of voids at 1 gyration: v1

v1 denotes the percentage of voids calculated at one gyration (or C1 the compacity at
one gyration) in accordance with the equation model set forth in the EN 12697-10):
v% = v1 - K1 ln(ng)
or C % = C1 + K 1 ln(ng )

0 ¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯ K1
¯¯
v1 ¯
ng
1 20 200

The model is then adjusted with respect to a regression line for points (v, ln(ng)) or
(C, ln(ng)) lying between 20 gyrations and 200 gyrations. V% is computed by
considering that compaction using the Gyratory Compactor is linear as a function of
the logarithm of the number of gyrations.
The percentage of voids at 1 gyration also serves as a rutting resistance indicator (for
the same reasons as for v10). The 20% threshold (AC-GB, AC-BBSG) seems to
provide a satisfactory estimation.

3.5.6 Slope K1
The slope K1 in the model v% = v1 - K1 ln(ng) is sometimes referred to as the mix
workability indicator.
Its value is more heavily correlated with the upper sieve size D of the mix. Should
bitumen content vary over narrow ranges, K1 would stay constant for a given granular
skeleton. On the other hand, K1 varies whenever the fines content varies.

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Granular compacity does not vary any further for bitumen contents
above 4%. An increase in bitumen content is equivalent to filling the
inter-granular voids.

For a binder content variation of δTL, compacity C1 becomes C2, i.e.:


MVR 1 × δTL × 100
C2 ≈ C1 × (100 + )
(100 + TL1 ) x 1,03
(The variation of maximum density (MVR) has been neglected herein.)

3.5.7 Pseudo shear stress τ


The pseudo shear stress τ is defined as the force necessary to straighten the
specimen submitted to gyratory compaction at a small internal angle (0,82°).
F ×d
τ is defined by the following relationship: τ = 1 1 ;
h×S
F1 is the force necessary to maintain the Gyratory Compactor
angle, expressed in Newtons;
d1 is the distance that force F1 acts with respect to the specimen
axis, in millimeters;
h is the specimen height, in millimeters; and
S is the surface area of the specimen base.
F
On the LPC gyratory compactors of types 1 and 2, τ ≅ 0,01 1 (in MPa).
h
The evolution in τ has been tracked vs. percentage of voids v%. At the maximum τ
value, τmax, the value of v%(τmax) corresponding with this maximum is obtained.

τ
τmax

% Voids

v % (τmax)

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The variations in τ as a function of v% depend on the type of mix. As an example, for


AC-EME or BBTM, the curves exhibit the following shapes:

τ
τmax AC-EME τ BBTM

τmax

% voids

v % (τmax)
v % (τmax)

⎯ v%(τmax): The percentage of voids corresponding to the value of τmax constitutes a


lower bound of the mix design application range (i.e. the critical percentage of
voids). Beyond this limit, the mix loses its stability (presence of rutting risk).
⎯ τ might be correlated with vfb < 65% or 75%.

3.5.8 Test precision

Percentage of voids at a fixed number of gyrations:


Repeatability: r = 0,95
Reproducibility: R = 1,38
r and R represent the critical distance separating two test results under conditions of
either repeatability (same laboratory, same sample, same operator, short time
interval) or reproducibility (with different laboratory and operator). Should the
distance between any two results lie below this critical distance, results could not be
considered as distinct.

3.5.9 Correction of mix composition

The effects of mix composition factors on the Gyratory Compactor test results were
studied within the framework of an experimental design that includes upper sieve size
of the mix, factor D, the bitumen percentage, factor B, the percentage of fines factor
F and the compacity (or void content) factor C; the primary set of results of this
experimental study DBFC will be presented next.

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Example – Impact of mix design factors on Gyratory compactor test results


(solid mineral aggregates N)

Experimental plan DBFC: Impact of factors D (mm), binder content B (%), filler content F (%) on
the mix compacity:
D, B, F have a significant effect on C80
D, B have a significant effect on C1
D, F have a significant effect on C1

Effect of binder content B on C1


80,00

78,00

76,00
C1 (%)

74,00

72,00

70,00

68,00
4 6 8
binder content (%)

effect of D on C1
78,00

77,00

76,00

75,00
C1 (%)

74,00

73,00

72,00

71,00
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
D mm

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effect of filler content F on C80


87
87
86
86
85
C80 (%)

85
84
84
83
83
82
82
4 8 12
Filler content (%)

effect of D on C80
89

88

87

86
C80 (%)

85

84

83

82

81
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
D mm

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effect of binder content B on C80


90

88

86
C80 (%)

84

82

80

78
4 6 8
Binder content (%)

These composition parameter effects were examined on "test" mixes for purposes of
the experimental design, with mix compositions not always corresponding to those
actually employed on road-building sites. While the experimental design has served
to confirm major well-known trends practiced by mix designers, testers were
questioned about their own experience, and this step gave rise to the contents shown
in Table 33:

Table 33 - Composition effect on Gyratory Compactor test results

Trends in composition parameter effects on Gyratory Compactor test results


Parameter Effect (%vng) Observations
Bitumen content – 0,25 + 0,5 to + 0,6 See water resistance

Bitumen content + 0,25 - 0,5 to – 0,6 See rutting resistance

Fines content + 1 - 1,7 to – 0,5


Fine aggregate volume + 10% -1
Passing the 2-mm sieve + 5% - 1 to – 1,5%
2/4 discontinuity (at a constant fine aggregate %) -1
2/6 discontinuity (at a constant fine aggregate %) -3
4/10 discontinuity
Mastic volume 16% -> 23% + 4%
+ 10% rounded fine aggregate - 1,5 to - 2 Potential rutting

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Table 34 - Composition adjustment in order to correct Gyratory Compactor results

Adjustments to the composition to ensure that


Gyratory Compactor voids are positioned within the target window

Much lower than the Lower than the Above the Considerably above
target % (by > 5%) target % (by 3%) target % (by 3%) the target % (by > 5%)

increase the % passing


the 2-mm sieve by
~ 5 points and
decrease the 2/6,3
decrease the % decrease the fraction
passing the 2-mm sieve bitumen % decrease the 2/6,3 introduce ground fine
by ~ 5 points and fraction on the order of aggregate at a level of
and
increase the 2/6,3 10% and increase the 10% or 15% (focus on
fraction decrease the % of total 6,3/10 fraction rutting resistance)
fines by 1,5% to 2,5%
or
rounded fine aggregate
at a level of 10% (focus
on rutting resistance)

3.6 Mix performance

3.6.1 Resistance to permanent deformation on the LPC Wheel Tracking Tester

3.6.1.1 Purpose

The objective herein is to verify that the mix actually exhibits the behavior expected
during the compactibility study phase. The effect of both binder type and admixtures
is to be taken into account as well.
The test is conducted on 2 plates at a required level of compacity and leads either to
reaching the specified level of compacity, thus making the results directly
interpretable, or to repeating a 2-plate series at a compacity level such that the two
values obtained frame the intended result. If the new series lies within the prescribed
range, the rut depth can be interpreted directly, whereas if the percentage of voids
lies outside this range, the wheel tracking test result at the target value is to be found
by means of linear interpolation.

Example: For a AC-BBSG, the interval specified in the standard is 5% to 8% voids.


If the first attempt leads to 3% voids, the second will aim for a position around 7%. If
a figure less than 8% is actually obtained, the result may be determined directly.
Otherwise, with 10% voids for example, the following operation is performed:
Linear interpolation between the rut depth at 10% voids (i.e. 7%) and the depth
measured at 3% voids, i.e. 12%. The interpolated result at 6,5% voids amounts
to 9,5%.

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Rut depth, %
Trend curve estimated
from the rut depth
Interpolated value

12

9,5
7
5

Specified range slab voids %


10 8 6,5 5 3

The interpolated value obtained using this method is "pessimistic" from a safety
standpoint in comparison with the experimental value, which lies close to 5% in the
above example.
The result must satisfy a rut depth threshold (with respect to plate thickness), i.e. 5%,
7,5% or 10% at a given number of cycles: 3000, 10000, 30000.

Remarks:
In order to preserve a safety margin, the test may be conducted for a binder content
increased by 0,25% or with a "softer" grade bitumen than that of the prescribed
bitumen.
Generally speaking, the percentage of voids estimated from a test plate corresponds:
- for weak compaction low in percentage of voids with the Gyratory Compactor at 40
gyrations,
- for strong compaction high in percentage of voids at 120 gyrations. One deviation
with respect to this estimation may be the indicator of a workable or, alternatively,
rough mix.
Another practice consists of adopting 10% voids for weak compaction and 5% for
strong compaction with ordinary mixes.

3.6.1.2 Results interpretation

Rut percentage
Less than 10% at 30000 cycles constitutes, for mix designs with a continuous grain
size distribution, a widely-recognized limit to indicate that the mix is not at risk of
rutting under harsh use conditions.
Less than 5% at 30000 cycles constitutes a widely-recognized limit to indicate that
the mix is not at risk of rutting under very harsh use conditions.
An intermediate category at 7,5% was introduced for several mix products (AC-
BBSG, AC-EME, AC-BBME).

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Under exceptional loading conditions, a test can be performed at 65°C, with a 6-kN
vertical force, and ultimately in including a metallic wrapping. No reference data are
currently available on any such test.
Curve shape

With some modified binders, the lg(P%) = lg(number of cycles) curve suddenly veers
at around the 3000-cycle mark; one plausible explanation for this phenomenon was
sought, with the conclusion being that localized parasitic heating could constitute the
cause.
Based on experimental data, it is possible to identify the parameters A and b of a
deformation law of the following form:
Y = A (N/1000)b
This approach no longer appears in the EN standard.

3.6.1.3 Special case of the "mechanical stability" test

For very thin layer asphalt concretes BBTM, a "mechanical stability" test may be
carried out by employing the rutting test operating protocol. This test is not of the
rutting type per se, but instead is intended to characterize the capacity of the mix to
"close" and spread smoothly in rolling strips. The rut depth criteria can thus be stated
as: 3000 cycles = 15% (0/10 BBTM) and = 20% (0/10 BBTM).

3.6.1.4 Influential parameters

Table 35 lists the composition parameters capable of influencing the rutting test
result and their effects. Table 36 then summarizes the advice of practitioners for
raising rutting resistance.

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Table 35- Effects of mix design factors on % rutting

Example of effect of composition parameters on rutting test results


Parameter % rutting Observations
At 3000 cycles, the rut depth expands
Bitumen content: 0,2% increase
from 5,5% to 9,6%

At 3000 cycles, the rut depth declines


Bitumen content: 0,2% decrease
from 5,5% to 3,9%

Fines content: 0,8% increase No noteworthy effect

Transition from
70/100 grade At 10000 cycles, the rut depth drops
to 35/50 grade from 5,5% to 3,2%
Bitumen grade
Rutting resistance increases by a set of ten
7°C rise in TR&B
cycles

At 10000 cycles, the rut depth of a AC-BBSG


is scaled back:

Strong rise in CASE 1 from 14% to 10%


angularity:
Ic 30 to Rc 2 CASE 2 from 12,3% to 7,5%
CASE 3 from 10,5% to 9,8% The compacity
CASE 4 from 12% to 6,2% effect alters the
result.
Small rise in at 10000 cycles, the rut depth of a crushed
angularity: bituminous aggregate declines:
Angularity Ic 80 to Ic 100
(Former CASE 1 from 5,2% to 2,3%
approach of
angularity => CASE 2 from 6,3% to 3%
C90/1 to C95/1)
+ 10% rounded At just 1000 cycles, the rut depth jumps from
fine aggregate 3% to 10%.
Replacement
For a % passing the 2-mm sieve on the order
of crushed
of 33%, rut depth increases from 7,5% at
fines by ground
30000 cycles to 10% at 3000 cycles.
fines

Table 36 - Practitioners' advice - Enhancing rutting resistance

Wheel tracking - Rut depth


Greater than the target value > 2% above target value Observations
− "Indent" the curve − Use bitumen with a ring and Beware of the risk of top-
− Lower binder content ball temperature and apply down cracking, if
admixtures, PE, etc. applicable (hard grade +
− Use bitumen with a higher ring and low bitumen content)
ball temperature − Use a special bitumen with
greater thermal susceptibility
− Use admixtures
− Change the fine aggregate

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3.6.2 The Duriez test (Method B of EN 12697-12)


The Duriez test procedure is described in part B of EN 12697-12 ITSR. In this
standard, the specimens may be compacted using several methods (gyratory,
impact, core…). The results considered in this clause are obtained with specimens
compacted in compression by application during (300 ± 5)s of 60 kN ± 0,5 % for
specimens of which diameter is less than 100 mm or 180 kN ± 0,5 % for other
dimensions.

3.6.2.1 Purpose

This test is intended to verify water resistance. It does however serve to approximate
the mechanical characteristics and percentage of void values submitted to static
compaction.

3.6.2.2 Interpretation

I/C (r/R) value


The typical values of I/C (r/R) lie between 0,65 and 1,0.

Example for porphyries from Boulouris (south of France)


This quarry mines an eruptive deposit principally characterized by the very strong CPA
reading (> 0,55), corresponding to a PSV of 57; the cleanliness of the fine aggregate complies with
the "a" category: Vbta lies on the order of 1 g/100g, i.e. for an MBF on the order of 1000 g/kg.
Despite these findings, it was proven that the use of fine aggregate and, in some instances, coarse
aggregate lead to generally noncompliant water resistance values, as shown in the following
examples:
Mix design Binder (% out of the Additive I/C (r/R)
i i )
AC20-GB all porphyry 5,5% of 35/50 / 0,53
AC20-GB all porphyry 6,0% of 35/50 / 0,73
AC10-BBSG 5,9% of 35/50 / 0,71
Fine alluvial aggregate,
6,2% of 35/50 / 0,79
coarse porphyry aggregate
6,6% of 13/40 Styrelf / 0,68
BBTM6
7% of 13/40 Styrelf / 0,72
0,3% Cecabase
Fine alluvial aggregate 7% of 13/40 Styrelf 0,78
S 240 PF

0,6% Cecabase
4/6 porphyry 7% of 13/40 Styrelf 0,80
S 240 PF

I/C (r/R) ratio values greater than 1 are to be correlated with problems of bitumen
absorption by aggregates.
Using mixes rich in coarse aggregate, e.g. drainage mixes, aggregate failures may
arise during specimen production. The I/C (r/R) value is thus less than 0,8.

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For some granite materials, water resistance must still be verified.

Compressive strength I/C


Table 37 - Typical I/C values (in MPa)

Bitumen PA- AC-


AC-GB AC-EME BBTM AC-BBSG AC-BBM
category BBDr BBME
50/70 6 to 9 7 to 9(*) 5,1 to 7,1

6 to 14
35/50 9 to 14 6 to 10 2 to 4 6,6 to 12,1
(typical: 9-10)
< 25 12 to 21
(*) Mix designs composed of pelite coarse aggregate and limestone fine aggregate have yielded a compressive strength of 12,1 MPa.

Percentage of voids:
This parameter is to be compared with the percentage of voids using the Gyratory
Compactor for n gyrations. On the AC-BBSG material, the percentage of voids lies
on the same order of magnitude. If the level of deviation amounts to 3% or 4%, the
material is said to be "frictional".
Percentage of imbibition:
This parameter is used in evaluating the swelling nature of the material and has been
defined by:
M: mass of the dry specimen,
Mj+1: specimen mass after degassing (1 hour without immersion
+ 2 hours with immersion),
Mj+k: specimen mass after k days of immersion.
Mj + k − M
The percentage of imbibition is defined using: Wj+k= * 100
M
Threshold value: ===> 2%
The swelling (increase in specimen volume) goes hand in hand with low I/C (r/R)
ratio values, through observations on materials such as polluted limestone or water-
sensitive solid rocks.
Adjustment of results
Table 38 - Practitioners' advice - Duriez test results adjustment

I/C ratio Duriez


Below the targeted value Much lower than the targeted value
− bitumen enhancer within the mass (extra 0,3%-0,6% − contribution of 1% quicklime or slaked
compared with the original bitumen) lime
− use of fines activated by 20% quicklime or slaked − replacement of all or part of the fine
lime aggregate proportion by fine aggregate
− increased richness modulus (with decrease in the from another origin
% passing the 2-mm sieve)
− introduction of a harder grade bitumen
− higher compacity through a drop in the 2/6 fraction

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Remark:
Stability of the additive (enhancer) within the hot binder:
Example of Cecabase S240 PF on a 0/6 BBTM material: I/C (r/R) = 0.72; with 0.3%
enhancer held 48 hours at the production temperature, the I/C (r/R) ratio remains
roughly the same: 0,75. With 0,6% additive (enhancer) and under this same set of
conditions, the I/C (r/R) ratio equals 0,8.

3.6.3 Stiffness modulus


3.6.3.1 General comments
Determination of the stiffness modulus requires longer tests that typically extend
beyond the mix design context. For certain materials (e.g. AC-EME), it nonetheless
proves necessary to know the mix stiffness modulus in order to ensure that
specifications are being met.
Depending on possibilities available in the laboratory, various stages of experimental
designs can be developed using either the direct tensile test or the complex modulus
test.
⎯ Complex modulus:
It is possible to derive a rough design by directly conducting a test at 15°C /
10 Hz.
⎯ Modulus determination test in direct tension (MAER):
Modulus at 15°C and 0,02 sec: this modulus value is greater than or equal to the
complex modulus at 15°C / 10 Hz.
For AC-EME in particular, the direct tensile modulus often exceeds the complex
modulus.

Regarding the contour of the index curves at a given temperature, in the absence of
experimental values, the time-temperature equivalence principle may be applied
along with the following relation:
∆H 1 1
aT(T,Ts) = exp [ ( − )]
R T Ts
∆H: in the vicinity of 50 kcal/mole
R: perfect gas constant = 8,35

3.6.3.2 Effect of mix design factors

The variations in stiffness modulus vs. compacity variation ∆C may be approximated


by means of the following equation where Tlext is the binder content “out of the mix”:
∆E = (2,000 – 310 TL ext) ∆CTLext
(Equation established with solid mineral aggregates N and a 40/50 bitumen)

The bitumen content effect may then be approximated using this equation:
∆E = (18,000 – 3,700 TL ext) ∆TLext

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(Equation established with solid mineral aggregates N and a 40/50 bitumen)

Example: Impact of mix design factors on the direct tensile modulus

Effect of F on the modulus 10°C,0,02s

9,50
9,00
modulus 10°C,0,02s

8,50
8,00
7,50
7,00
6,50
6,00
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Filler content

3.6.3.3 Loss of linearity

The loss of linearity Γ, as defined in the test standard, is determined for a 30-second
loading time and 0°C temperature.
Γ is a first-loading damage indicator and tends to be correlated with microcrack
formation in the mix; for this reason, a correlation with fatigue resistance could be
derived (see Section 3.6.4).
With stiff materials, such as AC-EME, material fractures are observed prior to
reaching the 500 µdef threshold.

3.6.3.4 Direct tensile modulus - complex modulus equivalence relation

Theoretical formulae have been developed to correlate modulus values E(θ,t)


and E(θ,f).
At 10°C or 15°C, the modulus values for a 10-Hz frequency and 0,02-sec loading
time may be considered as equivalent.
This equivalence has been experimentally verified to a large extent. Deviations have
however been detected on certain materials [up to 4000 MPa].

Example of experimental relationship between E15°C 10Hz and E15°C 0.02 s:

E15°C10 Hz = 0,989 × E15°C 0.02 s − 15,168


R 2 = 0 , 974

[RILEM '97, Lyon - p. 225]

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3.6.3.5 Estimations of mix modulus values

The stiffness modulus of the mix may be estimated by means of empirical equations
through the introduction of a range of approximations.
Ugé's method:
(
Ig Sm = 8 + 10 −3 5,68 Vg + 0,2135 vg 2 )
[Bitumen and asphalt mixes, BL.NSV]
For bitumen samples with a stiffness modulus value Sb (expressed in MPa) either
measured or determined using the Van Der Poel abacus, the mix modulus can be
estimated by employing the nomograph shown in Figure 29 with respect to bitumen
volume Vb and aggregate volume VG.

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Figure 29: Nomograph for calculating mix stiffness modulus values

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The stiffness modulus values generated using this method may deviate from
experimental values by a factor of 2.
Shell method: Estimation of the bitumen modulus (Péné + TBA); computation of the
mix modulus based on granular compacity and loading time or frequency).
The standard modulus calculation formula is given by:
n
⎡ 2,5 Cv ⎤
S m = S b ⎢1 + × ⎥ , in MPa.
⎣ n 1 − Cv ⎦

4 × 10−4 Vg
n = 0.83 lg and Cv =
Sb Vg + Vb
This relation is applicable to highly compact mixes (≅ 3% voids).
100 × Cv
For other asphalt mixes, Cv is replaced by Cv' =
100 + v − 3
with v = percentage of voids.
Francken's method: The elastic modulus E∞ is calculated (for low temperature and
high frequency values):
0 , 55
⎛ Vg ⎞
× e (−5,81×10 ) , in MPA
−2
E∞ = 1,436 ×10 × ⎜ ⎟
4

⎝ Vb ⎠
Vg: aggregate volume in the mix,
Vb: binder volume in the mix,
v: percentage of residual voids in the mix.
The complex modulus E * is proportional to the elastic modulus via the "reduced
modulus R*" function:
E * = R * xE∞

R* depends on the bitumen consistency at a given temperature and frequency, as


Vg
expressed by G* and the ratio on the following graph:
Vb

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These methods do not account for the effect of aggregate type.

3.6.4 Fatigue

3.6.4.1 General comments

The fatigue test is not performed as part of the mix development stage.
It is still possible however to estimate fatigue resistance values by means of empirical
relationships. Keep in mind that these assessment formulae are invalidated by
changing the type of bitumen and must therefore be used as a relative gauge.

3.6.4.2 Prediction based on the direct tensile test

(
ε 6 = 10 −4 A0 + A1 (1 − Γ ) + A2 × E 0,300 s )
Γ is the loss of linearity, and
E0,300s is the modulus at 0°C and 300 sec.
The relationships between fatigue resistance ε6 and loss of linearity Γ have been
obtained from two databases, built by R. Linder and F. Moutier, respectively.

Table 39 - Fatigue - loss of linearity relationship

LINDER coefficients MOUTIER coefficients


Pure bitumen
Ao 2,69 2,39
A1 5,24 3,30
-6
A2 8,71 10 -

Confidence interval on ε6 (MOUTIER coefficients) + 0,26 10-6 (for approximately 40


mix designs).

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3.6.4.3 The Shell prediction method (Shell pavement design methods, 1978)

ε6 may be estimated from the following equation:


−0 , 36
⎛ S ⎞
ε 6 = 10 × (17.4 × Vb + 22)× ⎜⎜ m ⎟⎟
−6

⎝ 5 000 ⎠
Vb: bitumen volume, expressed in %, and
Sm: stiffness modulus of the mix, in MPa.

3.6.4.4 Francken's prediction method (fatigue test with imposed stresses)

ε = KN −0 , 21σ 0

b
K =Λ
b + vm

Λ: depends on both the thermal susceptibility B’ of bitumen and


bitumen penetration at the loading time,
b: binder volume,
vm = y (ma / 100 )
b/(b+vm) is the percentage of voids filled by the binder.

3.6.4.5 LPC method

The ε6 value for bitumen content TL with respect to compacity variation ∆C for
bitumen content TL can be approximated by the following equation:
∆(ε 6 ) = 3,3 ∆C

ε 6 = (− 125 + 72TL − 4,85TL2 + 3,3∆C )10 −6

This equation was established for solid mineral materials N with mass density
2,85 g/cm3 and a 40/50-grade bitumen.

3.6.4.6 Formula adjustment to improve fatigue resistance

For binder contents below 7%, fatigue resistance rises with bitumen content [a 1%
increase in bitumen content offers the potential of gaining 25 µdef on the value of ε6].

3.6.5 Texture

3.6.5.1 General comments


Texture is measured on the slabs from the slab compactor with a thickness
corresponding to that practiced on the jobsite, and preferentially of dimensions
500 mm x 600 mm.

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An average texture depth (ATD) test is performed on the slab, as set forth in the
EN 13036-1.
As an initial approximation, the following formula can be employed:
ATD (PmT) = ATD (PmT) + 0,3 mm

3.6.5.2 Adjustment to the average texture depth value


Table 40 - Adjustment to average texture depth

Average texture depth (ATD)


Less than the targeted value Much lower than the targeted value
Decrease the % fine aggregate by 5 points and Create a discontinuity and adjust the
increase the > 6 mm proportion percentage of fine aggregate

3.6.6 Ancillary tests

3.6.6.1 Percentages of communicating voids (NF P 98-254-2)


This test consists of sealing the walls and base of a mix specimen with
a known percentage of voids. The quantity of water absorbed by the
specimen yields the volume of communicating voids, as expressed in
percentage terms compared to the volume of voids; the resulting value
generally lies between 16% and 20% for the PA-BBDr material.

3.6.6.2 Cantabre Test (EN 12 697-17)


This shock resistance test is practiced on Porous Asphalt mixtures and,
above all else, highlights binder consistency properties. Its relevance
with respect to behavior under road conditions remains to be
demonstrated.

3.6.6.3 Drainage (EN 12697- 18)


This test is practiced on drainage mixes as well as stone mastic asphalt
(SMA); it takes place at the mixing temperature and is intended to
evaluate the loss of mastic during material transport. Two methods may
be employed herein: the "basket" method for drainage materials, and
the Schellenberg method for SMA.

3.6.6.4 Specimen permeability (EN 12697- 19)


This test also applies to drainage mixes. A constant-height water
column is placed on a cylindrical specimen and percolates into the
specimen for a given period of time, either vertically or horizontally.

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3.7 Practitioners' advice

3.7.1 Effect of mix design factors – Summary


Table 41 - Practitioners' advice – Mix refinement [for a given type of mix] –
Summary of the effect of mix design factors

Factors / effect Induced effect


Increase % fine aggregate Rutting risk
Percentage of voids
+++ --
Increase discontinuity Rutting risk
To decrease
++ --
Increase 10% rounded fine
Rutting risk
aggregate
---
++
Increase bitumen content Rutting risk
+ --
Increase enhancer
Water resistance -
+
Increase bitumen content Rutting risk
+ -
Increase activated fines
+
2/6 fraction Decrease percentage of voids
-
% fine aggregate Fatigue, sealant
Rutting resistance
+++ -
Increase angularity Voids
To increase
++ -
Lower bitumen content Fatigue / water resistance
+ -
Lower bitumen grade Top-down cracking
+ -
Increase incorporation of PE
++
Increase special bitumen
++
bitumen hardness Top-down cracking
Stiffness modulus
++ -
binder content
++
Rutting / fatigue
To increase (The stiffness modulus first
-
rises, then drops as a function
of binder content.)
Increase inclusion of PE
+
+++ Very positive effect on the characteristic needing --- Very negative effect on another characteristic
correction

++ Positive effect on the characteristic needing -- Negative effect on another characteristic


correction

+ Medium or weak effect on the characteristic needing - Risk of negative effect on another characteristic
correction

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3.7.2 Practical tips for the mix designer


During the mix design study, it is possible: to select the order by which the various
properties are to be verified, or to provisionally streamline verification methods to
save time and reduce material quantities, or to take the liberty to investigate broader
variation ranges among the set of mix parameters.

Priority must be assigned to achieving the main targeted characteristic, once the
compactibility characteristics have been verified. As an example, when devising the
AC-EME mix design, the stiffness modulus at 15°C / 10 Hz is to be verified, and
should fatigue-related properties be studied, just a single test level at the intended
deformation for 106 cycles will be performed. If the result obtained exceeds this life
cycle duration, the full panoply of tests may be undertaken. At this stage, the
predictive relations involving mechanical characteristics (modulus, fatigue) vs. mix
design factors can be introduced to optimize the design more quickly, for subsequent
summary verification prior to the full test.

In all cases, as the optimization process unfolds, it remains possible to reduce the
number of samples (e.g. a single Gyratory Compactor specimen, a single Wheel
Tracking Tester specimen, scaled-down version of the ITSR method B test (Duriez
test), just one fatigue level). It is entirely feasible to test two different mix design
specimens during the same Wheel Tracking test.
On the other hand, as regards the final design, the complete battery of tests proves
necessary for each one of the specified properties.

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4 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LABORATORY AND FIELD RESULTS


Since the French method has been based on specifying characteristics in the
laboratory for a given mix, it is still necessary to comprehend the relationships
existing between results obtained from a sample prepared in the laboratory and a
sample extracted in the field. The consistency of this approach (laboratory
evaluation / performance predictions for pavements) was verified for certain data
points. The magnitude of economic stakes tied to actual performance obtained from
the pavement along with the evolution in production and implementation capacities
necessitate however focusing, for shorter-interval periods, on the correspondence
between values measured on specimens made in the laboratory and those generated
on the jobsite.
This verification step was performed during a number of studies conducted on
various properties, such as gyratory compactor compactibility, rutting, stiffness
modulus and fatigue resistance. The approach adopted in all cases consisted of
comparing results from laboratory analysis (ensuring that components tested were
actually being used onsite) with results obtained from samples extracted in the field,
in including a careful estimation of their variability.
As regards rutting properties, the results presented stem from two specific jobsite vs.
laboratory comparative studies conducted in France and the United States. For the
properties of compactibility with the gyratory compactor, stiffness modulus and
fatigue resistance, results were drawn from the LPC research topic: "CH15 : Design
of hot asphalt mixes". In this particular study, the mix was prepared in the laboratory
by varying the binder content around the design value, which led to an initial set of
laboratory results. On worksites, the group of results for a given mix and specific test
comprised a large number of sample extractions (> 20). A comparative assessment
of these two results has yielded the conclusions laid out in the following sections.

4.1 Percentage of voids measured with the Gyratory Compactor (GC)

4.1.1 Experimental objective

On several worksites, results were collected from:


- the preliminary design, carried out prior to initiating the works;
- laboratory verification using actual site materials;
- site tests, with mix materials being output from the mixing plant, by means of
the "onboard" Gyratory Compactor; and
- percentage of voids measurements using a gamma-densitometer by
transmission (or in certain cases using a retro-diffusion gamma-densitometer
after calibration).
Compaction conditions at the measurement point locations were also verified.
Conditions at the analyzed worksites are summarized in the following table:

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Table 42 - Site conditions

Type of mix - Layer -


Site Application Type of worksite
Category thickness

AC20-GB - Category 2 Spreading


Volcanic aggregates 1 Base Full width 8 m
Major highway worksite
(gabros, rhyolite, 10 cm Compaction
rhyolitic tuff)
RN 7 (2 layers) 2 tire - 5 tons/wheel Pace: 4000 tons/day
35/50 bitumen 4,2% ext 2 smooth (Dynapac 511)
Spreading
AC20-GB - Category 3 Variable width
Volcanic aggregates 2
Foundation approx. 4 m Small job successfully
(gabros, rhyolite,
rhyolitic tuff) 13 cm Compaction completed
RN 7 1 tire - 5 tons/wheel
35/50 bitumen 4,8% ext
1 smooth (Dynapac 511)
Spreading
AC14-GB - Category 3 3 Foundation Width 8 m Medium-sized
Microdiorite aggregates 10 cm Compaction construction site
35/50 bitumen 4,2% ext RN 149 (3 layers) 2 tires - 3 tons/wheel Pace: 1500 tons/day
2 smooth (CC 501)

AC14-GB - Category 3 Spreading


4 Foundation Width 8 m
Vescular basalt Highway building site
9 cm Compaction
aggregates Pace: 2000 tons/day
A 89 (2 layers) 2 tires - 5 tons/wheel
35/50 bitumen 4,2% ext 2 vibrating (CB 624)
AC20-EME - Category 2 Spreading
5 Foundation Width 3,,5 m Small jobsite with
Volcanic aggregates considerable number of
(gabros, rhyolite, 10 cm Compaction
rhyolitic tuff) project hazards, difficult
RN 7 (2 layers) 1 tire + 1 smooth
10/20 bitumen 5,8% ext working environment
variable compaction
Spreading
AC10-BBSG 6 Binder Full width 10 m Major highway project
Microdiorite aggregates course Compaction Pace: 3000 to
35/50 bitumen 4,8% ext RN 7 5 cm 3 tires - 4 tons/wheel 3500 tons/day
3 smooth (CC 501)
Note: The tire compactors used, depending on the type of mix, were ballasted between 3 and 5 tons/wheel. Only the grave-
bitume AC-GB from the A89 highway job, recognized as difficult to compact, has been compacted by means of vibration using
approximately 6 to 8 passes of a medium-loaded vibrating roller; The other mixes are compacted according to the protocol of the
heavy front tire followed by a smooth compactor.

4.1.2 Results
For the 0/20 mixes, the criterion selected for the Gyratory Compactor (GC) test is the
percentage of voids at 120 gyrations, while for the 0/14 and 0/10 Asphalt Concrete
AC-BBSG mixtures this criterion is the percentage of voids at 100 gyrations and
60 gyrations, respectively.
The reference value is set as the "design verification", since this criterion seems the
most reliable, given that it has been obtained using materials found onsite.

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The variability study was conducted on jobsites implementing LCPC's mobile


Gyratory Compactor (GC), along with a parallel fabrication control. An example of
obtained results is provided in Figure 30 below:

Figure 30: Example of GC variability in the percentage of voids obtained onsite

AC20-GB - Class 2 - % of voids at 120 gyrations


12,0

10,0
% voids at 120 gyrations

8,0

6,0
Void content by
G yratory com paction
4,0 Specific result
Laboratory validation
M ean value of 32
2,0 G yratory results

Prelim inary type testing


0,0
P1

P2

P3

P4

P6

P7

P8

2
P1

P1

P1

P1

P1

P1

P1

P2

P2

P2

P2

P2

P2

P3

P3
Bitum en content -0,2 0,2 -0,4 0,1 Deviation
from the
% Fines 0,3 0,6 -0,3 1
theoretical
% passing the 2-m m sieve -2 2 -4 4 form ula

The main output relative to the preliminary design, verifications, variability and field
results have been compiled in Table 43.

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Table 43 - % of void measurements – Comparison of laboratory compactor results (design,


verification) with onsite results (Gyratory compactor, bulk density (MVA) measurement using
gamma-densitometry)
Deviation
Number Average Min Max Spread
Site No. % of voids from the
of tests % % % %
verification
1 Asphalt concrete for base AC20-GB - Class 2 – RN 7
Preliminary design * *** 10,8 + 3,6
Design verification * *** 7,2 -
Inspection on sizable
10 7,4 6,5 9,2 2,7 + 0,2
sample (Autun) *
Mobile Gyratory
32 7,4 6,2 9,4 3,2 + 0,2
Compactor *
Jobsite ** 148 9 7,3 11,7 4,4 + 1,8
2 Asphalt concrete for base AC20-GB - Class 3 – RN 7
Preliminary design * *** 7,1 + 2,0
Design verification * *** 5,1 -
Mobile Gyratory
8 6,3 4,3 7,7 3,4 + 1,2
Compactor *
Jobsite ** 10 6,5 4,7 8,4 3,7 + 1,4
3 Asphalt concrete for base course AC20-GB 3, 6/10 gap-graded - Class 3 – RN 149
Preliminary design (*) *** 9,9 + 2,0
( )
Design verification * *** 7,9 -
Mobile Gyratory
41 9,1 7,6 10,4 2,8 - 1,2
Compactor (*)
Jobsite (**) 41 8,2 5,6 11,2 4,4 + 0,3
5 High modulus asphalt concrete for base course AC20 (EME 0/20) - Class 2 – RN 7
Preliminary design (*) *** 3,9 + 1,0
Design verification (*) *** 2,9 -
Mobile Gyratory
23 3,3 1,8 5,2 3,4 + 0,4
Compactor (*)
Jobsite ** 81 5,5 2,2 10 7,8 + 2,6
6 Asphalt concrete AC10-BBSG – RN 7
[ ]
Preliminary design * *** 9,4 + 2,6
Design verification
Mobile Gyratory *** 6,8 -
Compactor (LCPC) [*]
Design verification
Gyratory Compactor *** 7,4
(LR Autun) [*]
Mobile Gyratory
32 7,8 6,2 9,4 3,2 + 1,0
Compactor [*]

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Deviation
Number Average Min Max Spread
Site No. % of voids from the
of tests % % % %
verification
Jobsite (**) 40 6,5 4,0 8,6 4,6 - 0,3
( ) [ ]
* Results using the Gyratory Compactor at 120 gyrations, * at 100 gyrations, * at 60 gyrations

( )
** Inspection using the point gamma-densitometer, ** Inspection using the back-scattering gamma-densitometer

*** Average of at least 3 repetitions

4.1.3 Comments
The Gyratory Compaction test specifications associated with product standards have
been met for all laboratory verifications using site components.
The results obtained for in situ percentage of void measurements using the gamma-
densitometer comply with standard-based specifications (i.e. the average onsite
value measured must be comparable with designated thresholds). For the majority of
jobsites, the results derived practically all satisfy the limits indicated in the standard.
For site no, 5, submitted to execution uncertainties, results show greater dispersion.
Deviations between the preliminary design with Gyratory Compactor and the design
verification step may appear and to a significant extent (such is the case for AC20-
GB for base course , class 2 [binder content > 4,0% (int), stiffness > 9000 MPa,
fatigue > 80 µdef] (site no. 1) and class 3 [binder content > 4,4% (int), stiffness >
9000 MPa, fatigue > 90 µdef] (site no. 2): 3,6% and 2,0% deviation), due to the non-
representativeness of preliminary design materials and sometimes to a sizable lag
between preliminary design and site execution (case of the AC14-GB for base course
at site no, 3: 2% deviation, 4-year time differential).
For conventional materials and appropriate application conditions, the percentage of
voids yielded by the Gyratory compactor test during the verification step with jobsite
components provides a satisfactory order-of-magnitude estimation of the percentage
of voids found on site, The maximum deviation comes to between -1,2% and +1,4%.
In the case of faulty compaction (i.e. site no. 5), the average value controlled using
the gamma-densitometer is abnormally high (+ 2% vs. the verification value), with a
very wide dispersion (9% spread).
The laboratory verification with worksite components and the average site value with
the mobile Gyratory lead to the same orders of magnitude, taking into account the
test reproducibility.
The variability in percentage of void figures measured on construction sites (with the
gamma-densitometer) is always greater than that using the mobile Gyratory, since
outside of fluctuations specific to the material (as reflected in large part by the
Gyratory test), application-related fluctuations are at work (layer thickness, support
bearing capacity, and especially compaction energy). In the general case, the
averages of these two populations compare closely with one another.
Specifications relative to the percentage of voids indicated in the product standards
are realistic and, in most instances, well respected.

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Provided that aggregate samples are highly representative, which is the case here
for the "verification" step, Gyratory tests prove to be effective predictors of average
field values.
The production process does not exert any impact on the average "percentage of
voids" parameter. The production average value is the same as that derived during
the laboratory investigation. The production process in fact introduces a variability
of +1,5%.

4.2 Large device wheel tracking test

4.2.1 The studies conducted in France


The comparative studies performed on the basis of sample preparation protocol (in
the laboratory, mixed – i.e. mixing plant production and laboratory compaction, and
from mix plate samples extracted on worksites) systematically demonstrate the
enhanced rutting resistance of field materials. This deviation however is inconsistent
and depends on material sensitivity to rutting.
As an initial approximation, the following may be adopted:
- a rather close similarity in results, provided the mix design displays decent rutting
resistance (e.g. less than 5% at 30000 cycles): deviation of 1% to 2% lower in favor
of the worksite;
- a major deviation in the formula sensitive to rutting (e.g. 10% at 3000 cycles); this
difference could reach tenfold in terms of number of cycles, for a given level of
permanent deformation, which could (as an illustration) reflect a laboratory rut depth
of 10% at 3000 cycles, in comparison with a 10% onsite rut depth after 30000 cycles.

Figures 32, 33 and 34 show examples of results obtained during wheel tracking
experiments conducted in 1992 on the LCPC-Nantes accelerated test carousel.

Figure 31: LCPC Fatigue Carousel

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Figure 32: Results obtained with the Large Device wheel tracking Tester - Study of laboratory
rutting

100
50/70

multigrade 50/70

AC-EME
10/20
% frutting

SBS
10

1
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Number of cycles

Figure 33: Results obtained with the Large Device wheel tracking Tester - Study of rutting on
plant-produced mixes

100

50/70

multigrade 50/70
% rutting

10
Hard

SBS

1
100 10000 1000000
Number of cycles

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Figure 34: Behavior of mixes on the LCPC test carousel,


evolution of rut depth submitted to a single large wheel (F = 42,5 kN, V = 40 km/h)

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 50000 100000 150000 200000
Number of loadings
BB Reference BB EM BB SBS

It could be anticipated that producing a plant mix leads to likely evolution through
binder aging, potentially associated with a modified bitumen structure (eventually
characterized by lower thermal susceptibility of the binder), and thus to improved
rutting resistance. Though laboratory rutting behavior offers a more pessimistic view
than reality on the worksite, the conclusion of systematically accommodating a higher
level of laboratory rutting may not be forwarded. The benchmark for design
specifications is based directly on both results determined in the laboratory,
according to the laboratory mixing method protocol, and actual behavioral
observations made on pavements, depending on the combination of mechanical and
thermal loadings.
In seeking to determine the resistance to rutting from field sampling, it would be
necessary to modify and strengthen specifications in order to account for the
discrepancies between laboratory and jobsite that were mentioned above, by
recalling that deviations also depend on material sensitivity, which significantly
complicates the determination of these new thresholds. Rutting results, when
obtained using different sample preparation modes, must never be compared.

4.2.2 Colorado study


Towards the beginning of the 1990's, a major study was conducted by the U,S,
Federal Highway Agency (FHWA) in the state of Colorado (T, Aschenbrener),
intended to assess the pertinence of the LPC large device wheel tracking test as a
means for qualifying field behavior. This study consisted of comparing LPC wheel
tracking test results (extraction of in situ material plates) to older pavement surfacing
with known onsite performance (rut depth measured on the pavement). The origin of
material rutting flaws on these test sections had been due to either defective design
or construction (poor mix design), thereby making material age, which from a rutting

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perspective tends to reduce deformation (i.e. binder hardening due to aging).


potentially considered as a secondary factor. A total of 31 sites were selected. The
comparisons of laboratory and field results have been summarized in the following
table:

Table 44 – Comparison between the field behavior of material mixes and


the acceptance or rejection criterion according to French specifications

Effective field performance


No rutting Rutting
Results obtained with Good* 4 0
LCPC large device Poor* 11 16
wheel tracking test
NOTE: A good or poor indication with respect to French specifications < 10% at 30,000 cycles and a 60°C test temperature

These results led to the following conclusions (extracted from the study article):

- The study has highlighted the capacity of the rut tester to predict pavement
behavior;
- The correlations of LCPC rut tester results with rutting depth in the field are
excellent when temperature is taken into account (based on two levels: laboratory
testing at 50°C and 60°C for onsite temperatures of 27-32°C and 32-38°C,
respectively) along with site traffic (once again based on two levels: above and below
an EDLA value of 400).

(The LCPC wheel tracking test on Colorado pavements – T. Aschenbrener –


Colorado Department of Transportation, USA – RGRA No, 729 – May 1995)

It is recalled that temperature and especially legal load conditions are very different
between the United States and France (in terms of axle load: just 80 kN in the U.S.
vs. 130 kN in France). Since these parameters exert a strong impact on the
resistance to rutting, account should be made of this fact in both test protocols and
specification thresholds.

4.2.3 Ranking of mix rutting behavior


The ranking of mixes, according to their sensitivity to rutting, remains identical
between laboratory and worksite (provided the mix design has been respected).
Nonetheless, laboratory testing is a better indicator of deviations among material
compositions than data obtained from field samples. The selectivity inherent in
laboratory tests, with respect to the rutting criterion, proves highly relevant in terms of
in situ behavior and facilitates differentiation across materials, making it possible to
study sensitivity and composition optimization factors.

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4.3 Stiffness modulus test

4.3.1 Experimental objective and procedure


The French mix design method relies on the laboratory determination of various
characteristics that allow predicting the in situ performance of bituminous materials,
An LPC research project (CH 15: "Design of hot asphalt mixes") was thus undertaken
to respond to such questions. This program purposely focused on pavement
structure materials (primarily asphalt concrete for base course (AC-GB grave-bitume)
and AC-EME high-modulus asphalt concrete mixes) in addressing, to the greatest
extent possible, the main categories of materials used in road and highway
structures, along with a wide range of aggregate origins.
In particular, it was sought to characterize the variations in stiffness modulus
obtained in the field. To proceed, some 20 extraction sites were determined in the
field, distributed over the entire length of the jobsite (approximately 10 km). At each
site, two core samples 150 mm and 300 mm in diameter were produced. The
150 mm samples yielded prismatic specimens for determining the direct tensile
modulus, In each of the 300-mm diameter samples, 3 trapezoidal specimens were
extracted in order to derive the complex modulus. The identification of 3 individual
results at any single point served to estimate local variability.
Field values were then compared with laboratory values on materials produced using
the worksite formulation and components.

Figure 35: In situ core sampling Figure 36: In situ sawing

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4.3.2 Results

4.3.2.1 In situ variability

Two examples of the variability obtained on a AC-GB grave bitume foundation layer
are shown in the following figures:

Figure 37: Variability in stiffness modulus on in situ extractions (site no, 1)

Modulus variability at 15°C


Modulus (MPA

17000
16000
15000
Modulus (MPA)

14000
13000
12000 MAER prismatic 0,02 sec

11000 |E*| 10 Hz (average 3 samples)

10000
0 5 10 15 20 25
Sample number

Figure 38: Variability in stiffness modulus on in situ extractions (site no, 2)

Modulus variability at 15 °C

17000
16000
Modulus (MPA

15000
Modulus (MPA)

14000
13000
12000
MAER prismatic 0.02 sec
11000
10000 |E*| 10 Hz (average 3 samples
9000
1 6 11 16 21
Sample number

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The weak level of dispersion should be noted between the 3 complex modulus values
measured on the 3 specimens originating from a single coring. The average deviation
between the 3 values measured at 15°C / 10 Hz comes to 460 MPa, with all
individual deviations lying below 700 MPa (except for a single point, where this
deviation reached 1100 MPa).

For the two worksites examined herein, out of some twenty extractions performed, a
dispersion on the order of 25% to 40% was observed, i.e. a coefficient of variation
equal to 5,5% to 9,1%.
It should also be pointed out that in both cases, the values measured onsite exceed
the specifications for bituminous aggregates. Attention can nonetheless be drawn to
the case of site no. 2. where the lowest value obtained randomly (on the order of
9450 MPa for a void content of 9,6%), lies close to the threshold value of the class 3
of grave-bitume, AC-GB3 specification. This value is indeed significant in that the
moduli measured on the three specimens stemming from the same core sample
display a small deviation of 400 MPa.
On the two studied sites the complex modulus at 15°C, 10 Hz and the direct tensile
modulus at 15°C, 0,02s are of the same order of magnitude for most of the extraction
sites.

4.3.2.2 Worksite - laboratory comparison


For both field sites discussed above, the average value of complex moduli measured
onsite is situated close to that resulting from the laboratory study.
Figure 39 offers a summary of results obtained from all studied sites under
investigation and underscores the following elements:
• the main laboratory results (minimum, average and maximum value from among
the full set of results: composition variants, various measurement methods);
• the main field results (minimum, average and maximum value from the set of
measurement results); and
• for sites not incorporated into any variability study, an estimation of extreme
values derived by applying an arbitrary variability of 30%,

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Figure 39: Laboratory-worksite correlation:


Stiffness modulus at 15°C (0,02 sec or 10 Hz)

Comparison of sets of results


Modulus, in
MPa

22000 Interval of
worksite 20500
20000 values
19124

18000
16639
16246 16075
16000
14833 14892 Mini

14000
13155
12600 Ave
12267 12168 12346
11881 11722
12000
Max
9723
10000

8000
Laboratory

Laboratory
Laboratory

Laboratory

Laboratory
Jobsite 1

Jobsite 1

Range 30%

Range 30%
Range 30%
Jobsite
SITE 2
Jobsite

SITE 3
Jobsite

Jobsite

SITE 4

SITE 5
SITE 3

SITE 4

SITE 5

SITE 5
Jobsite
SITE 2

SITE3

SITE4

The range of field results for a given site was determined simply by taking maximum
and minimum values from the entire set of results obtained.
It could be observed that the variability in laboratory-measured values was of small
magnitude.
The laboratory-measured values correspond well with the average field-measured
values for sites 1, 4 and 5 and with the minimum values measured on sites 2 and 3.
Standards specify minimum stiffness modulus values (at 15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02 sec)
measured in the laboratory. These values are then used for designing the pavement
structures. For asphalt concrete for base course (AC-GB graves-bitume) [Classes 2
and 3], the minimum value equals 9000 MPa; for AC-EME high-modulus mixes, this
value climbs to 14000 MPa.
For all 5 sites, the minimum modulus values measured in the field are either greater
than or equal to the minimum value specified in laboratory tests.
The onsite performance between asphalt concrete for base course AC-GB and high-
modulus asphalt concrete mixes, AC-EME turns out to be highly differentiated.
It proves impossible, from these results, to detect any "material nature" effect.

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4.4 Fatigue test

4.4.1 Experimental objective and procedure


Along the same lines as for stiffness modulus values, this CH15 research project on
"Design of hot asphalt mixes" focused on the fatigue performance of pavement
structure materials (Grave bitume AC-GB and high-modulus mixes AC-EME for the
most part) by means of encompassing, to the greatest extent possible, the main
categories of materials used in road and highway structures, as well as aggregates of
widely-varying origins.
Series of large-diameter core samples were extracted on sites featuring asphalt
concrete for base course (Graves-bitume) AC-GB and asphalt concrete for surface
courses mixes AC-BBSG. These samples yield trapezoidal specimens that allow
conducting about ten fatigue tests (protocol calling for a smaller number of replicas),
so as to derive an estimation of worksite variability. Only results from the A77
highway site, using a asphalt concrete for base course Class 3 (AC-GB class 3), will
be presented here.

4.4.2 Results obtained


Figure 40 displays a summary of the fatigue results obtained in accordance with the
various sample preparation protocols,
Figure 40: Summary of fatigue test results by sample preparation protocol
(preliminary design, laboratory verification, onsite extractions)

variability of epsilon 6
110

105

100
epsilon6 (µdefs)

95

90

85

80
te

y
1

10

ud

ud
si

measurement location
st

st
e
ag

ry
y
ar
er

to
in

ra
av

im

bo
el

la
pr

The results obtained on this site incite the following comments:


⎯ A small dispersion in mechanical properties:
• average stiffness modulus variation (average of 4 repeated tests per
site): 10940 to 13584 MPa (± 10% of average value);

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• the fatigue criterion varies from 91 to 106 µdef (± 7% of average value).


⎯ In conjunction with these findings, it has been observed that placement
conditions are very well respected (9 to 10 cm thickness, 3 to 5% void content on
tested samples, i.e. 1 or 2 points more in place for the foundation void content).
⎯ A very strong level of correspondence between preliminary design,
laboratory verification and average "site" findings. The deviations in both modulus
(1300-MPa spread) and fatigue (5-µdef spread) are less than the test tolerance
ranges.
⎯ A compensation between modulus values and the fatigue criterion for onsite
extractions (in general, as the modulus increases, the fatigue criterion decreases
and vice versa).
⎯ A very high level of regularity from fatigue tests on the "site" samples, with
test dispersion reflected by the residual standard deviation σx/y being limited (on
average 0,48 and a min/max spread of 0,33 to 0,67); this value is to be
compared with the laboratory verification result (σx/y = 0,67). These results
confirm efficient worksite scheduling, thereby leading to dispersions no greater
than those observed on the laboratory preparations.
⎯ As for the asphalt concrete for base course (Grave-bitume) class 3 AC-GB3
standard specifications (modulus of 9000 MPa and fatigue > 90 µdef), the
individual results from onsite extractions always exceed these thresholds,
especially for modulus value (confirmation from experience gained on modulus
measurements). In contrast, the fatigue criterion remains narrowly limited
(minimum of 91 µdef).
⎯ It is also to be noted that the percentage of voids lies below the range
established in the standard for determining mechanical properties (i.e. 7% to
10% for asphalt concrete for base course (Grave-bitume) class 2, AC-GB2 and
class 3, AC-GB3, yet 5% and 10% for a category 4). This asphalt concrete for
base course (AC-GB Grave-bitume) category 4, AC-GB4 is the one sought by
the highway sector; the target modulus thus stands at 11000 MPa and
Epsilon 6 > 100 µdef; these values, on average, are attained yet such is not the
case for the minimum fatigue values.

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4.5 Synthesis of the relationships between laboratory and field results

The method described in the certified 2nd-generation French standards and thus in
EN 13108 series, as presented in this guide's second chapter on "Type testing of
asphalt mixtures", has been verified for structural type materials. Results obtained in
the laboratory on commonly-used worksite materials comply with requirements laid
out in the standards.
The consistency of the approach based on laboratory-determined performance has
been verified:
1. For percentage of void values measured using the gyratory
compactor, which comply with the ranges prescribed in the standards and
are representative of measured in situ values, the production process does
not introduce any bias;
2. For stiffness modulus measurements, which also comply with
standard prescriptions and for which field values are either equal to or
greater than laboratory measurements. As regards the modulus values, it
should be noted that a single isolated value from a site extraction cannot be
generalized for the purpose of bringing into question the pavement design.
3. Concerning fatigue tests, the material studied exhibited
performance values below the expected benchmark (AC-GB3 instead of AC-
GB4), The correlation between laboratory values and field values is quite
good and shows little dispersion.
4. The orders of magnitude for dispersion observed on sites where
the current state-of-the-art has been adequately respected are as follows:
• Gyratory Compactor: base course mixtures ± 2 to 2,5 points,
surface layer mixtures ± 1 to 1,5 points
• Modulus values: ± 20% to 30%
• Fatigue: ± 10% to 15%
• Rut depth (large device):approximately 2 points for a mixture
showing little sensitivity to rutting (< 5% at 30000 cycles)
5. The mechanical properties measured on a single coring must
not be selected as a hypothesis in carrying out an inverse design calculation
that serves to estimate a new life cycle duration for the project.

The values obtained onsite display an unavoidable level of dispersion. A large


number of results must therefore be available in order to generate an actual view of
in situ performance. The worksite-laboratory results comparison can only be utilized
by incorporating these variability data since study conclusions are capable of
changing entirely, depending on whether the value obtained from a single site sample
is high or low. For this reason, no conclusion should be forwarded on the basis of a
single extraction performed on the worksite.

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- Conclusion -

5 CONCLUSION
All steps associated with this approach have been preserved in the application of EN
standards, including the water-sensitivity in the revised version of the EN standard,
which is assessed via a direct compression test. As regards "structural" materials, it
is indeed possible to apply a "fundamental" approach, a situation already
encountered in today's contracts that implement a rational design process,
In contrast, for wearing course mixtures, the approach employed remains highly
"empirical" (not just in a EN sense of the term, but as commonly understood as well),
The efforts undertaken in refining tests to evaluate surface characteristics of mixes in
the laboratory, along with their durability characteristics, must be pursued in order to
derive a truly fundamental approach in this field.

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- Bibliography - -

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix A – List of normative references -

Appendix A:
List of normative references required for the type testing phase

1 - Normative references relative to mix components

Standard Title

Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for


EN 13043 roads, airfields and other trafficked areas

XP P18-545 Aggregates: Bases for definition, compliance and classification

Test for general properties of aggregates - Part 2: Methods for


EN 932-2 reducing laboratory samples

P 18-559 Measurement of sand and gravel mass density in paraffin oil

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 1:


EN 933-1 Determination of particle size distribution - Sieving method

Aggregates: Determination of the absorbent power of fines


(NF P 98-256-1)(07/91)
(For information: This reference is no longer applied in practice.)
Test for general properties of aggregates - Part 5: Common
EN 932-5 equipment and calibration

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 3:


EN 933-3 Determination of particle shape - Flakiness index

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 5:


EN 933-5 Determination of percentage of crushed and broken surfaces in
coarse aggregate particles

Test for geometrical properties of aggregates - Determination of


EN 933-6 surface characteristics - Part 6: Flow coefficient of aggregates

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 9: Assessment


EN 933-9 of fines - methylene blue test

Test for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 10: Assessment


EN 933-10 of fines - Grading of fillers (air jet sieving)

- 149 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix A – List of normative references -

Standard Title

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 1:


EN 1097-1 Determination of the resistance to wear (micro-Deval)

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 2:


EN 1097-2 Methods for the determination of resistance to fragmentation (Los
Angeles)

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 4:


EN 1097-4 Determination of the voids of dry compacted filler

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 7:


EN 1097-7 Determination of the particle density of filler - pycnometer method

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 8:


EN 1097-8 Determination of the polished stone value

Tests for filler aggregate used in bituminous mixtures - Part 1: Delta


EN 13179-1 ring and ball test

Test sieves – Metal wire cloth, perforated metal plates and


ISO 565 electroformed sheets – Nominal dimensions of sieve openings

Bituminous mixtures – Test methods for hot-mix asphalt – Part 11:


EN 12697-11 Determination of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen

EN 58 Bitumen and bituminous binders - Sampling of bituminous binders

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of needle


EN 1426 penetration

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the softening


EN 1427 point - Ring and ball method

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Specifications for paving grade


EN 12591 bitumen

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of Fraass breaking


EN 12593 point

- 150 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix A – List of normative references -

Standard Title

EN 12594 Bitumen and bituminous binders - Preparation of test samples

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the resistance to


EN 12607-1 hardening under influence of heat and air - Part 1: RTFOT method

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 1:


EN 12697-1 Soluble binder content
Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 3:
EN 12697-3 Bitumen recovery: Rotary evaporator
Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 4:
EN 12697-4 Bitumen recovery: Fractionating column

Bitumen and bituminous binders – Specifications for hard pavig


EN 13924 grade bitumens

Bitumen and bituminous binders – Framework specification for


EN 14023 polymer modified bitumens

2 - Normative references relative to mix sample preparation

Standard Title

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 5:


EN 12697-5 Determination of the maximum density

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 38:
EN 12697-38 Common equipment and calibration

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 35:
EN 12697-35 Laboratory mixing

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 33:
EN 12697-33 Specimen prepared by roller compactor

Pavement-related tests – Preparation of asphalt mixes – Roller


NF P 98-250-3 compaction – Specimen preparation within an asphalt block

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 6:


EN 12697-6 Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens by
hydrostatic methods

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 7:


EN 12697-7 Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens by gamma
rays

- 151 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix A – List of normative references -

Standard Title

Bituminous mixtures - Test method for hot mix asphalt - Part 29:
EN 12697-29 Determination of the dimensions of bituminous specimens

Road and airfield surface characteristics - Test methods - Part 1:


EN ISO 13036-1 Measurement of pavement surface macrotexture depth using a
volumetric patch technique

3 - Normative references relative to laboratory tests

Standard Title
NF P 98-251-1
(to be revised or superseded no later Static tests on bituminous mixtures - The Duriez test conducted on
than end of 2007) hot mix asphalt

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 12:
EN 12697-12 Determination of the water sensitivity of bituminous specimens
(see comments in Appendix D) Method B by compression

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 30:
EN 12697-30 Specimen preparation by impact compactor

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 34:
EN 12697-34 Marshall test

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 31:
EN 12697-31 Specimen preparation by gyratory compactor

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 10:
EN 12697-10 Compactability

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 22:
EN 12697-22 Wheel tracking

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 26:
EN 12697-26 Stiffness

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 24:
EN 12697-24 Resistance to fatigue

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 17:
EN 12697-17 Particle loss of porous asphalt specimens

- 152 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix A – List of normative references -

Standard Title

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 18:
EN 12697-18 Binder drainage test

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods for hot mix asphalt - Part 19:
EN 12697-19 specimen permeability

4 - Normative references relative to the methodology

Standard Title
XP P 98-135
(to be revised or superseded no later Reclaimed asphalt - Classification
than end of 2007)
Asphalt mixes – Terminology – Components and composition of
NF P 98-149 mixtures – Implementation – Products – Techniques and
processes
NF P 98-150-1 Hot bituminous mixtures- Constituent materials, type testing,
mixing, laying, control
EN 13108-1 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Asphalt concretes
Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Very thin layer
EN 13108-2 asphalt concretes BBTM
EN 13108-3 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Softasphalt
EN 13108-4 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Hot-rolled asphalt
Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Stone mastic
EN 13108-5 asphalt
EN 13108-7 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Porous asphalts
EN 13108-8 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Reclaimed asphalt
EN 13108-20 Bituminous mixtures – Materials specification – Type testing

- 153 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix B- EN testing standards

Appendix B:
EN testing standards - EN 12697 series: "Asphalt mixes"
Use recommendations

European standard Comments Recommendation

EN12697-1 Replaces XP T 66041. Recommended


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods Addresses the "cold extraction" application; the binder
for hot mix asphalt – Part 1: Soluble method, the Kumagawa method and content must be
binder content the continuous centrifugation expressed in interior %
methods. instead of exterior %.
Describes asphalt mixes with
polymer modified bitumen;
EN12697-2 Amounts adapted to aggregate
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods quantities recovered at the time of
for hot mix asphalt – Part 2: extraction.
Determination of particle size
distribution
EN 12697-3 No French standard exists on this
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods topic.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 3: Bitumen Cited in XP P 98-135.
recovery: Rotary evaporator
EN12697-4, No French standard exists on this
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods topic.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 4: Bitumen Cited in XP P 98-135.
recovery: Fractionating column
EN12697-5, No French standard exists on this
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods topic.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 5: Water method for the mixture cited
Determination of the maximum in the gyratory compactor standard.
density Good level of correlation with
maximum density, calculated based
on P 18-559, using paraffin oil.

EN12697-6 Replaces NF P 98-250-6, measured Recommended


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods by means of hydrostatic weighing. application:
for hot mix asphalt – Part 6:
Determination of bulk density of Specifications on the percentage of Cores:
bituminous specimens voids during type testing based on – Method C
the gyratory compactor test, not for type AC-BB or GB
affected by these measurement asphalt mixes, EME
methods (direct height-based
– Method D
measurement).
for BBDr asphalt mixes

EN12697-7 Replaces NF P 98-250-5. Nearly


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods identically written.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 7:
Determination of bulk density of
bituminous specimens by gamma
rays

- 154 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix B- EN testing standards

European standard Comments Recommendation

EN12697-8 A definition standard, and not a test. For information


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods purposes.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 8:
Determination of the characteristic
air voids content of bituminous
specimens
EN12697-9 Removed from the
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods European reference
for hot mix asphalt – Part 9: not to be used
Determination of the reference
density
EN12697-10 Interpretation method for a For information
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods compaction test. Does not purposes.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 10: correspond to any specifications.
Compactability
EN12697-11 Cited in EN 13043. Not to be used any
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods Is not used in the current "asphalt longer.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 11: mix" reference.
Determination of the affinity between
aggregate and bitumen
EN12697-12 Method B and preparation of the Due to the low precision
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods specimens by compression of the method (given in
for hot mix asphalt – Part 12: corresponds to the DURIEZ test NF the standard) and the
Determination of the water P 98-251-1 results of experiment, the
sensitivity of bituminous specimens method A is not
recommended.
EN12697-13 No corresponding French standard. Recommended
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods application including on
for hot mix asphalt – Part 13: the jobsites.
Temperature measurement
EN12697-14 No corresponding French standard. Recommended
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods application.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 14: Water
content
EN12697-15 Unstructured method. For information
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods purposes.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 15:
Determination of the segregation
sensitivity
EN12697-16 Not relevant in France.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 16:
Abrasion by studded tires
EN12697-17 Informational; test
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods conditions need to be
for hot mix asphalt – Part 17: specified (temperature in
Particle loss of porous asphalt particular).
specimens
EN12697-18 For information
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods purposes.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 18: Binder Basket method for PA-
drainage test BBDr.

- 155 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix B- EN testing standards

European standard Comments Recommendation

EN12697-19 For information


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods purposes.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 19:
Specimen permeability
EN12697-20 For information
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods purposes,
for hot mix asphalt – Part 20: if D ≤ 11 mm
Indentation using cube or Marshall
specimens
EN12697-21 Replaces T 66-002 Recommended
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods application,
for hot mix asphalt – Part 21: if D > 11 mm
Indentation test using plate
specimens
EN12697-22 Replaces NF P 98-253-1 (The Recommended
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods standard NF P 98-253-1 has been application.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 22: Wheel deleted from the AFNOR reference) Large-device.
tracking test Nearly identically written.
See position of temperature probes.
EN12697-23 Test cited in EN12697-12 See remark of EN
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods 12697-12.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 23:
Determination of the indirect tensile
strength of bituminous specimens
EN12697-24 Replaces NF P 98-261-1.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods Identically written. Appendix A
for hot mix asphalt – Part 24:
Resistance to fatigue
prEN 12697-25
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 25: Cyclic
compression test
EN12697-26 Replaces NF P 98-260-1 and NF P Application solely under
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods 98-260-2. conditions associated
for hot mix asphalt – Part 26: Broader range of operating with "product" standard
Stiffness conditions. specifications (15°C and
10 Hz or 0,02 sec).
Extrapolations from other
loading times are not
considered as valid.
EN12697-27 No corresponding French standard. Application
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 27:
Sampling
EN12697-28 No corresponding French standard.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 28:
Preparation of samples for
determining binder content, water
content and grading
EN12697-29 No corresponding French standard. Application.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 29:
Determination of the dimensions of
bituminous specimens

- 156 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix B- EN testing standards

European standard Comments Recommendation

EN12697-30 Replaces NF P 98-251-3. Informational; with


Bituminous mixtures – Test methods New equipment operating protocol. equipment investment,
for hot mix asphalt – Part 30: this application is
Specimen preparation by impact recommended.
compactor
EN12697-31 Replaces NF P 98-252. Application
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods Nearly identically written, except for
for hot mix asphalt – Part 31: maximum density by direct
Specimen preparation by gyratory measurement according to EN
compactor 12697-5, method A in water.
Possibility of measuring the internal
angle for type compliance.
EN12697-32
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 32:
Laboratory compaction of
bituminous mixtures by vibratory
compactor
EN12697-33 Replaces NF P 98-250-2. Recommended
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods The replaced standard has been application.
for hot mix asphalt – Part 33: included in the new document; yet Device no. 5.1.1
Specimen prepared by roller other equipment set-ups are also
compactor possible.
EN12697-34 Replaces NF P 98-251-3. Informational; with
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods New equipment operating protocol. equipment investment,
for hot mix asphalt – Part 34: this application is
Marshall test recommended.
EN12697-35 Replaces NF P 98-250-1, with a few Application
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods differences: no overheating even if
for hot mix asphalt – Part 35: the mixer is not thermo-regulated.
Laboratory mixing Mixers remain unspecified.
EN12697-36 No corresponding French standard. Application.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 36:
Determination of the thickness of a
bituminous pavement
EN12697-37
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 37: Hot
sand test for the adhesivity of binder
on pre-coated chippings for HRA
(hot-rolled asphalt)
EN12697-38 No corresponding French standard. Application.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 38:
Common equipment and calibration
EN 12697-39 Application.
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 39:
Determination of binder content by
ignition
EN 12697-40 Equipment different from NF P 98-
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods 254-3. Relationship to be
for hot mix asphalt – Part 40: In situ demonstrated.
drainability

- 157 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix B- EN testing standards

European standard Comments Recommendation

EN 12697-41 Airfields
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 41:
Resistance to deicing fluids
EN 12697-42 Application
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 42:
Amount of coarse foreign matter in
reclaimed asphalt
EN 12697-43 Airfields
Bituminous mixtures – Test methods
for hot mix asphalt – Part 43:
Resistance to fuel

- 158 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix C – Equivalence table between TLext and Bint

Appendix C:
Equivalence table between TLext and Bint

Bint for 2,65 TLext for 2,65 TLext for 2,65 Bint for 2,65
3,50 3,63 3,50 3,38
3,60 3,73 3,60 3,47
3,70 3,84 3,70 3,57
3,80 3,95 3,80 3,66
3,90 4,06 3,90 3,75
4,00 4,17 4,00 3,85
4,10 4,28 4,10 3,94
4,20 4,38 4,20 4,03
4,30 4,49 4,30 4,12
4,40 4,60 4,40 4,21
4,50 4,71 4,50 4,31
4,60 4,82 4,60 4,40
4,70 4,93 4,70 4,49
4,80 5,04 4,80 4,58
4,90 5,15 4,90 4,67
5,00 5,26 5,00 4,76
5,10 5,37 5,10 4,85
5,20 5,49 5,20 4,94
5,30 5,60 5,30 5,03
5,40 5,71 5,40 5,12
5,50 5,82 5,50 5,21
5,60 5,93 5,60 5,30
5,70 6,04 5,70 5,39
5,80 6,16 5,80 5,48
5,90 6,27 5,90 5,57
6,00 6,38 6,00 5,66
6,10 6,50 6,10 5,75
6,20 6,61 6,20 5,84
6,30 6,72 6,30 5,93
6,40 6,84 6,40 6,02
6,50 6,95 6,50 6,10
6,60 7,07 6,60 6,19
6,70 7,18 6,70 6,28
6,80 7,30 6,80 6,37
6,90 7,41 6,90 6,45
7,00 7,53 7,00 6,54
7,10 7,64 7,10 6,63
7,20 7,76 7,20 6,72
7,30 7,87 7,30 6,80

- 159 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix D – Main test precisions

Appendix D:
Main test precisions

Table 45 – Test repeatability and reproducibility values

Repeatability Reproducibility
Test Measured value 95% (r) 95% (R) σr σR Observations

P 18-559 ρ 0/2 g/cm


3
0,021 0,05 0,0072 0,0194
ISO 5725
Maximum density of ρ 2/6 g/cm
3
0,013 0,04 0,006 0,014
1996 experiment
aggregate in paraffin
oil ρ 6/10 g/cm
3
0,025 0,035 0,007 0,011

EN 12697-5
Determination of 3 2005 experiment
MVR kg/m 20 45 7,2 16
maximum density of (provisional results)
asphalt mixes

EN 12697-2 0,56 + 0,017 x 0,056 x


Sands (x = average (x= average
EN 933-1 passing % ) passing %)
Determination of
particle size coarse d, D 3,5 7,7
distribution by
means of sieving Intermediate grades 8 16

EN 12697-33
Specimen Gamma bench
preparation by 1,09 1992 experiment
compacity (%)
means of roller
compaction

NF P 98-251-1 Water resistance r/R 0,078 0,134 0,028 0,047


ISO 5725
Duriez test 1998 experiment

NF P 98-251-1 Resistance without


0,59 2,05 0,21 0,72
ISO 5725
Duriez test immersion, R (MPa) 1998 experiment

Bulk density by means


NF P 98-250-6 of hydrostatic weighing, 0,67 1,27 0,24 0,45
ISO 5725
Bulk density 1998 experiment
% voids

EN 12697-31 % voids 60 gyrations 0,95 1,38 0,34 0,49 ISO 5725


Gyratory compactor % voids 10 gyrations 0,89 1,53 1996 experiment

(NF P 98-252) % voids 200 gyrations 1,04 1,57

EN 12697-22 Rutting at 30000 cycles ISO 5725


Wheel tracking 1,11 1,16 0,39 0,41
(in mm) 1992 experiment
(Large device)

EN 12697-26 Modulus at
Secant modulus 0,02 sec, 15°C (MPa) Unpublished
1,360 2,360
experiment
Annex E Average: 15,233 MPa

1995 experiment on
EN 12697-1 Binder content 0,27 0,31 0,085 0,121 the XP T66-041
Binder content Standard

EN 12697-1 All methods combined 0,214 0,348 0,076 0,123


EAPIC
Binder content Campaign 1/2003

EN 12697-1 Cold soluble 0,167 0,225 0,059 0,079


EAPIC
Binder content Campaign 1/2003

- 160 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix D – Main test precisions

Repeatability Reproducibility
Test Measured value 95% (r) 95% (R) σr σR Observations

EN 12697-24
ISO 5725
Fatigue test Annex A ε6 (µdef) 4,2 8,3 1,43 2,93
2000 experiment
(NF P 98-261-1)

EN 12697-26
Complex modulus ISO 5725
Annex A 15°, 10Hz (MPa) 335 2,740 118 969
1999 experiment
(NF P 98-260-2)

EN 12697-7 ISO 5725


Gamma bench Asphalt core sample
3 0,0069 0,0197 0,0024 0,007 Published in
2,2942 g/cm
March 2003
(NF P 98-250-5)

- 161 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix E – Summary table – Spécifications and recommendations
Summary table – Specifications and recommendations for each type of material
Appendix E
- 162 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- ooendix E – Summary table – Spécifications ans recommandations
- 163 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

APPENDIX F
Product family description
AC-BBSG Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux Semi-Grenu

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 characterized by a high


coarse aggregate content and designed to yield surface or binder courses with a
thickness of 5 cm or greater until 9 cm.
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation.
Identification AC10-BBSG or AC14-BBSG according EN 13108-1
Surface or binder course
Empirical approach
Designation AC10-BBSG0 or AC14-BBSG0
AC10-BBSG1 or AC14-BBSG1

Level 0

Level 2
Level 1
AC10-BBSG2 or AC14-BBSG2
AC10-BBSG3 or AC14-BBSG3
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, A20 or LA25, MDE15 or MDE20, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing resistance
Surface course Angularity
Coarse;
C 95/1
Usual Fine aggregate ECS 35
aggregate Fragmentation
characteristics Binder course LA30, MDE25
Wear
(minimal
Coarse Grading requirement GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
values) Flakiness
aggregate Fine content
Fine aggregate Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
or All-in Methylene blue value MBF10
Added Filler Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
compacted filler
Type of Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
binder
Minimum binder content AC10 : Bmin5,2 AC14 : Bmin5,0
0,063 5 to 8
0,250 10 to 25
Grading : % Sieve in mm 2,0 28 to 38
6,3 50 to 65
D 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR70
Gyratory AC10 60 gyrations Vmin5 Vmax10
AC14 80 gyrations Vmin4 Vmax9
AC- AC- AC- AC-
Classification BBSG BBSG BBSG BBSG
0 1 2 3
Gyratory 10 gyrations V10Gmin11 Not applicable
Wheel Nb of cycles 30000
tracking test
Void content of slab No perf.
Large P10 P7,5 P5
device {Vi= 5% Vs = 8%} determined
60°C

- 164 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

AC-BBME Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux à Module Élevé


Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 whose stiffness is higher
than that of a BBSG mixture and designed to yield surface or binder courses
with a thickness of 5 cm or greater until 9 cm.
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation and by the stiffness.
Identification AC10 or AC14 according EN 13108-1
Surface or binder course
Fundamental approach

Level 3
Level 4
Designation BBME class 1 0/10 or 0/14
BBME class 2 0/10 or 0/14
BBME class 3 0/10 or 0/14
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA25, MDE15, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing
Surface resistance
course Angularity
Coarse; C 95/1
ECS 35
Fine aggregate
Binder Fragmentation LA30, MDE25
Usual aggregate course Wear
characteristics Coarse Grading GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
(minimal aggregate requirement
values) Flakiness
Fine content
Fine Grading GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate requirement MBF10
or All-in
Methylene blue
value
Added Filler Stiffness by ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ring and ball,
Void of dry
compacted filler
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR80
Gyratory AC10 60 gyrations Vmin5 Vmax10
AC14 80 gyrations Vmin4 Vmax9
Classification BBME class BBME class BBME class
1 2 3
Wheel Nb of cycles 30000
tracking test Void content of slab P10 P7,5 P5
Large device {Vi= 5% Vs = 8%}
60°C
15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02 s
Stiffness Void content of slab Smin9000 Smin11000
Smin11000
{Vi= 5% Vs = 8%}
2 points, 10°C, 25 Hz
Fatigue Void content of slab ε6-100 ε6-100 ε6-100
{Vi= 5% Vs = 8%}

- 165 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

AC-BBS Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux pour chaussée Souple


à faible trafic

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


surface or binder courses for flexible pavement supporting low traffic
loads.
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation.
Identification AC10 or AC14 according EN 13108-1
Surface or binder course
Empirical approach
Designation AC10-BBS1

Level 0

Level 1
AC10-BBS2
AC14-BBS3
AC14-BBS4
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA25, MDE20, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing resistance
Surface Angularity
course Coarse;
C 50/10
Fine aggregate ECS 30
Binder Fragmentation LA30, MDE25
Usual Wear
aggregate course C 50/10
characteristics ECS 30
(minimal
values) Coarse Grading requirement GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
Flakiness
aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate or Methylen blue value MBF10
All-in
Added Filler Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
compacted filler
Type of binder Paving grade bitumen 50/70
AC10- AC10- AC14- AC14-
Minimum binder content BBS1 BBS2 BBS3 BBS4
Bmin5,2 Bmin4,8
0,063 5 to 8
0,250 10 to 25
Grading : % Sieve in mm 2,0 28 to 38
6,3 50 to 65
D 90 to 100
AC10- AC10- AC14- AC14-
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) BBS1 BBS2 BBS3 BBS4
ITSR80 ITSR80 ITSR80 ITSR70
Gyratory AC10-BBS1 40 gyrations
AC10-BBS2 60 gyrations Vmin4 Vmax9
AC14-BBS3 80 gyrations
AC14-BBS4 100 gyrations

- 166 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description
AC-BBM Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux Mince

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 characterized by an


average application thickness of between 3 cm and 5 cm. The material
is designed to yield surface courses and possibly binder courses. The
particle size distribution is most often gap-graded. Categories A, B, C
depend on the “gap” of the grading curve.
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation.
Identification AC10 or AC14 according EN 13108-1
Surface or (binder) course
Empirical approach
Designation AC-BBMA, AC-BBMB or AC-BBMC class 0

Level 2
Level 0
AC-BBMA, AC-BBMB or AC-BBMC class 1

Level 1
AC-BBMA, AC-BBMB or AC-BBMC class 2
AC-BBMA, AC-BBMB or AC-BBMC class 3
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA20 or LA25, MDE15 or MDE20, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing resistance
Surface Angularity
course Coarse;
C 95/1
Usual Fine aggregate ECS 35
aggregate Grading requirement
Coarse GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
characteristics aggregate Flakiness
Fine content
(minimal values)
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue value MBF10
or All-in
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
Type of binder
Polymer modified Bitumen 45/80-60 or 40/100-65
Minimum binder content Bmin5,0
0,063 5 to 8
0,250 10 to 23
Sieve in 2,0 27 to 37
Grading : %
mm 4,0
6,3 30 to 40
D 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR70
Gyratory Category of AC-BBM AC-BBMA AC-BBMB AC-
BBMC
40 gyrations Vmin6 Vmax11 Vmin7 Vmax12 Vmin8
Vmax13
AC- AC- AC- AC-
Classification
BBM 0 BBM 1 BBM 2 BBM 3
Gyratory 10 gyrations V10Gmin11 Not applicable
Nb of 3 000 cycles P15
cycles 10 000 cycles P15
Wheel tracking
test 30 000 cycles No perf. P10
Large device Void content AC-BBMA determined {Vi= 7% Vs = 10%}
60°C of slab AC-BBMB or
{Vi= 8% Vs = 11%}
C

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description
AC-BBAC- Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux Aéronautique (Continu)

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


surface courses and binder courses of airfield pavements. The particle
size distribution is continuous (category C).
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation.
Identification AC10 or AC14 according EN 13108-1
Surface or binder course
Empirical approach
Designation BBAC class 0
BBAC class 1

Level 0

Level 2
Level 1
BBAC class 2
BBAC class 3
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA20 or LA25, MDE15 or MDE20, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing resistance
Surface Angularity
course Coarse;
C 95/1
Fine aggregate ECS 35
Usual Fragmentation
Binder LA30, MDE25
aggregate Wear
course
characteristics Grading requirement
Coarse GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
(minimal values) Flakiness
aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue value MBF10
or All-in
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
Type of binder
Polymer modified Bitumen 45/80-60 or 40/100-65
Minimum binder content AC10: Bmin5,4 AC14: Bmin5,2
BBA Surface BBA Binder
course course
0,063 6 to 9 5 to 8
0,250 10 to 25
Sieve in
Grading : % 2,0 35 to 45 32 to 42
mm
6,3 65 to 80 62 to 67
D 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR80 TSR70
AC10 60 gyrations Vmin4 Vmax8
Gyratory Vmin3 Vmax7
AC14 80 gyrations
BBA BBA BBA BBA
Classification
class 0 class 1 class 2 class 3
Gyratory 10 gyrations V10Gmi Not applicable
n11
Wheel 10 000 cycles
No perf.
tracking test
Void content of slab determi P15 P10 P7,5
Large device
{Vi= 4% Vs = 7%} ned
60°C

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description
AC-BBAD- Asphalt Concrete – Béton Bitumineux Aéronautique (Discontinu)

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


surface and binder courses of airfield pavements. The particle size
distribution is gap-graded (category D), fraction 2/6 or 4/6 is missing
Classification by the resistance to permanent deformation.
Identification AC10 or AC14 according EN 13108-1
Surface or binder course
Empirical approach
Designation BBAC class 0
BBAC class 1
BBAC class 2

Level 0

Level 2
Level 1
BBAC class 3
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA20 or LA25, MDE15 or MDE20, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing resistance
Surface Angularity
course Coarse;
C 95/1
Fine aggregate ECS 35
Usual Binder Fragmentation LA30, MDE25
aggregate course
Wear
characteristics Coarse Grading requirement GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
(minimal values) Flakiness
aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue value MBF10
or All-in
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
Type of binder
Polymer modified Bitumen 45/80-60 or 40/100-65
Minimum binder content AC10: Bmin5,2 AC14: Bmin5,0
0,063 6 to 9
0,250 10 to 25
Sieve in 2,0 35 to 45
Grading : %
mm 4,0 47 to 57
6,3 63 to 73
D 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) Surface course Binder course
ITSR80 TSR70
Gyratory 40 gyrations Vmin5 Vmax9
BBA D BBAD BBA D BBA D
Classification class 0 class 1 class 2 class 3
Gyratory 10 gyrations V10Gmin11 Not applicable
10 000 cycles
Wheel tracking
test No perf.
Large device Void content of slab determined P15 P10 P7,5
60°C {Vi= 4% Vs = 7%}

- 169 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description
BBTM Béton Bitumineux Très Mince (Very Thin layer Asphalt Concrete)

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-2 to be used for


surface courses with a thickness of 2cm to 3 cm. The particle size
distribution is most often gap-graded.
Classification A, B or D by the void content using gyratory compaction.
Identification BBTM6A or BBTM10D according EN 13108-2
Designation BBTM6B or BBTM10B according EN 13108-2

Level 2
Surface course

Level 0
Level 1
Empirical approach
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA20, MDE15, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing
Surface resistance
course Angularity
Coarse;
C 95/1
Usual Fine aggregate ECS 35
Coarse Grading GC85/15 or G20/15 ;FI30 ;f2
aggregate requirement
characteristics aggregate Flakiness
Fine content
(minimal values) Grading
Fine GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85 or GA90
requirement
aggregate MBF10
or All-in Methylene blue
value
Added Stiffness by ring ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
and ball, Void of
Filler dry compacted
filler
Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
ype of binder Polymer modified
45/80-60 or 40/100-65
Bitumen
Minimum binder content Bmin5,0
BBTM6A BBTM6B BBTM10D BBTM10B
0,063 7 to 9 4 to 6 4,5 to 6,5 4 to 6
0,250 15 to 25 10 to 20 15 to 25 10 to 20
Sieve in 2,0 25 to 35 15 to 25 27 to 33 15 to 25
Grading : %
mm 4,0 25 to 35 20 to 30
6,3 28 to 43 26 to 41
D 90 to 100 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR90
Gyratory Category of BBTM BBTM6A BBTM6B BBTM10D BBTM10B
25 gyrations Vg 10 to 17 Vg 18 to 25 Vg 10 to 17 Vg 18 to 25
3 000 cycles
Mechanical
stability Thickness : 50 mm P15
Large device Void content of slab
60°C {Vi= 11% Vs = 14%}

- 170 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description
PA-BBDr Porous asphalt – Béton Bitumineux Drainant

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-7, with bitumen,


prepared so as to have a very high content of interconnected voids
which allow passage of water and air in order to provide the compacted
mixture with drain and noise reducing characteristics. This material is to
be used for surface courses with a thickness of 3 cm to 4 cm for PA6
and 4 cm to 5 cm for PA10.
Classification BBDr type 1 or BBDr type 2 by the void content using
gyratory compaction.
Identification PA6-BBDr1 or PA6-BBDr2 according EN 13108-7
Designation PA10-BBDr1 or PA10-BBDr2 according EN 13108-7

Level 1
Level 0
Surface course
Empirical approach
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA20, MDE15, PSV 50
Wear,
Polishing
Surface resistance
course Angularity
Coarse;
C 95/1
Usual Fine aggregate ECS 35
aggregate Coarse Grading GC85/15 or G20/15 ;FI30 ;f2
requirement
characteristics aggregate Flakiness
(minimal values) Fine content
Fine Grading GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85 or GA90
requirement
aggregate MBF10
or All-in Methylene blue
value
Added Stiffness by ring ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
and ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Paving grade bitumen 50/70 or 35/50
Type of binder
Polymer modified Bitumen 45/80-60 or 40/100-65
Minimum binder content Bmin4,0

PA6- PA6- PA10- PA10-


BBDr1 BBDr2 BBDr1 BBDr2
0,063 [2-10] 4 to 6 2 to 6 4 to 6 2 to 6
0,250 6 to 12 10 to 20 6 to 12 10 to
20
2,0 [5-25] 10 to 15 5 to 12 10 to 15 5 to
Sieve in
Grading : % 12
mm
4,0 15 to 35 12 to 22
6,3 15 to 35 12 to
22
D 90 to 100 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR80
Gyratory Category of PA-BBDr PA6- PA6- PA10- PA10-
BBDr1 BBDr2 BBDr1 BBDr2
40 gyrations Vmin20 Vmin26 Vmin20 Vmin26
Vmax26 Vmax30 Vmax26 Vmax30
200 gyrations Vmin16 Vmin20 Vmin16 Vmin20

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

AC-GB Asphalt Concrete - Grave-Bitume Empirical

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


lower and upper base courses with a thickness between 8 cm and16
cm.
Classification by binder content.
Identification AC14-GB1 or AC20-GB1 according EN 13108-1
AC14-GB2 or AC20-GB2 according EN 13108-1
AC14-GB3 or AC20-GB3 according EN 13108-1
AC14-GB3 or AC20-GB3 according EN 13108-1

Level 0

Level 2
Level 1
Lower or upper base course
Empirical approach
Main characteristics
Fragmentation, LA30, MDE25
Wear,
Upper Angularity (If wheel
tracking test not
base required) C 95/1
course Coarse; ECS 35
Fine aggregate
Usual Lower Fragmentation LA40, MDE35
aggregate base
Wear
characteristics course
(minimal values)Coarse Grading requirement GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
Flakiness
aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue value MBF10
or All-in
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Type of binder Paving grade bitumen 35/50 or (50/70)
Classification (AC-GB1) AC-GB2 AC-GB3
Minimum binder content (Bmin3,4) Bmin3,8 Bmin4,2
0,063 5 to 8
0,250 10 to 25
Sieve in
Grading : % 2,0 28 to 38
mm
6,3 50 to 65
D 90 to 100
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR70
AC14-GB 100 gyrations Vmax11 Vmax10
Gyratory AC20-GB 120 gyrations
10 gyrations V10Gmin11
Wheel tracking 10000 cycles
test Void AC-GB2 :
Large device content {Vi= 8% Vs =
60°C No perf. P10
of slab 11%} determined
AC-GB3 :
{Vi= 7% Vs =
10%}

AC-GB Asphalt Concrete - Grave-Bitume Fundamental

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


lower and upper base courses with a thickness between 8 cm and16
cm.
Classification by stiffness and Fatigue resistance.
Identification AC14-GB2 or AC20-GB2 according EN 13108-1
AC14-GB3 or AC20-GB3 according EN 13108-1
AC14-GB4 or AC20-GB4 according EN 13108-1

Level 4
Level 3
Lower or upper base course
Fundamental approach
Main characteristics
Upper Fragmentation, LA30, MDE25
Wear,
base
course
Lower Fragmentation LA40, MDE35
Wear
Usual base
aggregate course
Grading requirement
characteristics Coarse Flakiness
GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
(minimal values) aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue value MBF10
or All-in
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Classification AC-GB2 AC-GB3 AC-GB4
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR70
AC14-GB 100 gyrations Vmax10 Vmax9
Gyratory Vmax11
AC20-GB 120 gyrations

Void content of the slab: {Vi= 8% {Vi= 7% {Vi= 5%


Wheel tracking Vs = 11%} Vs = 10%} Vs = 8%}
test
Large device Number of cycles 10000 30000
60°C
Category of rut depth P10

AC-GB2 AC-GB3 AC-GB4


Void content of the slabs ↓ {Vi= 7% {Vi= 5%
Vs = 10%} Vs = 8%}

Stiffness 15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02 s Smin9000 Smin9000


Smin11000

Fatigue 2 points, 10°C, 25 Hz ε6-80 ε 6-90 ε 6-100

- 173 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Appendix F – Product family description

AC-EME Asphalt Concrete – Enrobé à Module Élevé


(High-Modulus Asphalt Concrete)

Definition Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN 13108-1 designed to yield


lower and upper base courses with a thickness between 6 cm and 8 cm
for AC10-EME, between 7cm to 13 cm for AC14-EME and between 9
cm and 15 cm for AC20-EME. High stiffness and fatigue resistance
allow thickness reduction for the pavements.
Classification EME1 or EME2 by Fatigue resistance.
Identification AC10-EME1 or AC10-EME2 according EN 13108-1
AC14-EME1 or AC14-EME2 according EN 13108-1

Level 4
Level 3
AC20-EME1 or AC20-EME2 according EN 13108-1
Lower or upper base course
Fundamental approach
Main characteristics
Upper Fragmentation, LA30, MDE25
Wear,
base
course
Lower Fragmentation LA40, MDE35
Wear
Usual base
aggregate course
Grading requirement
characteristics Coarse Flakiness
GC85/20 or G25/15 ;FI25 ;f2
(minimal values) aggregate Fine content
Fine Grading requirement GF85 ; GTC10 ; GA85
aggregate Methylene blue MBF10
or All-in value
Added Stiffness by ring and ∆R&B 8/16 ; V28/38
ball, Void of dry
Filler compacted filler
Classification AC-EME1 AC-EME2
Water sensitivity Method B (I/C) ITSR70
AC10-EME 80 gyr.
Gyratory AC14-EME 100 gyr. Vmax10 Vmax6
AC20-EME 120 gyr.
AC-EME1 AC-EME2
Void content of the slabs ↓ {Vi= 7% {Vi= 3%
Vs = 10%} Vs = 6%}
Wheel tracking Number of cycles 30000 30000
test
Large device Category of rut depth P7,5
60°C

Stiffness 15°C, 10 Hz or 0,02 s Smin14000

Fatigue 2 points, 10°C, 25 Hz ε 6-100 ε 6-130

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Appendix G Glossary

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Filler of a mineral origin that has been


Added filler EN 13043
produced separately.
Additive Organic or mineral constituent, introduced
in small quantities (e.g. organic or EN 13108 series
inorganic fibers or polymers), intended to
modify the mechanical characteristics,
workability or color of mixtures.

Organic or mineral compound intended to


Additive NF P 98-149
modify the physical or mechanical
characteristics of asphalt mixes.
Additive content
(besides
% ext. Mass of additive as a ratio of the mass of NF P 98-149
adhesion
dry aggregates.
agents)
Additive content % int. Mass of additive as a ratio of the mixture
(besides mass.
adhesion
agents)

Adhesion agent Surface active additive that serves to NF P 98-149


Anti-stripping improve binder-aggregate adhesion.
agent

Adhesion agent % Enhancing agent mass, as a ratio of binder


content mass.

Adhesion agent % Mass of enhancing agent as a ratio of the


content binder mass.

Aggregate Granular material used in construction EN 13043


applications. An aggregate may be natural,
manufactured or recycled.

Agrochemical A binder derived from vegetal matter


binder without any petrochemical byproduct
material.

Air void content v % See Percentage of voids EN 12697-8

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Air-slaked lime Product derived through a curing process NF P 98-101


using a very pure limestone.

All-in aggregate An aggregate consisting of a mixture of EN 13043


coarse and fine aggregates; it can be
produced without separating into coarse
and fine aggregates or by combining
coarse and fine aggregates. For
bituminous mixtures 0/4, 0/6 may be
usually used.

Angularity Characteristic of aggregates with respect


to the edges present on each grain.

Characteristic of aggregates with respect


Angularity of C100/0
to the edges present on each grain. Coarse
coarse C95/1
According to EN 13043, angularity is aggregates
aggregates C90/1
characterized for coarser alluvial or marine derived from solid
C50/10 aggregates by completely-crushed or rock lie in
C50/30 semi-crushed grain categories, along with category C100/0
CDeclared fully-rounded grains.
ECS38
According to EN 13043, angularity is
Angularity of ECS35
characterized for fine aggregates by flow
fine aggregates ECS30
time categories.
ECSDeclared
Angularity Angularity had been evaluated by either These measures
(former standard)
the crushing index (CI) or the crushing are no longer
ratio (CR) (former standard XP P18-540). standardized, yet
still do appear in
bibliographies.
Angularity RC - Ratio between the smallest dimension of These measures
(former standard) the original coarse aggregate submitted to are no longer
the initial crushing and the D value of the standardized, yet
Crushing ratio resultant aggregate. still do appear in
bibliographies.
Angularity IC % Percentage of elements in excess of D of These measures
(former French the resultant aggregate contained in the are no longer
standard) original material submitted to crushing. standardized, yet
still do appear in
Crushing index
bibliographies.

Asphalt concrete AC- Asphalt concrete for airfield pavements EB-BBA in the
for airfield BBA (continuous grading curve AC-BBA C or NF EN version
pavements gap-graded grading curve AC-BBA D), in
accordance with EN 13108-1.

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Asphalt concrete AC- Asphalt concrete for flexible pavements EB-BBS in the
for flexible BBS supporting light traffic loads, in accordance NF EN version
pavements with EN 13108-1.
supporting light
traffic loads

Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN


Asphalt AC- 13108-1 designed to yield lower and upper EB-GB in the NF
Concrete- Grave GB base courses with a thickness between 8 EN version
Bitume cm and 16 cm.
Fundamental or empirical approach

Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN


Asphalt AC- 13108-1 designed to yield lower and upper EB-EME in the
Concrete- EME base courses with a thickness between 6 NF EN version
Enrobé à Module cm and 8 cm for AC10-EME, between 7cm
Élevé to 13 cm for AC14-EME and between 9 cm
and 15 cm for AC20-EME. High stiffness
and fatigue resistance allow thickness
reduction for the pavements.

Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN


Asphalt AC- 13108-1 characterized by a high coarse EB-BBSG in the
Concrete-Béton BBSG aggregate content and designed to yield NF EN version
Bitumineux surface or binder courses with a thickness
Semi-Grenu of 5 cm or greater until 9 cm. Classification
by the resistance to permanent
deformation.

Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN


Asphalt AC- 13108-1 characterized by an average EB-BBM in the
Concrete-Béton BBM application thickness of between 3 cm and NF EN version
Bitumineux 5 cm. The material is designed to yield
Mince surface courses and possibly binder
courses. The particle size distribution is
most often gap-graded. Categories A, B, C
depend on the “gap” of the grading
curve.Classification by the resistance to
permanent deformation.

Bituminous mixture in accordance with EN


Asphalt AC- 13108-1 whose stiffness is higher than that EB-BBME in the
Concrete-Béton BBME of a BBSG mixture and designed to yield NF EN version
Bitumineux à surface or binder courses with a thickness
Module Élevé of 5 cm or greater until 9 cm.

Asphalt A sedimentary rock impregnated onsite by


limestone naturally-occurring bitumen.

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Measurement of texture using depth “Sand


Average Texture ATD mm EN 13036-1
patch” method according
Depth

Pmt mm French transcription of ATD

Base series + mm Series of sieves containing the following d EN 13043


series 1 or D dimensions: 0, 1, 2, 4, 5.6, 8, 11.2, 16,
22.4, 31.5, 45, and 63.

Base series + mm Series of sieves containing the following d EN 13043


series 2 or D dimensions: 0, 1, 2, 4, 6.3, 8, 10, 12.5,
It is common to
14, 16, 20, 31.5, 40, and 63.
use this series for
French
bituminous
mixtures.
Binder course Part of pavement between the surface EN 13108 series
course and the base

Bitumen A highly viscous or almost solid material,


EN 12597
which remains nearly non-volatile,
adhesive and water repellent; it is derived
from crude oil or present in the form of
natural bitumen, which is entirely or almost
entirely soluble in toluene.

Bituminous A mixture of filler and a bituminous binder.


mastic

Bituminous Mixture of fine aggregate 0/2 or all-in 0/4


mortar and a bituminous binder.

ρbdim EN Standard
Bulk density g/cm3 Ratio of the mass of a test specimen to the
specimen volume. The volume may be ρbsea
MVa
or
3
kg/m measured by means of geometric methods (Bulk sealed)

ρbsea ρbdim [bulk by dimension] , in which case ρbdim


g/cm3 MVa is obtained, or by hydrostatic methods (Bulk by dimension)
MVA or ρbsea [Bulk sealed ](EN 12697-6) yielding
kg/m3 MVA.
ρ bγ ρ

g/cm3 In the laboratory, the bulk density is
(Bulk gamma)
or measured in some cases on the gamma

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

or measured in some cases on the gamma


kg/m3 densitometer bench (EN 12697-7), which
MVaγ
yields ρbγ or MVaγ.

ρmc
Calculated MVRc g/cm3 MVR, obtained by means of calculation (maximal calculated)
maximum or based on the mass densities of the
density kg/m3 individual components.

Cement Hydraulic binder composed of finely-


molded inorganic matter which, once
mixed with water, forms a paste that sets
and hardens subsequent to hydration
reaction and process and which after
hardening retains both its strength and
stability even underwater.

Coarse Designation given to the larger aggregate EN 13043


aggregate size which D is less than or equal to
45 mm and d greater than or equal to
2 mm.

Coated Coarse aggregate with a tight granular


chippings distribution designed to be embedded into
a support matrix of an asphalt layer
(NF P 98-133).

Nominally single size aggregate particles EN 13108-4


with a high resistance to polishing, which
are coated with high viscosity binder. The
chippings are always rolled into and form a
part of hot rolled asphalt surface course.

Compacity C % Ratio of the test specimen volume in


excluding voids to the total specimen
volume.

Complementary Test added to the testing program for the


test particular level. This complementary
assessment may be chosen from a higher
test level or consist of a test related to a
specific technique or for a specific

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

purpose.

Compressive I MPa Compressive strength following immersion, In the Duriez test


strength after as per EN 12697-12 Method B the compression
immersion (corresponding to Duriez test (NF P 98- strength after
251-1)). immersion was
expressed as “r”

Compressive C MPa Compressive strength without immersion, In the Duriez test


strength without as per EN 12697-12 Method B the compression
immersion (corresponding to Duriez test (NF P 98- strength without
251-1)). immersion was
expressed as “R”

Connecting Voids in a test specimen that enable a fluid


voids to cross from one face to the other.

Content of % ext. Mass of additives as a ratio of the dry NF P 98-149


additives aggregate mass.
(excluding
adhesion
agents)
Content of % int. Mass of additive as a ratio of the mixture
additives mass.
(excluding
adhesion
agents)

2
Conventional Σ m /kg Determined by the following relation: This calculation is
specific surface not applicable
100 Σ = 0,25 G + 2,3 S + 12 s + 150 f, with:
area when the mixture
G proportion of elements larger than contains either
6,3 mm, special fillers or
S proportion of elements lying between additives, such
6,3 mm and 0,250 mm in size, as fibers.
s proportion of elements between
0,250 mm and 0,063 mm
f proportion of elements smaller than
0,063 mm

Correction α Mg/m3 α = 2,650 / ρ where ρ is the mean particle EN 13108 series


d d
coefficient for density of aggregate, in Mg/m3, determined Several methods
binder content according to EN 1097-6. are described in
EN 1097-6. ρd
should be

- 180 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

interpreted
Course
Structural element of a pavement EN 13108 series
constructed with a single material. A
course may be laid in one or more layers.

Crushing index IC % Percentage of elements larger than D in Former definition.


the resultant aggregate contained in the See angularity.
original material submitted to crushing.
Crushing ratio RC - Ratio of the smallest dimension in the Definition
original coarse aggregate, submitted to the corresponding to
initial crushing, to the D value of the a standard since
resultant aggregate. rescinded, yet
still used in
bibliographical
references. See
angularity.

Delta ring and ∆R&B °C Stiffening power of a filler, as measured by EN 13043


ball temperature the difference in ring and ball temperature
Typical values:
obtained on a bitumen and mastic
composed by the tested filler and bitumen, ∆R&B 8/16
as per Standard EN 13179-1. ∆R&B 8/25

∆TBA
∆TBA is the French transcription of ∆R&B

Dry filler See description under Rigden Voids Index.


porosity
Dynamic E(θ, f) MPa Standard for the complex modulus,
modulus expressed in MPa, as obtained at a
temperature θ in °C and for a frequency f
in Hz (EN Standard EN 12697-26, see
Appendix A).

A specifications method currently


Empirical Series
employed in EN standards that consists of
approach EN 13108
compositional recipes (particle size
distribution curve, nature and content of
binder, nature and rate of additives),
aggregate characteristics, a general body All standards in
of tests (percentage of voids, water the series contain
resistance, wheel tracking) and "empirical" an empirical
tests (or performance-based testing), such approach
as Marshall stability and percentage of
voids after 10 gyrations on the gyratory

- 181 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

compactor.

Bitumen with Bitumen containing an adhesion or anti-


NF P 98-149
anti-stripping stripping agent.
agent

Use of the ppc


External binder TLext % ext. Ratio of the binder mass to the dry
notation to
content aggregate mass.
designate the
units of this
magnitude is
erroneous.

Fatigue ε6 µdef Deformation admissible at 106 cycles,


resistance according to the fatigue test result in
EN 12697-24, Annex A, usually at 10°C
and 25 Hz.

Filler aggregate An aggregate whose grains pass the EN 13043


0,063-mm sieve and that can be added to
construction materials to provide them with
certain characteristics.

Fine aggregate Designation of small-sized granular EN 13043


categories, for which D is less than or
equal to 2 mm and whose non-passing
rate through the 0,063 mm remains high.

Fines Particle size fraction of an aggregate which EN 13043


passes the 0,063 mm sieve.

Fines content (or Tf % % passing the 0,063-mm sieve.


total fines
content) of the
mixture

Flakiness FI The shape of coarse aggregate is


determined in terms of the flakiness index.
FI25 is the generally retained category. For
very thin layers intended mixtures,
category FI20 may be necessary.

Formula of a Description of a unique mixture on which a


mixture (or the mix design test has been performed. The

- 182 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

nominal formula, formula comprises the mass composition


target formula or of all mix components, their origin, a
theoretical particle size distribution curve and the
formula) results of tests conducted on a
representative sample.

Formula Assessment comprising a test or series of


verification tests conducted on a mix design with
components of the same origin (e.g. same
extraction site, same crushing/screening
facility) as the design to be verified, as
characterized in particular by a particle
size distribution curve and binder content.

A specifications method currently


Fundamental Series
employed in European standards that
approach EN 13108.
consists of compositional indications
(potentially a particle size distribution range
[rather broad], potentially the type of binder
and additives), aggregate characteristics, a Only applicable
general body of tests (percentage of voids, to asphalt mixes
water resistance, wheel tracking), and (EN 13108-1)
other "fundamental" tests, such as stiffness and Hot Rolled
modulus, fatigue resistance and repeated Asphalt
compression. (EN 13108-4)

Gap-graded Absence of one or several intermediate


grading curve fractions within a granular recomposition.

See Particle size distribution


Grading analysis

Grading GC85/ GC85/20, category of d/D fraction defined EN 13043


characteristics 20 by:
of coarse
• passing to D sieve between 85
aggregate
% and 99 %
• passing to d sieve between 0
% and 20 %
• 100 % to 2 D sieve
• 0 % to 5 % to d/2 sieve.

- 183 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

GC85/ GC85/15 category defined by: passing to d EN 13043


15 sieve between 0 % and 15 %, instead of 20
% and for single size coarse aggregate
D/d, where D/d < 2, which is the case for Generally
gap-graded mixtures used in surface required for gap-
course, passing to D sieve between 90 % graded mixtures
and 99 %, 100 % to 2 D sieve, 0 % to 5 %
to d/2 sieve]

G25/15 G25/15 category of a fraction d/D is defined EN 13043


by a percentage passing at mid-size sieve
[D/1,4], between 25 % and 80 % and
G20/15 G20/15 is defined by a percentage passing at
mid-size sieve between 20% and 70%,
with in both cases, a tolerance on the
typical grading of ± 15 %, declared by the
producer.

f1 The fines content of coarse aggregate is EN 13043


measured by the percentage of passing at
0,063 mm sieve. Category f1 means ≤ 1 %
f0,5 at 0,063 mm sieve and category f0,5 means
≤ 0,5 % at 0,063 mm sieve.

Grading GF85 GF85 category of fine aggregates 0/2


characteristics which is defined by:
of fine aggregate
• 100% passing at the 4 mm sieve
• between 85% and 99% at the 2 mm
sieve.
GTC10 Tolerances applied to the particle
size distribution of fine aggregate defined
GTC10
by:
• ± 5% at D,
• ± 10% at D/2,
• ± 3% at 0,063 mm.

f16 Fines content category from fine aggregate


which corresponds respectively to a fine
content of 16% or 22%.
f22

- 184 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Grading GA85 Category of all in aggregate with following


characteristics characteristics:
of all in
• passing 100% at 2D,
aggregate
• 98 to 100% at 1,4D,
• 85 to 99% at D.
GTC10 Tolerances applied to the particle
size distribution of all in aggregate defined
GTC10
by:
• ±5% at D,
• ±10% at D/2,
• ±3% at 0,063 mm.

Granular Cg % Ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the


compacity aggregate volume within a bituminous
mixture to the total specimen volume.

Grave-Bitume AC- Bituminous mixture, as per EN 13108-1,


GB designed to yield lower and upper base
courses with a thickness between 8 cm
and 16 cm. AC-GB are classified into 4
categories. They are relevant either of the
empirical approach (Essentially AC-GB1,
AC-GB2 and AC-GB3) or the fundamental
approach (Essentially AC-GB2, AC-GB3
and AC-GB4).

Hard paving Bitumen output from refining to a grade


EN 13924
grade bitumen lower than paving bitumen (<20/30) and
used to produce asphalt mixes with high
stiffness modulus values.

Harmfulness of MBF g/kg The harmfulness of fine aggregates and EN 933-9


fine aggregates fines (< 0,125 mm) making up bituminous
Typical value:
mixtures is evaluated by means of the
MBF10
methylene blue test, performed on the
0/0,125 fraction.

High-modulus AC- Bituminous mix, as per EN 13108-1, whose


(stiff) asphalt BBME stiffness modulus is higher than that of a
concrete AC-BBSG mixture and that has been
designed to yield surface or binder coarse
of a thickness greater than or equal to
5 cm.

- 185 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

High-modulus AC- High-modulus (stiff) bituminous mixture, in


bituminous EME accordance with EN 13108-1. This material
mixture is used for base courses and is relevant
from “fundamental approach”

Hot Rolled HRA Dense, gap-graded bituminous mixture in EN 13108-4


Asphalt which the mortar of fine aggregate, filler
and high viscosity binder are major
contributors to the performance of the laid
material. The proportion of fine aggregate
is high (on the order of 50%), while the
fines content stands at approximately 9%;
coarse aggregates only represent 30% of
the total mixture. The bitumen content lies
on the order of 7% to 8%. The percentage
of voids is very low; when used on wearing
courses, this material is chipped with 10/16
or 10/20 coarse aggregates.

Hydrocarbon A generic term used to designate an EN 12597


binder adhesive material containing bitumen, tar
or both.

Input target Expression of a mix formulation in terms of EN 13108 series


composition the constituent materials, the grading curve
and the percentage of bitumen added to
the mixture. This will usually be the result
of a laboratory mix design and validation.
The French approach is usually based on
the “Input target composition”

Internal binder B % Ratio of the binder mass to total mixture The EN asphalt
content (int.) mass. It is expressed as B in EN version mix "product"
as tlint in some French standards and as Tl standards from
tlint in the French version of the EN standards. the EN 13108
series dictate the
Tl B (tlInt) value.

Layer
Element of pavement laid in a single EN 13108 series
operation.

Lime Material comprising any physical and EN 459-1


chemical forms under which calcium
and/or magnesium oxide and/or hydroxide
can appear.

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Air lime Limes mainly consisting of calcium oxide or


hydroxide which slowly harden in air by
reacting with atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Generally they do not harden under water
as they have no hydraulic properties. They
may be either quicklimes or hydrated
limes.

Loss of linearity Γ - Relative decrease in modulus of a The loss of


bituminous mixture as the yield strength linearity provides
increases. This determination is a special an indication on
aspect of the direct tensile test described in the state of
Standard NF P 98-260-1, which has not material damage.
been included in the European Standard
EN 12697-26. The test is conducted at 0°C
and the specimen is submitted to
successive tensile forces for 30-second
load times (and then reset to zero). The
deformation rises from 50 10-6 to 500 10-6.
Loss of linearity is the relative drop in
modulus value at a deformation of 500 10-6
as a ratio of the modulus decrease
obtained at zero deformation. The modulus
at zero deformation can be obtained by
means of extrapolation.

Lower thermal A special bitumen, whose ring and ball


susceptibility temperature is higher than that of the
bitumen corresponding paving grade bitumen.

Manufactured An aggregate of mineral origin resulting EN 13043


aggregate from an industrial process involving
thermal or other modifications.

ρmv
3
Maximum ρmv g/cm Ratio of the mass of a test specimen to its (maximal density by
density MVR or absolute volume, i.e. without incorporating volumetric procedure)
kg/m3 the voids. Maximum density is determined
or according EN 12697-5, Method A using
Mg/m3 water.

Mix design Procedure consisting of adjusting, using a


minimum number of tests, the composition
of a formula so that it is able to satisfy all
design testing requirements and ultimately
other requirements as well.

- 187 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Mix formulation Composition of a single mixture expressed EN 13108 series


as target composition. It may be expressed
as “input target composition” or as “output
target composition”

Mixed filler Filler of a mineral origin mixed calcium EN 13043


hydroxide.

Natural An aggregate from mineral source which EN 13043


aggregate has been subjected to nothing more than
transformation other than mechanical.

Non-connecting Voids in a test specimen open at one face,


voids yet unable to reach the other face.

Noxious See harmfulness of fine aggregates.


potential of fines

Occluded voids Voids in the test specimen that do not open


onto any of the specimen faces.

Output target Expression of a mix formulation in terms of EN 13108 series


composition the constituent materials and the mid point
grading and soluble binder content to be
found on analysis. This will usually be the
result of a production validation.

Particle size % The dimensional distribution of grain sizes, EN 13043


distribution or expressed in terms of mass percentage
grading analysis passing through a specified series of
sieves. The analysis is carried out in
accordance with EN 933-1 for aggregates
in general and with EN 12697-2 for
aggregates stemming from stripping
operations.
Pavement
Structure, composed of one or more EN 13108 series
courses, to assist passage of traffic over
terrain.

- 188 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Paving bitumen Bitumen used to coat mineral aggregate for


EN 12597
use in the construction and maintenance of
paved surface. In Europe, the most used
grades are defined by needle penetration
at 25°C, up to a value of 900 1/10 mm.

Percentage of PVL % Value deduced by the mix designer, based


laboratory voids on void percentages measured on the test
characteristic of specimens produced in the laboratory
the bituminous using various means of compaction.
mixture

Percentage of v % The air void is the pocket between the EN 12697-8


voids bitumen coated aggregate particles in a
compacted bituminous specimen. The air
void content or percentage of voids is the
volume of the air voids in a bituminous
specimen, expressed as a percentage of
the total volume of that specimen.

Percentage of VFB % Binder volume as a ratio of total void EN 12697-8


voids filled by volume in the granular skeleton, expressed
bitumen as a percentage.

Percentage of VMA % Percentage of the pore and interstice EN 12697-8


voids in the volume in the granular skeleton as a ratio
mineral of total specimen volume. This value
aggregate includes the percentage of voids in the
mixture and the percentage volume
occupied by the binder.

Pigmentable A special bitumen category characterized


EN 12597
bitumen by a low asphaltene content, which
facilitates the coloration of asphalt mixes
through adding pigments.

Polymer- BmP Modified bitumen materials are bituminous


modified binders whose properties have been EN 14023
bitumen altered through the use of a chemical
agent, which when introduced into the

- 189 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

basic bitumen modifies the chemical


structure and the physical and mechanical
properties.
These bitumens are prepared prior to
application within a specialized unit. The
chemical agents employed include natural
rubber, synthetic polymers, sulfur and
certain organic-metallic compounds; they
do not include oxygen, oxidation catalysts,
fibers, mineral powders or adhesion
agents.

Porous asphalt PA- Porous asphalt, in accordance with


BBDr EN 13108-7.
Bituminous mixture in accordance with
EN 13108-7, characterized by a
percentage of voids exceeding or equal to
20% and a void shape such that rainwater
is able to circulate into the connecting
voids; this material is designed to yield
surface courses with an average thickness
of 3-4 cm (PA6) and 4-5 cm (PA10).

Pure bitumen Conventional bitumen obtained by means


NF P 98-149
of various refining processes using crude
oil as a base. No additive is included for
the purpose of modifying the material's
consistency.

Reclaimed RA or Granular materials stemming from either NF P 98-149


asphalt AE the milling or demolition of asphalt mixes
and entering into the composition of
recycled mixes. EN 13108-8

Recycled An aggregate resulting from processing of EN 13043


aggregate inorganic materials previously used in
construction.
Regulating
course
Course of variable thickness applied to an EN 13108 series
existing course to provide the necessary
profile for a further course of consistent
thickness.

Repeatability Reliability of measures under conditions of ISO 5725


repeatability, i.e.: conditions according to

- 190 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

which the results of independent tests are


obtained using the same method on
identical test specimens, in the same
laboratory, by the same operator, in
employing the same equipment and over a
short span of time.

Repeatability r Value below which the absolute value of


limit the difference between two test results lies,
with 95% probability, as obtained
according to repeatability conditions.

Reproducibility Reliability of measures under conditions of ISO 5725


reproducibility, i.e.: conditions according to
which test results are obtained using the
same method on identical test specimens,
in different laboratories, by different
operators, in employing different
equipment.

Reproducibility R Value below which the absolute value of


limit the difference between two test results lies,
with 95% probability, as obtained
according to reproducibility conditions.

2
Richness modulus Σ m /kg Determined by the following relation: This calculation is
not applicable
100 Σ = 0,25 G + 2,3 S + 12 s + 150 f, with: when the mixture
Conventional G proportion of elements larger than contains either
specific surface 6,3 mm, special fines or
area S proportion of elements lying between additives, such
6,3 mm and 0,250 mm in size, as fibers.
s proportion of elements between
0,250 mm and 0,063 mm
f proportion of elements smaller than
0,063 mm

Richness modulus α α = 2,65 / ρG with ρG being the aggregate This coefficient is


mass density in terms of grams per cubic employed in
centimeter. particular to
Correction calculate bitumen
coefficient contents on the
basis of the
richness
modulus.

- 191 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Richness K A magnitude proportional to the


modulus conventional thickness of the bituminous
binder film coating the aggregate. K is
independent of the granular mix density
and well correlated with binder content by
the following equation:

TL = K × α 5
Σ

where Σ is the conventional specific


surface area,

α a correction coefficient

Rigden: Void of V Determination of the percentage of voids in EN 13043


dry compacted a filler compacted by (100) shocks in a
filler cylinder.
Typical values:

Test standard: EN 1097-4.


V28/45

Ring and ball °C Two bitumen disks, molded into brass EN 1427
temperature rings with shoulders, are heated in a liquid
solution at a controlled rate of temperature
rise, with each supporting a steel ball. The
observed softening temperature must
correspond to the average temperature at
which the two disks are softening enough
to allow each bitumen-coated ball to fall
from a height of 25,0 mm ± 0,4 mm.

Secant modulus E(θ, t) MPa Modulus obtained at a temperature θ in °C


and for a load time of t in seconds
(European Standard EN 12697-26, see
Appendix E).

Asphalt AC- Bituminous mix, in accordance with « Semi-coarse


Concrete – BBSG EN 13108-1, characterized by a high asphalt
Béton coarse aggregate content and designed to concrete »
Bitumineux yield surface or binder courses with a
Semi-Grenu thickness between 5 cm and 9 cm.

Sensitivity An optional experimental design,


analysis prescribed on certain composition variants
or percentage of void deviations in order to
characterize mixtures that deviate from the
nominal composition or that display
different percentages of voids.

- 192 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Shape of coarse FI See Flakiness Index


aggregate

Lower d mm Dimension, chosen in the base series +


dimension of a series 1 or + series 2, corresponding to the
granular fraction grain size determined with a particle size
or bituminous distribution analysis by means of sieving,
mixture such that the majority of grains do not
pass. This definition acknowledges that
grains are capable of passing the sieve of
dimension d, according to the categories
and within the limitations prescribed in
Standard EN 13043. Conditions are
imposed upon the sieve with opening d/2.

Soft bitumen Paving bitumen used in the manufacture of


soft asphalt. In Europe, grades of soft
bitumen are defined by their viscosity at
60°C.

Standard 0,1 Consistency corresponding to the vertical EN 1426


penetration of a mm penetration of a reference needle in a
bituminous material test sample, under a set of This test serves
binder prescribed conditions on temperature, load to categorize
and load application time. The standard bitumen types,
penetration corresponds to a temperature especially in
of 25°C, a load of 100 g and an application EN 12591, e.g.
time of 5 s. 35/50 vs. 50/70.

Stiffness E MPa Ratio of the stress at a relative deformation


modulus submitted to a specimen during a
mechanical test. This value serves to
characterize the level of material stiffness.
For bituminous materials, the stiffness
modulus value must be accompanied by
the temperature and loading time or
frequency during the test period.

Stone mastic SMA Gap-graded mixture with bitumen as EN 13108-5


asphalt binder, composed of a coarse crushed
aggregate skeleton bound with a mastic
mortar. Mixture with a particle size range
lying between 0/4 and 0/20, characterized
by a high proportion of coarse aggregates
and mastic. Bitumen content is also high;
fibers are incorporated, if need be to
decrease the risks of drainage.

- 193 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Surface course
Upper course of a pavement which is in EN 13108 series
contact with the traffic.

Synthetic binder A binder obtained by mixing petroleum and


petrochemical fractions without any
asphaltene. This binder appears as a thin
transparent film, which makes it possible to
retain the natural hue of the aggregate;
moreover, it can be colored by adding
pigments.

Thin layer AC- Bituminous mix, in accordance with The particle size
asphalt concrete BBM EN 13108-1, characterized by an average distribution
application thickness of between 3 and curve is most
5 cm; material intended to yield limited often gap-
thickness surface (or binder) layers. graded.
Category A is 2/6 gap-graded, Category B
is 2/4 gap-graded, Category C is
continuously graded.

Type testing Predefined sequence of laboratory tests


conducted on a given composition mixture
for the purpose of determining
characteristics that satisfy a set of
established requirements.

Type testing Assessment containing a description of the


Level 0 mix without further testing

Type testing Assessment featuring both a Gyratory


Level 1 Compaction test for determination of the
void content and a water-sensitivity test
according EN 12697-12, method B,
specimen preparation in compression.

Type testing Assessment containing all of the Level 1


Level 2 tests plus a wheel tracking test (large
device).

Type testing Assessment containing all Level 2 tests


Level 3 plus stiffness modulus tests.

Type testing Assessment containing all Level 3 tests


Level 4 plus a fatigue test (EN 12697-24-Annex A).

Upper dimension D mm Sieve dimension, as chosen in the base


of an aggregate series + series 1 or + series 2,
or bituminous corresponding to the grain size determined

- 194 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

mixture with a particle size distribution analysis


analyze by means of sieving, such that the
majority of grains pass (between 85% and
99% depending on the specific case). This
definition acknowledges that grains are
capable of not passing the sieve of
dimension D, according to the categories
and within the limitations prescribed in
Standard EN 13043. Conditions are
imposed upon the sieve of opening 1,4 D.

Béton BBTM Bituminous mix, in accordance with EN


Bitumineux Très 13108-2, characterized by an average
Mince application thickness of between 2 and
3 cm; material intended to yield surface
courses.
Very thin layer
asphalt concrete

Void of dry V Determination of the percentage of voids in EN 13043


compacted filler a filler compacted by (100) shocks in a
cylinder.
Typical values:
Rigden Test standard: EN 1097-4.
V28/45

Volume of vba Volume of bitumen penetrating into the


absorbed aggregate pores.
bitumen

Warm asphalt Specific process intended to reduce the


mixing and the compaction temperature of
the bituminous mixture without
compromising the characteristics of the
mixture. The lower mixing temperature is
obtained by decreasing the viscosity of the
binder using for example special binder
with a wax addition, double coating (soft
and hard grade bitumen), addition of
foaming agent, presence of water due to
specific additives or to wet cold
constituents in order to have a foaming
effect on the binder.

Half warm If the mixture is produced at a temperature


asphalt below 100°C, it is considered as “Half
warm asphalt”.

- 195 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Appendix G - Glossary –

Abbreviatio
Symbol or

Unit
n
Term Definition Comments

Zeolite Crystalline hydrated aluminium silicate,


which contains part of water. When it is
added to the mix at the same time as the
bitumen, water is released and creates an
bitumen foam which allows increased
workability. Used as additive for Warm
Asphalt technology.

- 196 -
LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
- Index -

Index

compacity, 22, 35, 38, 55, 75, 77, 78, 86,


A 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110, 113, 115,
116, 120, 122, 160, 185
AC-BBME, 44, 47, 56, 59, 60, 61, 64, 80,
90, 91, 101, 111, 115, 185
D
AC-BBS, 43, 44, 47, 64, 91, 177
AC-BBSG, 41, 44, 47, 56, 59, 60, 61, 64, drainage, 62, 69, 71, 74, 82, 93, 114, 123,
75, 77, 80, 90, 91, 103, 104, 110, 111, 153, 155, 193
113, 115, 128, 140, 164, 185, 192 Duriez, 145
AC-EME, 41, 43, 47, 56, 59, 60, 61, 62,
64, 86, 87, 88, 101, 106, 111, 115, 116, E
117, 125, 139, 140, 186
EME, 145
AC-GB, 41, 47, 59, 60, 61, 64, 75, 85, 86,
88, 103, 104, 115, 128, 139, 140, 185 F
added filler, 26, 43, 55, 73, 74
additive, 25 fatigue, 4, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 35,
additives, 35, 41, 48, 73, 74, 81, 82, 85, 55, 56, 61, 65, 79, 82, 83, 84, 101, 117,
86, 91, 93, 96, 100, 114 121, 122, 124, 125, 127, 131, 140, 141,
additives, 30 142, 144, 145, 146, 152, 156, 174, 177,
airfields, 44, 52, 66, 149 182, 183, 194
fibres, 35
B filler, 5, 26, 32, 36, 42, 43, 55, 74, 75, 82,
86, 101, 150, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168,
basalt, 26, 49, 85, 90, 128
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 178,
binder content, 5, 17, 19, 21, 34, 37, 39,
181, 186, 188, 192, 195
40, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 64, 66,
fine aggregate, 43, 44, 64, 75, 76, 77, 79,
75, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 92, 94, 95, 97,
85, 90, 101, 102, 109, 110, 113, 114,
98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 111, 113, 116,
115, 123, 124, 178, 184, 186
124, 127, 131, 151, 154, 156, 157, 164,
Fine content, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168,
166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 180,
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174
182, 183, 186, 188, 192
fines, 5, 26, 30, 35, 41, 42, 43, 44, 73, 74,
bitumen, 18, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35,
75, 76, 78, 82, 85, 90, 102, 104, 106,
36, 38, 39, 40, 48, 49, 52, 54, 55, 62,
107, 110, 113, 115, 124, 149, 182, 184,
64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 77, 78, 79,
185, 186, 188, 191
80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 91,
fly ash, 26, 74
93, 95, 96, 99, 100, 101, 104, 105, 106,
110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, G
120, 121, 122, 124, 128, 134, 140, 150,
154, 155, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, Grave-Bitume, 41, 85, 86, 87, 103, 185
171, 172, 177, 178, 181, 182, 185, 186, graves-bitumes, 146
187, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196 gyratory, 5, 15, 19, 20, 22, 35, 53, 55, 102,
bulk density, 37, 38, 40, 54, 62, 64, 66, 67, 103, 105, 114, 127, 142, 152, 154, 157,
68, 69, 70, 130, 151, 154, 178 170, 171, 181

C I
cement, 26, 49, 74 I/C, 74, 75, 86, 90, 93, 114, 115, 116, 164,
color, 82, 175 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172,
, 107 173, 174

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LPC Bituminous Mixtures Design Guide
– Index –

indirect tensile, 22, 55, 156 Presse à Cisaillement Giratoire, 145, 146
pseudo shear stress, 105
L
R
limestone, 26, 30, 32, 74, 77, 85, 86, 90,
115, 176, 177 Resistance to deicing products, 66, 67, 68,
69, 71
M Resistance to fuels, 66
Richness modulus, 191, 192
Marshall, 18, 19, 64, 65, 66, 152, 156,
ring and ball, 28, 29, 30, 32, 48, 80, 83,
157, 181
86, 113, 150, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168,
mastic, 19, 36, 74, 75, 101, 123, 153, 178,
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 187
181, 193
rubber, 27, 28, 29, 31, 82, 189
maximum density, 37, 53, 54, 63, 64, 66,
67, 69, 70, 77, 87, 92, 94, 97, 99, 105,
S
151, 154, 157, 160, 179
module, 144, 145, 146 slope, 83, 102, 104
module de rigidité, 144, 145 SMA, 82, 98, 99, 123, 193
MVR, 37, 38, 39, 53, 54, 64, 66, 67, 68, stiffness, 4, 15, 19, 20, 23, 28, 55, 56, 60,
70, 77, 87, 92, 94, 97, 99, 105, 160, 61, 62, 65, 79, 81, 83, 84, 86, 89, 101,
179, 187 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124, 125, 127,
131, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 165, 173,
N 174, 177, 183, 185, 193, 194
Synthetic binders, 81
natural asphalt, 49
T
O
type testing, 18, 19, 20, 33, 41, 42, 44, 54,
oxides, 29, 33
56, 57, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 73, 79, 102,
P 153, 154

PCG, 146 W
penetrability, 28, 29, 30, 48, 83
water resistance, 19, 22, 35, 55, 57, 59,
permeability, 62, 71, 153, 155
60, 61, 63, 74, 79, 83, 85, 86, 90, 93,
PmT, 123
101, 109, 114, 115, 124, 181, 183
polymer, 28, 48, 80, 91, 93, 96, 151, 154
water sensitivity, 152, 155
polymer modified, 151, 154
wheel tracking, 23, 44, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61,
polymères, 144
62, 65, 76, 78, 79, 85, 89, 110, 132,
porous, 37, 50, 62, 70, 74, 96, 101, 152,
133, 134, 135, 172, 181, 183, 194
155
Porous Asphalt, 46, 92, 93, 95, 123

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