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‫ عبدالمنعم شعبان‬-‫م‬

Ch :5 Cables

Cable Selection Cable Design

Cable Selection

Cables are selected according to:

 Operating voltage
 Operating frequency
 Insulation level
 Conductor type
 Core number

[1] Operating voltage:-

 Low voltage cable [ 1 V  1000 V ]


 Medium voltage cable [ 1 KV  66 KV ]
 Overhead conductor [ 66 KV  500 KV ]
 Control Cable

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For the same C.S.A medium voltage cable insulation higher than low voltage
cables (V α Insulation).

In general:-
V α Insulation
Iα Cross Section Area

[2] Operating Frequency:-

50 Hz 60 Hz

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[3] Insulation Level:-

Type PVC XLPE

Standard normal temperature 70°c 90°c

Max Temp. at short circuit level 150°c 250°c

Note:-

 All medium voltage cables with XLPE insulation.


 Low voltage cables may be PVC or XLPE (PVC for low current & XLPE for
high current).

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Note:-

Sheath is always made from PVC.

Conductor: Cu or Al

Insulation: PVC or XLPE

Sheath: PVC

Medium voltage cables are always:

AL / XLPE / STA / PVC

As short circuit level very high Sheath

@ 11 KV Network ----- SC= 500MVA

@ 22 KV Network ----- SC= 750MVA

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S.T.A (Steel Tape Armoured)


Armouring
S.W.A (Steel Wire Armoured)

Steel Tape Armoured [STA]: Used for underground cables.

Steel Tape Armoured (STA) Steel Wire Armoured (SWA)

 STA withstand mechanical stress more than SWA, but SWA more
flexible than STA.

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[4] Conductor type:-

Aluminum (Al) Copper (Cu)

 Conductivity of Al = 65% of Cu conductivity.


 Al is lighter than Cu in weight.
 Cu is higher cost than Al.

Aluminum (Al)

Cupper (Cu)

 All medium voltage cables are made from Al because of two reasons:-
1) Low current I ↓↓
2) Low cost ↓↓

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 Low voltage cables are made from Cu except underground cables of


electrical distribution company for residential area.

[5] Core number:-

a) Single core cable:

Application of single core cable:-

 If CSA > 300mm2.


 Residential area(riser).
 Earthing cable.

Earthing Cable

Single Core Cable

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b) Two core cable:

Application of two core cable:-

Used in low voltage in 1Ø where is there is


no earthing system [ L & N only ].

c) Three core cable:

Application of three core cable:-

 Used in low voltage in 1Ø where is there is


earthing system [ L, N and E ].
 In medium voltage three phase [ R, S, and T ].

Low Voltage

Medium Voltage

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d) Four core cable:

Application of four core cable:-

Used for three phase network in low


voltage system [R, S, T and N].

================================================================

Cables Formations

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 Trefoil position is preferred than flat position as:

Φ ↑  Temp↑  R↑  Derating in cables.

 Multicore cables are more economic than single core cables.


 Multicore cables designed as trefoil.
 Multicore cables are preferred than single core cables.

================================================================

For Neutral Cable:-

 C.S.A for neutral = C.S.A for any phase (For Cables < 35 mm2)

C.S.A (R) = C.S.A (Y) = C.S.A (B) = C.S.A (N)

Because: 1) third harmonic.

2) Unbalanced system.

T
R

S N

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For Earthing Cable:-

If C.S.A ≤ 16 mm2  E=L

1–Ø 3–Ø

L=N=E R=S=T=N=E

3x mm2 5x mm2

L N E R S T N E

Ex:-
3 x 3 mm2 5 x 3 mm2
3 x 4 mm2 5 x 4 mm2
3 x 6 mm2 5 x 6 mm2
3 x 10 mm2 5 x 10 mm2
3 x 16 mm2 5 x 16 mm2

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If C.S.A > 16 mm2  E=½L

For three phase only E = ½ L

4x +½

R S T N

Ex:-

4 x 70 + 35 or 4 x 240 + 120 or 4 x 300 + 150

‫ عن طريق توصيف كتابة الكابل‬Single core or Multi core ‫يتم معرفة اذا كان الكابل‬

EX:-FOR 3 phase cable with C.S.A 185mm2

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Cable Design

Cables are designed according to:

 Current carry capacity(C.C.C) or thermal rating.


 Voltage drop.
 Short circuit level.

[1] Current Carry Capacity:-

C.B = 80 A Cables C.S.A =??!


LOAD 40 KVA
3 PH, 50HZ

Irated = 40 x 1.5 = 60 Amp

IC.B = 60 x 1.25 = 75 Amp  C.B = 80 Amp

Icable =

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CABLE C/Cs

C.B C/Cs

 So must select C.B before cable.


 C.B rating depends on (KVA of load).
 Cable sizing depends on C.B rating.

Types of Derating Factor:-

a) Ambient temperature Derating factor


b) Ground temperature Derating factor
c) Grouping factor
d) Burial depth Derating factor
e) Soil thermal resistivity

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Derating Factor

Air Ground
 Temp Temp
 Grouping Factor  Depth
 Soil Thermal

Take TA = 50°c Take Tg = 50°c

So, for PVC take 0.82 So, for PVC take 0.76

For XLPE take 0.89 For XLPE take 0.85

(for depth = 80 Cm)

How to calculate Derating Factor for group of cables?

Correction factor for cable laying in cable trays.

If cables are single layer and the distance between two cables is equal to
diameter of cable and the distance between cable and wall equal D/2 this
mean:

Derating Factor D.F = 1

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Ex:-

Icable =

Temp = 50°c  PVC  D.FT= 0.82

Single cable  D.FG.N= 1

Icable = = 97 Amp

From Elsewedy Catalogue: chose Cu/PVC/PVC 4 X 25 + 16 mm2

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[2] Voltage Drop calculation:-

V.D = (mv / amp / m) x 10-3 x Iactual x L

Where:
Iactual: load rated current.
L: Cable length.
(mv / amp / m ): Factor get from cable catalogue.

Note:-

 Accepted voltage drop is V.D ≤ 5%


 V.D % = (V.D / 380) x 100

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For motor – 1 :- p = 50 HP

Irated = 50 x 1.5 = 75 A. IC.B = 75 x 1.25 = 94 A.  C.B = 100 A

Icable = = 125 A.  4x50 + 25 mm2 Cu/PVC/PVC

For motor – 2 :- p = 100 HP

Irated = 100 x 1.5 = 150 A. IC.B = 150 x 1.25 = 187.5 A  C.B = 200 A

Icable = = 250 A.  4x120 + 70 mm2 Cu/PVC/PVC

For DB :-

Total KVA = 100 + 50 = 150 KVA

Irated = 150 x 1.5 = 225 A.  C.B = 250 A

Icable = = 312.5 A.  4x185 + 95 mm2 Cu/PVC/PVC

Voltage Drop calculation:-

( From 1 ---- to ---- 2 )

L = 30 mt ; Iactual = 225 A ; C.S.A = 185 mm2

V.D = (mv / amp / m) x 10-3 x Iactual x L

V.D = 0.244 x 10-3 x 225 x 30 = 1.647 Volt

V.D % = (1.647/380) x 100 = 0.433 %

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( From 2 ---- to ---- 3 )

L = 100 mt ; Iactual = 75 A ; C.S.A = 50 mm2

V.D = (mv / amp / m) x 10-3 x Iactual x L

V.D = 0.72 x 10-3 x 75 x 100 = 5.4 Volt

V.D % = (5.4/380) x 100 = 1.42 %

From 1 – to – 3 :::::::: Total V.D = 1.42 + 0.433 = 1.835 % {Accepted}

( From 2 ---- to ---- 4 )

L = 300 mt ; Iactual = 150 A ; C.S.A = 120 mm2

V.D = (mv / amp / m) x 10-3 x Iactual x L

V.D = 0.341 x 10-3 x 150 x 300 = 15 Volt

V.D % = (15/380) x 100 = 4 %

From 1 – to – 4 :::::::: Total V.D = 4 + 0.433 = 4.435 % {Accepted}

Note:-

If total V.D % > 5 % ( not accepted ) we have to solve this problem.

As V.D = (mv / amp / m) x 10-3 x Iactual x L , so if the (mv / A / m) reduced


the V.D will be reduced as well.

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So, we select the next higher C.S.A cable.

C.S.A ↑  R↑  (mv / A / m) ↓  V.D ↓  V.D% ↓↓

[3] Short circuit calculation:-

For copper conductor: A = 9.1 √ IS.C mm2

For aluminum conductor: A = 14.2 √ IS.C mm2


Where:
A: Cable cross sectional area.
t: Operation time of C.B ( worst case = 1 Sec. ).
Is.c: short circuit current (KA)

‫الحظ دائما ان كابالت الجهد المنخفض تتحمل تيارات القصر لذلك يؤخذ فى االعتبار دائما فى‬
V.D ‫التصميم قيمة الـــ‬
‫ أما كابالت الجهد المتوسط تصمم على تيارت القصر و تؤخذ فى االعتبار النه‬, ‫النه هو الكبير فيها‬
Xsc ‫يكون كبير جدا فيها نظرا لصغر قيمة‬

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Cable Tray
Standard of cable trays is:

Height: 5cm, 8cm, 10 cm.

Width: 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm, 25cm, …………….., 100cm.

Cable tray in two levels:-

There are 3 and 4 levels, but standard distance between two levels ≥ 30cm.

‫صفحة رسومات‬

Cross section area of pipes

‫رسمة‬

Where

d: Cable diameter.

D: Pipe diameter.

‫ من مساحة مقطع الماسورة‬%44 = ‫مساحة مقطع الكابل‬

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‫ملحوظة هامة‪-:‬‬
‫ممنوع ان نمرر كابالت سنجل داخل مواسير صلب الن هذم المواسير تعمل كأنها‬
‫‪Secondary of current transformer‬‬

‫فيمر بها تيار و تسخن و تحرق الكابل لذلك يجب وضع الكابل فى ‪:‬‬
‫‪ Pipes made from PVC.‬‬
‫‪ Trays.‬‬
‫‪ On ground.‬‬

‫عيوب حامل الكابالت‪-:‬‬


‫لو كابل تعطل قد ال نستطيع اخراجه من وسط الكابالت الكثيرة ففى هذه الحالة نتركه و نضع كابل‬
‫اخر غيره‪.‬‬
‫لو كابل واحد من الكابالت اتحرق الزم نغير الحامل كله ‪Tray‬‬

‫جميع دوائر الطوارئ تكون منفصلة عن الدوائر العادية بحيث لو الدوائر العادية اتحرقت ال تحرق‬
‫كابالت الطوارئ و لو وضعتك فى حامل واحد للتوفير يجب ان تضع بينهما ‪Fire Barrier‬‬

‫ال تضع كابالت الجهد المتوسط مع كابالت الجهد المنخفض مع كابالت اضاءة او تليفونات مع بعض‬
‫فى حامل واحد ‪ ,‬أو تضعهم بشرط ان ال تقل المسافة بينهم عن ‪ 54‬سم‪.‬‬
‫التضع كابالت التليفونات تحت كابالت خطوط النقل و االبراج النه لو وقعت كابالت خطوط النقل و‬
‫التى قد تصل الى ‪ 544‬كيلوفولت على خطوط التليفونات ينتقل خالل خطوط التليفونات و ممكن ان‬
‫تحرق السنترال بأكمله‪.‬‬

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‫طريقة دفن الكابالت‬

‫فى حالة كابل واجد فقط‬


‫‪ – 1‬نحفر فى االرض حفرة عمقها ‪ 04‬سم بعرض ‪ 44‬سم‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ثم نضع حوالى ‪ 14‬سم رمل ناعم ثم نضغط عليه ليكون ‪Compact‬‬

‫‪ – 3‬ثم نضع الكابل فى منتصف الحفرة‬


‫‪ -4‬ثم نضع عليه الرمل حتى ‪ 24‬سم من قاع الخفرة‬
‫‪ -5‬ثم نضع طوب طفلى فوقه‬
‫‪ -6‬نضع رمل ناعم من النوع الجيد فى باقى الحفرة‬
‫‪ -7‬قبل النهاية بحوالى ‪ 15‬سم نضع شريط تحذيرى ذو اللون البرتقالى‪.‬‬
‫فى حالة كابلين‬
‫‪ – 1‬نحفر فى االرض حفرة عمقها ‪ 04‬سم بعرض ‪ 64‬سم‬
‫‪ -2‬ثم نضع حوالى ‪ 14‬سم رمل ناعم ثم نضغط عليه ليكون‪Compact‬‬

‫‪ -3‬نضع الكابل االول و الكابل الثانى بحيث تكون المسافة بينهما ‪ 44‬سم‬
‫‪ -4‬نضع طوب رأسى بين الكابالت‬
‫ثم نكرر مثل باقى الخطوات السابقة فى حالة كابل واحد‬

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