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A time-line of black Africa

1000 BC: the Queen of Sheba visits king Solomon of Israel

300 BC: the city of Axum is founded
50: Axum rules Eritrea
300: Axum conquers southern Arabia
320: the Syrian monk Frumentius converts Ethiopian emperor Ezana to
500: Axum conquers southern Sudan
525: King Ella Kaleb of Axum annexes Yemen
5xx: Polynesian people settle Madagascar
5xx: the Christian kingdom of Dongola rules over Sudan
6xx: Arabs colonize East African trade towns including Zanzibar
710: Arabs invade Eritrea and destroy the Axumite empire
8xx: the empire of Ghana controls Mali, Mauritania, Guinea and Senegal
982 BC: Menelik I, son of the Queen of Sheba, becomes Ethiopia's first emperor
1000: Queen Yodit defeats the last Axumite king Del Na'od
1000: Timbuktu is founded in Africa by Muslim traders
1076: Almoravids from Morocco defeat the kingdom of Ghana and seize Mali
and Mauritania
10xx: Great Zimbabwe is the capital of a wealthy Shona kingdom that trades
with Asia
10xx: the Shona empire forms between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers
1137: the Zagwe Dynasty is founded in Ethiopia and the capital is moved from
Axum to Lalibela
1250: Sudan (Dongola) is conquered by the Mamaluks of Egypt
1250: Sundiata Keita founds the empire of Mali
1270: Yekuno Amlak ends the Zagwe dynasty and founds the Solomonic dynasty
in Ethiopia
12xx: the empire of Ghana rules over Mali and Senegal
12xx: the Mali empire expands to Guinea
130x: kingdoms of Kongo, Luba, Kuba, Lunda in the Congo
130x: Mali emperor Mansa Musa hires Arab architects to rebuild Timbuktu and
13xx: the kingdoms of Ife, Oyo, Benin in Nigeria engage in the slave trade
130x: the empire of Mali expands to the Atlantic
132x: Amda Siyon becomes negus of Ethiopia and expands the empire
1325: Mansa Musa, the king of Mali, makes his pilgrimage to Mecca carrying 500
slaves and 100 camels
1349: Yaji is the first Muslim ruler of Kano (north Nigeria)
1380: The Kanembu found a state in Bornu (Chad and Niger)
14xx: Bantu people invade the eastern half of South Africa
14xx: Gao raids Mali's capital Niani
1424: prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal sends the first expedition to
1430: Portugal trades slaves within Africa
1436: Afonso de Baldaya reaches Rio de Oro on behalf of prince Henrique the
Navigator of Portugal
1444: the first public sale of African slaves by Europeans takes place at Lagos,
1460: Portugal settles the islands of Cape Verde
1464: Gao invades all of Mali and Sunni Ali founds the empire of Songhai with
capital in Gao
1468: Songhai takes Timbuktu
1472: Portugal explores Gabon and Sao Tome
1482: Portugal founds the first European trading post in continental Africa
(Elmina, Gold Coast)
1488: Moroccans invade the African kingdom of Mali
1495: Cape Verde becomes a Portuguese colony
15xx: Portugal establishes a trade post in Mozambique
15xx: Portugal raids Eastern Africa trade towns
15xx: the Shonas found the Rozwi state
15xx: Tutsis from Ethiopia establish a feudal system in the Hutu lands (Rwanda
and Burundi)
1500: Portugal "discovers" Madagascar
1506: a Christian, Nzinga Mbemba, becomes king of the Kongo Kingdom
1533: Muslim general Ahmad Gran invades Ethiopia
1542: Portugal helps Ethiopia repel an Arab invasion
1571: Portugal attacks Mali
1575: Mali defeats Portugal
1575: Portugal establishes a trade post in Luanda (Angola) to buy slaves for
1591: the Songhay/Gao empire collapses after a Moroccan invasion
160x: BAntu people invade Namibia
16xx: kingdoms of Kanembornu and Hausa in Niger
1632: Fasiladas founds the modern empire of Ethiopia with capital in Gondar
1637: Holland captures Portugal's main trading post in Africa, Elmina
1641: Holland captures Portugal's trading posts in Sao Tome and Luanda
1648: Portugal recaptures Sao Tome and Luanda
1651: Britain occupies Gambia
1652: Holland establishes a trade post at the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa),
which develops into a colony of "boers" with its own language (Afrikaans)
1659: France invades Senegal
1660: Portugal defeats the kingdom of Kongo and renames it Zaire
1674: Arabs invade Mauritania
1699: Arabs from Oman invade Zanzibar
17xx: the Ashanti kingdom conquers Ghana with capital at Kumasi, and thrives
on the slave trade
17xx: the Muslim kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi (Chad) trade slaves
captured in the south
1776: Ibrahim Sori seizes power in Futa Jallon (Guinea) and converts it to Islam
1779: the Boers are defeated by the Xhusa in the first Bantu war (South Africa)
1787: Freed slaves found Sierra Leone, where slaves freed by British forces
converge ("krios")
1789: Uthman Don Fodio founds the caliphate of Sokoto, strictly Islamic, and
leads Muslim uprising in northern Nigeria and Cameroon
1792: king Andrianampoinimerina of the Merinas invades half of Madagascar
and moves his capital to Antananarive
1796: After France invades Holland, Holland surrenders Melaka/Malacca, Sri
Lanka and the Cape of Good Hope to Britain
18xx: the Zulus under king Shaka invade nearby kingdoms in South Africa
causing mass migrations (difaqane)
1800: 20,000 slaves from central Africa are sold every year in Egypt
1806: Britain annexes the Dutch colony of the Cape (South Africa)
1807: Britain abolishes the slave trade
1810: king Andrianampoinimerina of Merina dies and is succeeded by king
Radama I who continues to expand his rule over Madagascar
1816: Ahmad Lobbo founds the new state of Massina in Mali
1817: Uthman Don Fodio retires to a religious life and is succeeded by
Muhammad Bello as the caliph of Sokoto (northern Nigeria)
1820: king Moshoeshoe founds the Sotho kingdom of Basutoland to escape the
Zulu expansion
1820: Britain dispatches 5,000 settlers to the Cape
1820: Britain recognizes Madagascar's independence under the Merina king
1821: Massina establishes a new capital in Hamdallahi
1822: Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Sudan on behalf of the Ottoman
1822: US philanthropists found the state of Liberia for freed slaves
1828: king Radama I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by queen
Ranavalona I
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 :www.scaruffi.com/service/terms.html>Piero Scaruffi
All rights reserved.
1830: Mzilikazi founds the Ndebele state
1830: Egpyt founds a new capital for Sudan, Khartoum
1831: Teodros becomes king of Ethiopia with a program to conquer Jerusalem
and Mecca and to abolish Islam
1832: Oman moves its capital to the slave trade center of Zanzibar
1834: Britain abolishes slavery in South Africa, and 40,000 black slaves are
technically free
1834: Mailikazi of the Nbedele people invades the Rozwi state
1836: Fleeing British authority, Boers migrate ("the Great Trek"), massacring
thousands of Zulus and kidnapping hundreds of black children, and found the
Orange Free State and the Transvaal
1837: Umar seizes power and founds a new dyansty in Bornu
1839: king Sabhuza I of Swaziland dies and the boers invade the country
1843: Britain annexes Natal (South Africa)
1843: Swazi, leader of the Barabuza, declares the independence of Swaziland
1847: Liberia becomes independent under Joseph Roberts, which recreates
1849: Libreville is founded as an enclave for freed slaves
1850: Arabs sell into slavery about 100,000 Africans per year
1851: Britain seizes Lagos in Nigeria
1852: Al-Hajj Umar launches a jihad against pagan people and founds an Islamic
state in Dingiray (Senegal)
1855: Kasa becomes emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia
1861: queen Ranavalona I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by king
Radama II
1862: king Radama II of Merina (Madagascar) is assassinated and is succeeded
by queen Rasoherina, wife of the assassin, prime minister Rainilaiarivony
1865: 15,000,000 Africans have been deported in the Americas since the slave
trade began, and 30-40 million have died before reaching the Americas (17
million have been deported by Arab traders to the Muslim world)
1866: diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1866: Diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1867: Diamonds are discovered in South Africa
1868: Lij Kasa conquers Amhara, Gojjam, Tigray and Shoa in Ethiopia
1868: Madagascar's queen Rahoserina dies and is succeeded by Ranavalona II,
still married to the same prime minister Rainilaiarivony
Apr 1868: British general Robert Napier defeats Ethiopia at Magdala and the
Ethiopian emperor Theodore commits suicide
1868: Basutoland/Lesotho becomes a British colony
1868: Tewodros of Ethiopia is defeated by the British and commits suicide
1869: Italy buys land in Eritrea
1870: the Ndebele relocate their capital to Bulawayo
1870: Huge diamond mines are discovered near the Orange River in South Africa
1870: Guinea Bissau becomes a separate Portuguese colony from Cape Verde
1871: Kimberley attracts thousands of miners and becomes the biggest man-
made hole in the world (2,722 kg of diamonds would be extracted by 1914)
1872: the chieftain Tigrayan becomes emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia
1874: Britain defeats the Ashanti kingdom (Ghana) and the Gold Coast becomes
a British protectorate
1877: Transvaal becomes a British colony
Jan 1879: Zulu warriors armed with spears massacre the British army at the
battle of Isandhlwana
Jul 1879: Britain defeats the Zulus at Ulundi in South Africa, imprisons their ruler
Cetewayo and disintegrates their empire
Dec 1880: Britain fights the first war against the Boers in South Africa
Mar 1881: Britain signs a peace treaty with Paul Kruger's Boers acknowledging
their independence in Transvaal
1881: Muhammad Ahmad, leader of the Mahdists, rebels against Egypt and
establishes an Islamic state in Sudan
1881: Futa Jallon becomes a French protectorate
1883: Samory Toure founds the Islamic kingdom of Wasulu (Niger)
1883: Madagascar's queen Ranavalona II dies and is succeeded by Ranavalona
III, still married to the same prime minister Rainilaiarivony, the real leader of
the country while France forces Madagascar to accept a protectorate
1884: German explorer Carl Peters begins to colonize Tanganyika
1884: Cameroon becomes a German protectorate
1885: France colonizes Central Africa
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana)
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over the Delta region in Nigeria
1885: Sudan's Mahdists defeat British troops sent to regain Sudan for Egypt and
Muhammad Ahmad establishes an Islamic theocratic state over Sudan
1885: Italy occupies Massawa in Eritrea
1885: an international conference at Berlin awards Congo to the king of
Belgium, Mozambique and Angola to Portugal, Namibia and Tanzania to
Germany, Somalia to Italy, most of western Africa to France, and Egypt, Sudan,
Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana to Britain
1886: Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State over Kongo/Zaire
and enacts a policy of ethnic cleansing that would reduce the population from
20 million to 8 million by 1908 because of disease, torture or executions
1886: George Goldie founds the Niger Company to administer Nigeria on behalf
of Britain
1886: Britain establishes a protectorate over Zanzibar, still dominated by Arabs
1886: Gold is discovered in the Boer stronghold of Transvaal, South Africa
1888: British investors in South Africa form De Beers Consolidated Mines to
control the diamond trade
1888: The British East African Company acquires Kenya
1889: Yohannes IV of Ethiopia dies in battle and is succeeded by emperor
Menelik II, who founds Addis Abeba as Ethiopia's new capital
1889: Cecil Rhodes begins to colonize the Southern African regions (Rhodesia,
South Africa) for the British
1889: Italy invades Eritrea
1890: Rhodes conquers the Ndebele state (which becomes known as Rhodesia)
and founds Salisbury (Harare) and is appointed prime minister of the Cape
colony In South Africa
1890: Namibia becomes a German colony
1890: the Tutsi kingdom of Rwanda and Burundi becomes the German colony
1890: Frederick Lugard is appointed military administrator of Uganda by Britain
1891: Nyasaland becomes a British protectorate
1891: France invades the kingdoms of Niger and Guinea
1891: Somaliland is divided between Italy and Britain
1892: The gold rush brings a railway to Johannesburg in South Africa
1893: Swaziland becomes a British protectorate
1893: France occupies Dingiray (Senegal)
1893: Buganda becomes a British protectorate
1894: Kenya becomes a British colony
1894: Togo becomes a German protectorate
1894: the kingdom of Dahomey is annexed by French West Africa
1894: Belgium conquers eastern Congo from the Arabs
1895: Frances forces the Merina queen to abdicate
1895: Italy invades Ethiopia
1896: Italy is defeated by Ethiopia at Adowa/Adua and only Eritrea becomes an
Italian colony
1896: Madagascar becomes a French colony
1896: France conquers southern Chad and Mauritania
1896: Britain attacks Sudan again
1896: France occupies Ouagagougou (Upper Volta)
1898: British general Herbert Kitchener conquers Sudan from the Mahdists at
the Battle of Omdurman and massacres thousands of Sudanese tribesmen,
returning theoretically Sudan to Egypt which is theoretically under the
Ottomans, and encourages southern Sudan to convert to Christianity and ban
Arab customs
1898: Muhammad Abdille Hassan resists British occupation in Somaliland
1898: France conquers Samory Toure's kingdom
1898: France conquests French Sudan (Mali)
1899: 26,000 Boer civilians die in concentration camps during the war between
Britain and the Boers
1899: About 25% of the gold of the world comes from the mines of
Johannesburg, South Africa
1899: Britain buys Nigeria from the Niger Company
1900: The French found Fort-Lamy in Chad (later renamed N'Djamena)
1900: Britain creates an apartheid system in Kenya importing whites from South
Africa, Canada and Australia
1900: Britain extends its control from Buganda on the entire territory of Uganda
1901: British Ghana incorporates northern territories
1902: Lourenco Marques becomes the capital of Mozambique
May 1902: Boers and British sign a peace treaty granting autonomy to South
Africa and creating segregation for blacks
1903: France imposes a "head tax" on Cote d'Avoir's population
1903: Britain sends Indians to work on a railway in Kenya
1904: 12,000 British settlers live in Rhodesia
1904: Lothar von Trotha massacres the Herero and Namaqua in Namibia in
1904: German troops massacre 65,000 members of the Herero tribe in Namibia
1904: Brazzaville becomes the capital of French Central Africa
1905: France occupies all of Madagascar
1905: The Maji Maji revolt against Germany in Tanganyka
1906: Guinea becomes part of French West Africa
1908: at the end of the Congo war, the native population has decline by 10-20
million (at least 8 million were killed) and Congo has become a colony of
1910: The British colonies of Transvaal, Orage Free State, Natal and Cape unite
in the Union of South Africa
1910: Gabon (Libreville) is separated from Congo (Brazzaville) but remains a
French colony in central Africa
1910: Middle Congo becomes a colony of French Equatorial Africa
1912: the African National Congress is founded to promote the rights of blacks
in South Africa
1913: Menelik of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Lij Iyasu
1914: Togo is occupied by Britain and France
1914: Britain unites south and north Nigeria (the north being a caliphate ruling
over the Fulani-Hausa ethnic group while the south is still divided into many
tribal groups) and Frederick Lugard is appointed governor of the new colony
1915: South Africa inherits Namibia from Germany
1916: Britain conquers Tanganyika from Germany
1916: Britain incorporates Darfur into Sudan
1916: France conquers northern Chad (kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi)
1916: Lij Iyasu of Ethiopia is deposed and is succeeded by Menelik's daughter,
1916: Belgium conquers Rwanda and Burundi from Germany
1917: Britain suppresses a rebellion in Southern Sudan
1918: France and Britain conquer Cameroon
1919: Upper Volta becomes a separate territory of French West Africa
1920: Britain drops incendiary bombs on rebels in Southern Sudan
1920: There are 20,000 Indians in Kenya
1922: the British settlers of Rhodesia vote to secede from South Africa
1924: the British governor of Sudan, Lee Stack, is assassinated in Cairo
1925: Sudan completes the Sennar Dam on the Blue Nile
1926: Andre Matswa forms the liberation movement of French Congo
1926: France makes Niamey, a town of 3,000 people, the capital of Niger
1927: South Africa makes it illegal to have casual sex with a person of the other
1927: Hastings Banda emigrates from Nyasaland to the USA to study
1928: Britain massacres 200 tribesmen in Bahr-al_Jabal, Southern Sudan
1930: Zawditu of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Ras Tafari Makonnen, who
becomes emperor Haile Selassie I
1930: USA and Britain cut off diplomatic relations with Liberia, which still
practices slavery
1930: France completes the railway in the Congo that cost the lives of 17,000
African workers
1931: white Kenyan archaeologist Louis Leakey discovers human stone tool
fossils in the Olduvai Gorge of Kenya
1931: Jomo Kenyatta emigrates from Kenya to Britain to study
1934: racial laws forbid blacks from running any business in Rhodesia
1934: South Africa becomes independent
Oct 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
1937: The Graduates' General Congress is formed to demand independence
from Britain in Sudan
1937: The US-educated Nnamdi Azikiwe or "Zik" returns to Nigeria
1941: Britain liberates Ethiopia
1943: William Tubman becomes president of Liberia, a state in which only 3% of
the population is free
1944: Felix Houphouet-Boigny founds the Syndicat Agricole Africain in Cote
1944: Sayyid al-Rahman, son Muhammad Ahmad and new leader of the
Mahdists, founds the Umma Party in Sudan opposed to the union with Egypt
1944: The Nigerian nationalists Zik and Herbert Macaulay found the National
Council of Nigeria and the Cameroon
1945: Eritrea becomes a British protectorate
1946: Barthlemey Boganda starts a movement for the independence of Central
1946: France separates Mauritania and Senegal
1947: France kills thousands of demonstrators in Madagascar
1947: Jomo Kenyatta leads the liberation movement of Kenya
1948: the white government of South Africa creates apartheid to segregate
blacks from whites
1948: Kwame Nkrumah founds the Convention People's Party in Ghana
1949: South Africa bans mixed-race marriages
1950: Nkrumah organizes a general strike in Ghana and is arrested by the British
1952: Eritrea and Ethiopia are federated in one country under Haile Selassie
1952: The Mau Mau guerrillas pledge to drive white people out of Kenya
1953: Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland are united in a
1953: Ibos and Yorubas riot in Kano, Nigeria
1953: Ismail al-Azhari wins elections in British Sudan and becomes prime
minister appointing mostly northern Sudanese to the government
Dec 1953: Britain has arrested 150,000 Mau Mau insurgents
1954: Julius Nyerere founds the Tanganyka African National Union
1954: The CPP wins general elections in British Ghana but the Ashanti start their
own National Liberation Movement
1956: British Togo votes to be annexed to Ghana
1956: Amilcar Cabral founds an independence movement in Guinea Bissau and
Cape Verde
1956: The Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) is founded
1956: Britain grants full independence to Sudan, a country with more than 400
languages/dialects and more than 50 ethnic groups that mainly relies on exports
of cotton, but the Christian south rebels against the Muslim rulers
1957: Ghana, under Nkrumah, becomes the first black African country to win
independence from a European colonizer
1957: Ethiopia abolishes the Arabic and Eritrean languages
1958: Guinea becomes independent under Sekow Toure, who creates a Maoist
one-party state and carries out widespread "purges"
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 :www.scaruffi.com/service/terms.html>Piero Scaruffi
All rights reserved.
1958: Kenneth Kaunda forms a liberation movement in Northern Rhodesia
1958: Mauritania becomes independent
1958: Sudanese general Ibrahim Abboud overthrows the civilian government,
abolishes political parties and imposes Arabic and Islam on the south
1958: The All-African Peoples Conference is held in Accra, calling for the
liberation of the whole continent
1958: Liberia outlaws racial discrimination
1958: Patrice Lumumba founds the liberation movement of Congo
1959: Tutsis kill Hutu leaders, starting riots that will kill 100,000 Tutsis
1959: Boganda is killed in a mysterious plane crash in Central Africa
1959: end of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya (13,000 Kenyans and 100
Europeans dead)
1960: British and Italian Somaliland gain independence and merge to form
1960: Mali becomes independent under Modibo Keita
1960: Senegal becomes independent under Leopold Senghor
1960: Central Africa becomes independent under David Dacko
1960: Mauritania becomes independent under Mokhtar Ould Daddah
1960: Gabon becomes independent under Mba and enjoys an economic boom
1960: Benin becomes independent
1960: Chad becomes independent under dictator Francois Tombalbaye
1960: Niger becomes independent under Hamani Diori
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under prime minister Abubakar Tafawa
1960: Belgian Congo (Zaire) becomes independent, with Patrice Lumumba as
prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president, while the province of
Katanga declares its independence under Moise Tshombe
1960: Herman Toivo Ya Toivo form the South West Africa People's Organization
(SWAPO), the Namibia liberation movement
1960: the white police of South Africa kills 67 blacks during anti-apartheid
demonstrations in Sharpeville
1960: Madagascar becomes independent under Philibert Tsiranana
1960: French Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent under Fulbert Youlou
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
1960: the African National Congress is banned in South Africa and Nelson
Mandela launches armed resistance against the white regime
1960: Cote d'Avoire becomes independent under Houphouet-Boigny and enjoys
an economic boom
1960: Keita of Mali is deposed by a coup led by Moussa Traore
1960: Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) becomes independent under Maurice
1960: French Togo becomes independent under Sylvanus Olympio
1961: Tanganyika becomes independent under Julius Nyerere
1961: Lumumba is assassinated in Congo (Zaire)
1961: Cameroon becomes independent under Ahmadou Ahidjo
1961: Anti-Portuguese riots and guerrilla in Angola by the Movimento Popular
de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA), sponsored by the communists, and the Uniao
Nacional paraa a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA), sponsored by South
June 1962: The Frente de Libertacao do Mocambique (Frelimo), led by Eduardo
Mondlane, starts a liberation war against Portugal in Mozambique
1962: Ethiopian emperor Haile Sellassie dissolves the Eritrean parliament and
annexes the country, while Eritreans begin an independence war
1962: Nelson Mandela is arrested in South Africa
1962: Milton Obote leads Uganda to independence under the Buganda king
Edward Mutesa
1962: Rwanda becomes independent under Gregoire Kayitanda, a Hutu, while
Tutsis start a guerrilla war
1962: Burundi becomes independent under Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV
1962: Christians in the south of Sudan start a civil war (the "Anya Nya"
1963: the first conference of the Organisation of African Unity is held in Addis
1963: Chad's government outlaws all opposition parties, triggering civil war with
1963: Olympio overthrown and killed in Togo
1963: Alphonse Massamba-Debat seizes power in Congo Brazzaville and steers
the country towards socialism
1963: the federation of the Rhodesias dissolves
1963: Katanga accepts integration in the Congo (Zaire) and president Joseph
Kasavubu appoints Moise Tshombe prime minister
1963: Tuaregs of the Sahara stage a failed insurrection in Mali
1964: Nothern Rhodesia becomes independent and is renamed Zambia
1964: Nyasaland becomes independent and is renamed Malawi under Hastings
Banda who declares himself president for life
1963: Zanzibar becomes an independent sultanate
1963: Kenya becomes independent under Kenyatta
Dec 1963: Africans overthrow the Arab sultanate of Zanzibar
1964: Kenyatta outlaws all parties but his own
Nov 1964: Sudan's dictator Abboud is forced to resign and Sudan returns to
civilian rule under the young Oxford-educated Sadiq al-Mahdi
1964: Zanzibar is united to Tanganyika to become Tanzania
1964: Pierre Mulele leads the Simba rebellion in Congo
1964: Samora Machel leads Frelimo's first military attacks against the
Portuguese in Mozambique
1964: Mauritania becomes a one-party state under the People's Party
1965: Lumumba of Congo is overthrown by Belgium and USA that install Joseph
Desire Mobutu (later renamed Mobutu Sese Seko)
1965: Gambia becomes independent under Dawda Jawara
1965: Riots in Nigeria
1965: Hutus win the elections in Burundi but Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV refuses
to appoint a Hutu prime minister
1965: white leader Ian Smith declares the independence of (Southern) Rhodesia,
not recognized by Britain
1966: Yameogo of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed by Maurice Lamizana
1966: Milton Obote seizes power in Uganda deposing the Buganda heir Edward
1966: Senghor proclaims Senegal a one-party socialist state
1966: Mobutu of Congo hangs former prime minister Evariste Kimba and
cabinet members in front of a large crowd
1965: Seretse Khama wins the first national elections and becomes prime
minister of Bechunaland
1966: Bechuanaland becomes independent under Seretse Khama and changes
name to Botswana
1966: Ntare V deposes his father Mwambutsa IV in Burundi but is overthrown
by Michel Micombero in a military coup
1966: SWAPO of Namibia launches guerrilla attacks against the occupying
troops of South Africa
1966: Jean-Bedel Bokassa ousts Dacko in Central Africa and installs a brutal
dictatorship with help from France
1966: Balewa is overthrown and killed in a failed military coup by general Ironsi
and is succeeded by colonel Yakubu Gowon
1966: Basutoland declares independence and changes name to Lesotho
1966: Kwame Nkrumah is overthrown in Ghana by the army
May 1967: Ojukow declares Biafra independent from Nigeria, following
massacres of Ibos and sparking a civil war
1967: the two factions involved in the Nigerian civil war agree to a 48-hour
ceasefire so they can watch Pele play an exhibition game in Lagos
1967: Mba dies and El Hadj Omar Bongo seizes power in Gabon with help from
Morocco, turning the richest African country into a one-party corrupt mess
1967: Nyere turns Tanzania into a Maoist state, thereby destroying the economy
and turning Tanzania into one of the poorest countries in the world
1967: Gnassingbe Eyadema seizes power in Togo
1968: Swaziland becomes independent
1968: Samora Machel proclaims Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of Frelimo in
1968: Pierre Mulele is arrested in Congo, tortured and killed (his limbs
amputated one by one)
1968: Sierra Leone becomes independent under Siaka Stevens
1968: the United Nations imposes economic sanctions on the racial government
of Rhodesia, while Joshua Nkomo, Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithule, and
Robert Mugabe start guerrilla warfare
1968: France saves Tombalbaye of Chad from Muslim rebels
1968: Massamba-Debat is ousted in a coup by Marien Ngouabi
1968: Moussa Treore seizes power in Mali
1968: Mauritius gains independence from Britain
1969: minister Tom Mboya is assassinated in Kenya
1969: Eduardo Mondlane, leader of Frelimo in Mozambique, is assassinated
October 1969: Somalia's general Muhammad Siad Barre seizes power in Somalia
and turns Somalia into a communist dictatorship
1969: Francisco Macias Nguema seizes power in Equatorial Guinea
May 1969: Sudanese colonel Jaafar Muhammad al-Numairi/Nimeiri overthrows
the civilian government and sets out to ban political parties but grants
autonomy to the south
1970: Nigeria re-annexes Biafra after one million people died
1970: The Eritrean People's Liberation Front is founded to fight for the
independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia
1970: Sudan's army defeats an attempted coup by the Mahdists
Jan 1971: Muslim general Idi Amin stages a coup in Uganda with the support of
Nubian forces of the Ugandan army and becomes the dictator of a mostly
Christian country (300,000 people will die in 8 years of political violence and
1971: Sudan's army defeats an attempted coup by the communists
1971: Mobutu renames Congo as Zaire
1971: Tubman of Liberia dies and is succeeded by William Tolbert
1972: Gabriel Ramanantsoa seizes power in Madagascar and steers the country
towards socialism
1972: Sudan grants autonomy to the south who elects its own president, Abel
1972: Nigeria switches to driving on the right
1972: Mathieu Kerekou seizes power in Dahomey and turns it into a socialist
1972: Kaunda outlaws all opposition parties, introduces socialism and turns
Zambia into one of the poorest countries in the world
1972: Libya occupies northern Chad in cahoots with Chad's dictator Tombalbaye
1972: 1,000 Tutsis (including king Ntare V) are massacred in Burundi, and in
retaliation the Burundi government kills 150,000 Hutus
1972: general Juvenbal Habyarimana stages a coup in Rwanda
1973: France sends troops to help quell Chad's revolt
March 1973: Black September kills three Western diplomats in Sudan, including
the USA ambassador to Sudan
1973: King Sobhuza II abrogates Swaziland's independence constitution and
creates an absolute monarchy
1973: El-Ouali leads a group of Sahrawi (Western Saharan) students to form the
"Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro", or
Polisario, fighting for independence from Spain
1974: 200,000 people die of famine in Ethiopia
1974: Mali and Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) fight a border war
September 1974: Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is deposed in coup while Mengistu
Haile Mariam seize power and turns the country into a communist state (end of
the empire of Ethiopia)
1974: Guinea Bissau gains independence from Portugal under president Luis de
Almeida Cabral
1974: Hundreds of people die of starvation in Somalia
1974: Seyni Kountche seizes power in Niger
1975: Didier Ratsiraka seizes power in Madagascar and establishes a socialist
1975: Cape Verde gains independence from Portugal
1975: Somalia executes Muslim religious leaders, grants equal rights to women,
improves literacy and sedentarizes nomads
1975: Tombalbaye of Chad is deposed by Felix Malloum
1975: Spain withdraws from Western Sahara, Morocco invades Western Sahara
and the Polisario proclaims the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and begins
an independence war against Morocco
1975: Mozambique becomes independent under Samora Machel of Frelimo,
who creates a socialist state, but 600,000 people die of starvation in the next
ten years
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All rights reserved.
1975: Nigerian leader Gowon is overthrown by Murtala Ramat Mohammed,
who moves the capital to Abuja
January 1975: Angola becomes independent but civil war erupts between
UNITA, led by Jonas Savimbi, and MPLA, led by Agostinho Neto, who becomes
Angola's first president
March 1975: Cuba and the Soviet Union send "advisors" to the MPLA in Angola
October 1975: South Africa intervenes on the side of UNITA in Angola
1975: The Comoros gain independence from France
1976: Lourenco Marques is renamed Maputo
1976: the Ebola virus is first identified in western Sudan and in a region of
1976: Sudan has 18 million people
1976: Sadiq al-Mahdi attempts a coup in Sudan with help from Libya
1976: white police massacres 600 blacks during an anti-apartheid uprising in
Soweto, South Africa
1976: colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza, a Tutsi, seizes power in Burundi
July 1976: Israeli commandos storm an Air France plane hijacked by Palestinian
terrorists in Entebbe, killing all the Palestinians and scores of Ugandan soldiers
that were protecting them
October 1976: Mengitsu of Ethiopia orders the execution of 100,000 dissidents
over four years of "red terror"
1976: Renamo is formed by white Rhodesian officers to fight the government of
Sep 1976: Belgian scientist Peter Piot discovers an epidemics near the Ebola
river in the Congolese rainforest that kills 300 people in the village of Yambuku
February 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia liquidates his political rivals and assumes
absolute power
Mar 1977: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades
Zaire from Angola to overthrow Mobutu, but the coup is repelled by Moroccan
troops and Egyptian aircrafts assembled by France
July 1977: Somalia invades the Ogaden region of Ethiopia
August 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia declares "total war" against the Eritrean
1977: Bokassa, known for cannibalism, appoints himself emperor of Central
Africa in a ceremony, sponsored by France, that costs the equivalent of the
country's entire gross national product
1977: France, Belgium and Morocco help Mobutu repel an Angolan attack on
1977: Sudan signs a mutual defense treaty with Egypt, thus becoming de facto
an ally of the USA
1977: Ngouabi of Congo Brazzaville is assassinated in a coup and Massamba-
Debat (instigator of the coup) is executed, while Joachim Yhombi-Opango
becomes the new president
1977: Riots in Guinea against Toure's communist government
May 1978: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades
Zaire again, and massacres 80 Europeans and 200 Africans, and this time is
repelled by France's Foreign Legion
1978: the Soviet Union and Cuba send troops to support Mengitsu's regime
March 1978: Ethiopia with help from the Soviet Union and Cuba regains the
Ogaden from Somalia
1978: Daddah of Mauritania is deposed by Mohammed Khouna Haidallah
1978: South Sudan's regional elections are won by general Joseph Lagu
1978: Kenyatta of Kenya dies and is succeeded by Daniel Arap Moi, who
establishes an even more brutal dictatorship
1978: Abel Muzorewa succeeds Ian Smith in Rhodesia
1978: France attacks the Polisario to defend Mauritania's president
1979: Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party (representing the Muslim
North) wins the elections in Nigeria
September 1979: Angola's president Agostinho Neto dies and is succeeded by
Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA
1979: Francisco Macias Nguema is overthrown in Equatorial Guinea (50,000
have died) by his nephew Teodoro Obiang
1979: Jerry Rawlings leads the revolution in Ghana against corrupt officers
1979: Goukouni Oueddei seizes power in Chad, the first Muslim leader of the
country, with help from Libya, starting a civil war that almost destroys the
1979: France overthrows Bokassa (after it is revealed that he ordered the
massacre of 100 children) and re-installs Dacko as president of Central Africa
1979: Uganda attacks Tanzania, but Tanzania defeats Uganda and ousts
president Amin
1979: Denis Sassou Nguesso, supported by Angolan troops, seizes power in
Congo Brazzaville
1980: Robert Mugabe wins elections in Rhodesia and declares the independent
country of Zimbabwe
1980: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's president Luis de Almeida Cabral and
installs general Joao Bernardo Vieira
1980: Seretse Khama dies and vice-president Ketumile Masire succeeds him as
the new president of Botswana
1980: Senghor resigns and Abdou Diouf is elected president of Senegal
1980: Mauritania recognizes the Polisario
1980: Samuel Doe overthrows and kills Tolbert in Liberia (the native population
runs the country for the first time in its history)
1980: Obote wins rigged elections in Uganda and Yoweri Museveni starts a
guerrilla war
1980: Lamizana of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed
1980: Mugabe wins the first free elections in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and creates
a one-party socialist state
1980: Libya sends troops to support Chad against the French-backed rebels of
Hissene Habre (thousands of civilians die)
1982: North Korean troops help Rhodesia crush a rebellion led by Joshua Nkomo
that leaves thousands dead
1982: South Africa builds a nuclear weapon
1982: Moi declares a one-party socialist dictatorship in Kenya
1981: Hissene Habre seizes power in Chad
1981: Andre Kolingba ousts Dacko in Central Africa
1982: Swaziland king Sobhuza II dies, leaving 600 children to contend the throne
1982: Ahidja retires and Paul Biya becomes president of Cameroon
1983: Thomas Sankara seizes power in Upper Volta and changes its name to
Burkina Faso
1983: Sudan mandates Islamic shariha law on the entire country and Christian
leader John Garang leads the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), helped by
Ethiopia, in a new civil war against the Sudanese government
1983: Drought causes a famine that will kill 500,000 people in three years in
1983: Christian leader John Garang leads the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army
(SPLA) in a new civil war against the Sudanese government
1983: Renamo (supported by Rhodesia and South Africa) starts guerrilla war
against Frelimo in Mozambique
1983: Nkomo starts guerrilla warfare against Mugabe, and Mugabe retaliates
with mass executions
Dec 1983: Shagari is overthrown by the military in Nigeria
1984: 900,000 people die in Ethiopia of famine
1984: Haidallah of Mauritania is overthrown by Maaouya Ould Taya
1984: Sekou Toure of Guinea dies and Lansana Conte succeeds him
1984: France sponsors a coup against Cameroon's Biya that fails but kills
1984: Famine in Mozambique kills 100,000 people
1985: Ibrahim Babangida seizes power in Nigeria
1985: after mass graves of dissidents are discovered, Obote of Uganda is
removed in a military coup led by Tito Okello
1985: Nyere of Tanzania retires and is succeeded by Ali Mwinyi
1985: Nimeiri/Numairi is deposed in Sudan by general Abd al-Rahman Siwar al-
1986: Machel of Mozambique dies in an airplane crash and is succeeded by
Joaquim Chissano
1986: Wole Soyinka is awarded the Nobel Prize, the first one in Africa
1986: Botswana posts the second highest growth rate in the world
1986: Joseph Momoth succeeds Siaka Stevens in Sierra Leone
1986: Museveni's guerrillas conquer Uganda's capital
1986: Dacko creates a one-party state in Central Africa
1986: riots in Zambia stemming from poverty
1986: a successor to king Sobhuza II is chosen in Swaziland, Mswati II
1986: al-Barakat is established in Somalia to facilitate the transfer of money
from emigrants abroad to their relatives in Somalia
1986: Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes prime minister of Sudan but the Islamic Front
(Muslim Brotherood) of Turabi controls the government
1987: Ndura Waruinge and Maina Njenga found Mungiki, a religious sect that
promotes traditional moral values and the Mau Mau view of African
1987: Seyni Kountche of Niger dies and Ali Seybou succeeds him
1987: South African troops invade Angola to support Savimbi's rebels
1987: major Pierre Buyoya seizes power in Burundi
1987: Sankara of Burkina Faso is overthrown and executed by Blaise Campaore
1987: Mugabe and Nkomo reach an agreement that ends the civil war in
Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
1987: the Mungiki sect in Kenya has more than a million members
1987: France expels Libya from Chad
1988: 20,000 Hutus are massacred by Tutsis in Burundi
1988: civil war erupts in Somalia between Barre and the Isaqs (Somaliland)
December 1988: South African and Cuban troops withdraw from Angola
1989: DeKlerk wins national elections in South Africa on a democratic program
1989: Sudanese general Umar al-Bashir seizes power with support from Hassan
al-Turabi's Islamic Front and from Iran, bans all political parties and creates a
totalitarian Islamic state
1989: riots erupt in Mauritania between Arabs and blacks, and thousands of
blacks are expelled to Senegal
1989: a ceasefire is signed between Morocco and the Polisario
1989: Charles Taylor leads rebels against Doe's government of Liberia
1989: SWAPO wins the first free elections in Namibia
1989: People riot against Didier Ratsiraka's economic policies in Madagascar
1989: Joseph Kony founds the Christian terrorist movement the Lord's
Resistance Army (LRA)
1990: Namibia becomes independent under president Sam Nujoma
July 1990: The MPLA converts Angola to a market economy
1990: pro-democracy riots in Cote d'Avoire
1990: civil war in Senegal
1990: the Tuaregs of Niger rebel against the government
1990: Tutsi rebels helped by Uganda invade Rwanda but are repelled by Zaire,
Belgium and France
1990: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe against Edgar Tekere's pro-
capitalist and democratic party
1990: king Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho is deposed by her son Letsie III
1990: Habre of Chad (responsible for the death of 40,000 dissidents) is
overthrown by Idriss Deby with help from Libya
1990: Tuaregs revolt against Mali
1990: Nelson Mandela is released from jail in South Africa
1990: Frelimo in Mozambique abandons socialism in favor of capitalism
May 1991: the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, led by Meles
Zenawi, removes Mengitsu from power, and the 36-year-old Meles becomes
Africa's youngest head of state
1991: Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro wins elections in Cape Verde
1991: Barre is deposed in Somalia but civil war erupts among the Somali clans,
while Somaliland declares independence under president Mohamed Ibrahim
1991: Seybou is deposed in Niger
1991: Eritrean rebels conquer Eritrea under Isaias Afwerke
1991: the brutal dictatorship of Mobutu causes riots in Zaire
1991: South Africa repeals the apartheid laws
1991: Traore of Mali is deposed by Amadou Toure
1991: Frederick Chiluba wins the first free elections in Zambia
1991: Foday Sankoh leads an invasion of Sierra Leone by Sierra Leonean
dissidents, mercenaries and forces of Liberia's rebel Charles Taylor
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All rights reserved.
1992: Chissano of Mozambique and Renamo leader Alfonso Dhaklama sign a
peace agreement that ends the civil war (900,000 people have been killed)
1992: Valentine Strasser deposes Joseph Momoh and seizes power in Sierra
1992: the United Nation sends troops (led by the USA) in Somalia to stop
fighting by clans that has claimed 300.000 lives, but local warlords led by
Muhammad Aideed expel them
1992: Albert Zafy wins the first free elections in Madagascar
1992: Biya wins rigged elections in Cameroon
1992: Alpha Konare wins the first free elections in Mali
1992: Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA wins the first free elections in
Angola, but Savimbi refuses to recognize the result and resumes the civil war
1992: Pascal Lissouba wins the first free elections in Congo Brazzaville
1992: Jerry Rawlings wins the first democratic elections in Ghana
1993: Eritreans vote to become independent
1993: Houphouet-Boigny dies after ruling Cote d'Avoire for 33 years, and is
succeeded by Henri Konan Bedie
1993: Bongo barely wins the first free elections in Gabon
1993: end of the civil war in Senegal
1993: Felix Patassie wins the first free elections in Central Africa
1993: Moi wins the first democratic elections in Kenya, despite having
destroyed its economy
1993: Mahamane Ousmane wins the first free elections in Niger
1993: Melchior Ndadaye wins the elections in Burundi and becomes the first
Hutu president, but is assassinated by Tutsis in a coup that leaves thousands
dead and starts a civil war that would kill 200.000 people
1993: a senior Bin Laden associate negotiate the purchase of enriched South
African uranium with the mediation of Sudanese officials
1993: Omar Hassan al-Bashir is appointed president of Sudan while Hassan al-
Turabi remains the most powerful man in the country
1993: Moshood Abiola wins the elections but general Sani Abacha seizes power
in Nigeria
1994: Nelson Mandela wins the first free elections in South Africa and becomes
its first black president
1994: South Africa's right-wing movement AWB, led by supremacist leader
Eugene Terreblanche, carries out a bombing campaign that kills 21 people
1994: Yahya JAmmeh deposes Jawara in Gambia
Apr 1994: a moderate Hutu, Cyprien Ntaryamira, is appointed president of
Burundi, but is assassinated by Hutu extremists with the president of Rwanda,
Juvenbal Habyarimana
1994: Jean Kambanda leads the government of Rwanda and Theoneste
Bagosora defines its strategy while 800,000 Tutsis are slaughtered by Hutus
Jul 1994: Tutsi rebels conquer Rwanda, led by Paul Kagame
1994: Banda is defeated in Malawi's first free elections and Bakili Muluzi
becomes president
1994: South Africa has the highest rate of murders in the world (67 per 100,000
1995: Benjamin Mkapa wins the first free elections in Tanzania
1995: Meles Zenawi wins elections in Ethiopia
1995: Konare's government of Mali signs a peace agreement with the Tuareg
1995: Abacha executes oppposition leaders in Nigeria
1995: the Ebola virus kills entire villages in Congo (Zaire)
1995: white palaeontologist Richard Leakey leads the opposition in Kenya
1996: a meningitis epidemics kills thousands of people in Burkina Faso
1996: Ahmed Tejan Kabbah wins elections in Sierra Leone, but is deposed by
general Johnny Paul Koroma
1996: warlord Muhammad Aideed of Somalia dies and is succeeded by his son
1996: Zafy is deposed by parliament and Didier Ratsiraka wins the new elections
in Madagascar
1996: Rwanda invades Zaire to fight Hutu militias
1996: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe after all other candidates
1996: colonel Ibrahim Mainassara seizes power in Niger
1996: a ferry sinks in Lake Victoria killing about 600 people
1996: Museveni wins the first free elections in Uganda
1996: an Islamic militant of Takfir wal Hijra kills 12 people in a Sudanese
June 1996: Following the Khobar Towers attack, Sudan expels Osama bin Laden
1996: Pierre Buyoya seizes power again in Burundi, while Hutu rebels conduct a
guerrilla war that kills 100,000 people
1996: Army unites rebel in Central Africa
1997: Patasse and the rebel soldiers sign a peace treaty in Central Africa
1997: Charles Taylor wins the elections in Liberia
1997: Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes the secretary general of the United Nations
1997: the government of Niger and the Tuareg rebels sign a peace treaty
1997: Somali factions sign a peace treaty
1997: Laurent-Desire Kabila, helped by Rwanda, wins Zaire's civil war while
Mobutu is abroad, and JeanPierre Bemba and other Mobutu officials flee the
1997: Rwandan troops, pursuing Hutu militias, invade Congo (Zaire)
1997: Denis Sassou-Nguesso becomes president of Congo Brazzaville after
military confrontation
1998: Ethiopia and Eritrean fight a border war
1998: Masire retires and vice-president Festus Gontebanye succeeds him as
president of Botswana
1998: Nigerian troops restore president Tejan Kabbah in Sierra Leone, but Foday
Sankoh continues the civil war
1998: an oil pipeline explodes in Nigeria killing more than 500 people
1998: Civil war in Chad between the forces of president Deby and the rebels led
by Youssouf Togoimi
1998: Jean Kambanda of Rwanda is convicted of genocide by the United Nations
1998: Namibia, Angola and Zimbabwe send troops to the Congo to support
Laurent Kabila against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda
1998: Nigerian dictator Abacha dies
1998: the U.S.A. bombs Sudan for helping terrorists and Afghanistan's camps
where Osama bin Laden trains his militants
1998: two truck bombs destroyed the American embassies in Kenya and
Tanzania, killing 213 people in Kenya and 11 in Tanzania
1998: Puntland declares its independence from Somalia under the presidency of
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
1999: Olusegun Obasanjo wins democratic elections in Nigeria
1999: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira
1999: Umar al-Bashir has Turabi arrested in Sudan
1999: general Robert Guei seizes power in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
1999: Liberia supports rebels of Sierra Leone led by Sam Bockarie, a deputy of
Foday Sankoh
1999: Mainassara of Niger is assassinated and succeeded by Daouda Wanke
1999: Thabo Mbeki wins the elections in South Africa and succeeds Mandela as
1999: South African president Thabo Mbeki declares AIDS drugs dangerous
1999: Tandja Mamadou wins democratic elections in Niger
2000: 2,000 people are killed in fighting between Muslims and Christians in the
Nigerian city of Kanduna
2000: mass killing in Kanungu, Uganda, is carried out by members of Joseph
Kibwetere's Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God
(more than 700 dead)
2001: Opposition leader John Kufuor wins the elections in Ghana and becomes
its new president, while Rawlings retires peacefully
2001: Pedro Pires wins elections in Cape Verde
2000: Abdoulaye Wade wins the first free elections in Senegal and replaces
2000: rebel Foday Sankoh is captured in Sierra Leone, but civil war continues
2000: the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), supported
by Guinea, is formed by Liberian refugees and exiles to fight Charles Taylor's
2000: Squatters seize hundreds of white-owned farms in Zimbabwe
2000: Islamic law ("sharia") is introduced in several states of Nigeria
2000: Laurent Gbagbo wins rigged elections in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
2000: peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea
2000: the USA approves a law (AGOA) to eliminate tariffs on hundreds of items
for African countries
2000: 425 people are infected by the ebola virus in Uganda and more than half
of them die
May 2000: Christian churches are destroyed by the Sudanese government
Dec 2000: an Islamic militant of Takfir wal Hijra kills 20 people in a Sudanese
2001: Tycoon Marc Ravalomanana wins the elections in Madagascar but
Ratsiraka refuses to concede
2001: the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) dissolves and is replaced by the
African Union
2001: Riots in Nairobi's slums
2001: Laurent Kabila of Zaire (Congo) is killed by a bodyguard and succeeded by
his son Joseph Kabila
2001: the Sudanese government arrests several leaders of the Islamist party
(Popular National Congress), including its leader Hassan al-Turabi
2001: Nigerian army soldiers kill 200 civilians in retaliation for the murder of
soldiers in Benue state
2001: an Ebola epidemic spreads in Congo Brazzaville and Gabon
2001: the party of Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya, the Democratic
and Social Republican Party (PRDS), wins democratic elections
2001: African nations launch the "New Plan for Africa's Development" (Nepad)
to foster progress and democracy
2001: Following Al Qaeda's terrorist attacks, the USA shuts down al-Barakat
causing the economic collapse of Somalia
2001: Mohammed Yusuf founds the Islamist terrorist group Boko Haram in
northern Nigeria
2002: 100 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Lagos during riots between
Muslims and Christians
Sep 2002: A militia from the Ngiti tribe carries out a massacre at Nyankunde
Christian Hospital in Congo, killing more than one thousand people
2002: Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of Somaliland dies and is succeeded by Dahir
Riyale Kahin
Apr 2002: The Constitutional Court of Madagascar recognizes tycoon Marc
Ravalomanana as the new president
2002: Ivory Coast's president Laurent Gbagbo accepts to share power with
Alassane Ouattara, leader of the opposition, but soldiers mutiny, form three
rebel groups and start a civil war, splitting the country between the Muslim
north (rebels) and the Christian south (government)
2002: France sends "peacekeeping" troops to Ivory Coast
2002: Somali factions sign a truce deal after decades of civil war
2002: almost 2,000 people die in Senegal when a ferry capsizes
2002: Togoimi and Deby sign a peace deal, ending the civil war in Chad
2002: Alpha Konare steps down as president of Mali and Amadou Toumani
Toure wins the new elections
2002: Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, is killed and the Angolan civil war ends
2002: Levy Mwanawasa wins elections in Zambia and becomes the new
2002: 90 Somalis die on a boat from Somalia to Aden
2002: 200 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Kanduna by Islamic fanatics
protesting against a Miss World pageant
2002: Mugabe loses national elections in Zimbabwe but declares himself the
winner and approves the "acquisition" of thousands of white farms
2002: France sends troops to restore order in Cote d'Avoir, following an armed
2002: "Ninja" rebels, led by Pastor Ntumi, stage a rebellion against government
of Congo Brazzaville
2002: the Burundi government and the Hutu rebels sign a ceasefire agreement
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All rights reserved.
Jan 2002: The Sudanese government and the Christian rebels of the SPLA sign a
ceasefire agreement
2002: Francois Bozize leads a rebellion against Patasse in Central Africa, and
Libya sends troops to defend the government
2002: the Congolese Liberation Movement carries out cannibalism, rape, torture
and murder in the Congo province of Ituri
2002: about 42 million people are infected with AIDS (70% in Africa), 3.1 million
people died of AIDS in 2002 alone, and half of them are women
2003: Mwai Kibaki wins the elections in Kenya and replaces Moi
2003: Mungiki cult members kill 23 people in Kenya
2003: Francois Bozize captures the capital of Central Africa and deposes Patasse
2003: Hundreds of people are killed during ethnic fights in the oil-producing
region of the Niger Delta in Nigeria
2003: fierce battles between the army of Burundi and rebels of the Forces for
the Defense of Democracy
2003: both Sam Bockarie and Johnny Paul Koroma flee from Sierra Leone to
2003: Hutu politician Dominitien Ndayizeye becomes the new leader of Burundi
while Hutu rebels of the Forces for National Democracy (FNL) attack the capital
killing hundreds of people
2003: 1,000 people die in fierce tribal fighting in eastern Congo (Zaire) as
Ugandan troops pull out of Congo
2003: Charles Taylor of Liberia is indicted for war crimes by a United Nations
court, while LURD soldiers close in on the capital, and is forced to step down by
USA pressure and take asylum in Nigeria
2003: Isaias Samakuva is elected leader of Angola's former rebel movement
2003: A transitional government of national reconciliation is created in
Congo/Zaire (president Joseph Kabila, Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi for the old
Kinshasa government, Azarias Ruberwa for the Rwandan-backed RCD-Goma,
the largest rebel group, Jean-Pierre Bemba for the Ugandan-backed Congolese
Liberation Movement (MLC), the second largest rebel group, and Arthur Z'Ahidi
Ngoma for the Kinshasa political opposition).
2003: rebel Foday Sankoh of Sierra Leone dies in jail
2003: the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, responsible for
abducting thousands of children during the civil war, kills about 60 people in
2003: more than 250 people die when a boat capsizes in the Democratic
Republic of Congo
2003: Domitien Ndayizeye is appointed president of Burundi by a coalition
government in an effort to end the civil war
2003: former Madagascar prime minister Tantely Andrianarivo is sentenced to
12 years of hard labour for abuse of office
2003: Darfur rebels demanding autonomy launch attacks against the Sudanese
2003: 20,000 murders are committed in South Africa in one year, the second
highest rate in the world after Colombia
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 192 people in Uganda (february)
2004: Ethiopia's economy grows about 10% yearly between 2004 and 2011
2004: Arab militias (JAnjaweed militias led by Sheik Musa Hilal) carry out
massive atrocities in Sudan's Darfur region
2004: Sudan and John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) sign a
peace deal, ending a civil war that cost the lives of two million people
2004: Sudanese government and southern rebel sign a peace deal, and ex-rebel
leader John Garang becomes Sudan's vice-president
2004: Angola's economy grows 17% a year on average between 2004 and 2008
2004: a woman, Tanzania's Getrude Mangella, is elected president of the Pan
African parliamen
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 42 people in Uganda (may)
2004: hundreds of Muslims are massacred by Christians in Yelwa, Nigeria
2004: Hutu rebels massacre 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees in Burundi
2004: France dectroys the entire airforce of Ivory Coast, guilty of accidentally
killing a few of its soldiers
2004: 39.4 million people have AIDS worldwide
2004: The government and the rebels of Senegal make peace
2004: Djibouti becomes a counter-terrorism base for the USA
Aug 2004: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 152 Banyamulenge Congolese
refugees at Gatumba in Burundi
2005: Namibia president Sam Nujama retires and is succeeded by Hifikepunye
2005: Sudanese vice-president and former rebel leader John Garang dies in a
helicopter crash
2005: Former dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira wins elections in Guinea Bissau
2005: Riots following disputed elections in Ethiopia won again by Meles Zenawi
cause about 200 deaths
2005: Niamey has 750,000 people, three times what it had in 1980
2005: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and his son Faure Gnassingbe but is forced by
international pressures to resign
2005: A deadly ebola-like virus kills 174 people in two weeks in Angola
2005: More than one million people are left homeless in Zimbabwe after police
destroys their illegal homes
2005: Burundi's former Hutu rebel group FDD, led by Pierre Nkurunziza, win the
first free parliamentary elections in Burundi
2005: bandits raid the village of Turbi in Kenya killing 76 people
2005: a miiltary council overthrows Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya
2005: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf wins the first democratic elections in Liberia and
becomes the first woman elected head of state in Africa
2005: Rebels supported by Sudan kill more than 100 people in Chad
2005: Jakaya Kikwete wins presidential elections in Tanzania
2005: Bitange Ndemo is placed in charge of information technology in Kenya
and launches a program of modernization
2006: Government troops carry out ethnic cleansing in the north of the Central
African Republic
2006: The Sudanese government funds its war in Darfur via the French bank BNP
2006: former dictator Charles Taylor is returned by Nigeria to Liberia where he is
wanted for war crimes
2006: Nigeria pays off its foreign debt, the first African nation to do so
2006: Islamists of the Union of Islamic Courts led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
take control of Somalia's capital for a few months, but Ethiopia helps the Somali
government of Mohamad Ghedi regain control of it and the USA bombs the
2006: Chad repels an attack by Janjaweed rebels on its capital, N'Djamena
Sep 2006: Agathon Rwasa signs a peace deal with Burundi's government
2006: First democratic elections are held in Congo Zaire, won by president
Joseph Kabila
2006: The Ugandan government signs a truce with the Lord's Resistance Army,
that moves to nearby countries
2006: A pipeline blast kills 260 in Nigeria
2007: The government of Ivory Coast and the rebels sign a peace accord
2007: Ernest Koroma wins democratic elections and becomes president of Sierra
2007: Inflation reaches 1,594% in Zimbabwe
2007: Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi wins the first democratic elections in
2007: Africa's economy grows 5.7% yearly
2007: Battles between Ethiopian soldiers and Islamists kill more than 1,000
people in Somalia
2007: Janjaweed rebels kill 400 civilians of Chad near the border with Sudan
2007: a French judge accuses Paul Kagame of having plotted the killing of former
president Juvenbal Habyarimana that sparked the genocide of 1994
2007: Umaru Yar'Adua of the north wins elections in Nigeria and Obasanjo
2007: 74 people are killed in Ethiopia by the Ogaden National Liberation Front
2007: Kenyan police kill 21 members of the banned Mungiki sect
2007: Kenya's Safaricom launches the mobile payment system M-Pesa
2007: Riots erupt between Shhites and Sunnis in Sokoto, Nigeria
2007: Ebola outbreak in Congo Zaire
2007: Tuareg rebels of Niger begin military operations under the name Niger
Movement for Justice
2007: Southern Africa's largest shopping mall opens in Soweto, South Africa
2007: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and Togo holds its first democratic elections
2007: Laurent Nkunda leads a rebellion in eastern Congo to protect Tutsi tribes
from Hutu bandits
2007: riots erupt in Kenya after rigged elections get Mwai Kibaki reelected as
president of Kenya over opposition leader Raila Odinga (1,500 people die)
2007: 5.4 million people have died in Congo since 1998 due to war, famine and
Dec 2007: five French tourists are killed by Al Qaeda (Mauritania)
2008: Kenya's president Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga form a
coalition government with the latter joining as prime minister
2008: The last rebel group surrenders in Burundi
2008: Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF party loses
parliamentary elections for the first time in 28 years but Mugabe intimidates
opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai to withdraw from the presidential run-off,
while unemployment reaches 80% and inflation 100,000%
2008: The USA bombs Somalia to kill an Al Qaeda leader, Aden Hashi Ayro
2008: Zimbabwean inflation hits 2.2 million per cent
2008: A roadside bomb kills more than 20 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
2008: A military coup led by general Mohamed Ould Abdelaziz ousts
Mauritania's democratically elected president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
2008: Zambia's president Levy Mwanawasa dies and is succeeded by vice-
president Rupiah Banda
2008: Zimbabwe's inflation hits 11,250,000%
2008: The ruling Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) wins
parliamentary elections in Angola
September 2008: Islamic extremists kill 12 soldiers in Mauritania
September 2008: South Africa's president Mbeki resigns following a scandal and
is succeeded by Kgalema Motlanthe
Sep 2008: Islamic extremists kill 12 soldiers in Mauritania (Mauritania)
October 2008: Several car bombs kill 29 people in Hargeisa, Somaliland
Oct 2008: Shirwa Ahmed, a Somali-American, blows himself up in Somalia killing
20 other people
November 2008: A study by the Harvard School of Public Health claims that
former South African president Thabo Mbeki is responsible for 330,000 AIDS-
related deaths
November 2008: Somali pirates seize a Saudi oil tanker
November 2008: Muslim riots erupt after a Christian-backed party is declared
the winner of elections in Nigeria's Plateau state
November 2008: Hundreds of people are killed in the central Nigerian city of Jos
during fights between Christians and Muslims
December 2008: Guinea's president Lansana Conte dies and the military led by
Moussa Dadis Camara seize power
December 2008: More than 600 people are killed at the border with
Congo/Zaire by Ugandan rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army
December 2008: Opposition candidate John Atta Mills wins a tight presidential
election in Ghana
December 2008: Somali pirates, mostly based in Puntland, collect at least $120
million in 2008 after seizing dozens of foreign ships
Dec 2008: Zimbabwe's inflation reaches 200% a day (230 million percent a year)
2008: South Africa establishes the "Joburg Art Fair", the largest art fair of Africa
2008: The skeletons of a previously unknown two-million-year-old humanlike
species, Australopithecus Sediba, are found in South Africa
Jan 2009: Zimbabwe adopts multiple hard currencies to replace the Zimbabwe
2009: Erik Hersman founds the iHub in Kenya for high-tech startups
2009: N'djamena has almost one million people, twice what it had in 1993
Jan 2009: Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamud "Farole" is elected president of
jan 2009: Somalia's president Abdullahi Yusuf resigns amid chaos, Ethiopia pulls
out of Somalia and Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is elected president of Somalia
while the Islamist movement al-Shabab led by sheik Muktar takes control of the
south of the country and other Islamist groups join in the movement Hizbul
Islam (who most powerful figure is warlord Hassan Dahir Aweys) to fight the
Somali government of Sheikh Sharif Ahmed
jan 2009: Madagascar's president Marc Ravalomanana fire's Antananarivo's
mayor Andry Rajoelina, starting riots that cause the death of more than 100
jan 2009: The Rwandan government, cooperating with the government of
Congo, arrests former Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda, who is
succeeded by Bosco Ntaganda at the head of the CNDP
feb 2009: Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai is sworn in as prime
minister in a unity government with president Robert Mugabe
mar 2009: Madagascar's president Ravalomanana resigns and is replaced by
opposition leader Andry Rajoelina, a former disc jockey turned media magnate,
following anti-government riots that kill more than 100 people
mar 2009: Congolese rebel leader Bosco Ntaganda signs a peace agreement with
the Congolese government and becomes a general in the army
mar 2009: Bissau's president Vieira is shot dead by rebel soldiers
apr 2009: Islamist opposition leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys returns to
Somalia after two years in exile
may 2009: Islamist groups al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam launch a joint attack to
oust Somalian president Sheik Sharif, laying a siege to Mogadishu that costs
hundreds of lives
may 2009:Jacob Zuma is elected president of South Africa
jun 2009: president Bongo of Gabon dies and is replaced by Rose Francine
jun 2009: a minister and 35 people are killed by a suicide car bomb attack in
jul 2009: protesters demonstrate against Niger's president Tandja Mamadou
who wants to extend his term as president
jul 2009: attacks on police stations by Boko Haram, an anti-Western Islamic
movement led by Mohammed Yusuf, leave hundreds dead in Nigeria's northern
states, and Yusuf is killed by the police
jul 2009: Sub-Saharan Africa's main exporters of oil are Angola, Nigeria, Sudan
and Equatorial Guinea
Sep 2009: Ali Ben Bongo, son of El Hadj Omar Bongo, is elected president in
rigged elections, igniting riots
Apr 2009: Murle tribesmen kill 177 people, mainly women and children, of the
Lou Nuer tribe in southern Sudan
Aug 2009: Murle tribesmen kill 185 people, mainly women and children, of the
Lou Nuer tribe in southern Sudan
Sep 2009: Murle tribesmen kill more than 100 people, mainly women and
children, of the Dinka Hol tribe in southern Sudan
Sep 2009: Guinean troops kill more than 150 people during opposition protests
against Moussa Dadis Camara
2009: More than 2,000 people are killed in ethnic clashes in South Sudan's
Jonglei state
Mar 2009: Lou Nuer tribesmen kill 453 people, mainly women and children, of
the Murle ethnic group in Jonglei state, southern Sudan
Dec 2009: A suicide bomb attack in Somalia kills 20 people including four
government ministers
Dec 2009: Madagascar's president Andry Rajoelina appoints a military prime
minister, Vital-Albert Camille
Dec 2009: Tens of members of the religious cult Kala Kato are killed in riots in
the northern Nigerian state of Bauchi
2009: More than 3,000 white farmers have been murdered in South Africa since
the end of apartheid in 1994
2009: Nigerian forces attack the stronghold of the Islamic group Boko Haram in
2009: Bending to pressures from mainland China, South Africa refuses to issue a
visa to the Dalai Lama to attend an international peace conference
Jan 2010: More than 200 people die in two days of clashes between Christian
and Muslim gangs in the Nigerian city of Jos
Jan 2010: The Guinean army surrenders power to a civilian, Jean-Marie Dore
Jan 2010: Nuer tribesmen kill more than 100 members of Dinkas in southern
Feb 2010: Nigeria's ill president Umaru Yar'Adua hands power over to his vice-
president, Goodluck Jonathan, from the south
Feb 2010: The army overthrows Niger's president Mamadou Tandja, who was
trying to extend his term in office
Feb 2010: 500 people are killed, mostly women and children, when Islamic
pastoralists attack a village south of Jos in Nigeria
May 2010: Human-rights activist Floribert Chebeya is killed in Congo Kinshasa
May 2010: May 2010, with over 400 deaths, is the bloodiest month in Darfur
(Sudan) since peacekeeping forces were deployed in december 2007
Jun 2010: Pierre Nkurunziza wins Burundi's rigged elections in which he was the
only candidate and opposition leader Agathon Rwasa goes into hiding
Jun 2010: A terrorist attack by Somali Islamists of al-Shabab kills more than 70
people in Uganda
Aug 2010: Kenya adopts a new constitution after a referendum
Aug 2010: Rebels gang-rape more than 240 women in Congo Kinshasa
Aug 2010: Islamists kill 30 people at a hotel in Somalia's capital
Sep 2010: Car bombs placed by Henry Okah and others of the Movement for the
Emancipation of the Niger Delta, or MEND, kill 12 people in Nigeria's capital
Nov 2010: Somali-USA citizen Mohamed Abdullah Mohamed becomes Somalia's
new prime minister
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alpha Conde wins presidential elections in Guinea
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alassane Ouattara wins presidential elections in
Ivory Coast but Laurent Gbagbo is sworn in again as president, causing riots
Dec 2010: Hizbul Islam (The Party of Islam) surrenders its Mogadishu territory to
the Shabab militia in Somalia
Dec 2010: Muslims attack Christians near Jos, Nigeria, during Christmas
celebrations killing more than 80
Dec 2010: Pirates take a record 1181 hostages in 2010, of which 1016 off the
coast of Somalia, hijacking 53 ships of which 49 off the coast of Somalia
2010: Famine kills nearly 260,000 people, half of them children, in Somalia from
2010 to 2012
Jan 2011: South Sudan votes for secession from Sudan
2011: Dadaab in Kenya near the border with Somalia is the world's largest
refugee camp with more than 500,000 people
Feb 2011: Congo's colonel Kibibi Mutware is convicted of sending his troops to
rape, beat up and loot from the population of Fizi on New Year's Day
Feb 2011: African Union peacekeepers, Ethiopian troops and Somali
government militias stage a coordinated offensive against the Islamist group
Mar 2011: About 1,000 people are killed as rebels attack the government in
Ivory Coast and France bombs government troops
Apr 2011: French troops arrest Ivory Coast's president Gbagbo and deliver him
to his opponent Alassane Ouattara, who becomes the new president of the
Apr 2011: Goodluck Jonathan wins national elections in Nigeria
May 2011: Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram carries out terrorist attacks in
the northern city of Bauchi that kill 14 people
Jun 2011: The first suicide bombing in Nigeria's history, claimed by Islamist
group Boko Haram, kills eight people, and bombs set by the Islamic group Boko
Haram kill 25 people in the northeastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri
June 2011: Mauritanian and Malian soldiers raid an al-Qaeda camp in western
Mali (Mali)
Jun 2011: Sudan kills hundreds of rebels in the Nuba mountains of Southern
Kordofan state and then disposes of the bodies in mass graves
Jun 2011: Renegade Congolese soldiers rape 121 women in the eastern village of
Jul 2011: 197 people drown in the Red Sea when a boat carrying Sudanese
migrants to Saudi Arabia sinks
Jul 2011: South Sudan becomes an independent country with capital in Juba and
run by Salva Kiir Mayardit
Aug 2011: The Murle tribe kills 600 men and women of the Nuer tribe in South
Sudan over a cattle dispute
Aug 2011: A car bomb by Boko Haram kills 18 people at the United Nations
building in the Nigerian capital Abuja
Sep 2011: About 200 people die when a ship sinks off the coast of Zanzibar
Sep 2011: A fire kills 61 people in a slum of Kenya's capital Nairobi
Sep 2011: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 36 government supporters in
Burundi in retaliation for the government's campaign of targeted assassinations
of the opposition
Oct 2011: More than 60 people are killed by a suicide bomb in the Somali capital
of Mogadishu
Oct 2011: Liberian-born women Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee win
the Nobel Peace Prize
Oct 2011: Kenya sends troops into Somalia after al-Shabab militants kidnap
foreign nationals in Kenya
Oct 2011: The world's population is 7 billion up from 1 billion in 1850 and less
than 3 billion in 1950.
2011: Malaria kills a child every 45 seconds in Africa
Oct 2011: Michael Sata, who campaigned to protect workers from exploitation
by mainland China, wins presidential elections in Zambia
Nov 2011: Multiple coordinated attacks by Boko Haram in Damaturu and
Maiduguri (northeastern Nigeria) kill at least 63 people
Dec 2011: North Sudan kills Khalil Ibrahim, the leader of Darfur's main rebel
group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
Dec 2011: Boko Haram kills 40 people in Nigeria on Christmas Day
Dec 2011: More than 150 people are held hostage in Somalia, mostly sailors
from foreign ships seized for ransom by pirates
Jan 2012: Boko Haram kills scores of Christians in northern Nigeria
Jan 2012: Three huge bomb explosions target police and government offices in
Nigeria's second-largest city Kano killing 185 people
Jan 2012: Tuareg rebels stage a rebellion against Mali
Jan 2012: The Nuer tribe kills 1000 men and women of the Murie tribe in South
Sudan in retaliation for the 2011 massacre
Mar 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 10 people at a Catholic church in Jos,
Mar 2012: Mali's democratically elected president Amadou Toumani Toure is
deposed by rebel soldiers under the command of Amadou Sanogo who then
surrenders power to parliament speaker Dioncounda Traore while Tuareg rebels
occupy the north of the country
Mar 2012: Opposition leader Macky Sall wins democratic elections in Senegal
Mar 2012: A Sudanese court sentences Meriam Yahya Ibrahim to death because
she married a Christian man, but the government later sets her free
Mar 2012: Congolese general Bosco Ntaganda starts his own militia backed by
Rwanda, M23
Apr 2012: Malawi's president Bingu wa Mutharika dies and is replaced by
female vice-president Joyce Banda
Apr 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 38 Christians in Kaduna, Nigeria, on Easter
Apr 2012: South Sudan invades Sudan's Heglig oil field
May 2012: Tuareg rebels and Al Qaeda declare the independent state of Azawad
in northern Mali
May 2012: Church bombings kill at least 15 people in Nigeria
Jun 2012: Islamists destroy ancient tombs Mali's Timbuktu
Jun 2012: Islamists kill 15 Christians in churches in Kenya
Jul 2012: Islamists kill 56 Christians in Christian villages in north Nigeria
Jul 2012: More than 100 people have die near the Nigerian village of Okogbe
while trying to steal fuel from a petrol tanker that crashed
Jul 2012: Ghana's president John Atta Mills dies and is succeeded by vice-
president John Dramani Mahama
Aug 2012: At least 19 people are killed in a gun attack on a church in the central
Nigerian city of Kogi
Aug 2012: About 60 miners die in northeastern Congo
Aug 2012: 34 striking miners are killed by police in South Africa
Aug 2012: Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi and his replaced by his
deputy Hailemariam Desalegn
Aug 2012: At least 112 people are killed in ethnic clashes between the Orma and
Pokomo groups in south-eastern Kenya
Aug 2012: Mali forms new unity government under interim prime minister
Modibo Diarra
Aug 2012: The first Somali parliament in two decades is inaugurated in
Mogadishu and Hassan Mohamud is elected president
Sep 2012: Gunmen kill 26 people (mostly students) in college hostel in Mubi,
north-eastern Nigeria
Nov 2012: More than 30 police officers are killed by villagers in Samburu County
of Kenya over cattle theft
Nov 2012: Jean-Marie Runiga's M23 militia seizes the town of Goma in eastern
Nov 2012: Former rebels of the Central African Republic create the Seleka
coalition against president Francois Bozize and occupy the north of the country
Jan 2013: France attacks the Islamists that rule northern Mali
Mar 2013: Uhuru Kenyatta wins presidential elections in Kenya despite
accusations of masterminding ethnic cleansing
Mar 2013: Seven foreign workers are killed in the northern Bauchi state of
Nigeria by the Islamist group Ansaru
Mar 2013: At least 28% of South African schoolgirls are HIV positive compared
with 4% of boys
Mar 2013: Five explosions at a bus park in northern Nigeria's Kano kill at least
25 people
Mar 2013: France kills the leader of Mali's Islamists, Abdelhamid Abou Zeid
Mar 2013: Michel Djotodia's (mainly Muslim) Seleka rebels overthrow president
Francois Bozize in the (mainly Christian) Central African Republic
Apr 2013: At least 20 people are killed in a series of bomb and gun attacks in the
Somalian capital Mogadishu
Apr 2013: King Mswati III of Swatziland has 14 wives and 27 children
Apr 2013: More than 200 people are killed in Baga by the Nigerian army fighting
May 2013: Two car bombs by the group of Algerian terrorist Mokhtar
Belmokhtar target an army base and a French uranium plant in Niger
Jun 2013: After France expels the Islamists from nothern Mali, the government
of Mali signs a ceasefire deal with the Tuareg separatist rebels that started the
civil war
Jun 2013: Senegal arrests Chad ex-president Hissene Habre, who is wanted for
atrocities during his rule
Jul 2013: Islamist extremists kill 22 students and torch a school in Nigeria's
north-eastern Yobe
Jul 2013: Former prime minister Ibrahim Boubacar Keita is elected president of
Aug 2013: Islamic militants of Boko Haram kill 44 people praying at a mosque in
in Konduga (northeast Nigeria) and 12 people at Ngom village and scores of
vigilantes in the town of Monguno in Borno state
Sep 2013: Islamic militants of Somalia's Al-Shabab storm a shopping centre in
Kenya's capital Nairobi and kill 67 people
Sep 2013: Boko Haram gunmen kill 50 students at a college dormitory in Yobe
state of north-eastern Nigeria
Oct 2013: The USA tries to kill the Kenyan-born terrorist Ikrima (Abdulkadir
Mohamed Abdulkadir) in Somalia
Oct 2013: Boko Haram militants wearing army uniforms kill 19 motorists in
Nigeria's Borno state
Oct 2013: Three Europeans are killed and burned by a mob in Madagascar
because suspected of killing a child and trafficking in organs
Nov 2013: Killings escalate in Central African Republic between (mainly Muslim)
Seleka militia and (mainly Christian) "anti-Balaka" militia and France sends
troops to restore order
Nov 2013: Islamist gunmen kill 19 people in a police station run by African
Union forces north of Somalia's capital
Nov 2013: More than thousand people have been killed in Central African
Republic in fights between (mainly Muslim) Seleka militia and (mainly Christian)
"anti-Balaka" militia and France sends troops to restore order
Dec 2013: Nelson Mandela's funerals are attended by more than 90 heads of
Dec 2013: Thousands of people are killed in clashes between the government
and followers of Riek Machar in the South Sudanese capital of Juba
Dec 2013: A remotely controlled bomb kills eight people in a restaurant of the
Somali capital Mogadishu and a few days later two car bombs kill 10 people at a
Dec 2013: The Congolese government repels attacks by rebels on the capital
Kinshasa and on Lubumbashi, the main city of mineral-rich Katanga province
Dec 2013: Uganda officially criminalizes homosexuality
2013: Nigeria leads the world in kidnappings (more than 500)
Jan 2014: Nigeria officially criminalizes same-sex relationships
Jan 2014: Central African Republic's parliament elects Catherine Samba-Panza as
interim president
Jan 2014: Islamist militants of Boko Haram attack two villages in Nigeria's north-
east killing more than 70 people
Jan 2014: A former finance minister, Hery Rajaonarimampianina, wins
Madagascar's first presidential election since the 2009 coup
Feb 2014: Islamist militants of Boko Haram attack the northeasten village of
Izghe in Nigeria killing 106 people one week after killing nine soldiers in an
ambush, and then attack a school in the town of Buni Yadi killing dozens of
pupils and then kill at least 39 people and destroy the entire village of Mainok
Feb 2014: Two senior officials and nine attackers are killed when Al-Shabab
attacks Somalia's presidential palace
Mar 2014: A French missile strike kills Mali's Islamist leader Oumar Ould
Hamaha, known as Red Beard
Mar 2014: At least 100 villagers are killed in Nigeria's central Kaduna state in
racial attacks by Muslims, while Nigeria's army kills some 600 detainees who
had escaped in Maiduguri
Mar 2014: Outbreak of ebola in Guinea that spreads to Sierra Leone and Nigeria
Mar 2014: Nigeria's GDP ($0.5 trillion) passes South Africa's and Nigeria
becomes Africa's biggest economy
Apr 2014: A bomb at a crowded bus station on the outskirts of Nigeria's capital
Abuja kills more than 70 people
Apr 2014: Islamist group Boko Haram kidnaps 230 teenage schoolgirls from the
Nigerian town of Chibok
Apr 2014: Hundreds of people are killed because of their ethnicity after South
Sudan rebels seize the oil hub of Bentiu
Apr 2014: A bomb kills 88 people in Nigeria's capital Abuja
May 2014: At least 10 people are killed as al-Shabab militants attack Somalia's
May 2014: At least 14 people have been killed in a bomb attack in Mubi in
north-eastern Nigeria
May 2014: Peter Mutharika wins presidential elections in Malawi
Jun 2014: Terrorists attack two villages near the town of Mpeketoni in Kenya,
killing more than 50 people and kidnapping 12 women
Jun 2014: A bomb kills 21 people in Nigeria's capital Abuja and a bomb kills 18
people in Maiduguri
Jun 2014: About 30 people are killed in two attacks by al-Shabab in the
Northern Kenyan village of Hindi
Jun 2014: About 60 people are killed in an attack on a police station in western
Uganda (41 of which attackers)
Jul 2014: Boko Haram seize the city of Damboa in north-east Nigeria
Sep 2014: An air strike by the USA kills the leader of the Somali Islamist group
al-Shabab, Ahmed Abdi Godane
Sep 2014: China commits 700 troops to defend oilfields in South Sunda
Sep 2014: A suicide car bomber kills twelve people in an attack aimed at African
Union (AU) troops in Somalia
Sep 2014: Boko Haram kills 15 people at a teacher training college in Kano and
scores at a rural market in Mainok, Nigeria
Sep 2014: Kenya's Dennis Kimetto breaks the marathon world record in Berlin,
winning the race in a time of 2 hours and 3 minutes
Sep 2014: Ivory Coast adopts the educational tablet computer Qelasy, a "digital
backpack" for schoolchildren, created by Thierry N'Doufou
Oct 2014: More than 7,000 people, mostly women, have been infected with
ebola in West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) and more than 3,400
people have died including 370 health-care workers
Oct 2014: Zaire's army starves to death about 100 former fighters and their
families in a remote demobilization camp
Oct 2014: An Ugandan Islamist group, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), stage
massacres of civilians in the Zaire villages near Beni
Oct 2014: Boko Haram kidnaps dozens of women and girls from two villages in
Nigeria's north-eastern Adamawa
Oct 2014: Zambian white vice-president Guy Scott is named acting president
following the death of president Michael Sata
Oct 2014: Demonstrators against Burkina Faso's president Blaise Compaore set
fire to parliament and the president resigns, replaced by interim prime minister
Michel Kafando
Nov 2014: Dozens of students are killed by a suicide bomber at a boys school in
the north-eastern Nigerian town of Potiskum
Nov 2014: A plague outbreak kills 40 people in Madagascar
Nov 2014: Ugandan Islamist group ADF (Allied Democratic Forces) kills more
than 200 people in two months near the Ugandan border
Nov 2014: The Somali Islamist group al-Shabab attacks a bus in Kenya's
Mandera region killing the 36 non-Muslims on board, and in retaliation the
Kenyan military announces the killing of more than 100 al-Shabab militants
Nov 2014: Boko Haram militants attack the village of Azaya Kura in Nigeria's
Borno state killing at least 45 people, and then ambush and kill 48 people near
the village of Doron Baga at the border with Chad; Boko Haram then massacres
more than 100 people at Kano's central mosque; two female suicide bombers
kill 44 people in Maiduguri
Dec 2014: al-Shabab militants kill 36 non-Muslim quarry workers in Kenya's Mandera region