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Republic of the Philippines arguments, the trial judge sustained defendant's motion and dismissed the

SUPREME COURT complaint.

Thereafter, plaintiff moved to amend the complaint to allege that as a result of the
EN BANC intercourse, plaintiff had later given birth to a baby girl; but the court, sustaining
defendant's objection, ruled that no amendment was allowable, since the original
G.R. No. 26795 July 31, 1970 complaint averred no cause of action. Wherefore, the plaintiff appealed directly to
this Court.
and JACOBA CABILIN, plaintiffs-appellants, We find the appealed orders of the court below to be untenable. A conceived child,
vs. although as yet unborn, is given by law a provisional personality of its own for all
FELIX ICAO, defendant-appellee. purposes favorable to it, as explicitly provided in Article 40 of the Civil Code of the
Philippines. The unborn child, therefore, has a right to support from its progenitors,
particularly of the defendant-appellee (whose paternity is deemed admitted for the
Torcuato L. Galon for plaintiffs-appellants. purpose of the motion to dismiss), even if the said child is only "en ventre de sa
mere;" just as a conceived child, even if as yet unborn, may receive donations as
Godardo Jacinto for defendant-appellee. prescribed by Article 742 of the same Code, and its being ignored by the parent in
his testament may result in preterition of a forced heir that annuls the institution of
the testamentary heir, even if such child should be born after the death of the testator
Article 854, Civil Code).

REYES, J.B.L., J.:

ART. 742. Donations made to conceived and unborn children may
be accepted by those persons who would legally represent them
Appeal on points of law from an order of the Court of First Instance of Zamboanga if they were already born.
del Norte (Judge Onofre Sison Abalos, presiding), in its Civil Case No. 1590,
dismissing a complaint for support and damages, and another order denying
amendment of the same pleading. ART. 854. The preterition or omission of one, some, or all of the
compulsory heirs in the direct line, whether living at the time of the
execution of the will or born after the death of the testator, shall
The events in the court of origin can be summarized as follows: annul the institution of heir; but the devises and legacies shall be
valid insofar as they are not inofficious.
Appellant, Carmen Quimiguing, assisted by her parents, sued Felix Icao in the court
below. In her complaint it was averred that the parties were neighbors in Dapitan If the omitted compulsory heirs should die before the testator, the
City, and had close and confidential relations; that defendant Icao, although married, institution shall be effectual, without prejudice to the right of
succeeded in having carnal intercourse with plaintiff several times by force and 'representation.
intimidation, and without her consent; that as a result she became pregnant, despite
efforts and drugs supplied by defendant, and plaintiff had to stop studying. Hence,
she claimed support at P120.00 per month, damages and attorney's fees. It is thus clear that the lower court's theory that Article 291 of the Civil Code declaring
that support is an obligation of parents and illegitimate children "does not
contemplate support to children as yet unborn," violates Article 40 aforesaid, besides
Duly summoned, defendant Icao moved to dismiss for lack of cause of action since imposing a condition that nowhere appears in the text of Article 291. It is true that
the complaint did not allege that the child had been born; and after hearing Article 40 prescribing that "the conceived child shall be considered born for all
purposes that are favorable to it" adds further "provided it be born later with the

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conditions specified in the following article" (i.e., that the foetus be alive at the time WHEREFORE, the orders under appeal are reversed and set aside. Let the case be
it is completely delivered from the mother's womb). This proviso, however, is not a remanded to the court of origin for further proceedings conformable to this decision.
condition precedent to the right of the conceived child; for if it were, the first part of Costs against appellee Felix Icao. So ordered.
Article 40 would become entirely useless and ineffective. Manresa, in his
Commentaries (5th Ed.) to the corresponding Article 29 of the Spanish Civil Code, Concepcion, C.J., Dizon, Makalintal, Zaldivar, Castro, Fernando, Teehankee,
clearly points this out: Barredo and Villamor, JJ., concur.

Los derechos atribuidos al nasciturus no son simples

expectativas, ni aun en el sentido tecnico que la moderna doctrina
da a esta figura juridica sino que constituyen un caso de los
propiamente Ilamados 'derechos en estado de pendenci'; el
nacimiento del sujeto en las condiciones previstas por el art. 30,
no determina el nacimiento de aquellos derechos (que ya existian
de antemano), sino que se trata de un hecho que tiene efectos
declarativos. (1 Manresa, Op. cit., page 271)

A second reason for reversing the orders appealed from is that for a married man to
force a woman not his wife to yield to his lust (as averred in the original complaint in
this case) constitutes a clear violation of the rights of his victim that entitles her to
claim compensation for the damage caused. Says Article 21 of the Civil Code of the

ART. 21. Any person who wilfully causes loss or injury to another
in a manner that is contrary to morals, good customs or public
policy shall compensate the latter for the damage.

The rule of Article 21 is supported by Article 2219 of the same Code:

ART 2219. Moral damages may be recovered in the following and

analogous cases:

(3) Seduction, abduction, rape or other lascivious acts:

xxx xxx xxx

(10) Acts and actions referred to in Articles 21, 26, 27, 28 ....

Thus, independently of the right to Support of the child she was carrying, plaintiff
herself had a cause of action for damages under the terms of the complaint; and the
order dismissing it for failure to state a cause of action was doubly in error.

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